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LICEUL TEORETIC MIHAI EMINESCU CALARASI CLASA a XII-a B MATEMATICA INFORMATICA ENGLEZA INTENSIV

LUCRARE

DE

ATESTAT

Universities and Colleges

Profesor coordinator,

Elev,

2007

Table of contents

1. Argument..02 2. British universities...03 2.1. Admission.......04 2.2. Funding..04 1.2.1. Funding history..05 2.3. Reputations....05 2.4. Pecularities.....06 2.5. Representations......06 2.6. Post nominal abbreviations....06 3. University of Oxford.07 3.1. History08 3.2. Organisation...09 3.3 Governance and administration10 3.4. Academic year10 3.5. Admission11 3.6. Degrees12 3.7. Reputation..12 3.8. Notable alumni...13 3.9. Other students on Oxford.14 4. University of Cambridge..15 4.1. Organisation16 4.1.1. Central administration...16 4.1.2. Colleges17 4.1.3. Research and teaching18 4.1.4. Finances18 4.2. Reputation...19 4.3. History.20 4.3.1. Early history.20 4.3.2. Foundation of the colleges..21 4.3.3. Mathematics.21 4.3.4 Womens education...22 4.4 Admissions22 4.4.1 History22 4.4.2. Today..23 4.5. Sports and other extracurricular activities24 4.6. Myths, legends and traditions.24 4.7. Miscellaneous25

5. Durham University.27 5.1. History27 5.1.1. Origins............27 5.1.2. 19th Century28 5.1.3. 20th Century29 5.1.4. Queens Campus,Stockton30 5.2. Durham today31 5.2.1. Reputation31 5.2.2. Student life and future developments32 5.3. Faculties..33 5.4. Colleges34 5.4.1. Types of college35 5.5. Governance.35 5.5.1. Visitor36 5.5.2. Chancellor36 5.5.3. Vice Chancellor36 5.5.4. Convocation..36 5.5.5. Council..37 5.5.6. Senate37 6.Bibliography38

Argument

Higher education transforms peoples lives. It opens doors that would otherwise remain closed. It increases earning power, leads to greater job satisfaction and even better health. I believe that higher education should be available to everyone who has the ability to take advantage of it. That means providing adequate financial support for students, leveling the playing field for part-time students, and supporting the true costs of teaching so that universities can continue to provide a higher education experience which is amongst the best in the world. A defining characteristic of British universities is their autonomy, which has provided the foundation for their success, diversity and reputation for quality. Their universities are a great national asset and are among the best in the world. UK and international students report high levels of satisfaction in the education they receive. Their research performance is second only to that of the United States. As more and more people of all ages take up the life-changing opportunities offered by higher education, so universities become an increasingly important subject of national political debate. By choosing this theme, I tried to point out the benefit of higher education not only in our country, but mostly in Great Britain, a country highly developed in many domains. Here, you will find many universities which offer great opportunities, but I mentioned only three of them. I will let the following pages describe my choice.

2.British universities

Most United Kingdom universities can be classified into 5 main categories,


Ancient universities - universities founded before the 19th century Red Brick universities - universities founded in the 19th and early 20th centuries. New Universities - two categories of institutions have been given this label: o those created in the 1960s less often called Plate Glass Universities, which were known as "New Universities" when first created, but which are now more commonly considered a sub-section of the "Old Universities" which existed prior to the 1992 changes which allowed Polytechnics to become Universities, and o those created in or after 1992 often called Post-1992 universities, from polytechnics and colleges of Higher Education, which are the Universities most commonly referred to as "New Universities" in the present day. The Open University, founded in 1968 is Britain's sole mainly distance-learning University.

The University of London and the University of Wales have since their inception been federal universities. That is, a governing body with over all responsibility for the maintenance of standards at the constituent colleges. Recently, however, there has been considerable pressure from the larger colleges to become completely autonomous institutions. An example of this would be the continued efforts of Imperial College London to gain autonomy from the federal University of London, or Cardiff University leaving the University of Wales. The University of Buckingham is the sole private university of the UK. Undergraduate applications to nearly all UK universities are managed by UCAS - the Universities and Colleges Admissions Service. In the United Kingdom a new university is generally instituted by Act of Parliament or Royal Charter; in either case generally with the approval of Privy Council, and only such recognized bodies can award degrees of any kind. The London School of Economics (which is part of the University of London) was founded with Articles of Association as it is actually a company registered with Companies House and has no Royal Charter or founding Act of Parliament.

2.1.Admission There is a centralised admission system operated by UCAS. Applications, which may be made on-line, must be made by October 15th of the previous year for Oxford and Cambridge (and medicine, dentistry and veterinary science courses) and by January of the same year for admissions to other UK universities. Many universities now operate the Credit Accumulation and Transfer Scheme (CATS) and all universities in Scotland use the Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework (SCQF) enabling easier transfer between courses and institutions. 2.2.Funding The vast majority of British universities are state financed, with only one private university - the University of Buckingham - where students have to pay all their fees. None of the universities are actually state-owned, however. English undergraduate students (and students from other EU countries) have to pay university fees up to a maximum of 3,000 capped (in 2004/5). A state-provided loan is available which may only be used for tuition fee costs. Welsh undergraduate students studying in a Welsh University have to pay a maximum university fee of 1,200, however, if they choose to study outside of Wales they are subject to the same fees as students from that country. i.e. if a Welsh student studies in England they pay 3000. Scottish and EU students studying in Scotland have their fees paid by the Student Awards Agency for Scotland, however also have to pay a sum of around 2,000 when they graduate. Students are also entitled to apply for state-provided loans to pay for living costs, a portion of which is also means-tested. A new grant is also available, which is means-tested and offers up to 2700 a year. As part of the deal allowing universities to charge up to 3000 a year in tuition fees, all universities are required to offer burseries to those in receipt of the full government grant of at least 300. Different funding arrangements are in place for students on NHS funded degree and diploma courses, with students on nursing, midwifery, and operating department practice courses being eligible for a non-means tested bursary, while healthcare students on degree level courses are eligible for a means tested bursary, and are not eligible for the full student loan as a result of their bursary entitlement. Students in Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland are also eligible for a means-tested grant, and many universities provide bursaries to poorer students. International students are not subsidised by the state and so have to pay much higher fees. In principle, all postgraduate students are liable for fees, though a variety of scholarship and assistantship schemes exist which may provide support. The main sources of funding for postgraduate students are research councils such as the AHRC and ESRC. Postgraduate students from the UK or EU who spend less than 16 hours per week on course mandated lectures or seminars are also eligible to claim unemployment benefit and housing benefit, provided that they can prove they are available to work 40 hours per week. This is irrespective of if they are enrolled as studying full-time or part-time. However, typically

this is not a common source of funding except for students in the 'writing up' stage of a phd, where they have completed their main period of registration as a phd student and are finishing off their thesis. 2.2.1. Funding history In the years following the end of World War II local education authorities (LEAs) paid student fees and provided non-mature students assisted with a maintenance grant. Under the Education Act 1962 a national Mandatory Award of student maintenance grant was established, payable by the LEAs to students on most full-time courses. As the university population rose during the 1980s the sums paid to universities became linked to their performance and efficiency, and by the mid 1990s funding per student had dropped by 40% since the mid 1970s, while numbers of full-time students had reached around 200,000 (around a third of the age group), up from around 130,000. Following an investigation into the future of universities, the July 1997 report of the National Committee of Inquiry into Higher Education [1], chaired by the then Sir Ronald Dearing recommended the ending of universal free higher education, and that students should pay 1,000 towards the cost of their tuition fees, which would be recovered in the form of a graduate tax. At the time of the Dearing report, fees were still paid by the government, student grants of up to 1,755 (2,160 in London) were linked to family income, and a subsidised student loan of 1,685 (2,085 in London) was available. Instead of following Dearing's suggestions, the grant was replaced by the present loan scheme, introduced for students starting in 1998. There was a transition year when about half the previous means-tested grant was available, although the new 1000 tuition fee still had to be paid. From 1999, the grant was abolished altogether. From the academic year 2006/7, a new system of fees will be introduced. These variable tuition fees of up to 3000 per year will have to paid up-front as at present, but new student loans will be available that may only be used to pay for tuition fees, and will have to be repaid upon graduation, in addition to the existing loan. In fact, there is very little variation in the fees announced by universities nearly all will charge the full 3000 on all courses. Instead, the differences will appear in the nature and value of various 'access' bursaries that will be on offer. 2.3.Reputations British universities tend to have a strong reputation internationally for two reasons: history and research output. Britain's imperial past, combined with the longevity of universities like Oxford, Cambridge, and St Andrews, are the main reasons that these institutions are world renowned. The reputation of British institutions is maintained today by their continuous stream of world-class research output.

As a simplistic guide, Oxbridge colleges tend to be the most highly regarded, followed by the federal University of London, the Scottish Ancients and the Red Brick universities (formed in the 19th century). The Plate Glass Universities (formed after the second world war) come next in reputation, although the hierarchy is not completely clear, since some such as Sussex, Warwick and York are regarded as highly, if not more highly than some of the Red Brick universities. The Post-1992 universities mostly ex-polytechnics set up in the reforms of 1992 have a lower overall reputation, with many of the members regularly appearing in the bottom half of most league tables. Most of this newer group belong to the Coalition of Modern Universities. The Times University Rankings give more detailed information. The perceived ranking of top British universities is also heavily influenced by the popularity in recent years of league tables which rank universities by teaching and research. In the most reputable of these tables, The Times University Rankings, Cambridge and Oxford are regularly first and second in a list of 100 UK universities. There is still a clear tier system in operation, with less well-considered universities often struggling to attract able students, staff and funding. Partially, but not entirely, by way of competing, many of the less highly regarded universities have taken the opportunity to expand into new areas (such as media studies and sports science). However, if one thing is to be learnt from recent statistics it is that comparisons in a single subject (which is what students are generally interested in) often give quite different answers from overall comparisons. In the 2003 Times Good University Guide, 21 universities come top in at least one subject area, 41 are in the top three in at least one subject area, and 80 are in the top ten in at least one subject area. Part of this diversity stems from the fact that not all subjects are offered at all universities and they thus have no possibility of appearing anywhere near the top of the table, The most famous example of subject-specific ranking being dramatically different from the overall ranking is probably in history, where Oxford Brookes, the former polytechnic, gained a higher research rating than the elite University of Oxford, or modern languages, where Middlesex University, another former polytechnic, gained a higher rating than Oxford or Cambridge in the Guardian 2004 university league tables. An oft-quoted example is that of the various engineerings, where Cambridge, Oxford and Durham are not present in any of the top-20s, despite their high overall rankings. This is misleading however, since these universities do not offer any of the specific engineering courses, instead providing a general engineering course (which allows specialization in later years), where they were ranked 1st, 2nd and 5th respectively in 2005. Southampton has a particularly strong showing in engineering where it is the only university in the country to hold the top (5*) RAE rating in all departments within its engineering faculty.

2.4. Peculiarities In the United Kingdom the vast majority of university students attend universities situated a long distance from their family homes; this is not true for universities in most European countries, such as Italy or Spain. For this reason most universities in the United Kingdom will provide (or at least help organise) rented accommodation for many of their students, particularly freshers (new entrants). At some universities accommodation may be provided for the full duration of the course. For this reason the lifestyle of university students in the United Kingdom can be quite different from those of other universities around the world where the majority of students live at home with their parents. 2.5.Representation UK universities have a statutory obligation to support their students in the establishment of some form of Students' Association (often referred to as a "Students' Union", and in the Scottish Ancients as a Students' Representative Council.) These associations are sometimes members of the National Union of Students of the United Kingdom and / or their local National Union of Students Areas. 2.6.Post-nominal abbreviations It is common for graduates of universities worldwide to place the name of their university, or universities, after the abbreviation for their degree, or degrees. Although it is a practice that is in decline, even at the oldest institutions, several British universities still customarily use an abbreviation of their Latin name. Universities that share the name of an episcopal see often use the same abbreviation as the bishop uses for his signature. Examples include:

Cantab (Cantabrigiensis) for Cambridge Dunelm (Dunelmensis) for Durham Ebor (Eboracensis) for York Edin (Edinburgensis) for Edinburgh Exon (Exoniensis) for Exeter Oxon (Oxoniensis) for Oxford

3.University of Oxford

Motto

Dominus Illuminatio Mea "The Lord is my Light" (Psalm 27)

The University of Oxford (usually abbreviated as Oxon. for post-nominals), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. The university traces its roots back to at least the end of the 12th century, although the exact date of foundation remains unclear. This dating would make its duration now equal to 900 years, similar to Plato's Academy (400s BC to AD 500s). According to legend, after riots between students and townsfolk broke out in 1209, some of the academics at Oxford fled north-east to the town of Cambridge, where the University of Cambridge was founded. The two universities have since had a long history of competition with each other, and are the most selective universities in the UK. (See Oxbridge rivalry.) Oxford is a member of the Russell Group of research-led British universities, the Coimbra Group (a network of leading European universities), the League of European Research Universities, and is also a core member of the Europaeum. Oxford is ranked among the world's best universities. The Times newspaper placed the University first in the UK in its 2007 league table, and it is ranked 3rd in the world, according to the latest edition (2006) of the Times Higher World University Rankings.

3.1.History

Coat of arms of the University of Oxford The town of Oxford was already an important centre of learning by the end of the 12th century. Teachers from mainland Europe and other scholars settled there, and lectures are known to have been delivered by as early as 1096. The expulsion of foreigners from the University of Paris in 1167 caused many English scholars to return from France and settle in Oxford. The historian Gerald of Wales lectured to the scholars in 1188, and the first foreign scholar, Emo of Friesland arrived in 1190. The head of the University was named a chancellor from 1201, and the masters were recognised as a universitas or corporation in 1231. The students associated together, on the basis of geographical origins, into two nations, representing the North (including the Scots) and the South (including the Irish and the Welsh). In later centuries, geographical origins continued to influence many students' affiliations when membership of a college or hall became customary in Oxford. Members of many religious orders, including Dominicans, Franciscans, Carmelites, and Augustinians, settled in Oxford in the mid-13th century, gained influence, and maintained houses for students. At about the same time, private benefactors established colleges to serve as self-contained scholarly communities. Among the earliest were John de Balliol, father of the future King of Scotland; Balliol College bears his name. Another founder, Walter de Merton, a chancellor of England and afterwards Bishop of Rochester, devised a series of regulations for college life; Merton College thereby became the model for such establishments at Oxford as well as at the University of Cambridge. Thereafter, an increasing number of students forsook living in halls and religious houses in favour of living at colleges. The new learning of the Renaissance greatly influenced Oxford from the late 15th century onward. Among university scholars of the period were William Grocyn, who contributed to the revival of the Greek language, and John Colet, the noted biblical scholar. With the Reformation and the breaking of ties with the Roman Catholic Church, the method of teaching at the university was transformed from the medieval Scholastic method to Renaissance education, although institutions associated with the university suffered loss of land and revenues. In 1636 Chancellor William Laud, archbishop of Canterbury, codified

the university statutes; these to a large extent remained the university's governing regulations until the mid-19th century. Laud was also responsible for the granting of a charter securing privileges for the university press, and he made significant contributions to the Bodleian Library, the main library of the university. The university was a centre of the Royalist Party during the English Civil War (16421649), while the town favoured the opposing Parliamentarian cause. Soldier-statesman Oliver Cromwell, chancellor of the university from 1650 to 1657, was responsible for preventing both Oxford and Cambridge from being closed down by the Puritans, who viewed university education as dangerous to religious beliefs. From the mid-18th century onward, however, the University of Oxford took little part in political conflicts. Administrative reforms during the 19th century included the replacement of oral examinations with written entrance tests, greater tolerance for religious dissent, and the establishment of four colleges for women. Women have been eligible to be full members of the university and have been entitled to take degrees since 1920. Although Oxford's emphasis traditionally had been on classical knowledge, its curriculum expanded in the course of the 19th century and now attaches equal importance to scientific and medical studies. The list of distinguished scholars at the University of Oxford is long and includes many who have made major contributions to British politics, the sciences, and literature. Since its founding in 1823, the Oxford Union, a private club devoted to formal debating and other social activities, has numbered among its members many of Britain's most noted political leaders. 3.2.Organisation There are 39 colleges of Oxford University, each with its own internal structure and activities. The university's formal head is the chancellor, usually a distinguished politician, elected for life by the members of Convocation, a body comprising all graduates of the university. The vice-chancellor, who holds office for four years, is the head of the university's executive. In addition to Convocation, the other bodies that conduct university business are the Ancient House of Congregation, which confers degrees; the University Council, which formulates university policy; and the Congregation of the University, which discusses and pronounces on policies proposed by the University Council. The university itself conducts examinations and confers degrees. The passing of two sets of examinations is a prerequisite for a first degree. The first set of examinations, called either Honour Moderations ("Mods" and "Honour Mods") or Preliminary Examinations ("Prelims"), are usually held at the end of the first year (or after five terms in the case of Classics). The second set of examinations, the Final Honour School ("Finals"), is held at the end of the undergraduate course. Successful candidates receive first-, upper or lower second-, or third-class honours based on their performance in Finals. Research degrees at the master's and doctoral level are conferred in all subjects studied at graduate level at the university.

The heads of Oxford colleges are known by various titles, according to the college, including warden, provost, principal, president, rector or master. Undergraduate discipline is supervised by two university proctors, elected annually on a rotating basis from two of the colleges. Teaching members of the colleges (fellows and tutors) are collectively and familiarly known as dons (though the term is rarely used by members of the university itself). In addition to residential and dining facilities, the colleges provide social, cultural, and recreational activities for their members. Formal instruction is available for undergraduates in the form of lectures organised on a departmental basis. In addition, each undergraduate works with one or more college tutors, who are responsible for overseeing the student's academic progress. Since 1902, students from the United States, the Commonwealth of Nations countries, and from certain other countries have been able to study at Oxford under Rhodes Scholarships, established by the British colonial statesman Cecil John Rhodes. 3.3.Governance and administration The main legislative body of the University is Congregation, the assembly of all academics who teach in the University. Another body, Convocation, encompassing all the graduates of Oxford, was formerly the main legislative body of the University, and until 1949 elected the two Members of Parliament for the University. Convocation now has very limited functions: the main one is to elect the (largely symbolic) Chancellor of the University, most recently in 2003 with the election of Christopher Patten. Convocation also elects the Professor of Poetry. The executive body of the University is the University Council, which consists of the ViceChancellor, Dr John Hood (succeeding Sir Colin Lucas), heads of departments and other members elected by Congregation in addition to observers from the Student Union. Until 1969, the statutes also provided for an Ancient House of Congregation, which somehow survived the university reforms in the 19th century and was summoned for the sole purpose of granting degrees. Since then degrees have been granted by Congregation, but as late as 1994 these were still being announced in the Gazette as meetings of the Ancient House. 3.4.Academic year The academic year is divided into three terms, known as Full Terms, each of eight weeks' duration. Michaelmas Term lasts from October to December; Hilary Term from January till March; and Trinity Term from April till June. These terms are amongst the shortest of any British university, and the workload during each term is therefore intense.Students are also expected to prepare heavily in the three vacations (known as the Christmas, Easter and Long Vacations). Internally at least, the dates in the term are often referred to by a number in reference to the start of each term, thus the first week of any term is called '1st week' and the last is '8th week'. Since most post-grad students stay in college over the vacations, the numbering of the weeks continues into the holidays up to '14th week', also called '0th week' of the new term.

3.5.Admission Admission to the University of Oxford is based wholly on academic merit,though some controversy continues to attend the proportion of privately-educated candidates who are offered places. The admission process for undergraduates is undertaken by individual colleges, working with each other to ensure that the best students gain a place at the University regardless of whether they are accepted by their preferred college. The colleges have recently signed up to a Common Framework which lays down the principles and procedures which they all observe. Selection is based on achieved and predicted exam results; candidate submitted written work; interviews, which are held between applicants and college tutors; and, in some subjects, written admission tests prior to interview. Personal statements and school references are also considered. Because of the high volume of applications and the direct involvement of the faculty in admissions, students are not permitted to apply to both Oxford and Cambridge in the same year, with the exception of applicants for Organ Scholarships.

All Souls College quad. For graduate students, admission is firstly by the University department in which each will study, and then secondarily with the college with which they are associated. Oxford, like Cambridge, was traditionally perceived as a preserve of the wealthy. Before student grants were available, the cost of study was prohibitive unless one was a scholar (or in even earlier times, a servitor one who had to serve his fellow undergraduates in exchange for tuition). Entrance examinations were abolished in 1996. Around half of students studying at Oxford attended private schools despite only seven percent attending them nationally, the remainder of students at the university having mostly attended grammar schools. There is still much public debate in Britain about whether more

could be done to attract those from poorer social backgrounds. Responding to these criticisms, Oxford has introduced a university-wide means-tested bursary scheme effective from 2006, the Oxford Opportunity Bursaries, to offer financial support to those in need. Individual colleges also offer some financial support. Students successful in early examinations are rewarded with scholarships and exhibitions, normally the result of a long-standing endowment, although when tuition fees were first abolished the amounts of money available became purely nominal: many larger funded bursaries are available on the basis of need for current and prospective students. "Closed" scholarships, which were accessible only to candidates who fitted specific conditions such as coming from specific schools, exist now only in name. Scholars, and exhibitioners in some colleges, are entitled to wear a more voluminous undergraduate gown; "commoners" (i.e., those who had to pay for their "commons", or food and lodging) being restricted to a short sleeveless garment. The term "scholar" in relation to Oxbridge, therefore, has a specific meaning as well as the more general meaning of someone of outstanding academic ability. In previous times, there were "noblemen commoners" and "gentlemen commoners", but these ranks were abolished in the 19th century. Until 1866 one had to belong to the Church of England to receive the BA degree from Oxford, and "dissenters" were only permitted to receive the MA in 1871. Knowledge of Ancient Greek was required until 1920, and Latin until 1960. Women were admitted to degrees in 1920. 3.6.Degrees The system of academic degrees in the University is very confusing to those not familiar with it. This is not merely due to the fact that many degree titles date from the Middle Ages, but also because, in recent years, many changes have been haphazardly introduced. Notably, the initials for the Doctor of Philosophy degree are DPhil rather than PhD. 3.7.Reputation For the fifth consecutive year Oxford has been placed first in the United Kingdom in the Times Good University Guide (2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007 (sic)), while the Sunday Times has placed the University of Cambridge first from 1997-2005. In the subject tables, Oxford's Physiological Sciences course is ranked first of 48 'Anatomy and Physiology' courses. Art and design, Business Studies, Materials technology, Middle Eastern and African Studies, Music, Philosophy, and Politics, are also first and Education and Linguistics are first equal with Cambridge. Oxford comes second after Cambridge in a further seventeen subjects, and second after Durham in English. The University then takes three third-places and an equal-third, as well as a fourth, fifth, and equal-sixth place in one subject each. Oxford topped the Guardian league table in 2005 and 2006. In the subject tables for institutions in tariff-band 6 (universities whose prospective students are expected to score 400 or more tariff points) Oxford took first place for Anatomy and Physiology, Anthropology, Biosciences, Business and Management Studies, Earth and Marine

Sciences, Economics, Law, Materials and Mineral Engineering, Modern Languages, Music, Politics, Psychology, and Sociology. Oxford came second to Cambridge in Archaeology, Classics, English, History, History of Art, Mathematics, Philosophy, Theology and Religious Studies. Oxford came second to Aberdeen in General Engineering, and third in Art and Design, General Engineering and Physics; fourth place in Chemistry and Medicine; sixth place in Computer Science and IT. Internationally, Oxford was rated third (after Harvard and Cambridge) in the Times Higher Education Supplement World University Rankings (2006). In the Academic Ranking of World Universities Oxford achieved ninth place in 2003, eighth in 2004, and tenth in 2005 and 2006. Oxford is one of four UK universities that belong to the Coimbra Group, one of four UK universities that belong to the League of European Research Universities, and one of three UK universities that belong to both. It is the only UK university to belong to the Europaeum group. 3.8.Notable alumni

Oxford's 'dreaming spires' at sunset There are many famous Oxonians, as alumni of the University are known. Oxford has had a role in educating four British, and at least eight foreign kings, 47 Nobel prize-winners, three Fields medallists, 25 British Prime Ministers, 28 foreign presidents and prime ministers, seven saints, 86 archbishops, 18 cardinals, and one pope. Seven of the last eleven British Prime Ministers have been Oxford graduates. Amongst the University's old members are many widely influential scientists, artists and other prominent figures. Contemporary scientists include Stephen Hawking, Richard Dawkins and Nobel prizewinner Anthony James Leggett, and Tim Berners Lee, co-inventor of the world wide web. Actors Hugh Grant, Kate Beckinsale, Dudley Moore, Michael Palin, Terry Jones and Richard Burton studied at the University, as did film-maker Ken Loach. T. E. Lawrence was both a student and a don at Oxford, while other illustrious members have ranged from

the explorer, courtier, and man of letters Sir Walter Raleigh to the media magnate Rupert Murdoch. The founder of Methodism, John Wesley, studied at Christ Church and was elected a fellow of Lincoln College. The Burmese Democracy Activist and Nobel Laureate Aung San Suu Kyi was a student of St Hugh's College, Oxford. Amongst the long list of writers associated with Oxford are Evelyn Waugh, Lewis Carroll, Aldous Huxley, Oscar Wilde, C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Phillip Pullman, Vikram Seth and Plum Sykes, the poets Percy Bysshe Shelley, John Donne, A. E. Housman, W. H. Auden, and Philip Larkin, and Poets Laureate Thomas Warton, Henry James Pye, Robert Southey, Robert Bridges, Cecil Day-Lewis, Sir John Betjeman, and Andrew Motion. 3.9.Other students in Oxford Many University of Oxford colleges host overseas students (primarily from American universities) enrolled in study abroad programmes during the summer months. Oxford's other principal higher education institutions are Ruskin College, Oxford, an adult education college, which, although not part of the University of Oxford, has close links with it, Oxford Brookes University (the former Oxford Polytechnic) and the old Lady Spencer Churchill teaching college. There are other higher and further education institutions in Oxford, including various independent "colleges", not associated with either of the universities. These institutions vary considerably in the standard of teaching they provide.

4.University of Cambridge

Motto Hinc lucem et pocula sacra Literal translation: From here, light and sacred draughts. Non-literal: From this place, we gain enlightenment and precious knowledge.

The University of Cambridge (usually abbreviated as Cantab. for postnominals), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the Englishspeaking world, with a reputation as one of the world's most prestigious universities. Early records indicate that the university grew out of an association of scholars in the city of Cambridge, probably formed in 1209 by scholars escaping from Oxford after a fight with local townsmen. The universities of Oxford and Cambridge are often jointly referred to as Oxbridge. In addition to cultural and practical associations as a historic part of English society, the two universities also have a long history of rivalry with each other.

4.1.Organisation

Left to Right: The Senate House, Gonville & Caius College and the University Church (Great St Mary's) from Kings Parade Cambridge is a collegiate university, with its main functions divided between the central departments of the university and 31 colleges. In general, the departments perform research and provide centralised lectures to students, while the colleges are responsible for the domestic arrangements and welfare of undergraduate students, graduate students, some of the postdocs and some University staff. The colleges also provide most of the small group teaching for undergraduates, referred to as supervisions. The 31 colleges are technically institutions independent of the university itself and enjoy considerable autonomy. For example, colleges decide which students they are to admit, and appoint their own fellows (senior members). In Cambridge, the university often refers to the University as opposed to the colleges. 4.1.1.Central administration The current Chancellor of the university is the Duke of Edinburgh. The current Vice-Chancellor is Professor Alison Richard. The office of Chancellor, which is held for life, is mainly symbolic, while the Vice-Chancellor is the real chief executive. The University is governed entirely by its own members, with no outside representation in its governing bodies. Ultimate authority lies with the Regent House, of which all current Cambridge academic staff are members, but most day to day business is carried out by the Council. The Senate consists of all holders of the M.A. degree or higher degrees. It elects the Chancellor and the High Steward; until their abolition in 1950, it elected Members to the House of Commons for the Cambridge University constituency, but otherwise it has not had a major role since 1926.

4.1.2.Colleges

View over Trinity College, Gonville and Caius, Trinity Hall and Clare College towards Kings College Chapel, seen from St Johns College chapel. On the left, just in front of Kings College chapel, is the University Senate House Main article: Colleges of the University of Cambridge

The University of Cambridge currently has 31 colleges, of which three admit only women (New Hall, Newnham and Lucy Cavendish). The remaining 28 are mixed, Magdalene being the last all-male college to admit women in 1988. Two colleges admit only postgraduates (Clare Hall and Darwin), and four more admit mainly mature students or graduate students (Hughes Hall, Lucy Cavendish, St Edmunds and Wolfson). The other 25 colleges admit mainly undergraduate students, but also postgraduates following courses of study or research. Although various colleges are traditionally strong in a particular subject, for example Churchill has a formalised bias towards the sciences and engineering, the colleges all admit students from just about the whole range of subjects, although some colleges do not take students for a handful of subjects such as architecture or history of art. It is noteworthy that costs to students (accommodation and food prices) vary considerably from college to college. This may be of increasing significance to potential applicants as Government grants decline in the next few years. There are several historical colleges which no longer exist, such as Kings Hall (founded in 1317) and Michaelhouse which were combined together by King Henry VIII to establish Trinity in 1546. Also, Gonville Hall was founded in 1348 and then re-founded in 1557 as Gonville & Caius. There are also several theological colleges in Cambridge, (for example Westminster College and Ridley Hall Theological College) that are loosely affiliated with the university through the Cambridge Theological Federation.

4.1.3.Research and teaching

Sir James Stirling's Seeley Historical Library (1968) Cambridge University has research departments and teaching faculties in most academic disciplines. Cambridge tends to have a slight bias towards scientific subjects, but it also has a number of strong humanities and social science faculties. Academic staff (and often graduate students for the larger subjects) teach the undergraduates in both lectures and personal supervisions in which a ratio of one teacher to between one and three students is usually maintained. This pedagogical system is often cited as being unique to the Universities of Cambridge and Oxford (where supervisions are known as tutorials) similar practices can be found elsewhere, though not on the Oxbridge scale. All research and lectures are conducted by University Departments. The colleges are in charge of giving or arranging most supervisions, student accommodation, and funding most extra-curricular activities. During the 1990s Cambridge added a substantial number of new specialist research laboratories on several University sites around the city, and major expansion continues on a number of sites. Cambridge is a member of the Russell Group, a network of research-led British universities; the Coimbra Group, an association of leading European universities; the League of European Research Universities; and the International Alliance of Research Universities. It is also considered part of the "Golden Triangle", a geographical concentration of UK university research. 4.1.4.Finances In 2006, it was reported that approximately one third of Cambridges income comes from UK government funding for teaching and research, with another third coming from other research grants. Endowment income contributes around 6%. In late 2006, the total financial endowment of the university and the colleges was estimated at 4.1 billion: 1.2 billion tied directly to the university, 2.9 billion to the colleges this endowment is arguably the largest in Europe. Each college is an independent charitable

institution with its own endowment, separate from that of the central university endowment. If ranked on a US university table using figures reported in 2005, Cambridge would rank sixth or seventh (depending on whether one includes the University of Texas System which incorporates nine full scale universities and six health institutions), or 4th in the Ivy League. In 2005, the Cambridge 800th Anniversary Campaign was launched, aimed at raising 1 billion by 2012 the first US-style university fundraising campaign in Europe. 300 million of funds had already been secured in the pre-launch period.

4.2.Reputation

The Centre for Mathematical Sciences on the University's West Cambridge site, home to a number of new faculty buildings. International rankings of research universities produced in 2006 by The Times Higher Education Supplement (THES) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University both ranked Cambridge as second in the world. The THES also ranked Cambridge first in the international academic reputation peer review, first in science, first in biomedicine, first in the arts & humanities, fourth in social sciences, and sixth in technology (note that all university rankings are subject to controversy about their methodology, and that the THES and Jiao Tong tables are the only international rankings available). According to UCAS, Cambridge and Oxford are the most academically selective universities in the United Kingdom there is a special national admissions process which sets Oxbridge apart from other UK universities. The university has often topped league tables ranking British universities for instance, Cambridge was ranked first in the Sunday Times league table every year between 1997 and 2006. In the most recent UK government Research Assessment Exercise in 2001,

Cambridge was ranked first in the country. In 2005, it was reported that Cambridge produces more PhDs per year than any other UK university (over 30% more than second placed Oxford). In 2006, a Thomson Scientific study showed that Cambridge has the highest research paper output of any UK university, and is also the top research producer (as assessed by total paper citation count) in 10 out of 21 major UK research fields analysed. Another study published the same year by Evidence showed that Cambridge won a larger proportion (6.6%) of total UK research grants and contracts than any other university (coming first in three out of four broad discipline fields). Historically, the university has produced a significant proportion of Britains prominent scientists, writers and politicians. Officially, affiliates of Cambridge University have won a total of 81 Nobel Prizes , more than any other university in the world and more than any country in the world except the United Kingdom and the United States. Seventy of these Nobel Laureates also attended Cambridge as undergraduate or graduate students. In addition, there are at least five Nobel Laureates who taught or researched for at least one academic year at Cambridge that have not been recognized by the official total. In addition to a long distinguished tradition in the humanities and the arts, the University of Cambridge is especially known for producing prominent scientists and mathematicians. This distinguished list includes Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin, William Harvey, Paul Dirac, J. J. Thomson, Ernest Rutherford, Jane Goodall, James Clerk Maxwell, Francis Crick, Alan Turing, Stephen Hawking, and Fred Sanger. The university is also closely linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster in and around Cambridge, which forms the area known as Silicon Fen or sometimes the Cambridge Phenomenon. In 2004, it was reported that Silicon Fen was the second largest venture capital market in the world, after Silicon Valley. Estimates reported in February 2006 suggest that there were about 250 active startup companies directly linked with the university, worth around US$6 billion.

4.3.History 4.3.1.Early history Roger of Wendover wrote that Cambridge University could trace its origins to a crime committed in 1209. Although not always a reliable source, the detail given in his contemporaneous writings lends them credence. Two Oxford scholars were convicted of the murder or manslaughter of a woman and were hanged by the town authorities with the assent of the King. In protest at the hanging, the University of Oxford went into voluntary suspension, and scholars migrated to a number of other locations, including the pre-existing school at Cambridge (Cambridge had been recorded as a school rather than University when John Grim held the office of Master there in 1201). These post-graduate researchers from Oxford started Cambridges life as a University in 1209. Cambridges status as a University is further confirmed by a decree in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX which awarded the ius non trahi extra (a form of legal protection) to the chancellor and universitas of

scholars at Cambridge. After Cambridge was recognised by papal bull as a studium generale by Pope Nicholas IV in 1290, it became common for researchers from other European medieval universities to come and visit Cambridge to study or to give lecture courses. 4.3.2.Foundation of the Colleges

Clare College (left) and Kings College Chapel (centre), seen from The Backs Cambridges colleges were originally an incidental feature of the system. No college is as old as the university itself. The colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars. There were also institutions without endowments, called hostels. The hostels were gradually absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some indicators of their time, such as the name of Garrett Hostel Lane. Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse 1284, Cambridges first college. Many colleges were founded during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, but colleges continued to be established throughout the centuries to modern times, although there was a gap of 204 years between the founding of Sidney Sussex in 1596 and Downing in 1800. The most recent college established is Robinson, built in the late 1970s. In medieval times, colleges were founded so that their students would pray for the souls of the founders. For that reason they were often associated with chapels or abbeys. A change in the colleges focus occurred in 1536 with the dissolution of the monasteries. King Henry VIII ordered the university to disband its Faculty of Canon Law and to stop teaching scholastic philosophy. In response, colleges changed their curricula away from canon law and towards the classics, the Bible, and mathematics. 4.3.3.Mathematics From the time of Isaac Newton in the later 17th century until the mid-19th century, the university maintained a strong emphasis on mathematics. Study of this subject was compulsory for graduation, and students were required to take an exam for the Bachelor of Arts degree, the main first degree at Cambridge in both arts and science subjects. This exam is known as a Tripos. Students awarded first-class honours after completing the mathematics Tripos were named wranglers. The Cambridge Mathematical Tripos was

competitive and helped produce some of the most famous names in British science, including James Clerk Maxwell, Lord Kelvin, and Lord Rayleigh. However, some famous students, such as G. H. Hardy, disliked the system, feeling that people were too interested in accumulating marks in exams and not interested in the subject itself. Although diversified in its research and teaching interests, Cambridge today maintains its strength in mathematics. The Isaac Newton Institute, part of the university, is widely regarded as the UKs national research institute for mathematics and theoretical physics. Cambridge alumni have won eight Fields Medals and one Abel Prize for mathematics. The University also runs a special Certificate of Advanced Studies in Mathematics course. 4.3.4.Womens education Originally all students were male. The first colleges for women were Girton College (founded by Emily Davies) in 1869 and Newnham College in 1872. The first women students were examined in 1882 but attempts to make women full members of the university did not succeed until 1947. Although Cambridge did not give degrees to women until this date women were in fact allowed to study courses, sit examinations, and have their results recorded from the nineteenth century onwards. In the twentieth century women could be given a titular degree; although they were not denied recognised qualifications, without a full degree they were excluded from the governing of the university. Since students must belong to a college, and since established colleges remained closed to women, women found admissions restricted to colleges established only for women. All of the mens colleges began to admit women between 1960 and 1988. One womens college, Girton, also began to admit men, but the other womens colleges did not follow suit. In the academic year 2004-5, the universitys student gender ratio, including post-graduates, was male 52%: female 48% (Source: Cambridge University Reporter,). 4.4.Admissions 4.4.1.History Prior to 20th century reforms of the UK education system, modern Cambridge undergraduate admissions tended to be drawn largely from the fee-paying public or independent schools. This resulted in a student body predominantly drawn from members of the British social elite. The admissions process underwent major reforms in the 1960s The proportion drawn from public/independent schools has diminished over the years, and now form a significant minority of the intake. In 2005, UK applicants from public/independent schools accounted for about 40% of the total number of undergraduate acceptances.

4.4.2.Today

The Judge Business School The application system to Cambridge and Oxford is set apart from other British universities, with applications made earlier, and additional specific paperwork required. What is also unique is that all candidates are typically subject to face-to-face interviews. How applicants perform in the interview process best determines which candidates are accepted. Most applicants are expected to be predicted at least three A-grade A-level qualifications relevant to their chosen undergraduate course, or equivalent overseas qualifications. Due to a very high proportion receiving the highest school grades from the private and grammar schools, this makes the interview process crucial at distinguishing the most able candidates and important in trying to recruit from comprehensive schools. In 2005, 5,325 students were rejected who went on to get 3 A levels or more at grade A, representing about 60% of all applicants rejected. The interview is performed by College Fellows, who evaluate candidates on unexamined factors such as potential for original thinking and creativity. In rare cases, candidates may be offered an unconditional place. In recent years, admissions tutors in certain subjects have required applicants to sit the more difficult STEP papers, tuition for which is not normally provided by British schools outside the private or independent sector, in addition to achieving top grades in their Alevels or International Baccalaureate diplomas. For example, Peterhouse requires 1 and 2 or better in STEP as well as A grades at A-levels including A-level Mathematics and Further Mathematics in order to be considered for entry for the Mathematical Tripos. Between onehalf and two-thirds of those who apply with the correct grades are given offers of a place. Public debate in the United Kingdom continues over whether admissions processes at Oxford and Cambridge are entirely merit based and fair, whether enough students from state schools are encouraged to apply to Cambridge, and whether these students succeed in gaining entry. Almost half of all successful applicants come from independent schools. However, the average qualifications for successful applicants from state schools are slightly lower than the average qualification of successful applicants from private schools. The lack of state school applicants with the required grades applying to Cambridge and Oxford has had a negative impact on Oxbridges reputation for many years, and the University has encouraged pupils from state schools to apply for Cambridge to help redress

the imbalance. Critics counter that excessive government pressure to increase state school admissions constitutes inappropriate social engineering. Graduate admission is first decided by the faculty or department relating to the applicants subject. This effectively guarantees admission to a college - though not necessarily the applicants preferred choice . 4.5.Sports and other extracurricular activities Cambridge maintains a long tradition of student participation in sports and recreation. Rowing is a particularly popular sport at Cambridge, and there are competitions between colleges (notably the bumps races) and against Oxford (the Boat Race). There are also Varsity matches against Oxford in many other sports, ranging from rugby (see Cambridge University RUFC) and cricket, to chess and tiddlywinks. Athletes representing the university in certain sports entitle them to apply for a Cambridge Blue at the discretion of the Blues Committee, consisting of the captains of the thirteen most prestigious sports. There is also the self-described unashamedly elite Hawks Club (men only), whose membership is usually restricted to Cambridge Full Blues and Half Blues. The Cambridge Union serves as a focus for debating. Drama societies notably include the Amateur Dramatic Club (ADC) and the comedy club Footlights, which are known for producing well-known showbusiness personalities. Student newspapers include the longestablished Varsity and its younger rival, The Cambridge Student. The student-run radio station, CUR1350, promotes broadcast journalism. 4.6.Myths, legends and traditions

The Mathematical Bridge over the river Cam (at Queens College) There are many popular myths associated with the University of Cambridge. One famous myth relates to Queens Colleges so-called Mathematical Bridge. Supposedly constructed by Sir Isaac Newton, it reportedly held itself together without any bolts or screws. Legend has it inquisitive students took it apart and were then unable to reassemble it without bolts. However, the bridge was erected 22 years after Newtons death. This myth

may have arisen from the fact that earlier versions of the bridge used iron pins and screws at the joints, whereas the current bridge uses more visible nuts and bolts. Another famous myth involves the Clare Bridge of Clare College. Spherical stone ornaments adorn this bridge. One of these has a quarter sphere wedge removed from the back. This is a feature pointed out on almost all tours over the bridge. Legend has it that the bridges builder was not paid in full due to the colleges dissatisfaction with its construction. The builder thus removed the stone from the bridge, thus costing the college extra as it could not claim back tax on an 'unfinished bridge'. Though lacking evidence, this legend is commonly accepted. A discontinued tradition is that of the wooden spoon, the prize awarded to the student with the lowest passing grade in the final examinations of the Mathematical Tripos. The last of these spoons was awarded in 1909 to Cuthbert Lempriere Holthouse, an oarsman of the Lady Margaret Boat Club of St Johns College. It was over one metre in length and had an oar blade for a handle. It can now be seen outside the Senior Combination Room of St John's. Since 1909, results were published alphabetically within class rather than score order. This made it harder to ascertain who the winner of the spoon was (unless there was only one person in the third class), and so the practice was abandoned. On the other hand, the legend of the Austin Seven delivery van that ended up on the apex of the Senate House is no myth at all. The Caius College website recounts in detail how this vehicle went up in the world.

4.7.Miscellaneous

Degree ceremony at the Senate House Building on its reputation for enterprise, science and technology, Cambridge has a partnership with MIT in the United States, the Cambridge-MIT Institute. In 2000, Bill Gates of Microsoft donated US$210 million through the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to endow the Gates Scholarships for students from outside the UK seeking postgraduate study at Cambridge. The University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory, which taught the worlds first computing course in 1953, is housed in a building partly funded by Gates and named after his grandfather, William Gates. After the founding of Harvard College in 1636 atNewtowne, Massachusetts, the town adopted the new name of Cambridge in 1638 to promote its reputation as an academic centre. The first president (Henry Dunster), the first benefactor (John Harvard), and the first schoolmaster (Nathaniel Eaton) of Harvard were all Cambridge University alumni, as was the then ruling (and first) governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, John Winthrop. In 1629, Winthrop had led the signing of the founding document of the city of Boston, Massachusetts, which was known as the Cambridge Agreement, after the university. The concept of grading students' work quantitatively was developed by a tutor named William Farish at the University of Cambridge in 1792. In the Meiji Era (1868-1912), several Japanese students studied at the university. In Japan, there is a Cambridge and Oxford Society, a rare example of the name Cambridge coming before Oxford when the two universities are referred to together traditionally, the order used when referring to both universities is Oxford and Cambridge, the order in which they were founded. The probable reason for this inversion is that the Cambridge Club was founded first in Japan, and it also had more members than its Oxford counterpart when they amalgamated in 1905. The Universitys publishing arm, the Cambridge University Press, is the oldest printer and publisher in the world. The University set up its Local Examination Syndicate almost 150 years ago, in 1858. Today, the Syndicate, which is known as Cambridge Assessment, is Europes largest assessment agency and it plays a leading role in researching, developing and delivering assessments across the globe. Each Christmas Eve, BBC television and radio broadcasts The Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols by the Choir of Kings College Chapel. This has been a national Christmas tradition since it was first transmitted in 1928.

5.Durham University

Motto Fundamenta eius super montibus sanctis her foundations are set upon the holy hills (from Psalm 86 in the Latin Psalter)

Durham University is a university in the United Kingdom. It was founded as the University of Durham (which remains its official and legal name) by Act of Parliament in 1832 and granted a Royal Charter in 1837. It was one of the first new universities to open in England for over 500 years, and claims to be England's third oldest after Oxford and Cambridge (although other higher education institutions also make this claim see third oldest university in England debate). Co-located in Durham City, on the River Wear, and in Stockton-on-Tees, it is one of the UK's leading research universities. The Chancellor of the

University is Bill Bryson, appointed by the University's Convocation on 4 April 2005. The University was named Sunday Times University of the Year in 2005, having previously been shortlisted for the award in 2004. The post-nominal letters of graduates often have "Dunelm" attached to indicate the university. 5.1.History 5.1.1.Origins The strong tradition of theological teaching in Durham gave rise to various attempts to form a university there, notably under King Henry VIII and Oliver Cromwell, who actually issued letters patent for the establishment of a college in 1657. However it was not until 1832, when Parliament passed an act allowing the Dean and Chapter of Durham to fund a new university, that the University actually came into being. The Act received Royal Assent and became law on 4 July 1832. The University's Royal Charter was granted on 1 June 1837 by William IV, with the first students graduating a few days later. It was founded with one college named University College, which moved into Durham Castle (previously the Bishop's palace) in 1837.

Durham Castle houses University College, making it the oldest inhabited university building in the world. 5.1.2. 19th century In 1846, Bishop Hatfield's Hall (later to become Hatfield College) was founded, providing for the first time in any British university the opportunity for students to obtain affordable lodgings with fully-catered communal eating. Those attending University College were expected to bring a servant with them to deal with cooking, cleaning and so on. Elsewhere, the University expanded from Durham into Newcastle in 1852 when the medical school there (established in 1834) became a college of the University. This was joined in 1871 by the College of Physical Sciences (renamed the College of Science in 1884 and again renamed Armstrong College in 1904). St Cuthbert's Society was founded in 1888 to cater for non-resident students in Durham, while two teacher-training colleges St Hild's for women, established in 1858, and The College of the Venerable Bede for men, established in 1839. These merged to form a mixed college (the College of St Hild and St Bede) in

1975. From 1896 these were associated with the University and graduates of St Hild were the first female graduates from Durham in 1898. In 1842 the Durham Union Society was set up as a forum for debates, the first of which took place in the reading rooms in Hatfield Hall. It also served as the students' union (hence the name) until Durham Colleges Students' Representative Council was founded in 1899 (it was later renamed Durham Students' Union in 1963). For most of the 19th century, University of Durham degrees were subject to a religion test and could only be taken by members of the established church. This situation lasted until the University Test Act of 1871. However, "dissenters" were able to attend Durham and then receive degrees of the University of London, which were not subject to any religious test, on completing their course. Following the grant of a supplemental charter in 1895 allowing women to receive degrees of the University, the Women's Hostel (St Mary's College from 1919) was founded in 1899. 5.1.3. 20th century The Newcastle division of the University, in particular Armstrong College, quickly grew to outnumber the Durham colleges, despite the addition of two Anglican foundations: St Chad's College (1904) and St John's College (1909). A parliamentary bill proposed in 1907 would have fixed the seat of the University in Durham for only ten years, allowing the Senate to choose to move to Newcastle after this. This was blocked by a local MP, with the support of graduates of the Durham colleges, until the bill was modified to establish a federal university with its seat fixed in Durham. This reform also removed the University from the authority of the Dean and Chapter of Durham Cathedral, who had nominally been in charge of the University since its foundation. Thirty years after this, the Royal Commission of 1937 recommended changes in the constitution of the federal University, resulting in the merger of the two Newcastle colleges to form King's College. After the Second World War, the Durham division expanded rapidly. St Aidan's Society (St Aidan's College from 1965) was founded in 1947 to cater for non-resident women and the decision was made to expand onto Elvet Hill, vastly expanding the existing pure science provision in Durham, and adding applied science and engineering. In 1947 the foundation stones for the new St Mary's College building on Elvet Hill were laid by Princess Elizabeth (later Queen Elizabeth II). The new building opened in 1952. In the same year, tensions surfaced again over the Durham-Newcastle divide, with a proposal to change the name of the University to the University of Durham and Newcastle. This motion was defeated in Convocation (the assembly of members of the University) by 135 votes to 129. Eleven years later, with the Universities of Durham and Newcastle upon Tyne Act, King's College became the University of Newcastle upon Tyne, leaving Durham based solely in its home city.

By this time, the Elvet Hill site was well established, with the first of the new colleges, Grey College (named after the second Earl Grey, who was the Prime Minister when the University was founded) being founded in 1959. Expansion up Elvet Hill continued, with Van Mildert College and the Durham University Business School (1965), Trevelyan College (1966) and Collingwood College (1972) all being added to the University, along with a botanic garden (1970). These were not the only developments in the University, however. The Graduate Society, catering for postgraduate students, was founded in 1965 (renamed Ustinov College in 2003) and the Roman Catholic seminary of Ushaw College, which had been in Durham since 1808, was licensed as a hall of residence in 1968. By 1990 the last male-only college became mixed, leaving St Mary's as the last single-sex college. In 2005, St. Mary's College had its first mixed undergraduate intake. In October 2006, Josephine Butler College, a long-standing development, opened its doors to students as Durham's newest college. 5.1.4. Queen's Campus, Stockton In 1992 a joint venture between the University and the University of Teesside saw the Joint University College on Teesside of the Universities of Durham and Teesside (JUCOT) established at Stockton-on-Tees, 23 miles to the south of Durham. This was initially intended to grant joint degrees validated by both institutions (BAs and BScs). However, Teesside, which had only become a university in 1992, had difficulties in taking on its responsibilities for the college and Durham took full control of the new college in 1994. A programme of integration with Durham began, leading to the college becoming University College, Stockton (UCS) in 1996 a college of the University of Durham and the only college with teaching responsibilities. Further integration lead to the campus being renamed the University of Durham, Stockton Campus (UDSC) in 1998, removing teaching responsibilities from the College. In 2001, two new colleges, John Snow and George Stephenson (after the physician and the engineer) were established at Stockton, replacing UCS, and the new medical school (which operates in association with the University of Newcastle upon Tyne) took in its first students the first medics to join Durham since 1963. In 2002, her golden jubilee year, the Queen granted the title "Queen's Campus" to the Stockton site. As of 2005 Queen's Campus, Stockton accounts for around 18% of the total university student population. This is likely to increase in coming years thanks to future expansion plans. A curious fact about Queen's Campus, Stockton, is that it is located on the south bank of the River Tees within Thornaby-on-Tees. For centuries the Tees formed the historical division between the historic counties of Yorkshire and Durham, with Thornaby-On-Tees being one of the most northern towns in Yorkshire. With the creation of the county

borough of Teesside in 1968 areas both north and south of the river were removed from their historic counties. Teesside itself was engulfed into the County of Cleveland in 1974. Yet another local government change in 1996 saw the breakup of the county of Cleveland into the current four unitary authorities of Middlesbrough, Hartlepool, Redcar and Cleveland & Stockton-On-Tees. With this latest reorganisation Thornaby-On-Tees became part of the borough of Stockton-On-Tees, however the town of Stockton-On-Tees itself is located on the north ('County Durham') side of the river. The upshot of all this is that a significant proportion of Durham University is actually located within the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, not County Durham! Just to complicate matters there are currently plans for an expansion of the campus onto the north bank of the River Tees as part of the current redevelopment site there and this would split the campus between the two historic counties.

5.2.Durham today 5.2.1.Reputation

Dunelm House, home of the Durham Students' Union In recent years, the University has maintained its strength. It was ranked as 7th in the English-speaking world in a study of scientific citations carried out by the University of Hong Kong in 2000, while the UK Research Assessment Exercise in 2001 rated Durham research as averaging a 5 rating "international excellence in more than half of the research activity submitted and attainable levels of national excellence in the remainder". However, The Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU) 2006 [2005], published by the Institute of Higher Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, ranked Durham with an estimate of 151st-200th [203-300th] in the world. Moreover, it was ranked with an estimate of 16th-22nd [20-30th] in the United Kingdom. The result rested partly on the lack of any Nobel prize or Fields medal winners from Durham. For its position, Durham's "number of highly cited researchers in broad subject categories in life sciences, medicine, physical sciences, engineering and social sciences" was relatively high - even marginally beating higher ranked UK universities who made the top world 100 (e.g. Bristol and

Edinburgh), though still significantly less than the top flight universities. However, for score on size, Durham scored fairly well having a higher score than the University of Manchester ranked some 100 places above Durham and being over three times the size. In the other categories of "number of articles published in Nature and Science between 2000 and 2004", and "total number of articles indexed in Science Citation Index-expanded, Social Science Citation Index, and Arts & Humanities Citation Index in 2004" Durham faired more poorly. Moreover, in 2006 the Guardian ranked Durham 25th in the United Kingdom, concording with the ARWU study, although in other rankings Durham fared better. (See below) Further in the 2007 Good University Guide published by The Times, Durham is placed 10th nationally and rated Durham 5th in terms of entrance requirements with students having an average UCAS point score of 454.9 and came 15 in student satisfaction. Durham also gained 10th place in terms of RAE score per a staff member with a score of 5.7 out of 7. The guide also placed Durham 11th in terms of % of good honours with 74.6% of Durham graduates achieving either a 1st or 2:1 class degree. Durham was also place 11th in regards to its completion rate (95.1% completion rate). The guide also highlighted the high rate of the student to staff ratio with Durham having a ratio of 21.2. The Teaching Quality Assessments carried out by the Quality Assurance Agency have rated Durham at an average of 22.2/24 in 2003, above the UK average of 21.6. Durham University Business School's MBA was ranked 57th in the world by The Economist in 2006 (62nd in 2005) and 82nd in the Financial Times in 2004. In the 2005 (2004) university league tables, Durham was ranked 10th (8th) (The Times), 8th [2006] (9th [2005]) (The Sunday Times) and 24th (12th) (The Guardian). Also in 2005 Durham was ranked 10th in the first National Student Survey and climbed from 128th to 83rd in the THES world university rankings (11th in the UK). The rankings also placed Durham as the number 1 university in the UK for its impact of scientific research. In terms of individual academic departments, the Department of Geography is considered one of the best in the United Kingdom and a world leader in many research areas. Physics, Engineering, and Law, are among the university's other core strengths. 5.2.2. Student life and future developments

Doxbridge Tournament Logo Teams from Durham won University Challenge in both 1977 and 2000. The Durham University Centre of Cricketing Excellence is one of only four (the others being Oxford, Cambridge and Loughborough) to play first-class matches. Durham was ranked 5th across

all sports by the British Universities Sports Association (BUSA) in 2005. It is also the current BUSA rowing champion, keeping the title won in 2004. Since 1975 the university has played host to the Durham Drama Festival. Music is also a high-ranking activity in Durham, particularly marked by the Durham University Chamber Choir. Durham University is one of three universities to compete in the Doxbridge Tournament, a sporting competition between Durham University, the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge. The presence of Durham Cathedral is felt strongly within the University and city. It provides opportunities both for worship and for music-making, the Cathedral Choir offering seven scholarships to students of the University. Several of the colleges (University College, Hatfield, St Chad's, St John's and Hild-Bede) also offer organ and choral scholarships to prospective students. In 2005 the University unveiled a re-branded logotype and renamed itself as "Durham University", arguing that this reflected a more contemporary and less elitist outlook, and that it recognised that many people already referred to the University in this way. The news was poorly received among many academic and student members of the university, with Van Mildert JCR going as far as boycotting the new name and logo. However, the official name of the institution remains the University of Durham and the official coat of arms is unchanged.

Student numbers In the last half of the 20th century, the number of students at the university has grown considerably, and continues to grow with the addition of Queen's Campus, Stockton. The more recent rises are in line with government policy of increasing access to higher education. In 1989 the University started its fund-raising and alumni office, with a virtual community for alumni and several large gifts made to the University, including for the Centre for Middle Eastern Studies, the department of Physics and the Wolfson Research Institute. In 2006 Josephine Butler College, opened at the Howlands Farm site on Elvet Hill. This was the first new college to open in Durham itself since the 1970s, at the creation of Collingwood.

5.3.Faculties The teaching departments of the University are divided into three faculties: Science, Arts and Humanities, and Social Sciences and Health. Each faculty has a Dean and one or more Deputy Deans. These, along with the heads of the departments in the faculty, the ViceChancellor, and the Pro-Vice-Chancellors, make up the Faculty Board for that faculty. Each department also has a Board of Studies consisting of the Dean and Deputy Dean of their faculty, the teaching staff of the department, and student representatives. See also Natural Sciences, one of the largest degree programmes.

Faculty of Social Science & Faculty of Arts & Health Humanities


Faculty of Science

Department of Anthropology School of Applied Social Sciences Department of Archaeology Durham Business School (Including the Economic, Finance and Business Departments) School of Education Department of Geography School of Government and International Affairs (Including the Politics department and the Institute for Middle East and Islamic Studies) School for Health Department of Law

Department of Classics Department of English Department of History School of Modern Languages and Cultures (Includes Arabic, French, German, Italian, Russian and Spanish Departments) Department of Music Department of Philosophy Department of Theology and Religion

School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences Department of Chemistry Department of Computer Science Department of Earth Sciences School of Engineering Department of Mathematical Science Department of Physics Department of Psychology

5.4.Colleges

University college, the oldest of the 16 Durham Colleges Durham is the only British university apart from Oxford, Cambridge and London to operate a collegiate structure in that all the colleges at Durham are "listed bodies" under the Education Reform Act, 1988, "recognised by the UK authorities as being able to offer courses leading to a degree of a recognised body" (the "recognised body" being, in this

case, the federal University). This is same legal status as the colleges of Oxford and Cambridge and the constituent institutions of the University of Wales, and sets Durham colleges apart from those at the universities of Kent, Lancaster, and York, which have no legal standing. However, unlike at Oxford, Cambridge, Wales, and London, there is no formal teaching at Durham colleges. The colleges dominate the residential, social, sporting, and pastoral functions within the university, and there is heavy student involvement in their operation. Formal dinners (known as "formals") are held at many colleges; gowns are often worn to these events. There is a great deal of intercollegiate rivalry, particularly in rowing and other sporting activities. There is also rivalry between the older colleges of the Bailey and the newer colleges of the Hill. 5.4.1.Types of college The University is collegiate in structure. There are four different sorts of college: Maintained Colleges and Societies, Recognised Colleges, Licensed Halls of Residence, and Affiliated Colleges.

Maintained Colleges are not financially independent of the University and their principals are appointed by Council. The colleges are represented on Council by the Dean of Colleges, chosen from among the principals. The Recognised Colleges (St John's and St Chad's) and Licensed Halls (Ushaw) are financially independent of the University and have a far greater degree of administrative independence than the Maintained Colleges. However, Council must approve the appointment of their principal and be notified of changes to their constitutions. There is also a requirement that they must be within County Durham. Affiliated Colleges Codrington College, Barbados (and, until 1967, Fourah Bay College, Sierra Leone) is an overseas institutes that presents its students for University of Durham examinations. It not generally considered part of the collegiate structure of the University and is listed as an "Affiliated College" in the University Statutes rather than as one of the "Colleges and Societies".

5.5.Governance The University holds the powers to award degrees under the Royal Charter of 1837, extended to include the power to award degrees to women under the Supplementary Charter of 1895. However, the rules governing how the University is constituted are to be found in the Statutes put in place by the Universities of Durham and Newcastle upon Tyne Act, 1963, and subsequently amended by the Privy Council. The Statutes provide that: "The University shall be governed by a Visitor, Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor, Convocation, Council, Senate, and Boards of Studies."

5.5.1.Visitor The Visitor for the University of Durham is the Bishop of Durham. The Visitor is the final arbiter of any dispute within the University, except in those areas where legislation has removed this to the law courts or other ombudsmen. 5.5.2.Chancellor The Chancellor is the nominal head of the University. He or she is nominated by the Council and Senate and appointed by Convocation. The current Chancellor is the author Bill Bryson. Until 1909, the University was nominally governed by the Dean and Chapter of Durham Cathedral. Following the University of Durham Act, 1908, the University has, like most other British universities, been headed by a Chancellor.

19091912 George William Kitchin, Dean of Durham 19131918 The Duke of Northumberland 19191928 The Earl of Durham 19291930 The Duke of Northumberland 19311949 The Marquess of Londonderry 19501957 G. M. Trevelyan 19581969 The Earl of Scarbrough 19711980 Malcolm MacDonald 19811990 Dame Margot Fonteyn 19922004 Sir Peter Ustinov 2005present Bill Bryson

5.5.3.Vice-Chancellor The Vice-Chancellor is the chief executive of the University. He or she also holds the positions of "Warden of the Durham Colleges" and is appointed by the Council. The deputy to the Vice Chancellor is the Pro-Vice-Chancellor who also holds the position of "SubWarden of the Durham Colleges" and deputises for the Vice-Chancellor. There may also be additional Pro-Vice-Chancellors. The current Vice-Chancellor, Sir Kenneth Calman, is leaving the University in September 2007, and will be replaced by Professor Chris Higgins. 5.5.4.Convocation Convocation is the assembly of members of the University. It consists of the Chancellor, Vice-Chancellor, and Pro-Vice-Chancellors, all graduates, the teaching staff (lecturers, senior lecturers, readers, and professors), and the heads of colleges and licensed halls of residence. It meets once a year in order to hear the Vice-Chancellor's Address and to debate any business relating to the University. Its powers are limited to appointing the Chancellor (and even then, only on the nomination of Council and Senate) and the making of representations to the University on any business debated.

5.5.5. Council Council is the executive body of the University. In addition to representatives from the University it includes the Dean of Durham Cathedral and representatives of the alumni, the Students' Union and the local councils. Its powers include establishing and maintaining colleges, and recognising non-maintained colleges and licensed halls of residence. 5.5.6.Senate Senate is the supreme governing body of the University in academic matters. It nominates the Vice-Chancellor and Pro-Vice-Chancellors to Council, and recommends the establishment of Faculties and Boards of Studies. It is Senate that grants degrees, and has the authority to revoke them. It also regulates the use of academic dress of the University.

6.Bibliography
1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_universities

2. www.UniversitiesUK.ac.uk 3. http://www.scit.wlv.ac.uk/ukinfo/ 4. http://www.hero.ac.uk/uk/home/index.cfm 5. http://bookshop.universitiesuk.ac.uk/downloads/research-gradprem.pdf