Written by Richard Bodley Scott, assisted by Nik Gaukroger, James Hamilton Paul Robinson and

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I
CONTENTS
• INTRODUCTION • EARLY BYZANTINE • LATER MOORISH Later Ioorish Allies
4

• UMAITAD ARAB • ABBASID ARAB Abbasid Arab Allies

43 48

6
11

• LATERVISIGOTHIC Later Visigothic Allies
• AFRICAN VANDAL • ITALIAN OSTROGOTHIC • EARLY SOUTH SLAV Early South Slav Allies • LOMBARD • MAURIKIAN BYZANTINE Maurikian Byzantine Allies

13

• EARLYNORTH AFRICAN DYNASTIES Early North African Dynasties Allies
• KHURASANIAN DYNASTIES Khurasanian Dynasties Allies • BEDOUIN DYNASTIES Bedouin Dynasties Allies • DAILAMI DYNASTIES Dailarni Dynasties Allies • KURDISH ALLIES • BAGRATIDARMENIAN ALLIES • PECHENEG Pecheneg Allies • GHAZNAVID
iii

54

57

15
16 18

60 62 65 65 66 69
72

20 22

• CHRISTIAN NUBIAN
• AVAR Avar Allies • WESTERN TURKISH W stern Turkish Allies • ARAB CONQUEST EARLYBULGAR • Early Bulgar Allies • THEMATIC BYZANTINE Thematic Byzantine Allies

26 28
30

NIKEPHORIAN BYZANTINE Nikephorian Byzantine Allies APPENDIX 1 - USING THE LISTS

32

II!!I

76
78

36
38

• APPENDIX 2 -THEMEDTOURNAMENTS
• INDEX

79

DECLINE AND FALL

INTRODUCTION
This book covers the armies of the Byzantine Empire, the Islamic states and their other enemies, from 493 AD until the mid-Llth cel1n1ry. In 300 AD the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great founded Nova Roma (New Rome) on the site of the existing Greek city of Byzantion. It was to be the new capital of the Roman Empire. After his death it was renamed Konstannnoupolis (Constantinople) . Emperor, Romulus The last West Roman Ostrogoths in 493. TIle East Roman Empire persisted. Historians usually call it the Byzantine Empire. As far as its mainly Greek-speaking neighbours fell to the inhabitants and their contemporary Empire. It lasted until Constantinople Ottoman Turks in 1453. From 533-561, in the reign of the Emperor Justinian I, Byzantine armies reconquered North Africa from the Vandals, Italy from the Ostrogoths and Southern Spain from the Visigoms. This was to be the high water mark of the Byzantine Empire. 24-7: Romano-Byzantine Armies

were concerned, however, it was still the Roman

Augusrulus, was deposed by the foederate Odoacer in 4-76. Odoacer was defeated and replaced by the

The Collapse of the West, by Angus McBride. Taken from Men-at-Arms 4th-9th Centuries.

4

INTRODUCTION

From 602-618,

the eastern provinces of the by the Sassanid

dynasty, except in Spain where the Umayyads survived formed as an independent their own emirate. Central in control declined, however. In 78 9, the Idrisids rival Shiite caliphate Morocco. The Aghlabids in Tunisia achieved de facto independence by about 820. In the east also, new dynasties arose, the Tahirids in 82 1, Saffarids in 861 and Samanids in 875, These were often only nominally subject to the Abbasid Caliphs. Bqypt became independent under the Tulunids in 868. but "vas reoccupied by Abbasld troops in 905. From 935 Egypt was held by the Ikhshidid dynasty before being conquered in 969 by the Fatimids from Tunisia. From 946 the
Abbasid

Empire, including Mesopotamia, SYTia,Palestine and Egypt, were conquered Persians, and in 626 Constantinople was besieged

by theAvars and their Persian allies. Constantinople
held out. By attacking th Per ians in their heartland, the Emperor Herakleios won the war· and regained the lost eastern provinces. However, large areas of the Empire's European provinces
were now occupied by Slavs.More territory south

of the Danube was lost to the Bulgars in 679, The Bulgars subsequently conquered many of the former Byzantine territories held by Slavsand these areas were not reconquered by the Byzantines until the turn of the 1Othl 11th centuries. In 633, the Arabs, newly muted under Islam by Mohammed, erupted from the Arabian peninsula to attack the Byzantines and the Persians, who were both exhausted by their recent war. By 646 the Arabs had wrested Syria, Palestine, Egypt and Mesopotamia from the Byzantines, and by 651 they had conquered most of the Sassanid Persian Empire. Constantinople was besieged unsuccessfully in 674. By 698, the Arabs had captured most of the Byzantine provinces ill North Africa. From 711-718 the Visigothic Kingdom in modern Spain fell to invasion. Constantinople was besieged again from 717-718, but once again held out: Further conquests were also made in Central Asia and India, so that by 718, the Umayyad Caliphate ruled a huge Empire stretching from Spain to India. In 749 rebellion broke out and the Umayyad dynasty was deposed and replaced by the Abbasid

Caliph became a figurehead

only, the

rem aining territories of the Abbasids (in modern Iraq), including the capital Baghdad, being ruled by the Dailami Buwayhids, In the middle of the 11 th cenmry the Seljuk Turks erupted onto the scene, conquering
Ghaznavids

the

(in modern Afghanistan and Central before attacking the

Asia) and the Buwayhids

Byzantine Empire. In 1 071 they decisively defeated the Byzantines at Manzikert, following which the Byzantines lost most of Asia Minor Empire was largely reduced territories, Aegean
to

(modern

Turkey). By the end of our period the Byzantine to its European from the the Seljuk Turks ruled

the borders of India. and the Fatimids

controlled Egypt. North-West Africa and Spain were dominated by various independent emirates, though the Christian reconquest of the peninsula w-as well underway.

5

DECLINE AND FALL

EARLY BYZANTINE
This list covers the arrni s of the Eastern Roman Empire from the final demise of the Western Empire in 493 AD until the widespread adoption of lances for some ranks of the line cavalry c. 550. Appointed commander of the Byzantine army in the East by Justinian following his accession in 527, he defeated the Sassanid Persians (see Field of Glory Companion Imperial Rome
(It War)

5: Legions Triumphant:

FLAVIUS BELISARIUS (c. 505-565)
Rightly regarded as one of the great generals of history. Belisarius was in large part responsible for the success of the Emperor ambitious plan to reconquer Justinian much I's of the

at Dara in 530, but was

defeated by them at Nisibis later in the year and Callinicum captured Persian, rebellion the following year. Peace was and paying tribute to the negotiated in 532, with the Byzantines returning territory and lasted until 540. of the chariot racing factions in the

In 532 Belisarius suppressed the Nika riots, a Constantinople Byzantine that nearly' deposed Justinian. Bellsarius commanded to recover North Africa

Western Roman Empire from the Goths and Vandals. His achievements from adequate support. were all the more remarkable as they were accomplish d despite far

From 533-534

expedition

The Byzantine Empire c. AD 550. Taken from Essential Histories 33; Byzantium

atWar.

I-..r-_-

9-;-'- --._~ ,-~ \ , "r\._
-, -,

,

I /

,
I

,J, C ORSICA'!

.; Rome -,

J

'"\
SARDINIA

"

J.

.;«:
,.-\
I ?.:Mill'C";jte

.

I

~

\

.Ail
.,.._F"._/' _-

fD

-

Carthager-'

"'O/J / /'
L'

/ ,,~ If

r

.,

9 SY!"3[\Ue.
I?ANfA

t

:1
~t

N
Cl

I-

cacita eornnn Empire'
0'CI~!~~;.;ral

~===;-_ .... 500mi~
5:x1km

6

EARLY BYZANTINE

from the Vandals. He defeated the Vandals at the battles of Ad Decimum Africa was restored
to

imprisoned on trumped up charges of corruption, but was pardoned soon after. He died in 565, wirhin a few weeks of the Emperor Justillian.

(near Carthage)

and

Tncarnarum. The Vandals surrendered and North the Empire. In 535 Justinian dispatched Belisarius agamst the Ostrogorhic Kingdom ofItaly. By 536 he had recaprured Rome. In 537 the Goths besieged Belisarrus
in Rome, but failed to take the city. In 540, Ravenna,

TROOP NOTBS
While bucellarii mayor may not all hav
to

been

double armed with lance and bow, the later Byzantines found it impossible ·weapons. Thu , whether train all the men in a unit up to the same standard with both or not all have both

the Ostrogothic capital, was captured. Belisarius was then recalled Persians from 541-542. Italy, where the Ostrogoths
to

the East where against the

he fought an indecisrve campaign

weapons, the front rank base is treated as lancers and the back rank ba e as archers. After the fall of the Vandal kingdom 5 regiments of VillldClli justinioni were and the from. formed sent to eastern Byzantine

In 544 he r turned to

had revived and retaken

all of the northern Italy and Rome itself. Starved of reinforcements by Iustinlan, who was by now worried that Belisarius might try to supplant him, the campaign was not a success. Belisarius went into retirement and Justinian sent the eunuch Narses, with adequate forces, to complete the conquest of Italy, which he did after decisively defeating the Goths at Taginae in 552. In 559 Belisarius was recalled from retirement to command against a Bulgar invasion that threatened Constantinople itself. He defeated the Bulgars despite being severely outnumbered. In 562, he was

Cavalry

comprising Bucellartt Cavalry - Lancers, - Bow, Swordsmen Each comprising

4 bases of Bucellarii: Swordsmen,

2 Supertor,

Armoured,

Dr

2 Superior,

Armoured,

Drilled Cavalry

4 bases of other Roman cavalry: Ayerage,-A--;.-;:;:;-;~;;1---' DriJIed Cavalry - Bow, Swordsmen 4 bases of Moorish cavalry: Average, Unprotected, Undrilled light Horse - Javelins, Light Spear 4 bases of Hunnic cavalry: Average, Unprotected, Undrilled Lig11t Horse - Bow, Swordsmen Each comprising Legiones or auxilia 2 BGs 9 bases of legiones or auxilia: 6 Average, Protected, .3.A""ge

Drilled Hea,.'Y Foot -light Drilled light Foot - Bow

.s.pear, Swordsmen,

unp'''''''d'i
-

Unfortified

------

7

DECLINE AND FALL

Constantinople's Theodosian walls c .AD 4-4-7,by Peter Dennis. Taken from Fortress 25: The Walls of Constantinople AD 324-14-53.

8

EARLY BYZANTINE

BUILDING A CUSTOMISED LIST USING OURAfuViY POINTS
Choose an army based on the maxima apply to this army: should be depicted as bucellarii. as Heavy Foot, or Superior, (as and minima in the list below, The following special instructions

Byzantine Legionary

Commanders dismount Undrilled, mounted

Gepid, Herul or Lombard cavalry can always Armoured Protected

type), - , Defensive Spearmen.

Justinian's Army, 6th century, by Angus McBride. Taken from Men -nt -Arms 24,7: Romano - Byzantine Armies 4th-9th Centuries.

9

DECLINE AND FALL

Bucellaru

8-H

6-36

Lancers,

Swordsmen Vandall jusunlanl sunilar cavalry
I>,-IOO!

4-6 0-12

or

ish c avalr y

Hu nni

C

cavalry Cavalry Undrtlled
Bow

0-8 4-6

Itl
Drilled Archers in separate units Drilled
Bow Bow

6-8 0-8 6-8

0-8

0-8

0-1

10

LATER MOORISH

LATER MOORISH
This list cover Moorish armies from the revolts against the Romans of the rnid-s.th century AD until the Arab conquest at the end of the ommanders • Tethered carnelry, camelry Fortifications and should be depicted as cavalry are treated points as Field as per but disorder cost extra cavalry camels 7 th century. minima in the list below, The following special instructions apply to this army:

BUILDING A CUSTOMISED LIST USING OUR ARMY POIl'.TTS
Choose an army bas d all the maxima and

C-lll-C

-----Sub-commanders

Inspired Commander/Field Commander/Troop Field Commander Troop Commander

Commander

-------1----:5-,-0----,------:--:------:
35 Capabiliti.. Points

180150/35

Troop name _____

T_Yl_'e __

J

Troop Type Armour

Qu.li()'_~_Tr_a_ini_j_,g__ Core Troops

---+--:::---

----~-----r----~
4-6
;. 6-8

Shooting

I Close Combat

per base

Light Foot Light FOOL Mob camels Field Iomficanons

unprotected Unprotected Unproicc Led

I
I

Average Average Poor

Uodrilled Undnllcd

I

Undrilled

i

130\ ....

-

Sling

_

I

_

5

4 2

[

6-8 6-8 8-12

I

0-1

-

0-1
0-2

--

-----Cavalry

-

-------Armoured Armoured

I

Only from >3 3 CO 5,,8 Undrilled

I Special Campaigns ~- -__ ~ __ --~---I

----~-16

I

5

J

--------~
4-6 4-6 0-6 0-6

Cavalry

Drilled

Bow

15

Troop uame Cavalr/, [avellnrnen

11

DECLINE AND FALL

Moorish warriors, by Angus Mc.Bride"Taken from Men-at-Arms

348: The Moors.

12

LATER VISIGOTHIC

LATER VISIGOTHIC
In 41 8 AD, following their campaign, at Roman instigation, against the Vandals, Alans and Suebi in the Iberian peninsula Visigoths were rewarded (modern Spain), the with land in Gallia By help one side in a Visigothic civil war, In 585, the Visigoths conquered north-west and the Suebi kingdom in the it into their from the incorporated.

territory. The south "vas reconquered Byzantines by 624.

Aquitania (modern south -west France). By 475 the kingdom had achi ved full independence. 500, it had extended its territory to include most of modern southern France and much of Spain.
In 5 7 , however, theVisigoths were defeated by

In 7 1 I King Roderic (Rodrigo) was defeated and killed at the Battle of Guadalete

by the

invading Umayyad Muslims under the command of Tariq ibn Ziyad. The Muslims soon conquered th whole of the Iberian peninsula apart from a small strip in the north. This list covers the Visigothic Kingdom from 419 until the completion of the Arab conquest c.71S.

a

the Franks and lost most of their territory in the north. The capital was moved first then to Toledo. In 554, the Byzantines reoccupied the south of the Iberian peninsula after being called in to
to

Barcelona,

2 BGs

Each comprismg Ea b comprising Cavalry -

4

ofBuce11arti;

Superior, Superior,

Armoured, Protected, Undrilled

Ull'."''''''U
Undrilled ~ Light

Cavalry +Lancers, Swordsmen 4 bases of.Gardingi: Spea:r, Swordsmen

Garclingi

2 BGs cavalry

r-;asque
~eaImen , Archers Camp

Light

1 BG
3 fiGs
l----__+_~

4 bases of Basque cavalry: Average, Unprotected, Horse - [av lins, Light Spear

E.'';' cornpnsing 8 bases of _, Heavy FOOl - Defensive Spearmen
Each comprising Light Foot - Bow Unfortified

Average. Protected, Urukil1~
Undrtlled

2 BGs

8 bases of archers: Average, Unprotected,

-----::---:-~----~.-___:,--

~ ~ Total

~~------~------+-~~-~~--~~--~~-10 BGs Camp, 20 mounted
L~ __

camp

bases, 40 foot bases, 3 command<;:rs

I

BUILDING A CUSTOMISED LIST USING OUR ARMY POINTS
Choose an army based on the maxima apply to this army: and minima in the list below. The following special instructions

Commanders should be depicted as bucellarii. • Only one allied contingent can be used.

13

DECLINE

AND FALL

Sub-command

ers

Bucellar+i

4-6 4-6 Only before 622

4-11 6-30

Gard.lngi Spearmen Spearmen Supporting archer,

8-J2

8-72

Separately deployed archers

Before 467 Romans

Heavy or Mednun 1;00' Ughl Foot Heavy rom Protected Poor Poor Drilled Undrilled
Bow

From 467

Only rom 46) to 621

Suebl allies - Earl)' Frankish. Alamaunl, Imraku Rome ut ViM

Burgundi,

l.inugances,

Rugian, Suebt or Turdlingi-

See Field DC GlOT)' Companion

5; L~liollSTJ'iuJ)lpn'ln"

14

AFRICAN

VA.K DAL

Troop

name

Bucellarti Light Spear. Swordsmen Impact fom, S,,'"'O rdsrnen Defensive Spearmen 6

4

Gardmgt Only before 622

Cavalry

Undrtlled

6

Spearmen

H."I'

Foot

Prorccred

Avenge

Undrtlled

8-12

0-24

Spearmen Supportmg archers

Only from 622

Heavy FOOl Light FuOl

Prorected

AVl"rage

Undrilled

AFRICAN VANDAL
In 429 AD, political machinations in the Roman at the Battles of Ad Decimum and Tricarnarum. In 534 King Gehmer surrendered to the Byzantines, thus ending the Vandal Kingdom. The surviving Vandal men were enslaved or recruited into the Byzantine army. Five cavalry regiments, known as Vancinli ILlStiniani, were formed and sent soldiers. Gelimer was granted Galatia to which he retired. This list covers Vandal armies from 442 until
to

bigh command led to the Roman commander in North Africa, Boniface, inviting the Vandals under King Geis ric
to

cross over from modern Spain to

Africa to aid him against the central government. Once there they could not be dislodged. By 439 they had captured Carthage itself and made it the capital of their new kingdom. In 442 the Romans, in order to secure the com supply from Africa, recognised the status quo. As "King of the Vandals and Alans", Gei.seric used his large fleet to conquer Sardinia. Corsi a, the Balearic Islands and the western end of Sicily. and
to

the Persian

frontier. The Vandal womenfolk married Byzantine large estates in

pillage

at will

the

coasts

of the

M diterranean.

In 455 the Vandals sacked Rome

itself. In 468 they defeated a large East Roman fleet sent against them, then failed in an attempt
to

invade southern

Greece. On the "vay back to 500 hostages and Despite this, a peace invaded under the

Carthage

they slaughtered

threw them overboard. In 533

treaty was concluded in 476. the Byzantines command of Belisarius. The Vandals were defeated

Vandal Cavalry
15

DECLINE

AND FALL

BUILDING A CUSTOMISED LIST USING OURARlvIY POINTS
Choose an army based on [he maxima and minima in the list below. The following special

instructions

apply to this army: should be depicted as Vandal

• Commanders cavalry.

Territorv

Types; Age leu iLUral Commander/Troop Commander 80/S0/35 50 0-2 0-3 r-,.-ri-I.\-n-se-,-p-er', I-I-a-ral----1 base,

c-u-e
Sub-commanders

[n'pired CQmm.nder/FieJd

Field Commander Troop Commander IrOO]1I)'pe

Troop name

-1- I

35

C;;-p-;:b;]i'-ie-, --+P-o-;n-{-,

r--_~--~-~..L..--T)-'P-._..L.._I_A_rm~o~u~r_I ........ Q-ua-li~-J-~1illg
Vandal cavalry Cavalry

Shoming

IClo,e Combat

bose

JlG

I

Armoured

s\JP"riorC~I·

::::ed
Undrilled undrtllcd

'I' _ -rL,~.r',T
I Swordsmen I

16
10 10

4-6

12-68

r-------_~_--~---~---_~_--L----..L..-~--~_-~--~---I
~-------'---------r-~-~
I light Horse Unprotected Av"rogo t\v"",,'go Average Optional Troops

~~~~---r-----r---.----,--~ javelins I Ugh, Spear I 4 0-4
Bow Bow

------.. ~------~·------~--------r--------~------+_--------------4_-----I-------~--~
Fortified

I Li gill J-Tor~Unprotec,ed Only before --.. ' Unp 1"0 tecred 500 C,,,,Jry Protected

Undrilled ---1----

I

Swordsmen

I

4-6 4-6

1 Swordsmen

r--~
I
11
24

0-6
0-1

camp

1

Allies Moorish alhe, (Onl)' bera", 5 00) - Later Moordl

ITALIAN OSTROGOTHIC
In 488, under King Theodoric Roman Emperor deposed the Great, the hall' from in kingdom. nle civil administration, staffed by Romans. before, and the native population be subject to Roman law Theoderic also exercised dominance over the Visigotbic Kingdom in modern southern France vllhen and Spain, the Visigoths however. was as to continued Ostrogoths set out, at the request of the Eastern Zeno, to conquer King Odoacer - the Sciri foederate who had the last Western Roman Emperor became 476. By 493 Odoacer was defeated and killed and Theoderic King of Italy, ruling modern Italy, Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia. In theory he acted as viceroy for the Roman Emperor in Constantinople, and he scrupulously ruler, The Goths, were observed the outward forms of this, but in reality he was an entirely independent who were mostly settled in the north, largely kept separate from the native population. subject
to

[he Senate functioned

were defeated by the

Ostroqozh Cavalryman

Gothic law and formed the army of the

16

I

ITALIAN

OSTROGOTHIC

Frames in 507, the Ostrogotbic arm.y campaigned against the Frames and managed
to

the Byzantine generals left in Italy. Under King Totila, the Goths defeated several Roman forces and regained much of the kingdom. Belisarrus returned in 544-, but with inadequate forces he "vas unable to achieve any great success. Justinian then sent the eunuch

save a coastal

strip for the the the VisigotllS as well a gaining control of Provence for themselves. Theoderic died in 526. In 535, the Byzantine Emperor Justinian sent an invasion force under Belisarius. This was was
0

Narses with larg r forces. The Goths were defeated at Taginae in 552 and Mons Lactarius in 553. This list covers the Ostrogothic kingdom. from the defeat of Odoacer in 493 until the final completion of the Byzantine reconquest in 561. The Byzantines did not enjoy their victory for long. In 568 the Lombards invaded and conquered more than half of Italy.

initially successful, the Gothic capital Ravenna fell in 540, and the kingdom tensibly conquered, apart from Ticinum and Verona, north of the Po. Following the recall of Belisarius to command against a new attack by the Sassanid Persians in the East, however, the Goths began to r-ecover,aided by the lack of cooperation between

Commander-in-Chief
Sub---col1nnar;-ders Cavalry

1

Field Commander 2 x Troop Commander Each comprisb;g 4 bases of cavalry: Superior, Ar111oUJ:ed, Un drilled light Horse-Bow, Cavalry - Lancers, Swordsmen 4 bases 0 Huns: Average, Unprotected,

2
4 BGs I BG 2 BGs 2 BGs 1 BG 1.

Huns
Spearmen

r

Undrilled

Swordsmen Each comprising
Heavy Foot Each compr 4 bases

8 bases of spearmen: Average. Protecte d, Undrllled
Spearmen Undrilled

Defensive ..

Archers

smg 8 bases of arch rs: Average, Unprotected,

-Levies
-

Light Foot - Bow

Camp Total

-

of levies:
camp

Poor, Unpro tected, UnddUe.d Mob - No capabilities bases, 36 faZe-bases, 3 commanders

Unfortified

10 BGs

Camp, 20 mounted

BUILDING A CUSTOMISED LIST USING OUR ARMY POINTS
Choose an army based on the maxima and minima in the list below. The following special

instructions

apply to this army: should be d pict d as cavalry.

• Commanders

17

DECLINE

AND FALL

1

Cavalry

Cavalry Heavy Foot

Armoured Protected

Superior

Undnlled

Lancers, Swordsmen D fenstve Spearmen

16 6

4-6 2/3 or all 1/3

11-50 0-16

Spearmen Sup paning archers Separately archers de ploycd

8-12
Q-8

12-36

Bow Huns C'V"Jry
Bow

0-4

BOY,",

6-8

(1-8

~--------------Frankish allies (OnJ)'lfter

Burgundlan allies - Early Frankish. Comp.lnion .5: J.e~iam Trfurnphnru: Imperj.llr Rome allHu

- --- __ -------Alamanni, Burgundt, Ltmtganres,

Allies Rugian, Suebi or Turcilingi Or Middle Frankish - See Field of Glory

H-S)---)'-u-' d-d'-e -Fr-.nk-h-h---S-ce-F-ic-'ld-o-'r:---G-lo-,)-, C-o-m-p-,,-,j-O'-' -8:-\'11,-0-11.-, F-'r-,rn-tl-,,-S,-a-:T-h,-D-or'"'"", A-B-"Special campaigns Only from 5+4
[0

552

EARLY SOUTH SLAV
The Slavic tribes of the Venets, the An tes and the SkIavens (SkIavinoi) first appear in Byzantine records in the early 6th century AD, invading the Danubian provinces of the Empire. By the end of their migratory movements, Slavic territory included interior most of the former Yugoslavia, the of central Greece and even much of The Serbs entered modem Serbia in the early 7th century, one of their first states being Raska, which eventually became a kingdom in 12 17 and the Serbian Empire in 1346, The Croats also arrived in modern Croatia in the 7th century, initially forming two dukedoms, which were combined inca a kingdom in the 1Oth century. After the defeat and death in 1097

the Peloponnese.

18

EARLY SOUTH SLAV

of the last Croatian king, Petar Svacic, at the Battle of Gvozd Mountain Hungary under against King Colo man I of in 1 I 02. This of Hungary, Croatia accepted dynastic union with King Coleman lasted until 19] 8. The Serbs and Croats may have been rapidly assimilated with th ir Slav su j cts.
This list COvers the South Slav armies from the

BUILDING A CUSTOMISED r.tsr USING OUR ARMY POINTS
Choose an army based on the maxima apply
to

and

minima in the list below The following special instructions this army:

Sarrnatian origin, but after arrrvmg in the region

• Commanders avalry. Croatian

should be depicted as noble cavalry can either have

noble

6th century until the 12th century AD.

lancers or light spear close combat capability, but all must have the same capability.

Troop rrame

Serbians

Cavahv

~teue~
Armoured

operlor

Cavalry Noble cavalry Croatians Cavalry

Protected
Armoured

Superior

Undrilled Ligh' Spear; Swordsmen Light Spear, Swordsmen Lighl Spear

Protected Armoured Protected Armoured
Protected

Superior

Undrtlled

16 12 16 6-8 6

Others Before 850
Fo
t

Cavalry Medi
Wl1

Superior
Aver'ge Average Poor Average

Undrtllad Undrtlled Unmilled Undrilled Undrtlled Un drilled
Bo\'\! Bow Bow

I'oot

warriors

From 850

Heavy Foot Medium
FOOl

Protected Unprorecied Unprotected unprorected

,p",m:"j ;
Defensive: 5 5 5

6-8 6-8
6-8 6--8
B-3Z

Archers

Serbians

0111""

----

A\'erage A\'er&ge

0-16

Optional Troops Ski rml,hIng [avellumen Poorl)" armed foot

-----r-------~---r__

Light SPC_1II"-t-r _ +_ __'_[_ 6-~ _
Light Spear . 2 8-12

()-16

0-30

19

DECLINE AND FALL

Serbians Cavalry Croatiaus Cavalry

Swordsmen Lancers, Swordsm en Light Spear, Swordsmen

Noble cavalry

4-6

0-6

PoO\ vcarriers

LOMBARD
In 568 AD, the Lombards, under King Alboin, invaded Italy. The invasion force also included Bavarians, Saxons, Suebi, Gepids and Bulgars. The country had not yet recovered from the Gothic
""VMS,

Ravenna fell to the Lornbards in 75 1. In 754 the Pope called in the Frankish King Pepin III, "who defeated the Lornbards and drove them out of the exarchate. In 756, accepting "Donation of Constantine" recognised central Italian territories the forged at face value, Pepin of the Exarchate of

and the Byzantine forces were inadequate to northern Italy, creating a Lombard

defend it against this horde. The Lombards SWiftly conquered kingdom there, with its capital at Pavia. They also pressed on into central and southern Italy,forming the Lombard duchies of Spoleto and Benevento, which soon became semi-independent. The Byzantines retained control of a narrow corridor from Ravenna to Rome (between the Lombard Kingdom and the Duchies of Spoleto and Benevento) , Calabria. (the toe of Italy) , part of Apulia (the heel of Italy) and Sicily. Together, the mainland of Ravenna. territories formed the Exarchate

the Pope's right to rule over the

Ravenna, thus creating the Papal States. The Lombards went back on the offensive, recaptured Ravenna, and, in 772, captured Rome. TIle Pope, Hadrian I, appealed for help to the great Frankish king Charlemagne, who invaded in 773 and had conquered the Lombard Kingdom by 774, taking the title "King of the Lombards" In 7 7 6 the Duchy of Spoleto also fell. The Lombard Duchy of Benevento, under Arechis Duke Arechis II, remained independent

declared himself Prince, aJ though he was forced

20

LOMBARD

to accept Frankish rule in 787, In the mid-9th century. the Principality was divided into the Principali ties of Beneven to, Salerno and Capua. Despite attacks by the Franks. the Byzantines and later the Holy Roman Emperor. the Lombard principalities the Normans survived undl finally conquered by under Robert Guiscard between Lombard armies

BUILDING A CUSTOMISED LIST USING OUR ARMY FOINTS
Choose an army based on the maxima and apply to tins army: should be depicted as minima in th list below. The following special instructions

• Commanders

1053 and 1077, This list covers independent from 5 6 8 until 10 77.

armoured cavalry. • Bavarians. Bulgars, Gepids. Old Saxons or Suebi can be used together, otherwise one allied contingent can be used. only

TROOP NOTES
Early Lombard armies formed up in two lines, the first of armoured unarmoured followers. cavalry. the second of

c-ie-c
Sub-commander,

Inspired Commander/Field

Commander/Troop

Commander 0-2

Field Commander

Troop Commander Troop Type
Armour

35
Points Close Combat por base Bases per BG

0-3

Troop name

I

I
Core.

Total bases

Troops

Armoured cavalry Separatclj deployed unarmoured followers

Cavalry ~' Cavalry

Armoured Protected

Superior

un(~
Undrllkd

lonl)'

--+----+---A... :erage Unprotected Unprotected Average Po r
Avorilge Poor Pour

Lancers, Swordsmen
Lancers,

16

9

be fore 17 6

Swordsmen

~
6-8

I Modi wn Fooc
Archers Light Italtan militias
1-

----

Undrilled

Bow

l

~::
6-24

':~

POOl

Ursprorec ted

Undrllled Uncirilled

Bo\ ... ' 4

OnJ)· [run, __

I

6_5U

_

Heavy Ioor

J

Protected

Drmrd

Defensive Spearmen

6-8

6-32

Optional Troops Bulg". or
M,~) ar ..

LighL Horse Onl)· trorn _.- 65 0 Cavalry

r Unprorected
Un [HOlCt: ted _ Protected Unprotected

Average

1------+
AIJ-.:.r&gc

Undnlled Undrilled

Bow Bo vv

10 swordsmen 10
II 4

0-+
0-12

rnercen a ri e s

------

Mob

'

Poor

und-

8-12

21

DECLINE

AND FALL

Allies Only before 65 0 AvLt[ allies 1------------------------------Bavarian or Old Saxon allies - Early Angle-Saxon. Bavarian. Frlslan, Old Saxon or Thunngtan - See Field of Glory Companion Imp<riolf(om,alllllr Bulgar ollie, - Earl)' BlLlgar

5:

Leqlons Trtumphear:

- - ----------------------------------~ Gepid subject alltes - Gepid or EMI)' Lombard - See Field of Glory Companton s: L,giotl5rliumpb.", Imperial nom, (11 " W or Cm.,;',,)

S[,v "lIie, - full' Sowh Siov (no, Serbhn

Suebi subject allies - Earl)' Prankish, Alarnannt. Burgundi. Ltrntgantl, InumphaetImperinl Rome (.!t·V~'h[

Rllgi.n, Suebi or Turcihngi - See Field ofGlcrv Companion ani)' ITem 716

--------------~ 5: 1."1)""'
----------

~

.~gbJ.bid allies - Earl), North African Dynasues allies - Csroltngtan Prankish

Impenahsr

---------------------------------1 or E, dy Medteval German - See Pidd of Glory Companion S: Wah'" from LI" Pork I\gel

,,,,T[),

Norman ~llies - l(a[(]~::-JorffiJJl - See :..Jot€:p.78

MAURII<IAN BYZANTINE
By 555 AD, the Emperor Justinian's ambitious project to reconquer the \Vestern Roman Empire from the Germanic tribes had reached its fullest success - Africa, Italy. Illyricum and the south of modern Spain were back under Byzantine control. Justinian and his great general. Belisarius, borh died in 565. In 568, the majority of Italy was conquered by the Lombards possessions (See p.? 0). The Byzan tine reduced by the in Spain were strong, and the Emperor Herakleios (610-641) adopted the strategic master-stroke of sailing up the Black Sea to attack Persia from the rear. Herakleios's campaign into the Persian heartland destroyed Persian morale, already sapped by tile long war. Khosrau II was assassin ated in 628 and the lost provinces were restored
[Q

the Empire.

By then, however, most of the former Yugoslavia. the interior of central Greece and even much of the Peloponnese had been lost to the Slavs. From Palestine,
to

Visigoth s to a narrow coastal strip by 575, and finally lost altogether by 624. The Emperor Maurtkios (582-602) current Byzantine military practice Strattfjikon,a military manual written himself or by one of his close circle. The deposition Phokas eastern (602-610) provinces and murder of Maurikios by formed the pretext for a codified in the either by

634.

the Arabs, newly invaded

united

by

Mohammed.

and conquered

Syria,

Egypt and Mesopotamia

from the

Byzantines by 646. These provinces were never be recaptured. This list covers Byzantine armies from the widespread adoption oflances for some ranks of the line cavalry c. 550 until the completion of the Thematic system (See p.38) c.650.

Sassanid Persian invasion by Khosrau II. The of the Empire, including Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine and Egypt, were and, in 626, Constantinople side by their allies. the were

TROOP NOTES
Byzantine organisation of this period is described in the Stratcgikon of (he Emperor
to

quickly conquered,

was besieged on the Asian side by the Persians and on the European
Avars However, the walls of Constantinople

Maurikios

Although the ideal was for all ranks of the cavalry be armed with lance and bow, it was soon

22

MAURIKIAN

BYZANTINE

Byzantine commander and bodyguard, by Angus McBride. Taken from Men-at-Arms 247: RomanoByzantine Armies 4th-9th Centuries.

found impossible to train all the men up to the sam standard with both weapons. Thus, 'whether or not all men in a battle group have both weapons, the front rank base is treated as lancers and the back rank base as archers. The rear rank archers are treated as the same armour class as the lancers, even though they may sometimes have had less armour. When detached, however, they are graded according armour class. Though Ph()idemtoi and Oprimctes were both elite units recruited Gothic fashion. largely from Goths, the former were armed in Byzantine fashion, the latter in to their own true

The heavy foot normally formed up with long spear and large shield, ei ther 16, 8 or 4 ranks deep with their attached archers either regions, narrow mediurn behind rough or within terrain the and files. For fighting in wooded passes they 'were reized shield.

equipped with short spear and

Byzantine Javelinman

23

DECLINE

AND FALL

t I

N

~

Dlstric;ts under Lombard

control

o
o
SOO km \

~'Partial'jDccupled

by Slavs andAvars

The Byzantine Empire c. AD 600, Taken from Essential Histories 33 : Byzantium at War,

Commander-in-Chief Sub-commanders
Elite cavalry 1 1 BGs 1 BGs I BG

Field Commander

'2 X Troop Commander
Each comprising 4 bases of elite cavalry: Supertor, Armoured, Drilled Cavalr}'- 1 LalKerS, Swordsmen, 2 Bow, Swordsmen Each comprising 4 bases of line cavalry: Ayerage,.AnnoUIed, Cavalry - 1 Lancers, Swordsni.en, 2 Bow, Swordsmen Drilled

Line cavalry Detached Kcursores
Skoutatoi and artached

~----------------------~----_,-----

4 bases of Koursores: Supertor, Armoured, Drilled Cavalry - Bow, Swordsmen
8 bases of skoutatoi and attached archers: Spearmen, Drilled HeavyFoot - Defensive

~--------------6 Average,

Each comprising

archers Archers in separate units Camp Total

2. BGs
I BG

Protected,

2. Average,

Unprotected. Drilled Ughc ~oot - Bow
8 bases of archers: Unfortified

Average, Unprotected.

DJ:i1Ied Light Foot - Bow

1
8 BGs

.camp

-----~------------------~-

Camp. 2Q mounted bases. 24 foot bases, 3 commanders

24

MAURIKIAN

BYZANTINE

BUILDING A CUSTOMISED LIST USING OUR ARMY POINTS
Choose an army based on the maxima apply to this army: and minima in the list below. The following special instructions

• Commanders cavalry.

should be depicted

as elite

The minimum marked ar used. • Moorish allies cannot

* applies

if any foot

be used with any

other allies. Khazar allies cannot be used with Sassanids

Troop name

1---"""-.
Elite cavalry Cavalry Cavalry opnrnares Cavalry Cavalry Cavalry Detached Koursares. Caval!'), Cavalry Heavy Foot
l Iedium ....

Armoured Armoured Armoured Armoured Armoured Arm urcd Armoured Protected Protected Protected Un protected
Protected

superior Superior Superior
Average

Dulled Drilled

I

Bow

I

Lancers. Swordsmen Swordsmen lancers. Swordsmen Lancers, Swordsmen Swordsmen Swordsmen
;S" vordsmen

J7 19 16 17 13

In
1121

4-6

--=-,--Drllied
Drill d Drllied Drilled Drilled Drilled Drilled Drilled Drilled Drilled Drilled Drflled L Drilled Optional Troop'

Undrilled

Bow

4-6

3
0-6

Uno cavalry

J/2/
1/2 4-6

--

6

8-24 0-1 pcr2 'IHe .::.,,,Itt O-lper2 line cav •.lry

Aver'lle Superior Average Average Average
A\rerage

15
19 15 11 7 7 5

Bow Bow Bow

4-6

Defensive Spearmen Light Spear. Swordsmen

Poor

Skoutatol and attached archers

Light Foot
Heavy

-

Poot foot

Poor Poor Poor
/\\rerage
POOl'

Ben... · Bt:w.,t I Bow

Defensive Spearmen

-

S
5 3 6 4 5 3 5

' 'H
-12
1/4-

*8-24

Medium

Protected Unprotected Unprotected Unprotected

Ligh! Spear, Swordsmen -

3N

8-12

I ,""'",.
s laveltnmen Boll-shooter,

Ught Foot Medium Foot light FoO{

)/ .. 6-8

m .,.,.

Average
Poor

0-8
6-

I

Medium Foot light He
FOOl

Protected Unprotected

A\re:ragc

Undrilled Undrtllcd

[aveltns Hea")' Arnllery

Liglu Spear Light Spear

"'r Artillery

-

Average Average

Allie,

-

..

I

6-8 6-8 2

--0-8

,0
24

Fortified camp Arab allies - See Field of Glory Companion
" Khazar allies - Wester-n Turkish Moorish allies - Later Moorish

0-2 0-1

l : Rlse of Rom'~R,publimn Rome et War ~ ------------------5: ['Hi,", TritlJupll,""

S.ssJnid allie' - See Field of Glor)' Companion

~----------------25

lmperlal !Wmc m VVar

DECLINE AND FALl

ALlied commander Troop name
1-

Field Commander/Troop Troo p Type ~_-------,------,,----'-'----- ~ -+- )_'p_e __ __T __ A_"_l1_ou_r_ _ Qua~4

Commander

4-G/15
Points

I
Bases per BG 1/2 I
Ilnl

j_
Training
I

I

Capabili tie. ---., Sbaming CLose Combat Lan cers , 5,.... rordsm en
Bov ..

pe, base
II

To\,1 bases

Elite cavalry

Cavalry

Armoured Armoured Armoured

Super-ior Superior

Drilled Drilled Drilled
Bow

!
4
()-4

t
T

Swordsmen Lancers. Swordsmen
S\ .... 'ordsmen

19 13
IS

1/2 1/2

I---

Detached
Koursores

- ------ --I-----~----o----~-----+-----I_--_+-~-~~-~
Cavalry Armoured
Pro tected

Cavalry

Armoured

Averngc

t--Drill~-+----~--~-~----I-~

4-61

i
4-8 0-1 per 2 elne and ltne cavalry

:

I

Drilled Drilled Drilled

Bow

Sword smen Defensive Spearmen Ligh( Spoor. Swordsmen

15 12

4-6

Protected

Average.

I

Skoutatoi Attached archers

3/4
1

Medium Foot

Protected Unprotected
Protected

Avenge Ave!'og.
Poor

---

- - ~--He..J.~'Y Foot
~---~--

Ligllt FOGI

-- - t--------------+-----=-----;;-----+----------1
Drtlled _ Defensive S

1

Drilled

130\,\1

1114 J 0-8

SkOUL~LO!

_~
Drilled ~----

__:E~_~~
-----+-light Spear, S~'ordsmen ... S
-----------+---

3/~,

Medium Foot
I

Protected
Un protet

Poor Poor

I Attached archers

Light

FOOL

led

Drilled Drilled

&0\1;,'
1

--j._~-Medium Foot Unprorec red Averngo
Poor

1/

Bow

Archers

in

4

iI

+

I 4

Light FOOL

Unprotected

Pw~:ri:ige
Poor

I 0-4
4

Drilled

BGW

I

I

CHRISTIAN NUBIAN
This list covers the armies of the Nubian times, with second best. the Nu.bians usually coming off kingdoms of Nobatia, Makouria and Alwa from the conversion of Nobatia to Christianity around 550 AD until the collapse of the kingdom of Alwa c1500_ The Nubians 'were the first opponents of the Muslim Arabs that inflicted a major defeat on them (at Dongola in 641 or 642). The Nubi ans' victory "vas attributed to their skill as archers. As a result of a second battle in 652, also at Dongola, a peace treaty, known as the Baqt, was agreed whereby the Nubians would pay a tribute including 360 slaves annually to the Arabs. Despite the Baqt treaty there were still occasional wars between the Nubians and the

TROOP NOTES
Arab accounts of Nubian armies make no mention of infantry other than the archers, however, there are depictions indicate of spear armed infantry warriors infantry and archaeological finds of substantial spears which that other existed although as probably of poorer quality than the archers. Camel mounted poorly armoured are described or naked and fighting with

spears. Some were Nubians whilst others were Beja nomads. They were routed with ease by Arab cavalry who, on one occasion, tied bells to (heir horses to frighten the camels.

various Muslim states of Egypt down to Mamluk

26

Nubian or Beja camel riders

~

I-Il,=:-Archers

~p::pnl1e.1l

ls
1 Total

3

2 BGs Each comprising 8 bases of archers: Av Light Foot - Bow

B~~J;~~:~n:;~I~gD-8;;-e-~'-:-SS:-~'-:-;~';-~:;1::l1n:
Poor, Prote Unfortified camp Camp, 20 mO-lm---'-tlO-d"b'a_-s-es-, foot bases, 56

ted, undl_'il_l_ed __

-I

------rEGs

3 commanders

BUILDING A CUSTOMISED LIST USING OURARlVIY POINTS
Choose an army based on the maxima and minima ill the list below. The following special

instructions

apply

to

this army:

• Commanders cavalry.

should be depicted as noble

c-i--c
Sub-commanders

Nubian and Beja

~ide"

I

Archer> Spearmen Lancers, Sword smen javelins LighL Spear figl" Spear, Swordsmen Lancers, Swordsmen 6

Kable cavalry Javelinrnen Bedouin in£llll!')' Only from
Bedouin 1175

16

4-6
6-8

6-8

cavalry

__j
27

_! Swordsmen
4: Sword, uorScimiw"Tb, Crusodes

lancer"

Mamluk allies (Only frum 1276) - See Field of Glory Companion

-----

DECLINE AND FALL

AVAR
Arriving in Europe in the m.id-6th century AD, the nomadic Avars rapidly subjugated the Kutrigur Huns (Bulgars) and the various Slavic tribes. Having been bought oifby the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I, they invad d Germany and reached as far north as the Baltic before being fought to a standstill by the Franks. They then turned (modern their attention Hungary), to the Pannonian plain allying with the Lombards murder provided the pretext for Sassanid Persian invasion, which gave the Avars a free hand in the Balkans. In 626, the Avars and Persians besieged Con tannnople from each side of the Bosporus, but failed to capture it. The Avars then retreated to Pannonia,leaving their former Slav subjects in control of most of the former modern Yugoslavia, the interior of central Greece and much of the Pel.oponnese. The Bulga:rs threw off Avar control c.631. At the beginning of the 9th century the Avar
KrUI11.

against the Gepids, who were subjugated in 567" Pressure on the Lombards then caused them to migrate into Italy in 568. The Avars took was campaigning
[0

state was finally destroyed by the Franks under Charlemagne and the Bulgars under list covers the Avars from 553 to 826. This

raiding the Balkan provinces against them beyond when refusal withdraw the caused His the his to for the winter

of the Byzantine Empire. The Emperor Maurikios Danube

TROOP NOTES
Although most Avar cavalry carried lance as well as bow, it is clear from the Strategikonthat they were primarily horse archers, preferring to fight at a distance, so they do not have a Lancers POA. Bulgar heavy cavalry were chargillg lancers by the early 9th century ar the latest - whether fought in this way earlier or were they more

army to mutiny. subsequent

Avar Heavy Camlry

influenced by Avar tactical methods is uncertain.

Bulgar heavy cavalry

I BG 3 BGs 1 BG Foot-

Bulgar light cavalry Slav javelinmen Slav arc hers

-------------------~
28

AVAR

BUILDING A CUSTOMISED LIST USING OUR ARMY POINTS
Choose an aTmy based on rh maxima and minima in the list below. The following special

instructions

apply to this army: should be depicted as Avar

• Commanders heavy cavalry.

C-Ln-C

Inspired Commander/Field

Commander/Troop

Commander

80/50/35 50 35

I

Sub-commandars
Troop

Field Commander Troop Commander Type I Quality

0-2

0-3

troop name

_._-Avar heavy cavalry

Type

Armour

l

Capabilities Training Shoating

IClose Comb" [ per ha_:_e

----'

Points

Core Troops C"".Ir), Armoured Unprotected unprotected Protected Armoured Protected Armoured 'Protected U nproiccted Superior Average Average Drilled Drilled D1'illed BOw
Bow

I

Bases

pe,

BG

Tot.l bases

Sv·mrdsmen Swordsmen Swordsmen Lancers, Swordsmen Swordsmen Swordsmen Swordsmen

-

19

4~6

8--48

Avar light caval ry

-.

Light Horse

LO 10
II

Cavalry

+-6

0-12

BO\\'

r--Cavalry Bu lgar h,,-JV)' cavalry Cavalry
Light Horse

Superior

Undl'iUed

-

16 11 I~

I

4-6

0-6
4-6

-

Superior Aver.ag
A""ETitge

Undrilled Undrilled UnciriJIed

[low

I'!10

sow Bow

Bulgar light cavalry

Only From 558 eo 631

Cavalry

lUll procected
Protected

10 11

--

4-6

6-24

Protected Slav
javelin men

Avera,g~ Poor Poor Average: Undrtlled Bow Undrilled Ughr Spear

5

6-8
6-8 8-12

Medium Foot

Protected

3 2

f-----

6-32

I-Slav archer
f--------

Ught Foot

-

Unprotected U.o p rotec Led

L_
Armoured

PODr

[

lancers,
Swordsmen

5 3

Gepids Fortified camp Cavalry

Optional TroOp' Superior
Protected

I
I

6-8

(}--S

Undrllled

I

I
I

16
12

-6

I
~

O-B
0-1

-

24

Bulgar allies - Early llll]gar (Only from 675)

Allie,

-------------------sp-c-c-'ial--c-an-'-p-ru-'g-n-.--------------

Sassanid allies - See Field of Glory Companion

5: L<llions Triump"ITnt: Illlr"jol Rom'", IVar

~--

Only in 626

29

DECLINE AND FALL

Avar ligh 1 cavalry

Bulgar ligh< cavalry Only from 55810631 Slav [avelinmen Undrilled Ltght Spear

0-8

0-12

WESTERN TURKISH
This list covers the Western Turks from the first appearance of the Goknirks around the mid-6th century until the final destruction of th Khazar Khaganate in the 11 th century. The list also covers other Turkish tribes such as the Qarluqs, pre-Seljuq Oghuzz, and Turgesh. Of all the groups covered by this list the Khazars lasted the longest and had the widest impact. Initially they were subject to the Gokuirks bur by the middle of the 7th century asrride were fully of independent. Their empire was based on the Volga river basin important and stood a number trade routes from which they drew their wealth and much of their power. In addition to Turks the Khazars ruled Eastern Slavs and Alan their populations. Khaganate decisively amongst ubject The was defeated .968 by the Kiev Rus led by Sviatoslav,who sacked the Khazar capital of'Atil. There is some evidence that a remnant Khazar state continued to exist in the North Caucasus into the 11 th century The Khazars are possibly most famous for their conversion to Judaism, around the middle of the 8th cenmry. The story goes that the Khagan (Khazar ruler) asked a Muslim scholar which was better, Judaism or Christianity, to which he said the former. The Khagan then a ked a Christian priest which was better, Judaism or Islam, and again received the answer Judaism. As both had said Judaism that is what he chose for his people. A theory that the Khazars were the ancestors of most modern East European Jews has not been supported by recent genetjc studies.

TROOP NOTES
Although of Turkish descent, the Khazars are noted, and depicted, as using lance' rather than being mainly horse archers. It is not cl ar when any change took place but it appears to have been

by the mid-7th century. The Khazars trained by Khaznr Commander
Herakeios in 627 may have influenced this change,

30

WESTERN TURKISH

Khazar nobles

are always depicted

as heavily

armoured. Grave finds show what appear to be di mounted noble cavalrymen fighting on foot with their lances held in both hands. At some time in the 8th century, possibly following their defeat by the Arabs in 737, the Khazars recruited a standing army based around Arsiynb who were armoured horse archers rather like the later Abbasid

BUILDING A CUSTOMISED LIST USING OUR ARMY POINTS
Choose an army based on the maxima and minima in the list below. The following special instructions apply to this army: • Commanders cavalry. • From 627 all noble cavalry i.n a Khazar army or allied contingent must be Lancers. Before that they can be either all Bowmen or all Lancer. • Khazar noble cavalry can always dismount as Heavy Foot, Armoured, Superior, Unmilled, Offensive Spearmen. The minimum marked." is reduced to 4 for should be depicted as noble

ghilman. These were

recruited from Muslims, mainly from Khwarism, on condition that they did not have to fight other Muslims. There may have been as many as 15,000 of these at their peak: We assume that these would not be available to a remnant Khazar stare after 968. Many Khazar subjects fought in a similar manner
to their overlords

so are not shown

Khazar armies between 738 and 968.

separately.

Sub-commanders

Field Commander

Troop name Type

Troop Commander Troop Type
A 1'1Y1 our I

35 Capabllttics Close Combat Points per base

Quality Core Troops

Trailling

I Shooting

I

0-3 Bases per BG

I base,_ Jmal
4;--24

I

Any Noble cavalry

Armoured Cavalry Protected

Superior Supertor

Undnlled Undrilled

Bow

Swordsmen Lancers, Swordsmen Swordsmen Swordsmen Swordsmen

-~~-~
_ 14 16

4--6

Only Khazars
Only Khazars from 73 S !O

Cavalry

Armoured

-

19 10 10 11 5 6-8 4--6 ·1-6 8-24

IU' iyah

Cavalrv

P!.rmoured

Superior
ATr'erage

Drilled Undrilled Undrilled

Bow

968
Light Horse ~-~~--Unprotected Cavalry -.--Protected

Bow 8.0"v

*11-64

Average t\ver.1ge

1"*'-Slav archers

Protected Medium Poor ~~ted Only Khazars from 651 to 968

Unprotected Light Foot Unprotected

---

-

Poor

Poor

Undrilled

-

light Spear

3 l.

6-8
8-12 6-8

O-l4

~.Poor

Ayerage

Undrtlled

Bow

-

--3
4,

5

CSlaV hing skirmts
javelin men

Light Foot

Un protected

Average Poor

0-11

Und rllled

lavclins

Light Spear

I

I

2

6-8

I

31

DECLINE AND FALL

OpnonalTroops. fortified cam p Guard infantry Onl)' Khazars before 969 Heavy Foot Armoured Aver'ge Average Medi urn Foot Unprotected Light Foot Mob Un~Oiect.d Unprotec<ed
POQ!"

0-1 Undulled -I
Undrilled
Heavy

Defensive Spearmen

-

--

8 lO

6-8

0-8
0-2

1----13 -3

Artlllery
Bo~ ...
r

Foot archers Khazar clrv rrnliria or

Poor Poor

Undulled
Undrrlled

Bow

--

6-8
8-12

0-11 0-12

Turkish lOV)'
Urlgur alltcs (Onl)' Goklilrks Sogdran allies (Only Turgesh) Tibetan allles (OnlyTurgesh)
La

~-.-.-,
5? 6) - Earl)' BLilgar

Allie,

- Central A,i'D Cit)· State> - See Note p.? 8 - See Note p. 78 80) - 'vVe'"CTL1 Turkish

-

Oghuzz

.U les (011ly Khazar-s from?

----------------------------------------------------~

Noble cavalry Only Khazacs

-I

4--0

0-8

Oilier horse archers

4-18

ARAB CONQUEST
This list covers Islamic Arab armies from
c. 629 AD. Although

armies had existed before a few hundred

that rime they only numbered

men. The list ends c. 68 S when the fifth Umayyad caltphv'Abd al-Malik, changed the Muslim army from being tribally based to a "regular" structure Arab armies of the conquest equipment, period hardly differed from those of the pre-Islamic period in organisation or tactics, however the as wen as a motivation based on of Islam. The benefit larger of this and Camel Mounted Scout and Skirmishers new Muslim faith gave them greater discipline and cohesion the ideology armies

cohesion is demonstrated by the victones of'Arab over numerically Roman

32

ARAB CONQUEST

Soldiers of the Great Expansion, by Angus McBride. Taken from Men-at-Arms Conquest.

255: Armies of the Muslim

Persian forces. such as at the battles ofYarmuk and Qadisiyya in 636, and Nihawand in 642. The biggest challenge to the Muslim state followed the death of the Prophet in 632 when large numbers of tribes either seceded from the state or renounced Islam entirely; some even followed a false prophet called Musaylimah ibn Habib. A short but decisive series of wars, known as the Ridda Wars, ensued, returning the Arabian peninsular traditionally convert to Muslim control. faced by an Arab army would the same rights and be offered three alternatives - to as any other Muslim, to remain Non-Muslims

in their current religion but pay a higher rate of tax. or war to the finish. The offer often stated that in the case of the latter the Muslims loved death more than their enemies loved life as the Muslim who died was guaranteed paradise. a place in

KHALID IBN AL-WALID
Whilst undoubtedly known. one of the greatest Arab period, he is hardly he to Mohammed. generals of the conquest Initially opposed

fought in the Meccan army sent to destroy the fledgling Muslim state. In 625. at the Battle of Uhud, Khalid led the Meccan cavalry in a charge

to Islam with

responsibilities

33

DECLINE AND FALL

that turned the battle and caused many casualties amongst converted the Muslims, with even the Prophet However, in 628, Khalid
to

cavalry. His actions at the Battle ofYarmuk against the Byzantines were decisive and led to the Arab victory and the conquest of Syria. Khalid continued to fight in Syria until 638 He died in 642 having fought, it is claimed, over

being slighdrwounded. of the wars of conquest. Khalid commanded

Islam and thereafter fought in many the army sent to invade in just over
to

100 battles and having never been defeated.

Persian Iraq, which he conquered a year, and was subsequently sent achievement hundreds

Syria to do

TROOP NOTES
Until c,638, Muslim armies relied mainly on their infantry. Wirh numbers the acquisition of large of horses in 638, many of the foot to cavalry in the new camps

the same against the Byzantines. Khalid's greate t is often said to be his transfer of
to

of soldiers from the Iraq front

Syria across the desert, a march many felt was impossible. He achieved this by using camels as living water containers, slaughtering them during the march across the waterless desert in order to sustain the horses of his forcewhilst the men drank the camels' blood. Khalid also once managed to defeat the Persians with a numerically inferior force using a form of the double envelopment strategy - only previously successfully used by an army smaller than that of its opponents by Hannibal at Cannae. The second caliph, 'Umar, who had always disliked Khalid, dismissed him from command of the army, though he remained in charge of the

warriors were upgraded

standing fund forces settled in permanent their initial Inexperience

in the conquered. areas. Average grading reflects in mounted fighting. part in Whilst swords played an important

Arab fighting, classifying the infantry warriors as Offen ive Spearmen gives the correct results and emphasises the cohesion d monstrated by their armies. Following the conquest of Persia. a number of Sassanid represent troops joined the Arab army guard but continued to fight in their normal manner. Dnilaml the former of the Sassanid governor of Iraq who also joined the Arabs.

Iund cavalry Persian Bedouin
cavalry

2 BGs 1 BG 2. BGs

Eilch-coillprising 6 bases of'Iund cavalry: Average. Protected. Unclrilled Cavalry - Lancers, Swordsmen 4 bases )': Superl-'o-r,-CA'-r-m-o-l.."-u-lOd"',-C:U:::-n-d""'r""n"le-'d'--C=-ill,-"al-'rycoropnsmg 4 bases of Bedouin cavalry: Average, Unprotected, UndIilJed Light Horse - La.ncers, Swordsmen Each comprising 8 bases of foot warrio-r-s-'; S=-u-p-er-l:-'o-r,-:P=--r-o-te-c-te'd', ---I Undrllled Heavy Foot - Offensive Spearmen Each comprising of arche-r-=s:....,S:;'-u~p----,ri-o-r.--U-=-n-p-r-o-te-c-te-;d'. -~~---1 Unmilled Light Foot - Bow - :S""'u-p-e-,ri:-o-r.-:U"'"]-lp-r-o-te-c-te-d·, Lisht Foot: -=-U;-lldrilled "

cavalry

Foot warriors
Archers

2 BGs
2 BGs

Stingers

---------+----,----4-,-'--."-.:
1 BG

----'

34

ARAB CONQUEST

BUILDING A CUSTOMISED LIST USING OURARl\1Y POINTS
Choose an army based on the maxima apply to this army: and minima in (he list below. The following special instructions

• Commanders

should be depicted

as foot as Heavy -,

warriors or lund cavalry. • Jund cavalry can always dismount Foot, Superior, Undrilled, Offensive Spearmen. Protected,

root wan tors

I

Before

638

From 638

I

Heavy Foot Ligh' Foot
Medium

Undnlled UmlriIJed Undrilled Bow

Offensive Spearmen

Supporting archers

-

Separately deployed archers

Foot Ligh' Foot

Bo...... '
0-12
Bow

lund cavalrv

l

6-8 Lancers, Swordsmen 4-6 12-24-

Only from 638

City cavalry Cavalry
Lancers,

r--4-6 Bedouin ca... y 0-12
Lancers,

Swordsmen

4-6

Camel-mounted

SCO'U~5

[a.... elinmen

Datlarru

Fortified c.mp

DiBgui,ed

co mel"

I

Carnelry

Protected

I

Poor

4

35"

DECLINE AND FALL

EARLY BULGAR
The Bulgars were initially a coalition of Hunnic tribes (Kutrigurs and Utigurs). This list covers Bulgar armies of the Khanate of Greater Bulgaria (around the Sea of Azov) from 631, when they threw off Avar rule. until their defeat by the Khazars c. 668, after which part of the horde fled north and part fled west, The western branch, under Khan Asparukh, formed the Danubian the local Bulgar kingdom c.680, incorporating its conquest northern by the Byzantines In the Danubian initially remained reign Bulgar state, the Bulgars a separate elite, but by the who accepted

of Boris I (852-889),

Christianity in 864, the distinctions had become blurred. "Bulgarian" foot could be Slav, Bulgar, Vlach or Greek. Byzantine allies represent the Greek Themes who went over to Krum and his successors - they fought loyally under their own generals. When the Bulgars were forced to hand back the Byzantine provinces, these Thematic troops were transferred to other parts of Bulgaria where they continued to serve. Presumably they eventually lost their distinctive character. Wooden palisades were sometimes used to block off whole valleys.

Slavic tribes. This list covers that kingdom until in 10 18. The branch fled up the Volga and formed

the Volga Bulgar state, which is not covered by this list. Khan Krum (803-8 14) conquered large chunks of Byzantine territory the walls of Constantinople, could press the assault. and advanced to but died before he

TROOP NOTES
Bulgar boyarswere charging lancers by the early 9th century at the latest - whether they fought in this way earlier or were more influenced by Avar tactical methods is uncertain.

Boyar Cavalry

Each comprising 4 bases of'boyars: Superior, Armoured. Cavalry - Lancers, Swordsmen

~--------------------~----~--------------~--~~--~----~----------------~ Each comprising 4 bases of Bulgar horse archers: Average,
Bulgar horse archers Bulgarian spearmen Bulgarian archers 3 BGs Unprotected, Undrilled Light Horse - Bow, Swordsmen Each comprising Bulgarian spearmen: Unmilled Heavy Foot - Defensive Spearmen Protected,
2 BGs 1 BG

Boyars

2 BGs

comprising 4 bases of boyars: Superior, Protected, Undnlled Cavalry - Lancers. Swordsmen

8 bases of Bulgarian archers: Average. Unprotected, Undrilled Light Foot - Bow

::-::-------:--=-=--:-:-;-"':"

36

EARLY BULGAR

BUILDING A CUSTOMISED LIST USING OURARl'\1Y POINTS
Chao se an army based on the maxima instructions apply to this army: and minima in the list below. The following special

Commanders

should be depicted as boyars.

• Before 803, boyars can have either lancers or bow capability, but all must have the arne. The minima marked are used.

* only

apply if any foot

~:~!!~!~!~~!!L!lU'(OnlY~
C-in-C Inspired' ,i",o
IroOP

180150135 50 35

1 0-2

Sub-commanders Troop Type

Field Troop

r:",

.. o .. u~,

0-3
Base, per BG Total bases

(',mhHi,f,

Troop name

Type
Only beforel 803 Any date
I

Armour Armoured Protected Armoured Protected Unprotected Unprotected

Quahty

Training

Shooting

IClose Combat

Points per base

J._DrCuUVI" I

Cav; alry Cavalry light Horse

Superior Superior Average

Undrilled Undrilled Undnlled

Bow

Swordsmen Lancers, Swordsmen Swordsmen

III 14 16
12 16 ___ 72

Boyars

+--6

4-24

T30\v

10 10 ~-6

before

Bulgar horse archers
Cavalry

680,
8-30 from 680

Average Protected Protected Armoured Procected Protected Unpro ecreo

Undrilled

Bow

Swordsmen 11 12 16 5 3 2 5 3

Slav cavalry
Slav

Cavalry

Superior Average Poor Poor

Dndnlled

-

Light Spear, Swordsmen Light Spear

4-6

0-6
12-64

ja-..ellnmen Slav arch e rs Slav

Medium Only from 680 (Q B51

Foot

Undrilled

Bow

6--8 6-8
8-12

light Foot

Unprotected

-"",erage
Poor Average

Undrtlled

Ughl Spear Defensive Spearmen -

6-8
6-8

0-12

light i1\'cll~~~~~ Bulgarian spearmen Bulgarian archers
_.

foOL

Unprotected

Undrtllcd

Javelins

2 6 4, 5 3 5 3 6-8

0-8

Heavy Foot Only from 852 Medium Foot

Protected Unprotected Unprotected

Average Poor Ave"ge Poor Average Poor

Undrilled Undrilled I Uudrilled

Bow

12-48

6--8
0-24 6-8

I
Only beforel

Lighl Foot

Bow

OptionalTrocps Z4 Field Forti ficarlons Heavy Foot Protected Average Poor
Poor

Forufied

=p
Fjeld defences "Civilised
or Sl avs ';~~itial Greek ,"

680
Only from 680

0-1

3 Undrilled Drilled Allie, Defensive Spearmen Defensive Spearmen 6 4 5

0-2+

803 Only [rom Heavy Foot

I
Protected

i

6--8
6-8

-

--

0-l'2

Avar allies (Only in 812) Eyzantine ~cheneg alltes - Themanc ;JJli.'_~Onl) Byzantine (803 to 8S 2)

111_896)

37

DECLINE AND FAll

Type Only before 803
BOYorS Any elate Cavalry Bow

pet BG Swordsmen
Lancers,

base,

14

Swordsmen

Light Horse

I

BuJgat horse archers

'>1""
[avellrunen Only [rom
680 to 8S 1

Ughl Spear

~------r---

Unprocec ted

~av

archers

~ I

Unprotected Protected

~~-----+
~\'erage-----l
P~)Of

Poor

Undrilled

Bow Defensive Spearmen

Bulgarlan
spCi.lrmcn

-+

f

"".,ago -, I Undnllcd Poor

4-

6-8
6-8

*6-1"

Only from
Bulgarian archers
R52

Medium
FOOL

Unprotected Unprotected

Ave.nge
Poor

Unclrtlled ---+ 5

Light

AV~Ti!lge

0-8

FOOL

Poor

UndrIlled

BOV'i

6-8

THEMATIC BYZANTINE
The Thematic system was initiated by the allowed it to prosper for centuries. This Jist covers Byzantine armies from the completion of the Thematic system c.650 until the accession of Nikephoros II Phokas in 963. Emperor Herakleios the dangers besetting divided into a number (6] 0-64]) in response to

the Byzantine Empire in of admtrustrarlve areas

the first half of the 7th century The Empire "was termed themes. The soldiers in each [heme were granted plots of land to farm, in return for parttime military service. They did not own their land, which was still owned by the state, but pay requ irernenrs were correspon din gly reduced. 110re over, their descendants would be expected to follow them as thematic soldiers, removing the need for unpopular conscription from the general population. The commander of each theme adopted the dual role of military commander and civil governor - thus reversing the division between civil and military government lnsdruted by Diocletian in the 3rd century. The Thematic system gave the Empire a new resilience that

TROOP NOTES
Thematic troops were locally based pan-timers, supplying divided preferable reinforcements another their into to own equipment, and and were first-class summon from

second-class It was considered

theme rather

than use one's own second-class troops. Thematic cavalry generally fought Byzantine Commander

38

THEMATIC

BYZANTINE

10 ranks deep. The rear rank archers are treated as the same armour class as

Bow* because only 2 out of their 5 ranks were armed with bows. The kataphraktoi formed in a deep wedge, designed to break into the enemy arm), The 14, 00 0 Khurramite sectarians who went over to the Byzantines in the second quarter of the 9th century, and who were later joined by 16,000 their more own deserters from the formerly later Christian provinces of the Caliphate, fought in units. They were probably assimilated into normal Byzantine units, but we assume that initially at least they would have retained their previous fighting

Skourntos

the lancers, armour. however, When they

even though detached, are graded
own

they probably usually had less

according

to their

true armour class. Centrally-ba ed professional units were Tagmatic introduced

c.740. They are graded as

ryle,

I
~)

Y ~)~'~,':c:~'._,
"

r-

~.

,..i'

~
G

,

l.f~ r
I

I

.....

_

.>"

,_or:;;:::" .'

~
\

~:-~~"
!...

/

\

or'

'.1

tY,;/d'yJ

t, 'I

:

MEDITERRANEAN

SE.A
I.

I \.
"

'

Exa~ha te of Raven na, Duchy of Rome. Duchy of Naple<.

/':/;;.i'I~' -"-.
\

-,2/ Venetia an d lstrla.

".:1
1

" ,,4,
...

3.

?

Du~ry of Calabria.

SSS Lost to
~

C The empire c.750 51 Territory reconquered
l.ornbards

'" 6:. Th~il1a of Hellas,

"7,; ,

Th~ma ,0fThra.ce.

b)'

c.no

or local princes c.7S I

o
o

250 milo'
50(}km

Lost to Saracens c.820-930

""

8.'1 Therna ef _OpSiklon, 9. 'Therna ofl!;rakesion. 10. Therna of An,\wlikon. / II Tfie,ma of Kibyrthaiotai. 12. Thema of Arrnernakon.
,

\

'

The Byzantine Empire c.AD 700-950.Taken

from Essential Histories 33: Byzantium

atWar.

39

DECLINE AND FALL

Eachcomprising 4 basesof Thernartc cavalry: Average, Armoured, Drilled Cavalry - 2 Lancers, Swordsmen, 2 Bow, Swordsmen 1-------------+~---f-,E-a-c-h-c-o-n-lp-riSi.ni 4 baseS-oT Koursores. Average, Protected, Drilled Detached KQ1,lrSQre$ 2 BGs Cavalry - Bow, Swordsmen Alan mercenaries Skoutaroi and attached 'archers
I BG

4 bases of Alan mercenaries;
Horse - Bow, Swordsmen Each comprising 'bases S

Average, Unprotected, '

Light

skoutatci and attached archers: 6 Poor, Protected, Drilled Heavy Foot - Defensive Spearmen, 2 Poor, Unprotected, Drilled

BUILDING A CUSTOMISED LIST USING OUR ARMY POINTS
Choose an army based on the maxima apply to this army: and minima in the list below. The following special instructions

• Commanders

should be depicted

as first

class Thematic or Tagmatic cavalry. • Kataphraktoi bowmen shoot as if cavalry

• Only one allied contingent can be used. • Georgians, Bulgars or Alans cannot be used
with Moors,

T.uii",y=l'YP.",AgriculturaJ,

Developed,

HilJy, Moimtains Commander

c-ie-c
Sub-commanders Troop name

Inspired Commander/Field

Commander/Troop

80Iso7ITr-------1
50
35

_.-

Field Commander Troop Com111ander Troop Type Type I Armour Quali[y Training Core Troops Capabilities
-

0-2
0-3 B:_~_ per BG ~.

Shom1ng

dose Comb" lancers, Sword srrt en Lancers, Swordsmen

-~

Paine, per base

---_,
Total bases 0-12 12-36

T<1grrlil~ic
cavalry Fin(

I

Orrl)' from 740 cavalry

Cavalry Cavalry Cavalry

,

Armoured Armoured Armoured
Protected

Superior

Drilled Drilled Drilled Drtlled Drilled Drilled

BO"., ..'~

19 13 15 8 10 19

4--6

d." Thematic

I
I

A\~rage
A\'€r~ge

II! 112 112 111

4--6

Bow

Swordsmen
Lancers,

Second cl •.ss Them, lie cavalry

Cavalry Cavalrv Cavalry

Protected Armoured

I

Poor Poor

Swordsmen
Bow

4--6

CHI
0 I pe, 1 Tagmatio cavalry 0---1 per i l st class Thernauc cavalr-y 1)":--'1 petl" 2nd Thematic cavalry

Swordsmen Sv"ron:lslnl2:h

"

Superior

Bow

4--6

De iached Ko ursores

Cavalry

Protected

Average

Drilled

Bow

I Swordsmen
Swordsmen

11

4--6

I
Cavalrv Unprotected

I

Poor

Drilled

Bow

4--6

d."

40

THEMATIC

BYZANTINE

Heavy FOD!

r

Protected
(J nprorecred

Average Averflge
Poor

Drilled Drilled Drilled Drilled Drilled

Bow

I

Defensive. Spearmen

Skoutatot and attached archers.

Light Foot HeavyFoot Light Poet

Defensive Epearrren

I

7 S

31+

11/4
3/4

8-12
0-16

Protected Unprotected

Poor Average
POOT

-Bow

Medium Foot Unprotected Archers in separate units I-light Poor J--Unprotected

A.... "l;l"age fool'

Drilled

1
Cataphracts Caraplarac ts Cataphracrs Carapuracts Only from 904 Heavy Foot Heavtly Armoured Heavily
Armoured Heavily

Optional Troops Elit. Ell,e Superior Superior Average Averflg' Poor
Average


Bo.... , -

-

.s
3 6 45 3

j8-12

1.14 6-8

0-8
6-8

I
Kataphraktoi

I

Drilled
Drilled

-

Lancers, Sword srnen Swordsmen
Lancers,

23
25
20

liz
1 112

1

Only from 904-

Bow

Armoured Heavily

Drilled Drilled Drilled Drilled

Bov... ~

wordsmen Svv-ordsmen Heavy weapon 1 Lighl Spear

---.

MenavlatOi Jovellnrnen

I

Armoured

12 8 4

'" l.
0-2
2

I

Protected

Javellm Sling

-.

0-4

Light

Foot

Unpm<ected

-}

L
4,

0-4
0-4-

Slingers Georgian cavalr-y

light Foot Cavalry Light Horse

Unprotected Armoured Unprotected Unpro tecred Protected

!'oor Superior
AveJ'ilge

Drilled Undrilled Undrflled Un drilled

Lancers, Swordsmen Swordsmen Swordsmen

2 16 10 10 11

4 4

Bow Bow

B ulgar or

1\1i!.11

mercenaries

Cavalry

Avera£e

4

~~
0-12

Khurramlte and other deserters from the Caliphare Boh-shooters Fortified Camp

I
I

Only from 83,1- to 839

Cavalry

Armoured

Average

Undrilled

-

Lancers, Swordsmen

12

'1-6

I

Heavy Artillery

I

-

Av.mge

Allies

Heavy Artillery

I

-

I

20
24

2

0-2
0-]

J

Slav allies - Earl)' South SlJ\' Moortsh allies - Lacer Moorish (Onl)' tn 68 I)

I

41

DECLINE AND FALL

Byzantine abbot and retinue, by Angus McBride. Taken from Men-at-Arms 247: Romano-Byzantine Armies 4th-9th Centuries.

42

UMAYYAD ARAB

Troop name Ta.gmadc o.valry Thematic cavalry Only after

7'10

Detached

Kou rsores

Skouratoi and auached archers

Archers In separate units Light Foot
Bow

0-4
4

UMAYYAD ARAB
This list covers the armies of the Arab caliphate from the development of a "regular" army c,685
AD until the victory of the Abbasid

placed on cavalry with the infantry adopting more defensive tactical role. De pite continuing

a

led by Abu

instability within

Muslim over the Umayyads in 7 SO at the Battle of the Zab. It does not cover the later Umayyad state in Spain. Although the Umayyads came to power in 66] there was no change to the Arab army until the reign of 'Abd al-Malik (685-705) centralise 'who, as part of the caliphate, the continuing attempt to reformed the army so that it was no longer tribal in basis. broadly Troops remained was the same although reliance

the caliphate, the Umayyads maintained their wars of conquest. Visigothic Spain was invaded in 711 and even France 'was subject to raids in force until the Battle of Tours (Poitiers) in 732. In the east, Khurasan was finally secured with the defeat of the Turkish Khazars and Turgesh, The of the main the military Umayyads siege which failure 'was

abortive

Constantinople

lasted from 717 to 718.

increasing

Umayyad Foot 43

DECLINE AND FALL

The Umayyads 'liven: also great builders and the Dome of the Rock mosgLte in Jerusalem "vas built under their patronage.

TROOP NOTES
The quality of the Jund troops outside Syrian All] al-Sham declined over time. of the

Commander-in-Chief I~~~~~~~~~~--~~----~ Sub-commanders Jund cavalry Bedouin cavalry

1 2
3 BGs

Field Commander 2 x Troop Commander E;;:Ch comprising 4 bases of lunci Cavalry - Lancers, Swordsmen

ca,:;;:hy:

Superior, ~'l.rmoured,

Drilled

I

1 JIG
1

4 bases of Bedouin cavalry: Average, Unprotected, Undrilled Li~ Horse -l.ancers, Swordsmen
4 bases

-K'llt;;;;'nian
archers

Tight hors;"

Undrilled Light Horse - Bow Each comprising 9 bases.ofspearmen and archers: 6 A\[erage, Protected, Drilled Heavy Foot - Defensive Spearmen, 3 Average, Spearmen and archers 3 BGs Unprotected, Drilled light Foot - Bow r-S,;O-e-p-ar-a-te"ly-' --;d-ep'l-ol~'e---'d;-a~r-cl;-le-r-s ~~::-l ""B-=C:--t--=-g,' bases of archers: Average, Unprotec~TIed Light FOOl - Bow

~~~~~~~~~~~~~----~--~

BG

of

!(hurasanian

hgl'-l.t-e;h-o-rs-e~a~rchers:. Average, Unprotected,

Camp 'fatal

9 BGs

Unforti£]ed camp -Camp, 20 mounted

bases

,-35lootbases ,3

commanders

Umayyad cavalry, by Angus Mcl3ride. Taken from Men-at -Arms 255: Armies of the Muslirn Conquest.

44

UMAYYAD ARAB

BUILDING A CUSTOMISED LIST USING OUR ARMY POINTS
Choose an army based on the maxima apply to this army: should be depicted as Jund a Heavy -, and minima in the list below, The following special instructions

Umayyad

Archer

• Commanders cavalry.

• Jund cavalry can always dismount mounted

Foot, Superior, Average or Poor (as per class), Drilled, Armoured, be used with Defensive Spearmen. • Berbers cannot allies, nor any other Turks, with Khurasanians,

Dailami or Hillmen,

$}'

J

t ';

"'"

Umayyad infantry, by Angus McBride. Taken from Men -at -Arms 255: Armies of the Muslim Conquest.

45

DECLINE AND FALL

Umuyyad guardsmen, by Angus McBride. Taken from Men-at-Arms
7th-11th Centuries.

125: The Armies of Islam

46

UMAYYAD ARAB

c-is-c
Sub-commanders Troop Type Type
.Armour

Troop Commander

Troop

name

I

Qualuy

Training COTe Troop<

I

Capablliues Shooung

I Close

Combat

I per

Points base

Bases

porBG

I

TOlal bases

Superior

j

7 +-6 6-31

~I
Spearmen archers and

Cavalry

Armoured

Average
Poor

Drilled

-

Lancers,

Swordsmen
Defensive Spearmen

-13
10 7 5

Drilled Drilled Drilled Drilled Drilled Drilled I Optional Troops

I
1/3

He"),

FOOl

Protected Unprotected Protected

.A.....·er.a.ge A\re.rOl8t'.. Poor

Bow

light FOOl Heavy Foor Light Foot

-2/3 1/3

9-12
j

8--48

Bnw Bm..' 13O'w

Defensive Spearmen

S 3 7
5

9-12

Poor Protected Unprotccred Average

-

S parately deployed archers

Medlum Poot light Foot

poor
Poor

6-8
0-8

~e

Fortified camp

t
-

I
Lancers, Swordsmen
Lancers,

5 3 24

6-8
I

I
4-6

0-1

--

Li g h l Horse
Ghazt cavalry Cavalry

I

Un protected "'-"·.rt~,1 Protecred

I

Superior

Uudrilled

10

Superior

I

Undrtlled Undrilled Undrtlled

10 12 8 8 9 8
10 10 II

0-6 4-6 4-6

Swordsmen
Lancers,

Light Horse Bedouin cavalry Cavalry Khurasaruan hght horse archers Turkish cavalry Light Horse

Unprorected
_~. _,eY

t\'I,:erage

-

Swordsmen Lane rs, Swordsmen

Protected U np rotected I
'I'
,y

Averag

--Average _A"",age Average Undrilled Und:rilled Undrtlled Drilled Drilled Undrilled Undrllled Ulldrilled Undrille~ Un drilled

Em'.'

0-6 4-6
4

""VCy'",,,, Swordsmen lm pact fOOl,

_I.lglIt_ Horse
Cavalry Medium FOOL Dailaml

Bow
Bow

~

I-

Protected Protected Armoured Unprotected Protected
,,"y

I

Superior

Ben,\,

10
13

-Superior

Swordsmen

o-r

'Jr,1 :U
6-9

~
0-9

1-=
Berber lighl horse I~erb"r [avchnmen Bolt-shooters or s tone-throwers Khurasanian Tibetan

Light FOOL

Ugh': SP,,"f _ Light_Spear LighL SP""f Light Spear

6 5
4

1/3 orO

I Medium

Foot

Average Average
A v eragt!

6-8
6-8 6-8 4-6

Light Foot Light Foot -Ugl;- Horse Ligl" Foot Heavy Arullery Onpro ~d-

Javelins !low Iavcllns Javelins
Heavy Arullery

ICC«L'

S 7

Unprotected

Average Average Avenge

+
20

6-8
2

I

0-12
0-160-1

Allies

-

allies - Cenrral Astan Cit)' States - See

NOlO

p.i8

Berber allies - Later Moorish alltes - See Note p.78

-

47

DECLINE AND FALL

ABBASID ARAB
This list covers armies of the Abbasid Caliphate from the initial Abbasid revolt in 747 AD until 946 when the Buwayiiids captured Baghdad and the temporal power of the Caliphate ceased to exist. Instability ventually led within
to

recruit coming

Turkish

slaves into

the army. These military. of the

became the famous ghilman (ghull1ffi) cavalry, soon to dominate the Abbasid Subsequently, they were the backbone

armies of many of the Muslim successor states" the Umayyad caliphate Similar professional troops were raised from a revolution in favour of the that this would be family of the non-slave recruits in.the East. Thi list also covers the Tulunid and Ikhshidld Egyptian states created by Abbasid governors who assumed 874- until independence 905 when as Abbasid authority from from the Abbasids regained failed. The Tulunids ruled independently control. The Ikhshidids ruled independently

caliph being a member

of the family of the

Prophet. Despite expectation out that the Khurasan

a descendant of the fourth caliph, 'Ali, it turned based Prophet's uncle, 'Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib seized povver, ruling as the Abbasid dynasty. To bolster their revolt, the Abbasids adopted black flags to fulfil a prophecy that an army would come from the east under black banners. Initial Abbasid armies were very similar to Umayyad ones, but in 794 a new army known as the Abbasiya was raised probably included in Khurasan, armoured This horse traditional

93 7 until 969 when they were conquered by the Fatimids. Their armies were based on Turkish

ghilman and black slave troops.

TROOP NOTES
The armament of the black troops is uncertain. In Fatimid armies some were close order infantry fighting with javelins and swords. We allow both for this possibility and for the possibility they fought as traditional style spearmen merely supplied the manpower. that but

archers. The biggest change to Muslim armies came in the wake of the civil war of 8 11-8 13 when the future caliph al-Mu'tasim started to

Abbasid Troop Commander

Abna' were the descendants

of the original

Abbasid army who settled

in Baghdad. They

fought as normal Arab cavalry and infantry and so are included in the Arab cavalry and spearmen and archers lines in this list. Naffatun were armed with naphtha medieval bombs equivalent the of

Molotov cocktails.

Abbasid Spearman

48

ABBASID ARAB

Turkish ghiJman
Bedouin cavalry

3 BGs
1 BG

Each comprising 4 bases Turkishghilrnan: Drilled Cavalry - Bow, Swordsmen
4

Superior, '
Undrilled

bases of Bedouin cavalry: Horse - Lancers, Swordsmen

I

Unprotected,

Black slave soldiers

3 BG

Each comprising 9 bases of black slave soldiers: 6 Average, Protected, Drilled Heavy Foot - Defensive Spearmen, 3 Average, Unprotected, Drilled Light Foot - Bow

~~------------------------~
rage, Unprotected, Ul1dril~Foot-=--

Separatelydeployed archers
Naffarun

1 BG ] BG

6 bases of archers: Average, Unprotected, Undulled light Foot - Bow

4 bases of naffatun: Firearm ----~----------+-~----~U~~furtifiedcamp

M

--t-~C~all1--p-,~'1~6-U1--o-u~n~~~d~b~a-s-es-,~3~7~r."o-o-t7b-a~se~s:,~3~~~~~~ _j

49

DECLINE AND FALL

Abbasid standard bearer (centre), by Angus McBride. Taken from Men-at-Arms 125: The Armies of Islam 7th-II th Centuries.

50

ABBASID ARAB

BUILDING A CUSTOMISED UST USING OURARJ.'\1YPOINTS
Choose an army based on the maxima apply to this army: should be depi ted as Arab, armoured or Turkish ghilman and minima in the list below. The following special instructions

• Gbilman can always dismount Armoured, Swordsmen. Drilled Medium

as Superior, Foot - Bow,

• All Zanj and black slave soldier HF must have the same close combat capabilities. • Berbers cannot Turkish or be used with • Tulunid

• Commanders Khurasanian cavalry:

11hilman,
Ikhshidid

Dailami or city militia.

• The minimum marked
794.

* only
**

applies before cavalry", Khurasanians, only applies as Heavy Unmilled and other or Dailami. spearmen guards

The minimum before 836.

marked

and archers, Maghariba

• Arab cavalry can always dismount mounted

Foot, Superior, Average or Poor (as per the if class), Undrilled, Armoured, Defensive Spearmen.

Arab Cavalry

Troop name

Arab cavalry

-Only

Onl), before I 836 I Only before 874

Cavalry Cavalry C."".I1'), Cavalry

Armoured Armoured Armoured Armoured

Superi;;;'Superior i\';eroge Avenge
Poor Poor

undnlled Drilled Undriiled
Drilled

-

Lancers, Swordsmen, Lancers, Swordsmen Lancers, Swordsmen

L16~9

-17
12 '1-6

*832 8-32

Anydace Khurasa ni an armoured cavalry Tur ktsh ghtlman From 794 [0 835 --only from 815 to 835

Undrilled Drilled --I-

Bow

10

Superior

Undr llled

Cavalry Armoured Superior Drilled Bow

-

Swordsmen

)8
19

+-6

I-0-12

oiiiy-l'Wril
836 Only before 836

s.... ordsmen v
Defensive Spearmen Defensive

0-8
4--6 I-

Heavy Foot light Foot
Heavy Foot

-

8-28
Protected Unprotected Protected Unprotected Protected Unprorecred Protected A,·otago A'\'12r.age Poor Poor Average
Aver<tge
hiE

undrtlled Undrilled Undrillcd Undrtlled Drilled Drilled Drilled Drilled Drilled

130'''''

6 5
4

2/31, 1/3 2/3 1/3 1/3 1/3 213

19-1l "11 36

Spearmen and archers

tIny date Mag har fba and other guard
infantry

Bow

Spearmen

Light 800t Only from 836 HeJ\'Y FoOL Light Foot

-

9-12

3 7 5 7 7 5

Bow

Defensive Spearmen

r- 9-[2

-

O-Il

Il6

He",. foot
Zan i and black sJave sol diers Only from 874 Heavy Foot Llght Foot

rage

Bow

J

I

Protected

Metage Average

-

-

Unprotected

LIght Spear, Sword .... men Defensive Spearmen -

9-12 9-36

1/3

51

DECLINE AND FALL

Medium Foot -----I----+-IA::r::e Ught Foot

;pro,ec,edT've;;g~

'Unmilled

--i---___,Unpro,ected~ Undnlled OpttOl1~TT<'~'_' _ Bow

I

Bow

=tIT
3

6~_ 6-8

0-8

f----------------'-f-------------------,--------,-

-_--l..,
Un protected Average

Light Horse Bedouin
Or

Undnlled Undrtlled Undr.illcd Drilled Drilled Undr.illed Undnlled Bow Bow

~--- 8 ricers,
rdsmeu

--"---"-1
~-6
1}-12

volunteer cavalry
C.1i,t

alry

Unprotected Protected Unprotected
Protected

A...erage ' Average Superior Superior Superior Poor Average A vo-era.ge 1
Avemgr;

I Lancers, I Swordsmen

8

4-6 4-6 D-6 I
I

Khurasarnan hght horse archers

Only before 874

Ugh' Horse Medium

--r

Dailamt

~I
I foot

FOOl

I Impact

r-;.:;.moured

tight Foot
FOOL

----UnpTO tected
PtO~~C:Led

i

foot. S..... -ordsmen

10

--

13

-r-:-

-Ior.n
1/3 or 0

113

6-9

.

0-9

Volunteer

Cit)' militia Berber lighc horse Berber javelmmen Only before

I Medium I Mob

Impact foot, S\... 'Ords.m~n

9 2

6-8 6~8 4-6

0-8 0-8 0-12

Unprotected Unprotected Unprotected Unprotected Protected

8LO
Only before

Ligh'

Horse

i

Ondnlled Undrilled Undrtlled

Javdll1S J.velins
Firearm

LiSh(

Spear

I
Naffatun

820

,

Ugh' Foot Light Foot

Lijlh' Spear

I

4

6-8
4

0-16
0-4-

4 24

Fortified Cam p

I I

0-1

sm es

Harndamd

allies (Olll)' from 890) - Bedouin Dynasties

Allied commander Troop name Only before 836 Arab 0''101'1 Only before 874 Any dace Khurasanian armoured cavalry Turkish ghilman Only from 794 to 835 Only Irom 815 Only before 836 Spearmen archers and Any date

FJeld Cornmandsrv'Iroop Troop Type

Commander Capabilities
Training

40/25 Close Combat Lancers. Sw ordsmen Lancers, Swordsmen
Lancers, Swordsmen

Type
Cavalry

Armour

Quality

Shooting

Points per base 16 !7 12 ---13 9
---,---::---j

Bases per IlG

Tot a 1 bases

Armoured

Superior Superior Average A~erag"
I-POOT __

I Undrillcd
Drilled Undr llled Drilled I Undri~ h- __ Drilled Undrflled
Eo\ v'

.-lCavalry

i-

-

Armoured

4-6

0-12 4-12

Cavalry Cavalry Cavalry Heavy
FOOl

Armoured Armoured Armoured Protected Unprotected Protected Unprotected Protected Prorected Un proctored

Poor

10

I

I

Super lor Superior Average Averase

Swordsmen Svvordsmen Defensive Spearmen

18 19

44-6 213 1/3

0-4 0-6

Drilled
Undrilled Undrllled I
I

Bow

6-12

Ught Fom Heavy Iooc Ugh! Foot Heavy Fooc

Bow

I I

Poor Poor

I Undrtlled
Undnlled Drilled I Drilled Drilled

Defensive Spearmen Eow

4

213 113

6-12 6-11

Pever",e
Average Average

I

Light Spear, Sv.ordsrnen Defensive Spearmen Bow

Z,nj and black slave soldiers

Only from 8H

2/3

Heavy Foot Ugh, Foal

6-12

I

1/3

52

ABBASID ARAB

Abbasid soldiers, by Graham Turner.Taken from Men-at-Arms 320: Armies of the Caliphates 862-1098.

53

DECLINE AND FALL

EARLY NORTH AFRICAN DYNASTIES
This list covers the armies of the North African
emirates, from their assumption

TROOFNOTES
Armies were based around initially only nominally) converted Berber (albeit tribesmen

of independence
OVVll

from the Abbasid Caliphate until the rise of the Murabits, The Idrisids formed their rival Shiite caliphate in Morocco in 789 which lasted until about 926. The Aghlabids in Tunisia achieved de facto independence subsequently conquered and 1091. The Shute Fatimids replaced the Aghlabids in Tunisia in 909 and this list represents their army from this date until their Egyptian state started to employ Turks and Dailami c.978, after which the Fatimid Companion Egyptian list in Field of Glory 4: Swords and Scimitars should be used. by about 820. They Sicily, which they held

fighting in a similar style to the Arabs, although the Aghlabids, Fatimids and Zirids also recruited black slave troops as guard standing army; and to provide a

until conquered by the Normans between 1060

After the Fatimid conquest of Egypt, the Zirid dynasty ruled Tunisia as their clients from 972 They were finally conquered by the Almohades c.1160. The Maghrawanids ruled Morocco from the early 11 th century until about 1064 when they were conquered by the Murabits. Arab Lancers

Arab or Berber lancers Berber light horse

3 BGs 3 BGs

Each comprising 4 bases of Arab or Berber lancers: Superior, Armoured, tJndriJled Cavalry -lancers, Swordsmen Each comprising 4 bases of Berber light horse: Average, Unprotected, Undrilled Light Horse - Javelins, Light Spear Each ornprising 9 bases of speannen and archers: 6 Average, Protected, Undrilled Heavy Fo t - Defensive pearmen, 3 Average, Unprotected, Undrilled Light Foot - Bow Each comprising 6 bases of Berber javelinmen: Average, Unprotected, Undrilled Light Foot - Javelins, Light Spear oases, 39 foot bases, 3 commanders

Berber spearmen and archers

3 BGs

Berber javelinmen

2 BGs

~~----~----~----+-~--~~~~~~-------II BGs

54

EARLY NORTH AFRICAN

DYNASTIES

BUILDING A CUSTOMISED LIST USING OUR ARMY POINTS
Choose an army based on the maxima apply to this army: should be depicted as Arab or and minima in the list b low. The follmving special instructions

Commanders Berber lancers.

• ,'\JJ black slave HF must have the same close
combat capabilities.

Field

Commander

Troop Commander

1--r)Te
""1 Cavalry

TroopT),p. Armour Armoured
Armoured

I

Quili,)'

I Trami
I

11 g

Core Troop. Superior A'""'"Ee
Poor

Armoured Protected
Protected

Superior Average Poor Av enge Average A,'erage fum

Undrtllcd

Protected Ikrber light horse _ Li:shr Horse H~~Yy l'om
Berber spearmen and archers Light FOOL

Unprotc.clecf
Protected

Undrilled Undrllled Undrtlled

Iavellns

Ughl Spear
Spearmen

-I----+-~D;:.rens-,--iv-e-+--6
--]----.f-Bow

I-;:---------']:J -l
4--6 12) 213 5 4

Unprotected Protected Unprotected Protected
Protected Un protected Prorected

--1173

9-12

-",,'---0--+Sp "arm en

Heavy

FOUL

Unclnlled
Undrillcd

Def"nsh'c

2/ 3
9--12

0-36 I

Ugh'Foo, Black slave
[avehnmen or

I

Poor

Bow Light Spe<u-',

1/3-,

~~:~en_a_(JJ_--,_~a_'~_-L~:td' or

1

Oilly AgbJabids,

H~"...r Fum '> Heavy Foot Light Medium
FOOl

I

A"erage Ave-rage Average
A,'erog:_j Poor AyeTLl.g~
POOf

Dr llled Dnlkd
Drilled Undrtlled

----+
21'3 9-120-14

Swordsmen -----If----oDefen-";-·"-. -+-Spearmen
Bo'vv

I

FOOl

Eo'.,'
Haw

Separately

deploj

ed archers Ll~hll:oot llopr(j,eClodl

Undr llled

Optional Troops Un protected Protected Unprotected
Average A\reraR01;.' ----', Undrllled

Javd,ins
Sling

Light Spear Lighr Spear

4 5
.;-

Undrilled
--Undrilled

Ave-rage
Allie,

4--6

L
Tuareg allies (Onl)' from Andalusian ll~llies
j

H Only oUlside SieiJl'

OOU) -- See \lole 1'.78
Only in

SiciJ)' (i\ghlabids) '------

allles (Oulr in 827) -- S"" Field of Glory Companion

8: \vol", From Lll<Sm:Th, Dark Aa<s

(Only in 1035) -- Nikephorian Byc.mi[Je -----Zirld allies (Only in 1035 or I U63) - Garly Kurth African Dynasties ._----

----

_~I

55

DECLINE AND FALL

North Af'rican soldiers (foreground) and Bedouin auxiliary (rear), by Angus McBride. Taken from Men-at-Arms 125: The Armies of Islam 7th-II th Centuries. 56

KHURASANIAN

DYNASTIES

Troop

name

Arab or Berber lancers

Black slave javelinmen or spearmen and
l__,r_ch_-e_fS_' __

---'_Zirid,~_-=~~~1~~~~rr::~~J~
KHURASANIAN DYNASTIES

Only ,~ghbbids. Farlmids 01'

This list covers the Tahirid (821-873). (861-1003) Empire. andSamanid

Saffarid

but rose to conquer the province of Seistan in eastern Persia and to later take over the Tahirid provinces of Khurasan. However, their period of power was short, losing most of their territory to the Samanids in the early lOth century. Even then they survived in Seistan long after the above period as vassals of first the Samanids, then the Ghaznavids, and finally the Seljuqs. The Sarnanids were the most successful of the Khurasanian dynasties. Descended from a Persian family they presided over a renaissance of Persian traditi.on although they remained staunchly Muslim, TIley fell to the expanding power of the Ghaznavids under Mahmud the Great.

(875-999) dynasties

in the eastern provinces of the former Abbasid The Tahirids rose to power after Tahir ibn Husayn led al-Ma'rnun's army to victory in the Abbasid civil war. As a result of this he was made governor of Khurasan, a position which became hereditary following the appointment the Tahirids remained of his son
nt,

when he died. Although effectively independ

loyal to the Abbasid

caliphs and were often given the administration of Baghdad during the period when Samarra became the caliph's residence. They were overthrown by the Saffarids in 873. The Saffarids started as leaders of brigands and 'Alid secessionists Volunteer Foot Officer

TROOP NOTES
Khurasanian armies relied heavily on the local Dibqan class of'landowners fighthlg in a style similar to that of their Sassanid forebears. However, the Saffarids and Sarnanids, particularly the latter, also recruited Turkish ghilmD11 in large numbers.

DECLINE AND FALL

Bow Swordsmen r_-----~----~-+------+____;"..,..._,__-~...,..,..+-,--,.._r~o'TKhura~al1ian armoured

e<lva.!l17:' Superior,

Armoured, Undrilled Cavalry - Bmv, Swordsmen Eadl~npriSTi1.g 4· bases orKhurasania.n.ligl11"'b~o~r-.s~e-ar---c·i1,ers: Average, D d, Undrilled Light Horse - Bow spearmen and aJ;\:her.s:. 8 Poor, P~Quec!ed, UnarQIed Heavy Foot - Defensive Spearmen, 4 POOl;, Unprotected, Undrilled L_igh! Foot

BUILDING A CUSTOMISED LIST USING OUR ARMY POINTS
Choose. an army based on the maxima instructions apply to this army: and minima in the list below. The following special

Commanders Khurasanian

should armoured

be. depicted

as

cavalry or Turkish

ghilman. Ghilman can always dismount as Superior,
Armoured, Drilled Medium Foot - Bow, Swordsmen.

Tor,leQl,

Type':

t\gricuJmral,

------------~---------~"~'ie~J~d~C~()-,n-m-.-n~d.-r----------r-~50~-+---~O~-~1------Sub-commanders name Troop Commsndor 35 Capabilities ~ose_C~r::_baL Points per base 0-3 B",,,, I p or BG,
~~-.J.

e-rn-e

Inspired Cornrnander/Flekl

S<epp<> ~-- -----.-r----r------~--I Ccmmander/Troop Commander 80150/15

Troop

Type

J

Troop Type Armour Armoured

J
-

Quali~ !~~lnu~,:,:,~'!l Core Tt()OP~ Superior SUI,eMor

J

To tal base,
~

Klmmsani.n

armoured cavalry Cavalry --~----~.---------~ Tur I' I1 g hi! man ·1 01' Si!ltfa.ri.ds Onl), arnanlds S Cavah-v (1;) I H,,",'), foot Spearmen and archers Ugh! l'oor
____

I Armoured I ArmourC_d

Undrilied flaw -----1------1---------1Drilled Defensive

18
19

_4-=:--16 4-181 "8-28 4-6 4-18

,---------~----------+--------L------_+----____I------------r_------_r------r__,--~----___I
Average Undrllled

1--~___,_-----P-r-o\-e-ct-ed~r_------I--~~~-----~--s-pe-.-"-n-el-'-I,unprmccrod
-I--

M':.::'!::.....
POOl'

1----,----1l!3 ,-~9-12l

Ulldrlll_e_d+__ B_O_"_' _I-_~__ Unclnlled Undrtlled Undrtllcd Undrtllcd: Bow
Bow Defensive

J~...j

9-24

Heavy FoO! Llght
FO()L

Protected

-

Unprotected Protected

-p,)Qf Ayeroge
Poor

Spearmen

__

-1_->.

3

2/3 , _j9-12 113 I

Medium

['00!

4

I'\verage Unpl'mec(cd ~PUOf

6-8

o-s

-----~ Khurasanlan

-----

----------.LO'O·p-. 'c-jo-n-alc:Tm::-'--,,-p-,-----'---------------''------'--------I Ughr Horse Ligllt Hors~ Onprorecrcd Average Avor"ll"
Average

1Igh' horse archers

i Undrilled
Undnlled Undrllled
BQv\.'

4-6 Swordsmen Swordsmen I

0-11

UnprOlec(ed
Unprotected] Protected

Turkish mercenary cavalry

Cavalry

H~10

4-6

0-6

58

KHURASANIAN

DYNASTIES

I Llglu Horse
Bedouin or volunteer cavalry Cavalry Medium Foor Dallami Light Foot Medium
FOOL

Unprotected Unprotected Protected Protected Armoured Unprotected Protected Protected Unprotected -

Average Avt.ra:se Superior Superior Superior Average Poor

Undrtlled Undrillcd Drilled Drilled Undrilled Undrllled Undrtlled -

-

Lancers Swordsmen Lancers, Swordsmen Impact f or, S"v-ordsmcn Impact foot, Swordsmen Ligln Spe11J -

8 8

4-6

Bu' w

o-ri
4-6

~
10 13
or

2/31
ill 1/3, or 0

Volunteer foot Hillmen Levy foot Elephants

6
9 5

I

6-9

0-9

-

-"
0-8

6-8
4-ti 6--8 2

'----=-Poruficd
l-

J
camp

Medium Foot Mob Only Samarttds or Saffarlds Elephant>

-

0-6 0-8

-

I

Averilgl2:

Allies 0111)' i-rl-,-ds-------~ Tb ..

I

l

-

-

I

:

2
H

24

I

i

0-2 0-1

Abbasid allies

r

~sani

..n armoured cavalry ~hghilman Heavy Foot

Superior Superior

Undrilled Drilled

Bow .s......'oros.men
Defensive

Protected

,\ve"'ge Merage Poor

U ndr

Illed

Spearmen

1------1 2/3 6 1/3

6-9

Spearmen J. nd archers

Light PoOL

Undrill"d Unclrtlled Undrilled Undrilled Bow 8 Defensive Spearmen 4

Khurasanian

Iight borse archers

:---+~-

Light

FOOl

Unprotected

Poor Average I\ver.ge

Light Hor::~e Unprotected Unprotected

Ligbt Horse Bedouin 6< volunteer cavalry C."alry

Undriiled

----,_----,_-------r------I,------r------I Lancers,
S.... vordsmen

59

DECLINE

AND FALL

BEDOUIN DYNASTIES
This list covers the local Arab dynasties in Syria and Iraq that flourished disintegration dynasties (890-991) in Mosul were the during Hamdanids the although and after the The main
in

until 991 when the Iqaylids ousted them, The Aleppo branch was founded by the famous Sayf alDawla in 944 when he took over the city with the help of tribesmen of the Banu Kilab, on whom his dynasty politically relied until it fell in 1 008, although it had been ineffective sine at least 965. For 20 years following his eizur Muslim. world as he undertook against the Christian Muslim requirement Byzantines, of jihad of power in regular raids fulfilling the against nonfor Aleppo, Sayf al-Dawla was the darling of the

of Abbasid power.

Mosul in

and Aleppo (944-1008), (996-1096),

the Iqaylids

Mazyadids

southern Iraq (997-1150) Aleppo scale.

and the Mirdassids in other minor

(l 008-1079),

1

dynasties and tribes were influential on a smaller The Hamdanids of the Banu Taghlib were by far the most successful, dominating Mosul, the Iazira (northern Mesopotamia) and northern S-yriafrom th late 9th cemury onwards, although
it

I

believers. This also provided an opportunity had accommodation starting Phokas point family

others to do so; the city of'Tarsus on the border for ghozis and was a regular for Sa)"f's raids. However, his started
to

wasn't

until 905 that one of the family was appointed governor of Mosul and they subsequently The Mosul branch of th family remained more or
in power,

credibiliry fell off as the Byzantines under the conquer onwards. Muslim. territory from the mid-century

TROOP' NOTES
Hamdanid armies, unlike the other dynasties, did not rely politically on Bedouin tribesmen but on Turkish ghilman and Dailami infantry, the upkeep of which forced them to levy high rates of tax on their subjects. The armament of the Khurasanian

less, in Mosul and the surrounding area Bedouin Cavalry

ghazis is

speculative .

.~

Commander-ill-Chief Sub-commanders Turkish ghHma:n Bedouin cavalry

iB'eD:£)mNqDYNASTIES' <HA.MD:ANI1g)~stm¥!~.:1JBR:l¥:RN:r:¥~
I

2 2 BGs 4BGs 3 BGs
I

Field Commander 2 x Tro;p'Coll1mander Each cornpnstng 4 base of Turkish ghilman: Superior, Armoured.
Drilled Cavalry - Bow, Swordsmen

E;d1comprising "f ba es of Bedouin cavalry: Average, Unprotected, Undrilled Light Horse- Lancers, Swordsmen Each comprtsing 6 bases of Dailarni: 4 Superior, Armoured. Drilled Medlurn Foot -Impact Foot, Swordsmen, 2 Superior, Unprotected. Drilled light FOOl - Bow Unfortified camp Camp, 2+ mounted bases, Hlfoot-b;_se~rnmanders

Dailami

Camp Total

-

9 BGs

60

BEDOUIN DYNASTIES

BUILDING A CUSTOMISED IJST USING OUR ARMY POINTS
Choose an army based on the maxima apply to this army: and minima in the list below. The following special instructions

Commanders

should

be

depicted

as

armoured cavalry or ghilman.

• GhilmaD can always dismount
Armoured, Swordsmen. Drilled Medium

as Superior, Foot - Bow,

Lancers, Sv.... smen ord Lancers, Swordsmen

Other Bedouin cavalry

Bedouin archers

Bow Drilled Dailami Hamdamds Drilled
Bow

S..... -ordsmen lrnpacr [am. Swordsmen

Tarsus and other volunteer [nfancry

Only Hamdanlds of Aleppo

Ghaais

Only Harndaruds of'\leppo

Superior Superior

Undrtlled Undrilled

Kh urasaman

ghazis

Kurdish .Jlie' (Only Iqayllds]

_

61

DECLINE AND FALL

Bedouin or Kurdish arrno ured cavalry

4-6
Other

Bedouin cavalry 4-6

6-24

Bedouin archer,

+-6

0-6

DAILAMI DYNASTIES
This list covers the armies of the dynasties from the northern Dailam grouped subdued Iranian Caspian Sea provinces as Dailamites. of and Gilan whose people together by the Arab conquests are usually Never fully they did not the Persian past they even gave their most senior member the title Shchnnshch. the Although they came to power through

strength of their Dailami infantry, the Buwayhids quickly realised that outside of the mountains they needed cavalry support often came into conflict and so recruited with the Dailami used small Turkish ghilman to meet this need. However, these. tribesmen and their upkeep was a heavy burden. They may also have occasionally numbers of elephants. The list also covers the Ziyarid in the Caspian provinces 928-1043, 941-984. of Gargan and Mazandaran from and the Musafirids in Azerbaijan from Unlike the Buwayhids, these dynasties
to

convert to Islam until the early l Oth century when 'Alid missionaries The most important finally succeeded. Dailami dynasty was of the of their

that of the Buwayhids (Buyids): In 934 AD they took povver in Pars, the old centre formed the basis Sassanid Empire, whose riches takeover of most of the Iraqi and Iranian provinces of the decaying and family emirates Abbasid caliphate,
ill 946

They took Baghdad thereafter until confederation

did not use ghilman and had

rely on Kurds and

ruled

as a of

Bedouin for cavalry when they needed them.

c. 105 5 when by

TROOP NOTES
Dailami infantry were fierce fighters, armed with large shields and two headed "zupin" They were sought after as throughout the Islamic world. javelins. mercenaries

the emirates fell to the Seljuk Turks. Heavily influenced Dailami Standard bearer

62

DAILAMI

DYNASTIES

Dailami infantryman (foreground) and Buwayhid cavalryman (mounted), by Angus McBride. Taken from Men -0[- Arms 125: The Armies of Islam 7 th-l 1 th Centuries.
63

DECLINE AND FALL

Commander-tn-Cbief Sub-commanders Turkish ghilman Bedouin cavalry 2 2 EGs 2 BGs

Field Commander 2 x Troop Commander Each comprising 4 bases of Turkish ghilman: Superior, Armoured, Drilled Cavalry - Bow, Swordsmen Each comprising 4 bases of Bedouin cavalry: Average, Unprotected, Undrilled Llgb_tHorse- Lancers, Swordsmen Each comprising 6 bases of Dailami: 4 Superior, Protected. Drilled Medium Foot - Impact Foot, Swordsmen, 2 Superior, Unprotected. Drilled Light FOOl - Bow
CaIl'lp

Dailami Camp Total

5 BGs

- Unfortified -9 BGs

~------------------------------L

Camp, 16 mounted bases, 30 foot bases, 3 commanders

-----------------, __.__

BUILDING A CUSTOMISED LIST USING OUR Afu"VlY FOINTS
Choose an army based on the maxima apply to this army: and minima in the list below. The following special instructions

Commanders should be depicted as Dailami foot or Turkish ghilman. • Ghilman can always dismount Armoured, Swordsmen. Drilled Medium as Superior, Foot - Bow,

Total bases

Turkish ghj~m<1 D

Datlamt

root

Ugh! Foce

Separately deployed Dailami
archers

Light Foot

Jjgll.L Horse Bedouin cavalry

Lancers, S"v-ordsmen
Lancers,

4-6 0-8

S........ ordsmen

64

KURDISH ALLIES

Cavalry Indian zeu mercenaries Blephants

Armoured

Superior
Average

Dudr+lled UndriUed

T--:

Lancers, Swordsmen Skilled Swordsmen 6 25 24·

Only Buwayhids

Medium Foot Unprotected Elephants

A,fcragc. lwerage

Fortified camp
Allie, BagratidAImenian Hamdanid
Or

allies (Only Musafarld'l

other Bedouin allies (Only Buwayhlds) - Bedouin Dynasties

-------------------

Drilled

Bow

Drilled Drilled

KURDISH ALLIES
• Commanders should be depicted as cavalry

Archers

65

DECLINE AND FALL

BAGRATID ARMENIAN
• Commanders should be depicted as nobles.

ALLIES

Troop name

Type Cavalry Ugh, Horse

Armour Armoured Unprotected Protected

Quality
Superior A~'eI"agl: Average

Training Undrllled UndrUlcd Undrtllcd UndrllIed Undrllled Un drilled Undrilled

-

Nobles and retainers ---Skirmishing retainers

Bow

Heavy

FOOl

Spearmen and supporung archers

light Foot
J-TeJ.~"Y Foot

Unprotected Protected Unprotected

Aw.rage
Poor

HDW

Defensive

Spearmen Bow

4

Or

all

Light Foot

Poor

Ugh' Fa Separately deployed archers

,

Un protected

113 or U

tH2

AVl!filgl':

~
0-8

fMedium Poot Unprotected

Poor
Av

Bow

l'.;lge

Poor

Undrtlled

Bow

PECHENEG
The Pechenegs semi-nomadic (Patzinaks) were a nomadic or Turkic people who defeated the century AD, pushing much of the as allies or and occupied used the Byzantines under Jolm II Komnenos at Beroia in
I 1 22.

Thereafter

they survived

only

as

Magyars in the mid-9th them westwards, southwestern

remnant populations. This list covers Pecheneg armies from the mid 9th century until their suppression the Byzantines in 1 122. by

Eurasian steppe. commonly by (he Byzantines. They came into

They were
mercenaries

frequent conflict with [be Rus, besieging Kiev in 968, though they sometimes allied with the Rus against the Byzantines. In 1036 they were decisively defeated by the Rus, following which they were driven from tile steppe by the Cuman and migrated to the north bank of the Danube. In I 09 1 they were severely defeated at Levounion
by a combined

Pecheneg Heavy Cavalry

Byzantlne

and Curnan

army

under the Emperor Alexios I Komnenos. They were again defeated by the Cumans in 1094 and

66

PECHENEG

I

Heavy cavalry Ligll t cavalry Camp Total

3 BGs 6 BGs

-----~
9 EGs

2 x Troop Commander Each comprising 4 bases fheavy cavalry: Superior. Armoured, Undrilled Cavalry - Bow, Swordsmen Each comprising 4 bases of light cavalry: !'werage. U~jVl\Jl"U"U Undti1led Light Horse - Bow, SwordsmeJ;l Fortified camp Fortified camp, 36 mounted ba~ S, 3 commanders

BUILDING A CUSTOMISED LIST USING OUR ARMY POINTS
Chao e an army based on the maxima and minima in (be list below. The following special

instructions

apply to this army: should be depicted as heavy

• Commanders cavalry.

_____

I_n'pi red Co mmander/

Field Commander/Troop Field Commander Troop Commander

Corrunander

t-

30 D 135 15 S0 35

SUb--<:ommalldeh'
Troop Type r'ul~~

l

l

0-2 0-3

Q-,-,.-1U-·()-·-,----T-ram-jJ-·

19

Core Troops Cavalry
tight

Armoured Unprotected

Superior
,'\"'Erage

Undrtlled Undrilled

I

+-6 Bow
10

0-12

Horse

I

"~_":_"'_"_lr_).

Unpro<ec'-ed-:-l-------,--_C_"_"_h,_, __ L_Prn,ected A_v_cr_a~_>c_---,--_u_n_d_rilled

j

13m'"

Swordsmen

II

"

24-96

Fortified camp (wagon laager)

__

.L; __

T---r

Op tiona! Troop,

1

L:I

_j

0-1

'-I

Llglu cavalry

8-24

67

DECLINE AND FALL

Pecheneg chieftan (right), by Angus McBride. Taken from Men-ot-Arms 333.: Armies of Medieval Russia
750-1250. 68

GHAZNAVID

GHAZNAVID
This list covers the armies of the Ghaznavid dynasty from 962 AD when Alp Tigin (a Turkic

ghuJam general) acquired power at Ghazna in
astern Afghanistan, until he fall of the dynast)'. Alp Tigin's successor Sebuk Tigin conquered most of Afghanistan and the Punjab. From this solid base his son, Mahmud the Great, conquered the remainder of the Samanid territory and much of northern India between 997 and was the 1024. The final piece of expansion

acquisition of Rayy from the Buwayhids in 1027, pushing his empire to just south of tile Caspian Sea. Mahmud and his successors continued to raid deep into India on a regular basis for the next 140 years, obtaining great booty at the cost of much suffering and slaughter amongst the Indian population. Although held in high regard by Muslims as a ghazi (fighter for the faith) he is remembered bloody-handed barbarian by Indians. By the second quarter of [he I 1th century, however, the empire "vas under pressure from the rising power of the Seljuk Turks. In 1040, at the Battle ofDandanaqan, Mahmud's son Mas'ud was decisively defeated and nearly all of Khurasan was lost. Following this the Ghurids, an Afghan dynast)" rebeIled and pushed the Ghaznavids back to their Indian possessions. The last territories, in Lahore, feU to the Ghuricls in 1187. as a

TROOP NOTES
Ghaznavid armies were noted for their use of elephants, which were obtained as a result of the massive raids into India. Numbers and 1,670 are mentioned armoured. Noffatunwere armed with naphtha bombs - the medieval equivalenr of Molotov cocktails. uch as 1,300 at as being present

military reviews, The elephants were normally

Ghazanavid warrior, by Graham Turner. Taken from Men -at - Arms 32 0: Armies of the
Caliphates 862-1098.

69

DECLINE AND FALL

BUIl.DING A CUSTOMISED trsr USING OURARl\1Y POINTS
Choose
an army based
OIJ

the maxima

and

minima in the list below The following special instructions apply
to

this army:

• Commanders or elephants.

should be depicted as ghilman

• Ghilrnun can always dismount as Superior, Armoured, Swordsmen. • Only one allied contingent can be used. • Indian allies cannot be used with Dailami, Arabs or Kurds. Drilled Medium
Foot Bow,

Ghoznavid Elepllunt

Commander-in -Chief S<lb-comrnarrde~-----

-

f-- -- -------=----~--____;_-----------------I 2 2 x Troop Commander

I

Field Commander

-----I-~-__+____=_____;_---'-____:__,______-_;__-______;;__=__:c_-____:::--

Ghilman Nomad horse archers Arab volunteer
f-o-.

3 BGs Z BGs

cavalry

r--- ~
j

BG

Each comprising 4 bases of Ghilman: Superior, Armoured, Drilled Cavalry - Bow, Swordsmen .-- -----~--~--·o--_____:__;__---~--~----------I Each 'comprising 4 bases of nomad horse archers: Ayerage, Unprorected. Undrilled Light Horse - Bow, Swordsmen 4b-ase;-of Arab volunteer cavalry: Average, Unprocec-te--:d-,"'U:-l1-d;r-,'ilC:<l-ec",,]--1 light Horse - Lancers, Swordsmen comprisi;g' 2Tasc.:s '7:,[ elephar;ts:A~;ge:

------:----~~,____,-___1

E""l-ep""]:""n-n-ts--------+--Z-B-G-S-f.--Ea.c:c"-h

Und~illedElepi;:'lllts

L_

Separately deployed archers - -I BG"- "'8 bases of archers: Poor, Unprotected, Undrilled Ligh[ Foot - Bow -------------------I-------+--~----~~---~----~~----~~~~~~~~----~ "1- bases of naffatun: Average, unprotected, Undrilled Light FootNaffarun. t BG Firearm Camp Unfortified camp Total Camp, 28 mounted bases, 11 focc bases, 3 commanders 10 BGs
~ L_ __ ~ __

70

GHAZNAVID

-------------Type
Armour

Field Commander

Troop Commander Troop Type --,------:-:-Quality
~~--:-:

-~----------Training
__

_L

_

--Nomad horse archers

.
light Hone
I

19 Undrilled Undrlllcd
Bow

4-6

Protected

Average Aver,ge

Cavalry

Bow

S"..... ordsrnen

---w-11

10

4-12

+-6

~Elephants Elephants Cavalry Arab or Kurdish armoured cavalry

Option al Troop, Armoured Unprotected Unprotected Protected Armoured Protected Unprotected Protected Unprotected Protected
Average

Undrillcd

-

lancers, SVJ,lorcismen Lancers, Swordsmen Lancer" Swordsmen Defensive Spearmen

Superior Average Average A\fcrage

l
-

H

2 4-6 4-6

0--8

n8 8
9

16

0-6

Light Hor se Arab volunr ee r cavalry

Undrilled Undrtlled

Bow

I

0-6 4-6

Cavalry

r---8

-2/3 '1/3 2/3 1/3

Heavy Foor Spearmen and SUppOf Ling archer, Light
FOOl

Average:

Undrilled Undrillcd Undrilled Undrtlled Ondnlled

6 5
4

1612 0-11 612 012

Average Poor Poor
Average

Defensive Spearmen -

Heavy FOOl Light Poor Medium Ioor Separately deployed ar hers Light Foot

Bow
BO'"..".'

3
6
4

~
Average

I
6-8

Unprotected Protected Armoured Unprotected Protected Protected Unprotected Unprotected l'rotected-

Medium Dailami
Ligh' Foot

Poor Superior Superior Superior Average Average Average

Undrillcd

Bow

Impact foot, Swordsmen Impact foot, Swordsmen Light Spear

+.
10 13 6 9 5 5

10-8
0-9

FOOl

Dnlled

Bow

213 praJJ 113 or 0

6-J
-

Drilled Undrilled Undrilled Undrilled Undrilled -

Ghazi Ioot Afghan spearmen Indian or Afghan archers N.(farun Med1uln
Medium
1'00(

flow Ptrearm Heavy Artillery

4-6 I-4-6

0-6
0-6

FOD<

Medium Feet Lig!u Foot Heavy Artillery Field Portificauons

-

6-8
4

0-8
0-4

s20
3 24

4

-

Stone throwers Field fornficanons

A"erage

2

O-l 0-12 0-1

I

-

Fornfied camp Allie,

Indian allies - HIndu Indian See Not. p.? 8 Qarakhamd allies - See Nore 1'.7 8

-

-

71

DECLINE

AND FALL

NIKEPHORIAN BYZANTINE
Under the Macedonian dynasty (867~l056 the Byzantine enough attempted Phokas AD) In 107 1, the main Byzantine field army, under the Emperor Romanus IV Diogenes, was decisively defeated by the Seljuk Turks under Sultan Alp Arslan at Manzikert in Asia Minor. Over the next few year most of Asia Minor was lost to the Turks. This list covers Byzantine armies from 963 until 1071. Empire was once again strong mer with mixed success. mperoIs and John Nikephoros II I Tzimiskes

to go on the offensive. Initially the reconquest (963-969)

However, the soldier

(969-976) reconquered Crete, Cyprus and parts of'Syria. Basil II (976-1025) conquered the Bulgar Empire after a campaign lasting nearly twenty years. The Bulgars finally surrendered in 1018 and were incorporated into the empire, restoring the Danube frontier last held 400 years before. Following the death of Basil II, the civil service faction gained the upper hand, reducing expensive short-term native army and relying more mercenary the on

TROOP NOTES
The army declined period, mainly due bureaucracy,
to

in the latter part of the cost cutting by the central

and archery became uncommon

among the regular cavalry. The l((Jtaphrakwi formed in one or occasionally two deep wedges. designed to break into the enemy army: The Varangian guard in this period were armed with spears, axes only becoming their main weapon later - probably following the influx of Enghsh recruits after the Norman conquest of England.

contracts. The Normans

conquered the last Byzantine possessions in Italy: Nikephorian Kataphral{toi

72

NIKEPHORIAN

BYZANTINE

Byzantine Klibanophoros, by Angus McBride, Taken from Men-at-Arms 89: Byzantine Armies 886-1118.

Cornmander-l ~b-commandeT!) Cavalry Kataphraktoi ---- ---2 BGs I BG ~2 2 x=rroopcoll1J11ander Each comprtsing 4 bases of caval l~ Cavalry - Bow*, Lancers, Swordsmen basesofhlaphraktOi Superior,

-------l
,~n1ollred:Undnlled

Dr~Ued -

Elite:-Hea~'lly Armoured,

Drilled Cataphldcl~S~

Flankers

1 BGs -

Spearmen

and archers --

2 BG,

I Lancers, Swordsmen, I Bow, Swordsmen Eacb compnsmg 4bases (:;ri'lankers: A\,erage.protected, Dr-;-Ued ~ Cavalry - Bow, Swordsmen Each compnsing 8 bases of spearmen and -;_-;:-chers:4 /werag~ Protected, Drilled Heavy Fool - Defensive Spearmen, 4 AW'rage,
Protected, Drrlled Medium Spearmen Poor, Unprotecred-:-Dri!led Foot - Bow P;-,;erage, Protected, 6 bases ofJ1.us mercenaries - Oflenstve 8 bases _of archers' camp

Rus mercenaries

l

Skirrnislllng

Camp

-

__

archers

Total

--

--

j I

-

J BG 1~

Heavy FOOl

9 BGs

1

r::Camp,

Light Foot - Bow -----

j

Unfortified

I 8 mounted

bases,

30 Loot bases,_ 3 com~anders

73

DECLINE AND FALL

BUILDING A CUSTOMISED LIST USING OURARM:Y POINTS
Choose an army based on the maxima and minima in the lise below The following special instructions apply to this aml.y: • Commanders should be depicted as cavalry or (one) a Norman mercenaries. • Katapbrokwi bowmen shoot as if cavalry. • The minimum marked

Minima marked are used,

**

only apply if any foot

* only

applies if the

Emperor is present.

Nikephorian Cavalry

_1("~I:oi=r'.l:~"AlIlIl'.
C-Jn-C Sub-commanders
I I

1111
Commander/Troop
rA",mm,I.,·

~~
180/50/3-'-

~~

Territor,' Type" Agric1Jlmral. Developed, I-liJly, JviOlintalllS ~ Commander/Field

-I

Field Commander Troop ('~"'''''n~e" Troop Tvpe

50
35 Points per base Bas es per BG

o-i-0-3
Total bases

.~

Troop name

~
Before J 041 From 1042 From 1042 Cavalry

Armour

Qualll)'

Training

Shooung

IClose Combat
Lancers Swordsmen
Lancers,

Core Troops
Armoured

Superior

Drilled

Bow=i=

19 13 10 23

4-6 4-6

6-26

Cavalry

Cavalry Cataphracrs Cataphracrs

Ar;;;;-u~d
r

0-6
6-18

AIoe"g~
Elite

Drilled Drilled Drilled Drilled Drilled DrlUcd

!low Bow Bow

Swordsmen.
Lancers,

+-6
112
I

Heavily Armoured Heavily Armoured H eav il}' Armoured Heavily Armoured Protected
Heavily Armoured

Swordsmen Swordsmen Lancers, $o....ordsrnen
Swordsmen
~,~m.-J", ~n

Elite Superior S1.1P riot
Average

25 20
21 12 19

1/2

Kataphraktoi Cataphracrs Cataphracts Flanker,

112J
112

0-4 2

I
Varangian guard Only from IIQ42

~
Heavy Foot

4

0-8-'

Elite Superior EllIe
Superior

Heuvllv Armoured Armoured
Armoured

Drilled

-

OITI2Jlsivc:

Spearmen

16 1613

4-6

*4-6

He"!, Foot Spearmen and archers
' Medium FOOl

Protected Protected Protected

A.... era.ge
Average
POOl'

Drill d Drilled Drilled Drilled Drilled

Bow Bow
110w

Defensive Spearmen

I I

1/1 1m

6-8
"12-32

He",'

Fom

Defensive Spearmen

S S

I Medium
Sktrrntshtng arch,",

FOOL Protected Unprotected

Poor Average Poor Average

Light Foot

-

S

1~:_
1-

In

6-8

3
4 1

6-8
6---8

1°10-1

006-

-----

J" velinmcn

Lighl Poet

unprocecred

- p,,;;;-;

H-

Drilled

Javelin.

Light Spear

74

NIKEPHORIAN

BYZANTINE

01" ional Trcops

D (Ached menavlatcl
Sling"rs
RLI.~ or Varangian

Heavy

foOL

"'go rag~
Po or
T2Ige

Drilled Drilled Undrilled Undrtlled Undrllled Undrllled

Sling Bow
Bo\\;

Heavy Weapon

8

Light Foot Oruy before

Offensive Spearmen Lancers, Swordsmen S...... ordsmen Swordsmen -

I~ 1
7

H
4-6

-

-Q-

0-6

mercenaries
Norman

1042
Only From

6-8
4-6

0-12
0-6

mercenaries Alan , Cuman. Pecheneg or Turkish mercenartes

1042

Knigtus Light Horse

nor rage rage

20

10
'0 II 20 14 2

4-6

0-12

rage Alhcs

Heavy
ArtUiery

0-1 0-1 ._

I

.'\rrneru.1l

allies (Onl)' before 976) - Bagmid Armenian

L

Hamd,.nid ,.11,", (01l0! before 976) - Bedouin DyD"ties allie, (0111, from 9 77) - See Field of Glory Companion 4: Swords <,,1<1 Scim,wrs:Th, Cl'us"'_I"' -----'

Georgiar

Swordsmen From lO'f2 Cavalry Average Average Drilled Undrilled Lancers. Swordsmen Swordsmen

Alan, Cuman, Pecheneg or Turkish mercenaries

light Horse

Only from
10+1 Cavalry Undrilled Bow

Spearmen

J. nd

archers

Skirmishing ar hers

Llinnlel1

lighL Foot

4

0--4

75

DECLINE AND FALL

APPENDIX 1 - USING THE l"ISTS
To give balanced games, armies can be selected using the points system. The more effective the troops, the more each base costs ill points. The maximum points for an army will usually be set at between 600 and 800 points for a singles games game for 2 to 4 hour (650 points for 25mm) play. \Ve recommend tournament and 1000 points for

BATTLE GROUPS
All croops are organized into battle groups. Commanders, supply camps and field fortifications

are not troops and are not aSSigned to battle groups,
Portable defences are not troops, but are assigned
to specific battle groups.

800 points for lSmrn singl 15mm doubles games.

Battle restriction

groups :

must

obey

the

following

The arm} lists specify which troops can be used in a particular army. No other troops can be used. The number of bases of each type in the army must conform to the specified minima and maxima. Troops that have restrictions on when they can be used cannot be used with troops with a conflicting restriction. For example, troops that can only be used "before 638" cannot be u ed with troops that can only be used "from 638". All special instructions must be adhered contingents
to.

The number of bases in a battle group must correspond army list. Each battle group must initially comprise an even number of bases. The only exception to this rule i that battle groups whose army list specifies them as 2/3 of one type and ] /3 of another, can comprise 9 bases if this
is

to the range specified

in the

within

the battle

group

size

range troops the list

applying to an army list They also apply to allied

specified by the list. • A battle group can only include from one line in a list, unless specifies a mixed formation fractions of the battle group

supplied by the army No army can hav more than

All armies muse have a C-in-C and at least one other commander. 4 ornmanders commanders in total, including C-in-C, suband allied commanders,

by specifying to be of

types from two lines. e.g. 2/3 spearmen, 1/3 archers. • All troops in a battle group must be of the same quality and training. When a choice of quality or training is given in a list, this allows battle groups battle group. • Unless sp cifically stated otherwise in an army list, all troops in a battle group must be of the same armour class. When a choice of armour class is given in. a list, this allows to differ from each a other. It does not permit variety within

All armies must have a supply camp, This is free unless fortified. A fortified camp can only be used if specified ill the army list. Field fornfications and portable defences can only be used if specified in the army list. Allied contingents can only be used list,
to

if

specified in the army li t. Most allied contingents have their own allied contingent specifies otherwise. which they must conform unless the main army's list

76

APPENDIX

I

bard

groups to differ from each other. It

• Troop Type - comprising Quality and Training. Capabilities - comprising

Type, Ar Shooting

our, and

does not permit variety within a battle group.

EXAMPLE LIST
Here is a section of an actual army list, which will help us to explain the basics and some special features. The list specifies the following items for each 'historical type included in the army:

Close Combat capabilities. Points cost per base. Minimum Minimum and maximum and maximum number of bases number of bases in ea h battle group.
in the army.

Troop Type
Troop name

Capabilities
Traluing

Type

Armour Protected

Quality

Sioootl1lg

'c los.

Points Comb, ( per base
1!:::

I

Bas", p or llG

'Ictal bases

Foot

wa rri ors

I

Before 638 From 638

Hea v'y Poot

Superior

Undnlled

Bov..'

Offensi ....

Spearmen

9

113:
or

'Ill

24-84
8-9

Supporting archers

lighl

FOOl

Unprotected

Superior

Undrtlled

-

6 8 6

orO

1/3,1

-0-24

12-48

Medtum

Foor

Protected

'eparately deployed archers
Lighl Foot

-Average

Supenor

-6-8 6-8 4-6

Unclri!led

Bow

0-24
0-12

Jund cavalry

I

OnI)

Irom

,.1/

638

C.\".I,)"

l:~tted

Unprotected

Superior A,IC:.rage Superior
/\veT.;lge

Undrllled

Bow

Lancers. Swordsmen

6
5

Undrlllcd

-

--9

12

12-2+

SPECIAL FEATURES:
• Each foot 'warrior battle group can either be all spearmen or 2/3 spearmen, 1/3 supporting archers. It is permitted for some battle groups to be all spearmen and some to be mixed. If all spearmen, each battle group must be of 8 bases. If mixed, each battle group must be of 9 bases. Before 638 AD, the minimum total number of foot warrior spearm.en bases in the army is 24, and the maximum is 84. From 638, the minimum number is 1 2, and the maximum is 48. The maximum supporting total number of archer bases in the army is 24.

of Superior or Average quali ty All the bases
in a battle group

mu t be classified total number archers

the of in

same. Each battle group can be of 6 or
8 bases. The maximum

bases of separately total number

deployed

the army is 12. The maximum of bases deployed and separately army is 24.

combined in tbe

of supporting archers

Jund cavalry can only be u ed from 638 AD. They can be of Superior or Average quality. All the bases in a battle group must be of the same quality. Each battle group can be of 4 or 6 bases. The minimum
is 12, and the maximum

total number of is 24.

• Separately deployed archers can be fielded as Medium Foot or Light Foot, and can be

lund cavalry bases in the army (from 638)

77

DECLINE AND FALL

APPENDIX 2 - THEM ED TOURNAMENTS
A tournament in this book. It can also include the following armies from our other army list books. These can only use options permitted between 493 AD and I 07 1 AD inclusive: Field of Glory Companion Imperial Rome at War Early Alan Sassanid Persian Gepid or Early Lombard Western Hunnic 5: LegionsTriumphant: based on the "Byzantium and Field of Glory Companion the Sea: The Dark Ages Magyar Field of Glory Companion: (See note below) Early Hungarian Field of Glory Companion Scimitars:The Crusades Fatimid Egyptian Georgian SeljukTurk Cuman
4: Swords and

8: Wolves From

Islam" theme can include any of the armies listed

Feudal Europe

Note:

Some of the army lists referenced in this or as free downloads

them in these lists for the sake of hi tori cal accuracy. Visit wwwfieldofglory.com list releases. to keep up-to-date with the latest Companion and army

book are planned either to be included in future Field of Glory Companions from the Field of Glory"website. We have included

78

INDEX

INDEX
References
ill

to illusrrauons

are shown

Bellsarius. bodyguard,

Flavius 6-7, Maurikian

17, 22

bold 48 54, 62

Berber lighl horse cavalry 54, 55

Dailami Dynasties (Buwaylud). armies 62-6;allies 65: Bagratid Armenian 23 allies 66; Buwayhid cavalryman 63 ~

Byzarulne

'Abbas ibn Abel al-Muttalib

Abbasid Arab Dynast!' 5,43,48, ,<' ulso Mil> army, Abbasid:

Boris 1, King (BulgJr) 36 Boyar caval ry 3 6 Bulgar army, early 36-8; allies 38; Boyar cavalry 36; points list 37; rroop notes and starter army 36; Bulgars 5, 7, 28, 36, 71 Buwayhids e, Dailarni Dynasues armies;

lnfan try 6 3; Kurdish allie s 6 5; points lls. 64-5; standard bearer 62;
starter army 64: troop notes Dailarrutes and Buwayhids 5,48,62 26 Dara, Battle of (530) 6 Dongola, Baules of (641 and 652) elephants 62; Ghaznavid 68, 69 62

Arab Conquest armies: Arabs abbot and retinue, Byzantine 4,2 'Abd al-Malik Ad D' imum, (Umayyad Caliph) Battle of 7, IS 32,43

African Dynasties armies, North, early 54-7,56; allies 57; lancer, Berber 55; lancers, Arah 54; points list 55; troop not", Aghlabtds Alans 13 and starter 5, 54 army 54 {Tunlsla)

Datlarnites and Buwayhids; Byzantine army, early (Roman Empire, Eastern) 4, 6-10,9; bucellarii 7;
cavalry 7; legionary 9; points list 9, 10; troop note s and starter army 7; 11Jmluli [ustinicni 7 Byzantine arm)" Maurikian 22-6;

Fatanrids S, 48, 54 Franks 17,20-],28 frontier Gciseric, soldiers, Arab Abbasid 49 ]5 68,69; 68;

Alboin, King (lombard) 20 Alexios I Komnenos, Emperor (Byzantine) 66 Alp Tigin (Turklk general) 68 Arab army, Abbasid 48-53, S3, allies 52; cavalry 51; commander 48; frontier soldiers 49; ~hiim(Ul(jjlwlam) cavalry 48, 49, 51, nuffutlln 48, 49; points list 5 1-2; spearman standard bearer 50; starter tro op note s 4· 8 Arab army, Urnayyad 43-7; cavalry 44; foot soldiers 48; army 49;

ICing CV3l1elals and Alms')

allles 26; com rnander and bodyguard 23; [avelinman 23; Op!imo!es 23;
Phoidcmroi 23; points list 25; starter army 24; troop 11 le~ 22-3 army, Nlkephonan 71-4;

Gehmer, King (Vandal) 15 Ghaznavid army 68-70; elephant starter army 69; troop notes

N'lff(l("" 68, 69; points list 69, 70;
warrior 68 Ghaznavids 5, 57, 68 Ghilm(lt] (Ghulam) cavalry 31,57,61,62, 69, 70 Guadalete, Battle of (71 I) 13 guardsmen, Arab Umayyad 46 Gvozd Mountain, Battle of (1097) Hamdanid Dynasty see ~Iw Bedouin

Byzannne

allies 74; cavalry 73; KOiapilrakwi71; KlibnDophor0572; points lisr 7 -4; starter army 72; troop notes 7I:

Vata.ngian guard 7 I, 73
Byzantine army, Thematic 38-43; allies 43; commander 38; j(nwphllll\Wi 39; points Jist 40-1 ; Sk~"taw.'39; starter army +0; troop notes 38-9 Byzantine Empire 4- 5, 6--7, 6, 13, 22, Dynasty

archer 45,
43;

19

guard smen 46; infantry 45; points list 45, 47: troop notes and starter army 44 Arab Conquest armies 32-5, 33:

(Iraq and Syria) 60 army 5,12, 38

24,28,38,39,66; 71

Macedonlao

Herakletos, Emperor
horse archers

(Byzantine) 28, 30, 31 , 48

camel mounted scour 31; points list 35; skirmishers 31; troop notes and starter army 34: see 0150 Khalid ibn al- \'lalid Arabs: Abbasid Dynasty 5, 43, 48, 54,62; Conquest 5,11,

Callin:icum, Battle of (531) 6 Camel Mounted Scou [, Arab Conquest camel mounted warriors 26, 27

32

Idrisid.< (Morocco) 5, 54 lkhshidid Dynasty (Egypt) 5, 48 Infantry: Arab Umayyad 45; Daylami lqayhd Dynasty (Iraq) 60 see aJSQ Bedouin Dynasties, [avelinman. armies 23

63

cavalry: Arab, Abbasid 51; Arab, Urnayyad
44; Avar heavy 28; Bedouin 60;

Urnayyad Caliphate

13,22,26,32 5, 13, 43, 48

see also Bedouin Dynasties archer, Arab Umayyad 4S

see ul;o horse arc hers Arcchis II, Duke (Benevento)
AJ~j)'aI!

Berber light 54, 55; Boyar 36; Bu(dl(lrii, Byzantme 7; Buwayhid 63; earlyByzantine 7; Ghillllilll(Ghuiam) 3] , 57,61,62,69,70; Ko1til)hmkwi,
Byzantine 39. 71, 72, 73; Klii)ollQplwmi,

Maur iklan Byzanttnc Emperor

[ohn I Kornnenos, 66 71 Judaism 30 ]US(illian, Emperor 22,28 Justinian', army 9

(Byzantine) (By7.anCble)

(armoured

horse 56

20-1 archers) 31

John II Tzirruskes, Emperor

Byzan tin en; N ikephorian
Byzantine Ostrogoth 73; Optim"i", Byzantine 23; 16; Pecheneg beavy 66;

auxillary, Bedouin

Avaf army 28-30; allies 30; cavalry, heavy 28; points list 29; tmop notes
AVaIS

(Byzantine)

6, 7, 17,

l'boid"moi, Byzannnc

23; Vamlall5

and starter 5, 22,28

army 28

.'" "I", horse archers; lancers Charlemagne, King (Franks) 2 0, 28 list) 66

Bagratid Armenian Baqt Treary (652)

arm)' (points 26

I. King (HWlgH)') 19 commanders: Arab Abbastd 48;
Coleman Khazar 30; Maurikian Thematic Constantine, Emperor Byzantine Empire, 23; Byzan tine 38: (Roman

K"I"phmirroi (Cataphract},
39,71,72,73 Khanate of Greater sec ,,1$0 Bulgars

Byzantine

cavalry

Basil II, Emperor (Byzantine) 71 Bedouin auxiliary 56 Bedouin Dynasties, armies 60-2; allies 62; cavalry 60; points troop note S and starte r anny list 61; 60

Khalid ibn a1-Walid 33-4 Bulgo,ria 36
30 Khazars 30-1, 36, 43 see else Turkish army, 'A'estenl; Turks, \,\.'estern

Eastern) 4
Constannnople 4, S, 12, 28, 36,43,60 see ,,150 Theodosian walls

Khazar commander

79

DECLINE

AND FALL

Khosrau If, King (Sassanid Perst an) 22 Khurasanian Dynasties, armies 57-9; allies 59; officer of foot (volunteer) 57; potrus llst58-9; starter army 58; troop Khurrarnite sectarians 39 nares 57

)Jnbhm

army, Christian

26-7; and

Dailami 61

points list 27; troop notes starter aImy 26-7 Odoacer, Ostrogothic Kil1g 4. 16

Sll!ltegiimll (Byzanrtn
22,28 Suebi 13

military

manual)

Op limores, elite Byzantine

cavalry 2 3

Klih<lllOphorm, Byzantine

cavalry 71 Krurn, Khan (Bulgar) 28.36 Kurdish army (poi nrs Jist) 6 5
lancers: Arab 54; Berber 55

army, Italian 16-1 8; c<Lvllry 16: points Ii st 1 7 -I 8; starter .11lOY 17 Kingdom (Patziuaks) ol lraly 4, 7, 16-17 arm)' 66-7; allies list 67;

Taginae, Battle of (552) Tall trid s 5, 5 7 Tar iq ibn Ziyad 13 Thematic Byzantine army, Thematic Theoderic

7, 17

army see Byzantine

Ostrogothic see ulso cavalry lombard army .0-2, allies 22; poi ncs hsr 2 I ; troop notes 2 I lombard, 17,20-1,22, 2S Mailmud Manzikert, the Grear (Ghaznavid) Battle of (107]) 68 Pechcncg

the Great, King (Ostrogotluc) walls, Constantinople 8

16-17
Theodostan Totila, King (Ostrogorhic} TOUTS,Battle of (P iuers. Tulunids (Egypt) 5, 4S

67; cavalry, heavy 66; points starter army 67

J7
732) 43

Peprn Il, King (Franks) 20
Persians, Sassanid 5, 6, 7, J 7,22,28,62 Petar S,'acic, King (Croatia) 19 Phoidemroi, elite Byzarirlne cavalry 23 Ravenna 7. 17, 20 (Rodrigo), King {Visigoth} 13

Tricamarurn. Bartl of (533) 7, 15
Turkish army, Western 30-2: allies 32; Khazar cornrnanderSu: points list 3 1-2; troop notes 3 0-1 Turks; Ottoman Western 4; Seljuk 5; 68 30-1,

S. 71

Maurikian

Byzantine army, 1 taunkran v

army see Byzannne
22, 2 8 arrnles Roderic

1laUl iki os, Em p emf (Byzantine) Mazyadid Dynasty (Iraq) 60 so, clso Bedouin Dynasties, Meccan army 33-4 Mirdassid Dynasry (Syria) 60 see .150 Bedouin Mohammed Dynasties, (prophet)

Roman Empire, Eastern see Byzan[iI1c Empire Roman Romanus Empire. \Vestern 6

sec

(ti>o Khazars

Uhud,

Battle of (625)

33--4

armies

IV Diogenes (Byzannne) 71
Augu.stulus, western)

Emperor

Umayvad Arab Caliphate 5, 13, 1-3, 48 see !!lso Arab Conquest armies: Arab army, Umayyad; Arabs cavalry 15; (Roman Vandal army. African POilUS list I 6 Vandal; JUftinioui 7 Vandals 4, 6,7, 13, J5 Varangian guard (Byzantine) 71 . 73 Visigcthic arm)" later 13-15, allies ]5; points list 13-14; starter army 13 Visigochic Kingdom 15,22,43 Yarmuk: (Spain) 4,5, \3, 15-16;

5, 22, 33 Ivl0115Lacian us, Bartle of (5 S 3) 17 Moorish army, latex .11; allies 11: points list I 1 Moorish warriors 12 N"[([Wl1 (naphtha throwers) 48, ',9, 68,

Rome 7,20 Romulus Emperor 4 Empire,

Rus 30, 66
Saffarids 5, 57 Samanids 5, 57 Sassanid Persians see Persians, s,,)f al- Dawla 60

69,70 Narses 7, 17 )Jika Rims (Cousranrinople, Ni kcphoras 11 Phokas, (Byzantine) 38, 7 I army

Sassanid

532)

6

Emperor

skirmishers, Arab Conquest 32 Skuumros Themadc Byzaminc 39 Slav arm)" South. early 18-20; allies 20; points list I 9 Slavs 5, 18-19, 22, 28

.Nikephorian
Nikephortan

KUlupbmkroi71
Byzantine

Bartle of (636)

33,34

see Byzantine army, Nikephorian Nisibis, Battle of (530) 6

spearman. Arab Abbastd 48
standard bearers: Arab Abbasid 50;

Zab, Baule

or (7

0) 43 (Byzantine) I6

Z 10, Emperor

80

FURTHER INFORMATION
ABOUT OSPREY PUBLISHING
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AD 324--1453

Byzantium at War AD 600-1453

OTHER FIELD OF GLORY TITI_,ES
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Tl1e Fall ofConstantinople: The Ottoman Conquest of Byzantium

OSPREY SERIES KEY
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Field of Glory Companion S: Legions Triumphant: Imperial Rome At War Field of Glory Companion The Ottomans At War 6: Eternal Empire:

Visit w vvw.:fieldofglory.com for release dates and other FieJd of Glory information.

RELATED BYZANTIUM. OSPREY TITLES
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ABOUT SLITHERINE PUBLISHING
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