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Seminar on

by

Email: iztok.tiselj@ijs.si

April 2006

Introduction 1

Technical University of Catalonia and Heat and Mass Transfer Technological Center, 2006

Seminar on

by

INTRODUCTION 1) Introduction 2) Basic equations of two-phase flows. TWO-FLUID MODELS Lectures 3-6

INTERFACE TRACKING IN 3D TWO-PHASE FLOWS Lectures 7-10 ONE-DIMENSIONAL SIMULATIONS OF FAST TRANSIENTS Lectures 11-14

DNS OF THE PASSIVE SCALAR TRANSFER IN THE CHANNEL AND FLUME Lectures 15-18

- Introduction - Navier-Stokes equations and constitutive (local instant formulation). - Boundary conditions at the interface. - Coalescence, break-up, single-to-two-phase flow transition. - Averaging of the Navier-Stokes equations in two-phase flow. - Recommended reference: M. Ishii, T. Hibiki, Thermo-Fluid Dynamics of Two-Phase Flow, Springer, 2006.

Types of two-phase flows: - gas-solid, liquid-solid - not considered in the present seminar. Interface between the phases is well defined, very accurate two-fluid models and Lagrangian models exist. Reference: C. T. Crowe, M. Sommerfeld, Y. Tsuji, Multiphase Flows With Droplets and Particles, CRC Press,1997. - gas-liquid - main topic of the seminar - immiscible liquid-liquid mixture (not a two-phase flow, but is treated with the same approach as a two-phase mixture.)

Basic equations of two-phase flow 4

Two-phase flows according to the structure of the interface: - Separated flows. Examples: horizontally or vertically stratified flows, jets. Modelling often possible with interface tracking methods. - Transitional flows. Examples: Slug and annular flows in the pipes. Modelling problematic... - Dispersed flows. Examples: bubbly, droplet, particle. Modelling with two-fluid models (particles - Lagrangian models)

Navier-Stokes equations

Fluid k, that occupies the observed domain, is described with equations: continuity equation

r k + ( k vk ) = 0 t

k

r vk

density velocity

momentum equation

r r r k vk + (vk vk ) = k F ( pk I + k ) t

r F

I unit tensor

pk

k viscosity

Basic equations of two-phase flow

internal energy equation (also found in enthalpy or total energy form)

r r r r k uk + ( k uk vk ) = qk pk vk + k : vk + Qk t

uk specific internal energy

Qk

r qk

heat flux

Constitutive equations

Equation of state:

p k = p k ( k , u k )

or

p k = p k ( k , Tk )

r r T 2 r k = k vk + (vk ) k k vk I 3

Heat flux - Fourier's law of heat conduction:

r qk = k k Tk

Basic equations of two-phase flow 8

Local boundary conditions at the interface i. Interface is assumed to be a discontinuity. Parentheses interface.

[[w]] = wk =1 wk =2

r r r [[ k (vk vi ) n ]] = 0 r vi

r n

interface velocity unit vector normal to the interface, direction: from fluid 1 to fluid 2

Basic equations of two-phase flow 9

Interfacial momentum balance

r r r r r r [[ k uk (vk vi ) n + ( pk I k ) n ]] = n

local curvature of the interface:

= + 2 R1 R2

1 1 1

= i n

1 2

surface tension

Interfacial energy balance (simplified: neglected kinetic energy, neglected work of the surface tension, assumed =const, see Ishii, Hibiki for details):

r r r r r [[ k ek (vk vi ) n + qk n ]] = qi

qi surface energy source term, usually zero (nonzero if chemical reaction runs at the interface)

Basic equations of two-phase flow 10

Wetting angle model near the contact of the interface and solid surface

r nwall r twall

r n

11

In theory, interface reconnection may create surface with singularities (non-smooth surface), immediately after the reconnection. Curvature of the surface is not well-defined in such points. Before: After:

12

Unlike in the single-phase flow, Navier-Stokes equations (with all the boundary conditions) are not sufficient to describe arbitrary two-phase flows. Problem that cannot be described with N-S equations is onset of boiling (cavitation) in a single-phase liquid or onset of the condensation in the pure gas phase. Phase transition may start on the impurities in the bulk of the fluid or at the walls. Additional information/models are needed (sometimes on molecular scales) to specify the density of the impurities in the liquid or the structure of the wall where the cavitation starts.

13

In some cases, the Navier-Stokes equations can be applied in modelling. Equations are often assumed to be incompressible, heat transfer neglected. The N-S equations and the interface jump conditions can be simplified and extended to the whole computational domain: Continuity equation for the whole domain

r v = 0

r

r + v = 0 t

r f s (r , t )

14

In general: mathematical and numerical difficulties in modelling of twophase flows with the local instant formulation are insurmountable in the near future. - Turbulent fluctuations - even in single-phase flows resolvable only at low Reynolds numbers. - Existence of the multiple deformable moving interfaces. Motion of the interface is an integral part of the solution (except in particulate flows). Problems with break-up and coallescence of the surfaces.

Characteristic length scales of the interface motion can be much larger than the characteristic scales of turbulent flows, example: turbulent flume. Characteristic length scales of the interface motion can be much smaller than the characteristic scales of turbulent flows: example turbulent bubbly flows.

Basic equations of two-phase flow

15

Why averaging? Microscopic details of turbulent motions and interfacial geometry are seldom relevant for the engineering problems. Averaged equations result in mean values of the two-phase flow motion. Problem: scales eliminated with the averaging influence the mean values. That must be taken into account in the closure relations of the averaged equations.

16

r Eulerian averaging of function F ( r , t ) :

Temporal (equivalent to Reynolds averaging in turbulent single-phase flow):

1 t

r F ( r , t ) dt

Spatial:

1 V

r F ( r , t ) dV

Ensemble (statistical):

1 N

n =1

r Fn ( r , t )

17

r Eulerian averaging of function F ( r , t ) :

Area (cross-sectional) for 1D two-fluid models:

r 1 F ( r , t ) dS S

Other, more "exotic" types of averaging exist (Lagrangian, Boltzmann statistical averaging). See Ishii, Hibiki for discussion. "Phenomenological averging" - not averaging at all, averaged equations built on phenomenological approach.

18

From practical point of view the type of averaging isn't important. Various types of averaging results in slightly different equations, however, the differences are minor comparing to the typical uncertainty of the closure relations required to close the averaged system of conservation laws. What is important: - averaging smoothes out the turbulent fluctuations, - "transforms" two phases that alternately occupy the observed point into two continuous fields that exist in that point with a given probability.

19

The function averaging.

k k k

is a local time fraction of the phase k after temporal averaging, is a local volume fraction of the phase k after spatial averaging, is a probability for the presence of the phase k after ensemble averaging, etc...

When the averaged equations are solved, detailed definition of is not important anymore. In this seminar is mainly called k-th k phase volume fraction. k DETAILS OF THE AVERAGING PROCEDURE SKIPPED (see Ishii, Hibiki for details).

Basic equations of two-phase flow 20

Represents a basis for the safety analyses of the two-phase flows in watercooled nuclear reactors. Allows thermal and mechanical non-equilibrium. Requires several closure relations that are mainly based on empirical approach. Mass balances:

A (1 - ) f t

A g t +

A (1 - ) f v f x

x = A g

= A g

A g v g

21

Momentum balances

vf v2 1 p f + (1 - ) f + (1 - ) CVM = Ci | vr | vr g (vi v f ) + F f , gravity + F f ,wall 2 t x x

(1 - ) f

vg

Energy balances:

A(1 ) f u f t A g u g t +

A(1 - ) f u f v f x x +p

A g u g v g

A A v g * +p = A Qig + g hg + v g Fg ,wall t x

)

22

Closure relations: Two additional equations of state for each phase k are:

d k = k d p + k d uk . p uk p u

k

Correlations for inter-phase momentum transfer. Correlations for interphase heat and mass transfer. Wall friction correlations. Correlations for wall-to-fluid heat transfer ... others ...

23

CFX-5.6 homogeneous two-fluid model

Homogeneous two-fluid model in CFX code, contains viscous terms and surface tension force (if the interface can be found): Two continuity eqs.:

r (11) +(11v) = 0 t

r (22 ) + (22v ) = 0 t

))

Surface tension:

r r r F12 = 1212n12 ( f s (r , t ))

24

Two-fluid models of two-phase flow are today's standard for modelling of industrial multiphase flows and will (in my opinion) play an important role in the foreseen future, despite the rapid progress in the field of the more accurate interface tracking methods. Development and improvement of the empirical closure relations for ensemble, volume, time, or cross-section averaged Navier-Stokes equations of two-fluid models will remain an important research field. From the stand point of the industrial applications: there are several types of piping flows in nuclear and chemical engineering, oil or water transport, where one-dimensional two-fluid models still present a sufficiently accurate and efficient option. 2D/3D two-fluid models - can be found in CFD codes (CFX, FLUENT) - in development - to be used with caution.

25

Catalonia,

32.000 km2 7.000.000 25.500$ (2004)

Slovenia

Area: 20.000 km2 Population: 2.000.000 GDP per capita: 21.000$ (2005)

50 km

Introduction 2

SLOVENIA

Introduction

The Joef Stefan Institute is named after the distinguished 19th century physicist Joef Stefan. JSI is the leading Slovene research organisation responsible for a broad spectrum of basic and applied research in the fields of natural sciences and technology. The staff of around 700 specialize in research in physics, chemistry and biochemistry, electronics and information science, nuclear technology, energy utilization and environmental science.

Introduction

Reactor Engineering Division Thermal-Hydraulics Structural Mechanics Reliability, Industrial Hazard and Risk Nuclear Physics Division Theoretical, experimental and applied reactor physics Dept. of Environmental Sciences Radiochemistry and Radioecology Research Reactor TRIGA Mark-II, pool, 250 kW, 1000MW pulse mode

Introduction 5

Introduction

Simulations of transients and accidents in nuclear and experimental installations with computer codes RELAP5, CONTAIN, MELCOR:

1999-2000 verification of the new full-scope NPP Krko simulator with RELAP5 Standard experiments PMK, BETHSY (RELAP5), OECD ISP-44 KAEVER (CONTAIN)

Modelling of single and two-phase flows (home-made codes, CFX, Fluent, NEPTUNE CFD packages):

LES and DNS simulations of single phase turbulent heat transfer Characteristic upwind schemes for fast 1D transients in two-phase flow Numerical schemes for 2D, 3D two-phase flows: two(three)-fluid models and interface tracking models

Introduction 7

INTRODUCTION 1) Introduction 2) Basic equations of two-phase flows. TWO-FLUID MODELS 3) 1D two-fluid models - conservation equations 4) 1D two-fluid models - flow regime maps and closure equations 5) Characteristic upwind schemes for two-fluid models 6) Pressure-based solvers for two-fluid models

Introduction

INTERFACE TRACKING IN 3D TWO-PHASE FLOWS 7) 3D two-phase flows - mathematical background 8) Interface tracking models 9) Coupling of two-fluid models and interface tracking methods 10) Simulations of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability ONE-DIMENSIONAL SIMULATIONS OF FAST TRANSIENTS 11) WAHA code - mathematical model and numerical scheme 12) WAHA code - simulations 13) Hands on: simulation of two-phase water hammer transient and two-phase critical flow. 14) Fluid-structure interaction in 1D piping systems

Introduction 9

DNS OF THE PASSIVE SCALAR TRANSFER IN THE CHANNEL AND FLUME (This is not a two-phase flow modelling chapter but...) 15) Mathematical model of DNS 16) Pseudo-spectral numerical scheme, general results 17) DNS of passive scalar heat transfer at various thermal boundary conditions, conjugate heat transfer, high Prandtl numbers 18) Hands-on. Running of the DNS code.

Introduction

10

Two-Fluid Models

1D 6-equation equal pressure two-fluid model for inhomogeneous nonequilibrium two-phase flow heart of the codes used for simulations in todays nuclear thermal-hydraulics.

Introduction

11

Mass balances:

A (1 - ) f t A g t

(1 - ) f

A (1 - ) f v f x x = A g

= A g

A g v g

Momentum balances

vf v2 1 p f + (1 - ) f + (1 - ) CVM = Ci | vr | vr g (vi v f ) + F f , gravity + F f ,wall t 2 x x

vg

Introduction

12

Energy balances:

A(1 ) f u f t A g u g t

A(1 - ) f u f v f x x +p

A g u g v g

A A v g * +p = A Qig + g hg + v g Fg ,wall t x

d k = k d p + k d uk . p uk p u

k

Numerous closure relations... Additional models relevant for nuclear thermal-hydraulics (neutronics...)

Introduction 13

1D simulations of two-phase flow fast transients Simulation of water hammer in piping system

Past 4 years: development of computer code for simulations of water hammer transients in 1D piping networks. (WAHALoads project of 5th EU research program.) Code development performed in cooperation with UCL and CEA. One of the WAHALoads experiments (UMSICHT, Oberhausen):

TANK

VALVE

Introduction

14

1D simulations of two-phase flow fast transients Simulation of water hammer in piping system

Past 4 years: development of computer code for simulations of water hammer transients in 1D piping networks. (WAHALoads project of 5th EU research program.) Code development performed in cooperation with UCL and CEA. One of the WAHALoads experiments (UMSICHT, Oberhausen):

P18

TANK

P04

P15

Introduction 15

Pressure near the valve

5.00 4.50 4.00 3.50 3.00 2.50 2.00 1.50 1.00 0.50 0.00 0 1 2 3 4 5 Time [sec] 6 7 8 9 10 UMSICHT WAHA RELAP5

Introduction

16

Vapour volume fraction near the valve

GS - Vapor volume fraction

1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0 1 2 3 4 5 Time [sec] 6 7 8 9 10 FZR WAHA RELAP5

Introduction

17

Under special conditions, i.e., cold and purified liquid, negative pressures could appear briefly near the valve in UMSICHT experiment, due to the delayed cavity growth. Small negative pressures are actually measured in a few cases, but are within the uncertainty of the measurements. Negative pressures were measured in water hammer experiment by Bergant and Simpson (1999, Proc. IAHR congress, Graz) and tube-arrest experiment (designed specially for that purpose by Williams & Williams, 2002, J.Phys. D, 35, 2222-2230) How to model transients with negative pressures?

Introduction

Tube-arrest experiment: Tube half-filled with purified water is accelerated upward and stopped suddenly. Water hammer-like transient follows.

spring

18

Alternative approach to 6-eq. two-fluid model: 7-equation "two-pressure" two-fluid model (Saurel, Abgrall, 1999). Very similar equations like 6-eq. model but with two separate phasic pressures. Additional equation for volume fraction completes the system of equations:

+ vm = ( p g pl ) t x

7-eq. vs. 6-eq. : several advantages, several drawbacks 7-equation model allows simulations of liquid phase at negative pressure, while the pressure of the vapor phase remains positive.

Introduction

19

Introduction

20

Rising bubble in the viscous fluid flattens the circular shape and causes vorticity in and behind the bubble VOF method explicitly tracks the interface between fluids and enables the streamline location

Introduction

21

Fluid dispersion and stratification during the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (erne, Petelin, Tiselj, 2001, J. Comput.Phys 171, 776)

Introduction 22

Kelvin-Helmholtz instability - Inviscid linear analysis: step velocity and step density profiles assumed

z=H U2 z=0 U1 z=-H

Immiscible fluids

2

fluid 2

1 fluid 1

Results: Critical relative velocity Critical wave number Critical wave length

U 2 > 2

2

1 + 2 g 12

= 1 2

k* = g /

* = 2 / k*

Introduction 23

L=1,83 (0,2) m H=0,03 m 2 = 780 kg/m3

Initial conditions

h2 H h1

2 1

1 = 1000 kg/m3

u2 x z=0 z

g

u1

2 = 0,0015 Pa s

S.A. Thorpe, 1969. Experiments on the instability of stratified shear flows: immiscible fluids. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 39. 25-48

Introduction 24

Temporal development of the interface predicted by CFX. K-H instability in experiment is observed in the middle section of the tube after ~1.8 s. Viscosity not neglected, surface tension neglected in particular simulation.

Introduction 25

Introduction 26

-Simulation of experiment with K-H instability with two immiscible fluids is very tough task for CFX code. - Structured grid was used and quasi-2D simulations performed. (No reasonable results on unstructured grid) -Surface tension terms in CFX destabilize the surface contrary to the actual physics of the surface tension force, which plays a stabilizing role in the K-H instability development. - CFX model without surface tension is more stable than predicted by the linear inviscid analysis and experiment. - Never trust beautiful pictures produced by CFD codes.

Introduction 27

Boundary conditions: Computational domain and boundary conditions.

L3

Free surface

FREE SURFACE

vnormalfreesurface= 0 ,

FLOW

d + ( y = 1) = 0 dy

-h L2=2h

L1

d + ( y = 1) = 0 dy

ISOTHERMAL

and

ISOFLUX

+ ( y = 1) = 0 or

+ ( y = 1) = 0

28

Introduction

Instantaneous dimensionless temperature field on the heated wall with isoflux BC (i.e. wall of negligible thermal capacity and negligible thickness).

Introduction

29

Technical University of Catalonia and Heat and Mass Transfer Technological Center, 2006

Seminar on

by

INTRODUCTION Lectures 1-2

TWO-FLUID MODELS 3) 1D two-fluid models - conservation equations 4) 1D two-fluid models - flow regime maps and closure equations 5) Characteristic upwind schemes for two-fluid models 6) Pressure-based solvers for two-fluid models INTERFACE TRACKING IN 3D TWO-PHASE FLOWS Lectures 7-10 ONE-DIMENSIONAL SIMULATIONS OF FAST TRANSIENTS Lectures 11-14

DNS OF THE PASSIVE SCALAR TRANSFER IN THE CHANNEL AND FLUME Lectures 15-18

1D 2-fluid models - consrv eqs 2

- Introduction - classification of two-fluid models - Homogeneous equilibrium model. - Drift-flux model. - 6-equation two-fluid models. - Hyperbolicity - Two-pressure two-fluid models. - Interfacial area transport equation.

- M. Ishii, T. Hibiki, Thermo-fluid dynamics of two-phase flows, Springer, 2006. - G.B. Wallis, One-dimensional two-phase flowm McGraw-Hill, 1969 - RELAP5 computer code manuals: http://www.edasolutions.com/RELAP5/manuals/index.htm - Materials of the "Short Courses on Multiphase Flow nad Heat Transfer", annual 1-week seminar at ETH Zurich, (Lead lecturers: S. Banerjee, M.L. Corradini, G. Hetsroni, G.F.Hewitt, G. Tryggvason, G. Yadigaroglu, S. Zaleski)

General form of the two-fluid model equations:

r A + B = P t x r r r +C = S t x

A1

"Standard" two-fluid models do not contain terms with second order derivatives.

A B r P C

vector of n independent variables n*n matrix of terms with time derivatives n*n matrix of terms with spatial derivatives source term vector - closure relations without derivatives n*n matrix (preferably with n real eigenvalues and n linearly independent eigenvectors)

1D 2-fluid models - consrv eqs 5

"Standard" two-fluid model equations:

r r r +C = S t x

do not contain terms with second order derivatives. Viscous stresses and heat conduction are described with constitutive equations that do not contain derivatives. Their inclusion would not improve the accuracy of these models. (Diffusive terms can be found in two-fluid models of CFD codes Their accuracy is questionable, but they certainly have a positive influence on the stability of the numerical schemes.)

Classification according to the number of equations - dimension of the r vector :

3-equation two-fluid models (example: HEM model) 4-equation two-fluid models (example: drift flux model) 5-equation models (example: older version of RELAP5 code) 6-equation models (widely used in nuclear thermal-hydraulic codes: RELAP5, TRAC, CATHARE) 7-equation models (two-pressure models, additional equation for interfacial area concentration) 8+ - equation models (multi-field models, example: different types of bubbles modelled with separate balance equations)

1D 2-fluid models - consrv eqs 7

r r r +C = S t x

n=3 (HEM model should not be called two-fluid model) conservative variables or basic variables (m - mixture) (Choice of variables is discussed in lessons on numerics) Homogeneous Equilibrium Model (HEM model) assumes thermal equilibrium (both phases always at saturation conditions) and mechanical equilibrium between both phases . Important from the theoretical point of view - represents a limit of higher two-fluid models.

Other possibilities exist for 3-equation two-fluid model:

= ( m , m v m , m um ) r = ( m , v m , pm )

= ( , v g , v f )

1D 2-fluid models - consrv eqs

8

Homogeneous-equilibrium model

The simplest averaged model of two-phase flow (works in 1D, 2D, 3D). Very strong interaction between both phases assures equal phasic velocities and equal phasic temperatures. Such approximation is seldom acceptable.

m m vm + =0 t x

m

vm v p + m vm m + = F f , gravity + F f ,wall t x x

Momentum balance

Energy balance

m um m um vm vm + +p = vm Fm,wall + qwall t x x

1D 2-fluid models - consrv eqs 9

Homogeneous-equilibrium model

Equation of state (probably the most complicated part of the HEM model). p m = p m ( m saturation , u m saturation ) Sonic velocity exhibits strong discontinuity between the single-phase and two-phase flow. Complicated calculation from equations of state:

m = m ( m saturation , u m saturation

Closure relations needed for wall friction and wall heat flux. No special model needed for single-to-two-phase flow transition.

1D 2-fluid models - consrv eqs 10

n=4 (drift flux model - again not called two-fluid model)

= ( m , g , m v m , m um )

(m - mixture, g - gas)

Drift flux model or 4-equation two fluid model: one phase in saturation conditions (usually vapor), other phase not necessarily in saturation. Mixture velocity obtained from the balance equations, relative velocity also available, but not from differential equation but from the empirical correlations. Very popular model in the early days of nuclear thermal-hydraulics. (see Ishii, Hibiki for details). (Other types of 4-equation two-fluid models can be constructed. )

1D 2-fluid models - consrv eqs 11

Drift-flux model

Drift flux model takes into account the relative velocity of two phases:

vr = v g v f

The relative velocity depends on the type of the two-phase flow (flow regime) and must be supplied with appropriate correlations). 40-years old model - still useful in engineering applications (Zuber, Findlay, 1965, J. Heat Transfer 87) Mixture mass balance: Gas-phase mass balance

g t + g v g x (1 ) f g vr = g x f

12

m m vm + =0 t x

Drift-flux model

Mixture momentum balance

2 2 m vm m vm (1 ) f g v r + pm = Fg , gravity + Fg ,wall + + f t x x x

m um m um vm v + + p m = vm Fm,wall + qwall t x x

Closure relations: correlation for relative velocity vr correlation for inter-phase mass transfer g equation of state wall friction, wall heat flux Fg ,wall qwall conductive heat flux, viscous stress tensor in 2D, 3D versions (not written in balance equations)

1D 2-fluid models - consrv eqs 13

n=5 a)

= ( g , f , m vm , f u f , g u g )

Thermal non-equilibrium between both phases possible, mechanical equilibrium - homogeneous flow (not very realistic and not used in practise) b)

= ( g , f , g v g , f v f , m um )

One phase in saturation conditions, the other one in non-equilibrium, mechanical non-equilibrium possible. This type of two-fluid model was built into the computer code RELAP5/MOD1. Version of the computer code for nuclear thermal-hydraulics analyses from ~1985.

14

n=6

= ( g , f , g vg , f v f , g ug , f u f )

Both phases can exhibit departure from saturation conditions. Mechanical non-equilibrium possible. Both pressures equal. This type of two-fluid model is built into the nuclear thermal-hydraulics computer codes that are still in use today and RELAP5, TRAC, TRACE (RELAP5 and TRAC merged 2-3 years ago) - all codes made in USA, CATHARE code - France. References: - manuals of the RELAP5 computer code (available online on internet) - D.Bestion, The physical closure laws in the CATHARE code, Nuclear Engineering and Design 124 (3), 1990.

1D 2-fluid models - consrv eqs 15

Requires even more closure relations than the drift flux model. Closure relations are mainly based on empirical approach. Thus, more experiments needed.

Mass balances:

A (1 - ) f t

A g t +

A (1 - ) f v f + = A g x

A g v g x = A g

per unit volume

A (x ) pipe cross-section

1D 2-fluid models - consrv eqs

16

Momentum balances

vf v2 1 p f + (1 - ) f + (1 - ) CVM = Ci | vr | vr g (vi v f ) + F f , gravity + F f ,wall 2 t x x

(1 - ) f

vg

CVM

Virtual mass term, contains derivatives! Interface friction coefficient Interface velocity

Ci vi

17

t + x

A g u g t

A g u g v g x

+p

A A v g * +p = A Qig + g hg + v g Fg ,wall t x

Qig Qif

* hg h* f

gas-interface and liquid-interface heat fluxes per unit volume specific gas and liquid enthalpies at the interface (usually saturation enthalpies)

18

Closure relations: Two additional equations of state for each phase k are:

d k = k d p + k d uk . p uk p u

k

CVM Ci

vi

Correlations for inter-phase heat and mass transfer. Wall friction correlations. Correlations for wall-to-fluid heat transfer ... others ...

1D 2-fluid models - consrv eqs

Qig Qif

19

r A + B = P t x

Closure relations: r non-diferential closures - no derivatives - contribute to vector P . differential closure equations - contain temporal and/or spatial derivatives of the variables contribute to matrices, examples: A, B - virtual mass term - in dispersed flows (motion of the bubble/droplet causes motion of the neighbouring mass of the opposite phase ) - interface pressure term - stratified flows in 1D approximation - unsteady wall friction terms (in single-phase 1D flows), ... The same physical phenomena can be sometimes described with differential or non-differential model closure equations with second-order derivatives - not found in 1D two-fluid models. Insufficient accuracy of the two-fluid model and errors of the numerical schemes (mainly first-order accurate) do not justify inclusion of the closure equations with second-order derivatives.

1D 2-fluid models - consrv eqs 20

r A + B = P t x

Closure equations with first order derivatives influence the matrices and A, B and mathematical character of the equations. Standard 6-equation two-fluid model is non-hyperbolic (ill-posed, i.e. has "slightly" complex 1 eigenvalues of the matrix C = A B ). Differential terms (virtual mass, interface pressure) may be used to improve hyperbolicity (interface pressure term added into CATHARE code two-fluid model without physical background, with purpose to remove non-hyperbolicity). Even a small term with second-order derivatives removes ill-posedness of the two-fluid equations. In practice such diffusion terms are not explicitly added, but come in the form of the numerical diffusion of the first-order accurate schemes.

21

n=7

= ( g , f , g v g , f v f , g u g , f u f ,7 th variable )

Possibilities for 7th variable: - vapor volume fraction model assumes phasic pressure nonequilibrium (two-pressure two-fluid model). - transport equation for interfacial area concentration - interfacial area concentration is a basis for all the closure laws describing inter-phase heat, mass and momentum transfer (Ishii, Hibiki). - concentration of non-condensable gas (RELAP5) - ....

22

Alternative approach to 6-eq. two-fluid model: 7-equation "two-pressure" two-fluid model (Saurel, Abgrall, J. Comput. Physics 150 (2), 1999). Very similar equations like 6-eq. model but with two separate phasic pressures. Additional equation for volume fraction completes the system of equations:

+ vm = ( p g pl ) t x

(1 ) f E f t

(1 - ) v f ( f E f + p f ) x

+ pi vi

(1 - ) = pi ( p g pl ) + Qif g h* + v f F f ,wall f x

23

Advantages of the 7-eq. model comparing to standard 6-eq. model: - No problems with hyperbolicity (no need for virtual mass or empirical interfacial pressure term) - Much simpler eigenstructure of the equations (simple analytical expressions for eigenvalues and eigenvectors) - Less problems with numerics (allows calculations of extremely large pressure and volume fraction gradients without oscillations) - The "two-pressure" model can be used as a single pressure model if instantaneous pressure relaxation is assumed ( = ). Problems: - Unknown relaxation time for the pressure non-equilibrium. - Pressure relaxation term is very stiff (very short relaxation time).

1D 2-fluid models - consrv eqs 24

n=8 and more

- multi-field models (see lecture notes of S. Banerjee at Modelling and Computation of Multiphase Flows, ETH Zurich, annual seminars) The same phase, for example liquid in annular flow, is modelled with a separate conservation equation for the liquid film at the wall and a separate equation for the droplets in the vapor code of the flow. - multi-group models: for bubbly flows: bubble size spectra divided into various classes. Each class of bubbles treated with a separate balance equation (see publications by U. Rohde, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf and CFX5 code manual.)

25

- Interfacial area ai is the most important parameter that governs the inter-phase heat, mass and momentum exchange in two-phase flows. - Like all other variables - ai is flow regime dependent - it can actually serves as a quantity describing the flow regime. - Advantage of the transport equation for ai

ai a + v i = SOURCES + SINKS t x

Advantage of additional equation - more accurate closure relations in transients that change the flow regimes. Advantage of the transport equation over the "standard" (non-differential) closures for ai is more continuous transition between the correlations of different flow regimes. (reference: Ishii, Hibiki)

1D 2-fluid models - consrv eqs 26

Technical University of Catalonia and Heat and Mass Transfer Technological Center, 2006

Seminar on

Two-phase flow modelling 4) 1D two-fluid models flow regime maps and closure equations

by

INTRODUCTION Lectures 1-2

TWO-FLUID MODELS 3) 1D two-fluid models - conservation equations 4) 1D two-fluid models - flow regime maps and closure equations 5) Characteristic upwind schemes for two-fluid models 6) Pressure-based solvers for two-fluid models INTERFACE TRACKING IN 3D TWO-PHASE FLOWS Lectures 7-10 ONE-DIMENSIONAL SIMULATIONS OF FAST TRANSIENTS Lectures 11-14

DNS OF THE PASSIVE SCALAR TRANSFER IN THE CHANNEL AND FLUME Lectures 15-18

1D 2-fluid models - closures 2

- Flow regime maps - vertical flow regimes - horizontal flow regimes - correlations for flow regime transitions - Non-differential closure equations - inter-phase friction - inter-phase heat and mass transfer - wall friction - wall-fluid heat transfer - Differential closure equations - virtual mass - interface pressure - unsteady wall friction

1D 2-fluid models - closures 3

- RELAP5 manual - a complete set of 1D flow regimes and closure laws applied in one of the leading codes for analyses in nuclear thermal-hydraulics.

Closure laws of the 1D two-fluid models depend on the flow regime of the two-phase flow. Example of flow regimes in vertical upward flow (Photo from Mayinger, Stromung und Warmeubergang in Gas-FlussigkeitsGemischen, Springer-Verlag, 1982): Flow regimes from left to right: - 2*Bubbly flow - Slug or plug flow - Annular - Annular-whisp

Flow regime is an integral "quantity", which is based on geometry of the flow. Inter-phase heat, mass and momentum transfer and wall-to-fluid transfer strongly depend on the flow regime. Closure laws are developed separately for each flow regime. Thus - the first step in development of the closure laws for 1D twofluid models is to draw an accurate flow regime map, which determines borders between different flow regimes. Flow regime maps - not directly applicable in 2D, 3D two-phase flow modelling: local closure laws in 2D, 3D cannot base on "integral quantity"...

1D 2-fluid models - closures 6

Flow regime map for horizontal flow. From Mandhane et al. 1974, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 1.

j g = v g

jl = (1 )vl

j f = jl

Horizontal flow regime map in RELAP5 code (drawing from RELAP5/mod3.3 manual)

Flow regime map for cocurrent vertical upward flow. From Hewit, Roberts. 1969.

j g = v g

jl = (1 )vl

j f = jl

Vertical flow regime map in RELAP5 code (drawing from RELAP5/mod3.3 manual)

10

Various flow regime maps exist. They are based on a wide range of experiments but are are limited to the measurements and experimental conditions (type of fluid, pressure, temperature, pipe diameter, pipe inclination...). Flow regime maps in the computer codes must operate in much wider range of parameters. Flow regime maps are believed (I. Tiselj) to be the major source of uncertainty in the computer codes based on two-fluid models. Typical simulation of the transient in the nuclear power plant coolant loop; how much time is code using proper flow regime correlations in each particular volume of the system filled with two-phase flow? ???

11

Non-diferential closures - no derivatives - Derived from steady-state experiments. - Easier to develop from the experimental data. - Validity in transient conditions questionable. Differential closure equations - contain temporal and/or spatial derivatives of the variables. - Can take into account history or spatial distribution of the variables. - Difficult to develop (experiments in transient conditions needed). Can be obtained with theoretical approach. - Influence the mathematical character of the equations and the speed of sound in the two-phase flow.

12

Non-differential closure equations Physical background - stress terms due to the relative motion of both phases: Liquid and gas phase momentum equations:

Differenti al terms = Ci | v r | v r + g ( vi v g ) + Fg , gravity + Fg ,wall

Examples of Ci : - Bubbly flow (RELAP5). Assumptions: all bubbles of the same size, bubble diameter=half of the max. bubble stable at the local relative velocity v r = v g v f . - Horizontally stratified flow (RELAP5). Assumption: interface is a flat plate. Standard laws for friction near the flat wall are applied.

1D 2-fluid models - closures 13

Drag coefficient of the bubble:

interfacial area concentration: Reynolds number in is defined The product of the critical Weber number and surface tension is: Modified square of the relative velocity is defined as: Average bubble diameter is:

Re = (We ) (1 )

f v2 fg

(We ) = max(5 , 10 10 )

2 (We ) vr , v = max 1/ 3 f min( D , 0.005 bub )

2 fg

d0 =

(We )

f v2 fg

14

Force of f on g = - Force of g on f:

F f = Fg = C i v

2 r

1 1 f f f (v f v i ) 2 = f g g (v g v i ) 2 8 8

1000 , v f v i A f f Re f = max f

1000 , v g v i Ag g Re g = max g

( v g vi ) 2 1 a Ci = g f g 2 gf 8 (v g v f ) ( v f vi ) 2 1 a ) (or Ci = f f f 2 gf 8 (v g v f )

1D 2-fluid models - closures

15

Non-differential closure equations Physical background:

A (1 - ) f t + A (1 - ) f v f + A g v g x x = A g

A g t

per unit volume

= A g

* + g hg + v g Fg ,wall ig

) )

Qig Qif

* hg h* f

gas-interface and liquid-interface heat fluxes per unit volume specific gas and liquid enthalpies at the interface (usually saturation enthalpies)

1D 2-fluid models - closures 16

The vapor generation rate is calculated from known heat fluxes as:

g = Qif + Qig h h

* g * f

h* = h f f

* , hg = hg saturation

* , hg = hg

if

if

g > 0

g < 0

h* = h f saturation f

h = u + p/

The liquid-to-interface and gas-to-interface volumetric heat fluxes

Interface temperature is assumed to be a saturation temperature at the local pressure. Fluxes , are flow regime dependent TS (interfacial area dependent). Details - elsewhere (RELAP5). Q Q

ig

Qif = H if (TS T f )

Qig = H ig (TS T g )

if

17

Wall friction

Non-differential closure equations Simple model - calculate single phase friction for two-phase mixture and split the friction between both phases:

Differenti al terms = Ci | v r | v r + g ( vi v g ) + Fg , gravity + Fg ,wall

Darcy equations modified for the two-phase flow:

F f ,wall = f wf

f v f v f (1 ) f 2D m

Fg ,wall = f wg

g v g v g g 2D m

fw =

1 fw

Re

2.51 k = 2 log + 0.27 Re f D w

1D 2-fluid models - closures

Turbulent flow

18

Non-differential closures Physical background: wallto-fluid heat transfer important in the flow around the fuel elements of the nuclear power plant.

g - energy eq. differential terms =

* A Qig + g hg + v g Fg ,wall + Qwg

1D 2-fluid models - closures 19

Differential closure equation Physical background: in the dispersed flow acceleration of the bubble (droplet) accelerates also the gas (liquid) around the bubble (droplet) so called added mass effect. This can be taken into account with a new term in momentum equation:

vg

vg v f vf vg CVM = CVM t + v f x - t - v g x

CVM

1 1 + 2 2 1 a = m (1 ) 3 2 2 (1 )( 2 1) + 2 (1 + g / f ) 2

0.4

> 0.6

20

Differential closure equation Problem of the virtual mass term: - Clearly and accurately defined only for spherical particles. Bubbles/droplets are often non-spherical. Moreover, size of the bubbles is not known... - Even less than in the bubbly and droplet flow regimes is known about the virtual mass term in other flow regimes. - Historical reason for inclusion of the VM term: more stable numerics. Virtual mass term can make equations of the 6-equation two-fluid model hyperbolic.

21

Differential closure equation Physical background: interface pressure term allows simulations of the horizontally stratified flows with 1D two-fluid model - appears in momentum equations:

g

(1 - ) f

vg

v2 1 p f + (1 - ) f + (1 - ) Pi = non differential terms 2 t x x x

vf

Pi = (1 )( f g ) gD

pipe diameter

to obtain solutions that behave like solutions of the shallow water equation 1D 2-fluid models - closures

22

Differential closure equation Mathematical background: like virtual mass term, interface pressure term can make the two-fluid model hyperbolic. CATHARE code is using interface pressure term in stratified flow: this term is sufficient to make equations hyperbolic in Pi = (1 )( f g ) gD horizontally stratified flows and in all other flow regimes an expression which makes equations hyperbolic (almost hyperbolic): hyperbolicity can be lost 2 g f vr when relative velocity Pi = becomes comparable with f + (1 ) g the speed of sound in the two-phase mixture

1D 2-fluid models - closures 23

Differential closure equation Physical background: Standard wall friction correlations are developed from the steady-state measurements. Such correlations are insufficient for some of the fast transients with pressure waves in the piping systems. Simplified single-phase momentum equation:

s steady state wall friction s D = relaxation time correlation D t More details in lectures on 1D simulations of fast transients.

1D 2-fluid models - closures 24

Closure equations describing inter-phase heat, mass and momentum transfer and wall-to-fluid transfer depend on the flow regime. Flow regime is integral "quantity". Application of "integral quantity" on the local scale of partial differential equations is questionable. It "works" in 1D, but, how to transport the flow regime information to 2D, 3D ? Closure relations are the main source of uncertainty in the two-fluid models. Results are especially questionable in simulations of the transients with flow regime transition. Applicability of a specific two-fluid model with a given set of closure equations for the particular transient in the nuclear power plant, must be tested with "integral experiments".

1D 2-fluid models - closures 25

Technical University of Catalonia and Heat and Mass Transfer Technological Center, 2006

Seminar on

by

characteristic-upwind schemes

INTRODUCTION Lectures 1-2 TWO-FLUID MODELS 3) 1D two-fluid models - conservation equations 4) 1D two-fluid models - flow regime maps and closure equations 5) Characteristic upwind schemes for two-fluid models 6) Pressure-based solvers for two-fluid models INTERFACE TRACKING IN 3D TWO-PHASE FLOWS Lectures 7-10 ONE-DIMENSIONAL SIMULATIONS OF FAST TRANSIENTS Lectures 11-14

DNS OF THE PASSIVE SCALAR TRANSFER IN THE CHANNEL AND FLUME Lectures 15-18

characteristic-upwind schemes 2

- Pressure-based and characteristic upwind schemes. - Introduction to high resolution shock capturing schemes for Euler equations of single-phase compressible flows. - Riemann solvers - second-order accurate solutions - Characteristic-upwind schemes for two-fluid models: - Two-fluid models: conservative or non-conservative form? - Eigenvalues, eigenvectors of the two-fluid model equations. - Integration of the geometric source terms. - Integration of the stiff source terms. - Characteristic-upwind schemes for two-fluid models, yes or no?

characteristic-upwind schemes

Books: C. Hirsch, Numerical computation of internal and external flow, Vol. 1-2, John Wiley & Sons, (1988). J. D. Anderson, Computational Fluid Dynamics, McGraw-Hill, New York, (1995). R. J. LeVeque, Numerical Methods for Conservation Laws, Lectures in Mathematics, ETH, Zurich, (1992). Papers: R. Saurel, R. Abgrall, A Multiphase Godunov method for compressible multifluid and multiphase flows, J. Comp. Physics 150, 425-467, 1999. I. Tiselj, S. Petelin, Modelling of two-phase flow with second-order accurate scheme, J. Comp. Physics 136 (2) 503-521, 1997. R. B. Pember, Numerical Methods for Hyperbolic Conservation Laws with Stiff Relaxation I. Spurious Solutions", SIAM J. Appl. Math. 53, No. 5, 1293 (1993)

characteristic-upwind schemes 4

Pressure-based schemes: pressure is a "privileged" variable comparing to density. Suitable for incompressible flows. Characteristic upwind schemes: pressure treated like all other variables (velocity, density, temperature) - suitable for Euler equations of compressible flows. Is two-phase flow compressible or incompressible? Main criteria for separation of compressible and incompressible flows is fluid velocity, which must be smaller that ~30% of the sound velocity in the fluid. - Effective sound velocities in two-phase flows depends on closure equations and can be as low as 10 to 20 m/s (argument for characteristic upwind schemes) - Pressure based schemes are not limited only to incompressible but can usually handle "slightly" compressible flows... (argument for pressurebased schemes)

characteristic-upwind schemes 5

Characteristic upwind approach vs. pressure-based methods: - Pressure-based methods - longer history - older versions were firstorder accurate in time and space, robust and efficient. Their weak side is numerical dissipation, which tends to smear discontinuities on coarse grids. - New pressure-based schemes are improved also for slightly compressible flows, second-order accurate versions available (CFD codes). - Characteristic upwind scheme can be easily upgraded into secondorder accurate scheme, which means reduced numerical diffusion. - Advantage of characteristic upwind approach: for fast transients with pressure waves. Pressure-based approach might be sufficient for a wide range of transients where the convection terms play a minor role comparing to the source terms.

characteristic-upwind schemes 6

Euler equations of single-phase compressible quasi-1D flow of ideal gas: A Av 0 Av + A( v 2 + p ) = p dA Conservative form

AE t Av ( E + p ) x

r +C = S t x

1 E = e = u + v2 2

dx

= [ A , A v , A e]

Equation of state (ideal gas):

p 1 2 E= + v 1 2

cp cv

7

characteristic-upwind schemes

Jacobian matrix:

Diagonalized:

C = L L

Eigenvalues: v + c

2 p c =

h = e+ p/

= 0 0

0 0 v c 0 v 0

Eigenvectors 1

1 L = v +c v c v 2 h + cv h cv v / 2 1

8

characteristic-upwind schemes

Equation:

r +C =S t x

r A 1 + L L + R =0 x x t r r r 1 1 1 1 A L + L + L R = 0 t x x r r

rewritten:

= L + L

r R A

+ =0 t x

characteristic-upwind schemes 9

High resolution shock capturing schemes for Euler equations - discrete form

Vectorial equations

r +C =S t x

nj - n-1 j

r r

n+1 - nj j

r r t x x r ++ n r -- n A j - A j -1 A j+1 - A j + ( R ) j+1/2 =0 + ( R ) j -1/2 x x + C ++

( )

n j -1/2

+ C

( )

n j+1/2

nj+1 - n j

( ) (C )

++ n C j 1 / 2 n j +1 / 2

( = (L

= L

++

1 n L j 1 / 2 n j +1 / 2

L 1

) )

r n r -- n 1 ( R ) j +1 / 2 = ( L F L R ) j +1 / 2 r n r ++ n ++ 1 ( R ) j +1 / 2 = ( L F L R ) j +1 / 2

t < x / max(v c , v + c )

characteristic-upwind schemes 10

High resolution shock capturing schemes for Euler equations - discrete form

Matrices

+ + , , F + + , F :

+ k + = k f k+ + k = 1,3 k = k f k k = 1,3

t - 1 f ++ = max 0 , k + k k k | | 2 x k f

-k

t = min 0 , k - k k - 1 | | 2 x k

SECOND-ORDER CORRECTIONS

Flux (slope) limiters: k, j+1-m - k, j -m k, j+1 / 2-m k, j+1/2 = , m= k, j+1/2 = MINMOD | k, j+1/2 | k, j+1 - k, j k, j+1 / 2 k = max(0 , min(1 , k )) r r r 1 1 1 j+1/ 2 = L + L RA A j+1/ 2 Van Leer k = ( k + k ) /( k + 1) Superbee k = 0 1st-order upwind k = max( 0, min( 2 k ,1), min( k ,2)) k = 1 2nd-order Lax-Wendroff

characteristic-upwind schemes

11

High resolution shock capturing schemes for Euler equations - discrete form

Jacobian matrix averaging (Roe's approximate Riemann solver):

C j +1 / 2

A j j v j + A j +1 j +1 v j +1 A j j + A j +1 j +1

1 (3 )vave

2 have ( 1)vave

0 1 vave

A j j h j + A j +1 j +1 h j +1 A j j + A j +1 j +1

( vave ) j +1 / 2 =

( have ) j +1 / 2 =

( ave ) j +1 / 2 = j j +1

( Aave ) j +1 / 2 =

A j A j +1

characteristic-upwind schemes

12

High resolution shock capturing schemes for Euler equations - discrete form

Jacobian matrix averaging with Roe's approximate Riemann solver guarantees proper propagation velocities of the discontinuities (shock waves) in the solutions. Rankine-Hugoniot conditions are satisfied at the discontinuities of the numerical solution:

( A ) + ( Av ) = 0 ( Av ) + A ( v 2 + p ) = p (dA / dx ) ( AE ) + ( Av ( E + p ) ) = 0

propagation velocity of the shock wave difference between the quantities ahead and behind the shock cross-section derivative in point of the discontinuity

(dA / dx )

(entropy fix procedure - see LeVeque for details - must be added to remove the discontinuities that violate entropy law - rarefaction shock waves.)

characteristic-upwind schemes

13

High resolution shock capturing schemes for Euler equations - solutions (Sod's shock-tube)

p v

length (m)

Sod, JCP 27, 1978

characteristic-upwind schemes 14

High resolution shock capturing schemes for Euler equations - shock-tube solutions (100 grid points)

velocity (m/s)

(Not Sod's shock tube - Lax Wendroff fails for Sod's case due to the very large discontinuity...) characteristic-upwind schemes

15

High resolution shock capturing schemes for Euler equations - what is applicable for two-fluid models?

Problems of two-fluid models: - Equations are "Euler-like" but not necessarily hyperbolic. - Diagonalization of the Jacobian matrix of 6-equation two-fluid model is a difficult task: - diagonalization can be performed with analytical approximations. - diagonalization can be performed numerically. (Details: Tiselj, Petelin, JCP 136, 1997, WAHA code manual, 2004)

characteristic-upwind schemes

16

High resolution shock capturing schemes for Euler equations - what is applicable for two-fluid models?

Problems of two-fluid models: - Equations cannot be written in conservative form (although they are derived from conservation equations), i.e., Rankine-Hugoniot conditions are unknown. Moreover - shocks in two-phase flow are not discontinuities... (See example of shock wave in bubbly mixture, Kameda, Matsumoto, Phys. Fluids 8 (2), 1996)

experiment

pressure (bar)

characteristic-upwind schemes

17

High resolution shock capturing schemes for Euler equations - what is applicable for two-fluid models?

Problems of two-fluid models: Regarding the numerical integration source terms can be divided into three groups: 1) Sources due to the variable cross-section - can be treated with characteristic upwind in the convection part of equations. 2) Source terms describing interphase mass, momentum, and energy transfer, which tend to establish mechanical and thermal equilibrium i.e., RELAXATION source terms. These source terms are STIFF (their time scale can be much shorter than the time scale of the sonic waves). SPECIAL TREATMENT REQUIRED. 3) Other source terms, which represent external forces (gravity, wall friction) and wall heat transfer - not stiff (probably).

characteristic-upwind schemes 18

Example of numerical scheme for two-fluid model based on characteristic upwind methods and operator splitting with explicit time integration. Operator splitting: 1) Convection and non-relaxation source terms - source terms due to the smooth area change, wall friction and volumetric forces are solved in the first sub step with upwind discretisation: r r r A +B = SNON _ RELAXATION , t x 2) Relaxation (inter-phase exchange) source terms:

r r d A = SRELAXATION dt

characteristic-upwind schemes

19

1st substep of operator splitting: convection terms with non-relaxation source terms

Equation solved:

r 1 +C = A S N R . t x

C = L L1

Eigenvalues and eigenvectors of Jacobian matrix are found: Source terms are rewritten:

r RA contains source terms due to the variable pipe cross-section r RF contains wall friction and volumetric forces (no derivatives).

r r r A r 1 + L L + RA + RF = 0 . t x x

This part of the scheme is the same as for the Euler equations of the single-phase compressible flow.

characteristic-upwind schemes 20

Basic variables are ~ primitive variables, = ( p, , v f ,vg , u f , ug ) ( f , g replaced with u f , u g ) The preferred set of variables would be conservative variables:

Conservative equations + and -: 1)+ Numerical conservation of mass and energy can be assured with conservative variables. No conservation of momentum: equations of two-fluid model cannot be written in conservative form, due to the pressure gradient terms, virtual mass terms, interfacial pressure terms, and possibly other correlations that contain derivatives... (Conservation of momentum is less important than conservation of mass/energy.)

characteristic-upwind schemes 21

Conservative variables + and -: 2)- "Non-standard" water property subroutines are required that calculate two-phase properties ( p , , , ) from the conservative f g variables ( ).

(1 - ) f , g , (1 - ) f u f , g u g

3)- Primitive variables are very convenient for evaluation of eigenvalues and eigenvectors. 4)+/-The conservative quantities as components of vector,

= g , (1 ) f , g v g , (1 ) oscillations , (1 ) e f ) are more( sensitive to the numerical f v f , g e g thanthef primitive variables: = ( p, , v f , v g , u f , u g )

characteristic-upwind schemes 22

Conservative variables + and -: 4) CONTINUED - Specific numerical oscillations are induced near the property discontinuities (Karni, 1994, Abgrall, 1996) when conservative variables are used. + Non-conservation of mass and energy can also cause numerical oscillations near the strong pressure and volume fraction discontinuities. +/- The optimal set of variables might be a mixture of conservative and nonconservative variables:

= ( g , (1 ) f , v f , g e g , (1 ) f e f )

characteristic-upwind schemes 23

see Tiselj, Petelin, JCP 136, 1997

Influence of the basic variables on the solution of the Toumi's shock tube problem for the 6-equation two-fluid model.

characteristic-upwind schemes 24

see Tiselj, Petelin, JCP 136, 1997

Influence of the basic variables on the solution of the Toumi's shock tube problem for the 6-equation two-fluid model. Initial vapor volume fraction discontinuity: LEFT=0.25, RIGHT=0.1

characteristic-upwind schemes 25

see Tiselj, Petelin, JCP 136, 1997

Influence of the basic variables on the solution of the Tiselj's shock tube problem for the 6-equation two-fluid model. Initial vapor volume fraction discontinuity: LEFT=0.9, RIGHT=0.1

characteristic-upwind schemes 26

Optimal scheme for the convective part of equations remains to be found... Implicit time schemes might be preferred. Problem: transition from single-phase to two-phase flow. 3 equations in single-phase volume, 6 (5,7) equations in two-phase volume. Degeneration of eigenvectors for zero relative velocity in two-fluid models with two velocity fields (a small artificial relative velocity maintained everywhere solves the problem).

characteristic-upwind schemes

27

r r d A = S RELAXATION dt

Relaxation source terms: inter-phase heat, mass and momentum exchange terms are stiff, i.e., their characteristic time scales can be much shorter that the time scales of the hyperbolic part of the equations. Integration of the relaxation sources within the operatorsplitting scheme is performed with variable time steps, which depend on the stiffness of the source terms. Upwinding is not used (difficult to use) for calculation of the relaxation source terms.

characteristic-upwind schemes

28

Second equation of the operator splitting scheme

r m+1

rm r rm = + A ( )S ( )tS rm

1

is integrated over a single time step with variable time steps that depend on the stiffness of the relaxations and can be much shorter that the convective time step . The time step for the integration of the source terms is controlled by the relative change of the basic variables. The maximal relative change of the basic variables in one step of the integration is limited to 0.01 to obtain results that are "numerics" independent. Time step is further reduced when it is necessary to prevent the change of relative velocity direction, or to prevent the change of sign of phasic temperature differences. Probably the best solution: implicit integration of relaxation sources.

characteristic-upwind schemes 29

Relaxation source terms of the WAHA two-fluid model do not affect the properties of the mixture in a given point: mixture density, mixture momentum, and mixture total energy should remain unchanged after the integration of the relaxation source terms. It is in principle possible to choose a set of basic variables:

that enables simplified integration of the relaxation source terms. Only a system of three differential equations is solved instead of the system of six. It is difficult to calculate the state of the fluid from the variables that are result of such relaxation.

characteristic-upwind schemes

30

- LeVeque and Yee (1990) tested a simple convection equation with a stiff source term and showed that a general stiff source term affects the propagation velocity of the discontinuous solutions and can cause nonphysical numerical oscillations. - Pember's conjecture from (1993): stiff relaxation source terms do not produce spurious solutions, when the solutions of the original hyperbolic model tend to the solution of the equilibrium equations as the stiffness of the relaxation source terms is increased. - Numerical tests with the 6-eq. two-fluid model confirmed the results of Pember: the stiff sources describing inter-phase mass, energy and momentum exchange in two-fluid models do not produce spurious solutions and do not modify the propagation velocity of the discontinuities. - Stiff source terms are integrated with variable time step depending on the stiffness.

characteristic-upwind schemes 31

Numerical scheme for the convection equation Integration of the source terms

Current test cases for numerics and physics: 1) Shock tube with large pressure and void fraction jumps (test of numerics). 2) Simple water hammer experiments (Simpson, 1989). 3) Two-phase flow in the nozzle. Especially important as a test of closure laws (physics): very accurate steady-state solutions can be easily calculated from steady-state ordinary differential equations for subcritical flows (experiment Abuaf et. al. 1981, Brookhaven Nat. Lab.). Also very though test for numerics.

characteristic-upwind schemes

32

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 20

Vhem

Vf

Ci=10 Hif=Hig=10^3

Vg

640

Them

Tf

Tg

Ci=10 Hif=Hig=10^3

40

60

80

Shock waves of two fluid model with various interphase momentum (Ci), heat and mass transfer (Hif,Hig)

100

characteristic-upwind schemes

33

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 20 40 60 80

Ci=10^3 Hif=Hig=10^6

Ci=10^3 Hif=Hig=10^6

100

characteristic-upwind schemes

34

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 20 40 60 80

Ci=10^4 Hif=Hig=10^7

Ci=10^4 Hif=Hig=10^7

100

characteristic-upwind schemes

35

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 20 40 60 80

Ci=10^5 Hif=Hig=10^9

Ci=10^5 Hif=Hig=10^9

100

characteristic-upwind schemes

36

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 20 40 60 80

Ci=10^6 Hif=Hig=10^11

100

100

characteristic-upwind schemes

37

The arbitrary stiff source terms can affect the propagation velocity of the discontinuous solutions and can produce spurious numerical solutions. Results with the two-fluid model confirm the Pember's conjecture from (1993), which states that the stiff relaxation source terms do not produce spurious solutions, when the solutions of the original hyperbolic model (6-equation two-fluid model) tend to the solution of the equilibrium equations (Homogeneous-Equilibrium model) as the stiffness of the relaxation source terms is increased. Stiffness of the neglected wall-to-fluid heat transfer sources cannot be excluded in advance in some extreme conditions in nuclear thermal-hydraulics that would cause a new problem for numerics.

characteristic-upwind schemes 38

Is it reasonable to develop new codes based on characteristic upwind schemes? New code for simulation of water hammer transients - WAHA - has been developed using characteristic upwind scheme within the WAHALoads project financed by EU's 5th research program. Authors: Jozef Stefan Institute, Slovenia, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Belgium, Comissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Grenoble, France.

characteristic-upwind schemes

39

Technical University of Catalonia and Heat and Mass Transfer Technological Center, 2006

Seminar on

by

pressure-based schemes

INTRODUCTION Lectures 1-2 TWO-FLUID MODELS 3) 1D two-fluid models - conservation equations 4) 1D two-fluid models - flow regime maps and closure equations 5) Characteristic upwind schemes for two-fluid models 6) Pressure-based solvers for two-fluid models INTERFACE TRACKING IN 3D TWO-PHASE FLOWS Lectures 7-10 ONE-DIMENSIONAL SIMULATIONS OF FAST TRANSIENTS Lectures 11-14

DNS OF THE PASSIVE SCALAR TRANSFER IN THE CHANNEL AND FLUME Lectures 15-18

pressure-based schemes 2

- Introduction - Numerical scheme of RELAP5 - Numerical diffusion, accuracy

pressure-based schemes

Book: Ferziger, Peric, Computational methods for fluid dynamics, Springer, 1997. Internet: http://www.cfd-online.com/Wiki/Numerical_methods RELAP5, CFX, Fluent, NEPTUNE manuals

pressure-based schemes

Pressure equation arises from the requirement that the solution of the momentum equation also satisfies continuity. "Standard" two-fluid model equations:

r r r +C = S t x

Equations are discretised "directly". Often in the conservative form. Such discretisation is often unstable - especially if diffusive terms (second-order derivatives) are absent. (CFX is known to have problems with inviscid flows)

pressure-based schemes

RELAP5 - 30 years old numerical scheme - no second-order terms in RELAP5 two-fluid model. Stability comes from the numerical diffusion of first-order accurate discretisation and artificial viscosity term. Schemes developed for conservation laws in single-phase flow are usually applied also for two-phase flows - especially in 2D, 3D CFD codes. Number of conservation laws not important... Pressure-velocity coupling: - avoid checker-board of pressure-velocity field: - use staggered grid, - Rhie-Chow type of velocity interpolation on coincident grids (used in general-purpouse CFD codes)

pressure-based schemes 6

Segregated Solver (RELAP5, NEPTUNE, CFX, Fluent - for twophase flows) 1) Solve Momentum equations (u,v,w) 2) Solve pressure correction equation (SIMPLE...) Correct fluxes and velocities 3) Solve transport equations for other scalars Coupled Solver (CFX, Fluent - for single-phase flows) 1) Solve the Momentum equations- Pressure equation system in one go (u,v,w,p) 2) Solve transport equations for other scalars

pressure-based schemes

Overview of the segregated solver (from Fluent manual):

pressure-based schemes

Overview of the coupled solver (from Fluent manual):

pressure-based schemes

RELAP5 continuity and momentum equation for single-phase flow:

v =0 + x t

v v 2 p =0 + + t 2 x x

RELAP5 code discretisation properties: - Staggered grid - velocities calculated at the boundaries of the control volumes. - Implicit for the acoustic terms, explicit for non-acoustic terms (semiimplicit scheme) - Acoustic terms:

v + =0 t x

v p + =0 t x

pressure-based schemes 10

Staggered grid in RELAP5:

mass, energy scalar node control volume p,,f,g,uf,g

vf

vg

j+1

j+1/2

velocity node vf,vg momentum control volume

pressure-based schemes

11

Donor-cell discretisation of the convective terms, density for example:

i +1 / 2 =

i +1 vi +1 / 2 < 0 i vi +1 / 2 > 0

Difference equations obtained for the positive velocities in the grid points i and i+1/2:

n +1 i

+ t

n i

n n +1 i v i +1 / 2

n vin+1/ 2 i 1 1

=0

x 2

vin++1/ 2 vin+1 / 2 in ( v 2 ) in+1 ( v 2 ) in ( v 2 ) in+3 / 2 2(v 2 ) in+1 / 2 + ( v 2 ) in1 / 2 1 + 2 t x x 2 artificial viscosity term pin++1 pin +1 1 + =0 x 2nd-order accurate difference

in+1 / 2

pressure-based schemes

12

in +1 in

t

in+1 / 2

in vin++1/ 2 in1vin+1/ 2 1 1

x

=0

x 2

Two-equations written in each point. Velocity is eliminated and a linear system of N-equations is solved with unknown pressure pn+1. (N number of volumes) After calculation of the pressure field, the velocity field is updated. Other variables - calculated in two steps - mainly due to the stiff interphase exchange source terms. Inter-phase exchange terms are also calculated implicitly, other sources - with explicit integration.

pressure-based schemes 13

TRAC, CATHARE - even more implicit treatment of equations. CATHARE - fully implicit:

n +1 n

t

r r r n +1 f ( n +1 ) = S ( ) x

Multi-dimensional codes (NEPTUNE, CFX) - fully implicit... More implicit approach means more stability, but not more accuracy (stability is a result of numerical diffusion of the implicit schemes). More implicit approach allows use of longer time steps - however, time step longer than the characteristic time of the physical phenomena means non-accurate simulation of the phenomena.

pressure-based schemes 14

RELAP5 1 2 F 2 nd -o rd e r

RELAP5 2

0.002

Stiff source term integration problematic also in RELAP5 (implicit time integration of source terms) Calculated vapor volume fraction near the valve: RELAP5 1 t=x/c RELAP5 2 t=0.01x/c 2F - WAHA t=x/c adaptive time step for relaxation source terms.

15

0.001

tim e (s )

pressure-based schemes

RELAP5 1st

RELAP5 2nd

2nd-order scheme

Quasi second-order pressure waves are predicted by the RELAP5 when a very small time step is used. The resolution of the steep gradients is improved; however, numerical oscillations appear near the shock wave.

in+1 / 2

i +1 / 2

i +1 / 2

+ ...CONVECTION +

i +1

=0

pressure-based schemes

16

Work fairly well, although the various numerical artifacts are less controlled than in the characteristic upwind schemes. Advantages of the characteristic based schemes seem to be insufficient to justify development of the codes based on the characteristic upwind schemes. Characteristic upwind or pressure-based schemes - it is not very important - the main problem of the two-phase flows is not numerics and numerical errors but physics and physical models.

pressure-based schemes

17

Technical University of Catalonia and Heat and Mass Transfer Technological Center, 2006

Seminar on

by

7-3D-two-phase-flows

INTRODUCTION TWO-FLUID MODELS Lecture 1-2 Lectures 3-6

INTERFACE TRACKING IN 3D TWO-PHASE FLOWS 7) 3D two-phase flows - mathematical background 8) Interface tracking models 9) Coupling of two-fluid models and VOF method 10) Simulations of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability ONE-DIMENSIONAL SIMULATIONS OF FAST TRANSIENTS DNS OF THE PASSIVE SCALAR TRANSFER IN THE CHANNEL AND FLUME

7-3D-two-phase-flows

2

- Introduction, computer codes CFX, Fluent, NEPTUNE (new 3D code for nuclear thermal hydraulics). - 3D two-fluid models in CFX, Fluent, NEPTUNE - 3D closure laws in CFX, Fluent, NEPTUNE - Turbulence in two-fluid model codes.

7-3D-two-phase-flows

Additional: - Tsai & Yue Annu. Rev. Fluid. Mech. 1996.28:249-78 - about freesurface flows in oceanography - Detailed surface modelling (non-zero thickness of the interface...): Anderson, McFadden, Wheeler, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 1998. 30:139 65

7-3D-two-phase-flows 4

ECORA document: Recommendation on use of CFD codes for nuclear reactor safety analyses - Conclusions: "Two-phase CFD is much less mature than single phase CFD. The flows are much more complex and myriads of basic phenomena may take place at various scales. Thus it is clear that the physical modelling will have to be improved over a long time period. Fundamental questions related to the averaging or filtering of equations are not yet as clearly formalised as they are for RANS or LES methods in single phase. This makes that the separation between physics and numerics is not always well defined... ... ECORA strongly recommends further investigations on this topic."

7-3D-two-phase-flows 5

The European Platform for NUclear REactor SIMulations, NURESIM is planned to become common European standard software platform for modeling, recording, and recovering computer data for nuclear reactors simulations. Key objectives of NURESIM: (i) integration of advanced physical models in a shared and open software platform; (ii) promoting and incorporating the latest advances in reactor and core physics, thermal-hydraulics, and coupled (multi-) physics modeling; (iii) progress assessment by using deterministic and statistical sensitivity and uncertainty analyses, verification and benchmarking; (iv) training, dissemination, best practice and quality assurance.

7-3D-two-phase-flows 6

The specific objectives of NURESIM are to initiate the development of the next-generation of experimentally validated, best-estimate tools for modeling (thermal-hydraulics, core physics, and multi-physics) of the present and future reactors. The improved prediction capabilities, standardization and robustness of the envisaged NURESIM European Platform would address current and future needs of industry, reactor safety organizations, academic, government, and private institutions. Thermal hydraulics - NEPTUNE code.

7-3D-two-phase-flows

Computer codes

CFX, Fluent - commercial CFD codes - academic licenses ~1000 EU per CPU - major players on the market of CFD codes. CFX and Fluent used to be competitors, but have recently got the same owner (ANSYS). Future ??? Both codes have a strong two-phase flow modules. Especially useful for particles (bubbly flows).

7-3D-two-phase-flows

Approach available in Fluent with VOF technique - computed surface will always remain sharp (even when it has nothing to do with the actual shape of the surface) Continuity equation for the whole domain

r v = 0

Dirac delta function

r

r + v = 0 t

r rr r v + (v v ) = F ( p I + ) + ( f s ( r , t )) t r f s (r , t )

equation of interface

7-3D-two-phase-flows

2 Continuity equations

r (G G ) + G GU = GL t G - Gas User specified mass source

r ( L L ) + L LU = SML + LG t

L + G = 1

1 momentum equation

r rr r r U + UU U + (U )T = p + g + S M t = L L + (1 L )G = L L + (1 L )G

( )

))

Density

Viscosity

10

Model available in CFX5 and Fluent CFD codes (3,4, or 5 eqs. two-fluid model)

7-3D-two-phase-flows

2 Countinity equations

r ( L L ) + LU L = SML + LG t

r ( G G ) + GU G = SMG + GL t

2 momentum equations

r r r r r r r r r U + U T + U U + S + M L LU L + L LU L U L = Lp + L L L L LG G GL L ML L t r r r r r r r r r U + U T + U U + S + M G GU G + G GU G U G = G p + G G G G GL L LG G MG G t

( (

( (

))

( (

))

Model available in CFX5, Fluent User specified and Neptune CFD codes (4,5,6 momentum source eqs. two-fluid model) 7-3D-two-phase-flows

11

Drag Force

r r r M L = CLG U G U L

CD =

2 r r 2 ; Adroplet = D / 4 1 L U L UG A 2

C LG r r CD = ai LG U G U G 8

LG = L L + G G

ai =

L G

d LG

Mixing length scale - user specified - interfacial area ai is supposed to be a part of solution and not a user defined parameter...

7-3D-two-phase-flows 12

Dimensionless drag force coefficient for spherical particles (bubbles, droplets) Low Reynolds Re<<1

CD = 24 Re

CD =

24 1 + 0.15 Re0.687 Re

Transitional area at medium Reynolds numbers. CFX and Fluent offer drag forces for non-spherical bubbles, but should be switched on by user... (How do one knows that bubbles changed their shape?) CFX, Fluent and Neptune can take into account also the following inter-phase momentum transfer in dispersed flows: lift, virtual mass, turbulent dispersion force. Approach probably useful for particle flows (and allows numerous user defined parameters to fit the experiments...)

7-3D-two-phase-flows 13

Neptune - separate correlations

??? (user defined....)

7-3D-two-phase-flows

14

2 Total Energy equations, 1 Momentum equation

r r p r + G GU hG ,tot G G TG G G U + U G G hG ,tot G t t

( )

T

2 r r U U 3

= =

GL hL ,tot LG hG ,tot + QG + SG

( )

2 r r U U 3

LG hG ,tot GL hL,tot + QL + S L

Heat transfer induced by Interphase heat interphase mass transfer transfer 1 r r Total enthalpy htot = hstat + U U 2

)

15

7-3D-two-phase-flows

2 Thermal Energy equations, 2 Momentum equations

r ( L L hL ) + L LU L hL LLTL = LG hG ,tot GL hL,tot + QL + S L t

Heat transfer induced by interphase mass transfer External heat source

r ( G G hG ) + G GU G hG G GTG = GL hL LG hG + QG + SG t

7-3D-two-phase-flows

16

Interfacial heat transfer Thermal phase change model

& GL = mGL AGL

& mGL = qLG + qGL H GS H LS

BASIC MODEL THE SAME AS IN 1D TWO-FLUID MODELS Problem: unknown interfacial area and heat transfer coefficients (flow regime dependent)

7-3D-two-phase-flows 17

Single phase type of heat transfer assumed in CFX and Fluent. Acceptable if the wall-fluid area known for each phase ... again part of the solution is expected as a user defined parameter...

Neptune: - nucleate boiling correlations (important for nuclear simulations) - flashing flow model (flashing delay possible in Neptune)

7-3D-two-phase-flows

18

Characteristic length scales of the interface motion can be much larger than the characteristic scales of turbulent flows, example: turbulent flume. Characteristic length scales of the interface motion can be much smaller than the characteristic scales of turbulent flows: example turbulent flow of very small bubbles.

7-3D-two-phase-flows

19

Turbulence k-, for one phase or both phases

r + t k + Pk (k ) + Uk = t k r Turbulent eddy + t + (C 1 Pk C 2 ) ( ) + U = dissipation t k k = 1.0 = 1.3 C 2 = 1.92 C 1 = 1.44 Turbulent kinetic energy k

( ) )

Turbulence production

r r rT 2 r r Pk = t U U + U U 3t U + k 3

C = 0.09

Effective Viscosity

eff = + t

2 k 3

t = C

k2

Modified pressure

p = p +

Turbulent viscosity

7-3D-two-phase-flows

20

Turbulence (NEPTUNE) Model of dispersed phase kinetic energy transport and fluid/particle fluctuating movement covariance Model of dispersed phase kinetic stress and fluctuating movement covariance Fluent, CFX: user can apply various turbulence models in every phase that he/she wants...

7-3D-two-phase-flows

21

Technical University of Catalonia and Heat and Mass Transfer Technological Center, 2006

Seminar on

by

8-interface-tracking

INTRODUCTION TWO-FLUID MODELS Lecture 1-2 Lectures 3-6

INTERFACE TRACKING IN 3D TWO-PHASE FLOWS 7) 3D two-phase flows - mathematical background 8) Interface tracking models 9) Coupling of two-fluid models and VOF method 10) Simulations of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability ONE-DIMENSIONAL SIMULATIONS OF FAST TRANSIENTS DNS OF THE PASSIVE SCALAR TRANSFER IN THE CHANNEL AND FLUME

8-interface-tracking

2

- Review of the interface tracking methods - Lagrangian (moving-grid) methods - Eulerian (fixed-grid) methods (Marker-And-Cell, Embedded interface methods, VOF, Level set) - Volume-of-Fluid method - Level set method - Simulation of the K-H instability with "conservative level set" method - Dam-break simulation. - Interface sharpening in two-fluid models

8-interface-tracking 3

Lagrangian methods: - Hyman 1984, Physica D 12:396-407 - Hirt, Amsden, Cook, 1974, J. Comput. Phys. Vol. 14, 227-253. Eulerian: - MAC: Harlow, Welch, 1965, Phys. Fluids 8: 2182-89, - Embedded interface methods: Unverdi, Tryggvason, J. Comput. Phys. 100 (1) 1992) Tryggvason et al., J. Comput. Phys. 169 (2) 2001 - VOF: Hirt and Nichols 1981, J. Comput. Phys. 39:20 1-25, Scardovelli & Zaleski, DNS of free-surface and interfacial flow, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 1999. 31:567603. - Level set: Sethian & Smereka, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 2003. 35:34172.

8-interface-tracking 4

Interface sharpening: ??? Other interesting papers: - Recent review of the methods for free-surface flows: Caboussat, Arch. Comput. Meth. Eng. 12 (2), 2005. Book: Validation of Advanced Computational Methods for Multiphase Flow Lemonnier , Jamet, Lebaigue, Begell House, 2005. (test cases for interface tracking methods)

8-interface-tracking

The grid moves with fluid. Suitable for small displacements of the surface. The grid automatically follows free surface. Suitable for Fluid-structure interaction. Remeshing required for large surface distortions. Severe limitation: cannot track surfaces that break apart or intersect.

8-interface-tracking

Marker methods: - Marker-And-Cell (MAC) - Embedded interface methods All use surface markers, allow very accurate representation of the surface (accurate surface tension calculations). Volume-Of-Fluid (VOF), Level-set: Each fluid is treated with function tracing the amount of each phase in the given point. Similar to the volume fraction of a given phase in two-fluid model All methods need a basic solver for Navier-Stokes equations

8-interface-tracking 7

Algorithms for interface reconstruction are built into the basic numerical scheme for solution of Navier-Stokes equations: - Choice of the basic numerical scheme must take into account large gradients in the material properties at the interface. - The most efficient single-phase schemes are not necessarily successful in two-phase flow... Useful schemes: - segregated solvers (Fluent, NEPTUNE, CFX4), pressure correction schemes - coupled solvers - available for two-phase flow in CFX5 (not in CFX4)

8-interface-tracking 8

One of the first methods for time dependent flow Based on fixed Eulerian grid of control volumes The location of free surface is determined by a set of zero-mass and zero-volume marker particles that move with the fluid and are traced with Lagrangian approach.

8-interface-tracking

Fixed Eulerian grid Whole-domain formulation

r rr r v + (v v ) = k F ( pk I + k ) + ( f s ( r , t )) t Interface is being tracked with the surface markers connected into the surface. r

Front-tracking methods - not further discussed in this seminar. Volume-tracking preferred - closer relation with twofluid models...

8-interface-tracking

10

To compute time evolution of free surface continuity equation for void fraction is solved r ( ) + U = 0 t

( )

Due to the step function nature of void fraction this equation must be solved in a way that retains the step function nature. With ordinary first or second order accurate discretization scheme step function gets smeared due to numerical diffusion A special procedure must be used to assure sharp free surface.

8-interface-tracking

11

Reconstructs surface from volume fraction with geometrical elements.

Position of the interface in the Eulerian grid and void fractions.

0.4 0.07 0.0

1.0

0.95

0.2

1.0

1.0

0.7

8-interface-tracking

12

Different types of interface reconstruction: - Simple Line Interface Reconstruction with Calculation (SLIC) step function

First-order reconstructions.

8-interface-tracking

13

Different types of interface reconstruction: - Flux Line-Segment for Advection and Interface Reconstruction (FLAIR) - Least-squares Volume-of-Fluid Interface Reconstruction Algorithm (LVIRA)

r n

(i-1,j) (i,j)

y x

j,y (i,j-1)

i,x

8-interface-tracking

14

Level-Set

Use of a continuous level-set function , which is positive in the space occupied by the first fluid, negative in the space occupied by the second fluid. r Value of in a point x r is distance from point x to the surface

r r r = min x xI ; xI Interface

=2 =1 = 1 =0

Free surface position is defined with the zero value of level set function (distance function)

8-interface-tracking

= 2

15

Level-Set

Temporal development equation

r + v = 0 t

Heavy side function is used to represent density and viscosity over interface

0, < 0 H ( ) = 1, > 0

To achieve numerical robustness a smeared out Heavy side function is often used

0, 1 1 + sin H ( ) = + 2 2 2 1,

( ),

>

<

8-interface-tracking 16

Mass conserved in VOF but not in Level-Set (special additional algorithms needed). Level-set - problems with near the steep gradients (bigger than in VOF). 3D - easier implementation of level-set, VOF more problematic.

8-interface-tracking

17

Conservative Level-Set

Olsson & Kreiss, J. Comput. Phys. 210, 2005 After advective step - a different level-set function is defined:

r + u = 0 t

=0.5 on the surface, does not measure distance from the surface but volume fraction. Equation which acts as artificial compression is solved until steady state is reached v v n= + ( (1 )n ) = beginning of the second step. We denote time variable by to stress that this is an artificial time, not equivalent to an actual time t. Artificial compression flux (1-) acts in the regions where 0<<1. Small amount of viscosity is added to smear discontinues.

8-interface-tracking 18

System of Navier-Stokes eq.

r r r r r r p 1 u + (u )u = + u + (u )T + g t

((

))

= 1 + (1 ) 2 = 1 + (1 ) 2

r + u = 0 t

SIMPLE pressure correction procedure to get divergence free velocity field r Solving momentum equation to obtain intermediate velocity u * p 1 r = u * Solving pressure correction equation t Solving momentum equation only with the contribution of pressure r u n+1 part to get Solving continuity equation for volume fraction to obtain n+1

8-interface-tracking

19

Staggered grid to avoid checkerboard distribution of the variables All equations discretized with fluxes to ensure conservation

Gi,j+1/2 i,j+1/2 Fi-1/2,j i-1/2,j i,j i,j-1/2 Gi,j-1/2 i+1/2,j Fi+1/2,j p u v

in, +1 j

= in j ,

Fi n1 / 2, j Fi n1 / 2, j Gin j +1 / 2 Gin j 1 / 2 + + , , x y

Second order discretization with Van Leer limiter (combination of upwind and Lax Wendroff scheme) -> decreased numerical diffusion and dispersion, second order accurate in space and time CGSTAB algorithm to solve pressure correction eq. (5-diagonal matrix in 2D)

8-interface-tracking

20

see: Validation of Advanced Computational Methods for Multiphase Flow for details of the benchmark Surface tension was neglected due to the scale of the problem Two problems, dam break on dry and wet surface Water-air system

g=9.81 m/s2 H=0.14 m

hl=0.1 m

hr=0.01 m L=1.2 m

8-interface-tracking

21

Mass conservation

1,00E-03 0 1,00E-04 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5

mr = (m0 m ) / mo

1,00E-07

8-interface-tracking

r max residual = u

1,00E-08

22

Dry ground

Grid:512x64, time step=1e-2 s, CPU time=1.5 h @3.0 GHz Pentium 4 Wet ground jet is formed

Grid:1024x128, time step=1e-3 s, CPU time=15 h @3.0 GHz Pentium 4 Most of the CPU time for pressure correction eq.

8-interface-tracking 23

Very promising method - seems to allow natural transition from whole-field interface tracking mode into the two-fluid model.

8-interface-tracking

24

CFX The implementation of free surface flow involves some special discretisation options to keep the interface sharp. These include: A compressive differencing scheme for the advection of volume fractions in the volume fraction equations. A compressive transient scheme for the volume fraction equations (if the problem is transient). Special treatment of the pressure gradient and gravity terms to ensure that the flow remain well behaved at the interface.

Neptune - interface sharpening supposed to exist - not documented yet (similar mechanism as in CFX).

8-interface-tracking 25

Technical University of Catalonia and Heat and Mass Transfer Technological Center, 2006

Seminar on

by

9-VOF+two-fluid

INTRODUCTION TWO-FLUID MODELS Lecture 1-2 Lectures 3-6

INTERFACE TRACKING IN 3D TWO-PHASE FLOWS 7) 3D two-phase flows - mathematical background 8) Interface tracking models 9) Coupling of two-fluid models and VOF method 10) Simulations of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability ONE-DIMENSIONAL SIMULATIONS OF FAST TRANSIENTS DNS OF THE PASSIVE SCALAR TRANSFER IN THE CHANNEL AND FLUME

9-VOF+two-fluid

2

-VOF method -Two-fluid model -Model Coupling -Simulation of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability References: Cerne, Petelin, Tiselj J. Comp. Phys. 171, 776804 (2001), Coupling of the interface Tracking and the Two-Fluid Models ..... Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fluids 2002; 38:329350 Numerical errors of the VOF...

9-VOF+two-fluid 3

separated flow - model VOF dispersed flow two-fluid model

r u = 0

r r r u + (u )u = t r g p + ( D ),

t r + u = 0

r k + ( k u k ) = 0 t

( )

k = 1

k

9-VOF+two-fluid

9-VOF+two-fluid

VOF method - I

Whole domain formulation of basic equations (no surface tension term):

r u = 0

r r r r u + (u )u = g p + ( D), t

1 , i, j = 0 , 0 < < 1, i, j

r + (u ) = 0. t

9-VOF+two-fluid

VOF method II

simulated structures are larger than the grid distance

0.4

0.07

0.0

n

(i-1,j) j,y

1.0

0.95

0.2

(i,j) y x

1.0

1.0

0.7

(i,j-1) i,x

9-VOF+two-fluid

VOF errors - I

reconstruction error

9-VOF+two-fluid

VOF errors - I

reconstruction error - bubble on a coarse grid

h

9-VOF+two-fluid 9

VOF errors - I

reconstruction error

0,6

1 = N

( i , j )V

ACTUALi, j

(t ) RECONSTRUCTEDi, j (t )) (t )

2

0,4

0,2

x = y

0 0 2 4 6

d/h

10

9-VOF+two-fluid

10

VOF errors - II

Advection error

Initial state: - different bubbles flows together with the surrounding liquid in a constant velocity field Final state: - bubbles with d<2.5h move faster - shapes of the bubbles are changed

9-VOF+two-fluid

11

Shear flow test -the horizontal velocity changes linearly in vertical direction -a vertical strip of fluid perpendicular to the velocity is stretched to the infinity -(periodic boundary conditions)

9-VOF+two-fluid

12

Numerical Dispersion When the strip width is close to the grid size, the tension of the reconstruction algorithm to keep the fluid chunk as compact as possible results in dispersion. Several fluid chunks with the characteristic size h<d<3h are provided, the fluid chunks are stable despite the shear velocity field.

9-VOF+two-fluid

13

black coloured spot in the prescribed prescribed velocity field - vortex shear flow with the zero velocity in the origin and boundaries and maximum velocity in the middle circle bubble is put on the position of the maximum velocity gradient (point(0.5,0.85)) bubble is deformed into the spiral whirling to infinity

9-VOF+two-fluid

14

Numerical dispersion: left - solution on finer grid, right numerical solution on coarse grid

9-VOF+two-fluid

15

Two-fluid model - I

simulated structures are smaller than the grid distance

0.7

0.6

0.7

fluid 1

fluid 2

0.9

0.8

0.9

9-VOF+two-fluid

16

Two-fluid model - II

r k + (k uk ) = 0 t

=1

interfacial drag

r r 1 C1 = C2 = cd c ai v1 v2 8

C1 = C2 = cd 12

9-VOF+two-fluid

17

Model coupling - I

9-VOF+two-fluid

18

Model Coupling - II

(i,j) (i+1,j)

i, j = 0 stratified fluids

practical implementation: measured on 3x3 number of cells

19

i, j

1 = Vi, j

(i +k , j +l ) 1i , j V

9-VOF+two-fluid

i +k , j +l (i , j ) f i +k , j +l

Switch criteria between models

i, j < 0

i, j > 0 , the fluids in the cell (i,j) are calculated with the

"two-fluid" model

two-fluid model

0 = 0

VOF model

0 = max

0 = 0.3 0.8

20

9-VOF+two-fluid

Wrong reconstruction:

i, j

= 0 .8

9-VOF+two-fluid

21

-the distributions of the volume fraction are compared to the exact solution - in the moment of numerical dispersion the VOF model significantly increases the error - the switch to denser nodalization model may delay the error increase - at switch to two-fluid model the error is increased due to the numerical diffusion, but long time its prediction of volume fraction distribution is better than at VOF model

0,6 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 0 0 0.5 5 1.0 10 t 1.5 15 2.0 20 VOF 28x28 coupled 28x28 VOF swithed to 56x56

9-VOF+two-fluid

22

t=0 t=0.4 t=0.8 t=1.6 t=2.6 t=3.6 t=4.8 t=7

9-VOF+two-fluid

23

nod =

1 N

(i , j ) V

Mi, j (t ) Li, j (t )) (t ) 2

1,2

nod

f =

100

9-VOF+two-fluid

24

t=0 t=0.4 t=0.8 t=1.6 t=2.6 t=3.6 t=4.8 t=7

9-VOF+two-fluid

25

nod =

1 N

(i , j ) V

Mi, j (t ) Li, j (t )) (t ) 2

0,6

nod

fcoupled 6x30-fcoupled 12x60 fcoupled 12x60-fcoupled 24x120 fcoupled 24x120-fcoupled 48x240 fcoupled 48x240-fVOF 48x240

f =

100

9-VOF+two-fluid

26

CONCLUSIONS The grid cell limitation causes some errors in the VOF model, like reconstruction error, advection error and numerical dispersion. Such errors cannot be reduced by applying better and more accurate interface tracking algorithm. The numerical dispersion can be avoided either by grid refinement of the mesh or switching to the two-fluid model during the simulation. The first solution is effective, when the characteristic size of the chunks does not change much during the transient. On the other hand, when the physical dispersion of the fluids is very fine, the second solution is better. The study in this paper was performed with the VOF method and the LVIRA piecewise linear reconstruction algorithm, however the results can be applied also for the other VOF reconstruction algorithms.

9-VOF+two-fluid 27

Estimate for the accuracy of the interface reconstruction:

i, j = i, j

r n

i , j 0 separated fluids

9-VOF+two-fluid

28

i, j

r n

r n

9-VOF+two-fluid

29

Technical University of Catalonia and Heat and Mass Transfer Technological Center, 2006

Seminar on

by

10 - K-H instability

INTRODUCTION TWO-FLUID MODELS Lecture 1-2 Lectures 3-6

INTERFACE TRACKING IN 3D TWO-PHASE FLOWS 7) 3D two-phase flows - mathematical background 8) Interface tracking models 9) Coupling of two-fluid models and VOF method 10) Simulations of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability ONE-DIMENSIONAL SIMULATIONS OF FAST TRANSIENTS DNS OF THE PASSIVE SCALAR TRANSFER IN THE CHANNEL AND FLUME

10 - K-H instability

2

Same phenomena simulated with: CFX - two-fluid model with and without interface sharpening Fluent - VOF simulation and two-fluid model simulation Conservative level-set (home-made code) Additional simulation: Condensation induced water hammer in horizontal pipe

10 - K-H instability

Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability is one of the basic instabilities of the two-fluid flows and affects the interface. Small density difference and negligible influence of the viscosity allow accurate inviscid linear analysis of the phenomena. K-H instability is one of the test cases for the interface tracking methods in: Validation of Advanced Computational Methods for Multiphase Flow Lemonnier , Jamet, Lebaigue, Begell House, 2005.

10 - K-H instability

Wall, u=v=0 h2=15 mm H=30 mm h1=15 mm 2=0.0015 Pas =0.04 N/m

2=780 kg/m3

2 U cr 2

1=1000 kg/m3

1=0.001 Pas Wall, u=v=0 L=1830 (200) mm U2 z=0 z

1 + 2 g 1 2 = 1 2

kcr = g /

2

cr = 2 / kcr

U1

g =4.13

10 - K-H instability 5

Undisturbed velocity field (far from closed ends, neglected viscosity):

U2 =

(1 2 )gh1 sin t

1 h2 + 2 h1

U1 =

(1 2 )gh2 sin t

1h2 + 2 h1

Experimental onset of instability is 1.88 s (analytical 1.5 s). Experimental critical wavelength is 25-45 mm (analytical 27 mm). Thorpes experiment is in agreement with results of the inviscid linear analysis. Linear analysis is appropriate due to the small density ratio, linear inviscid theory is insufficient at higher density ratios. Linear analysis is valid until amplitude is small.

10 - K-H instability

Continuity equation:

r (1 ) + 1U = 0 t

r rr r r r U + UU U + (U )T = p (n )n + g t

( )

))

Implicit (first order accurate) time scheme was used to calculate velocity field and SIMPLE pressure correction. Two simulations were done: Simulation with explicit time scheme for volume fraction with geometric VOF surface reconstruction. Simulation with implicit time scheme for volume fraction without surface reconstruction.

10 - K-H instability 7

Volume fraction field from 0.0 s to 3.55 s. Explicit time scheme, with geometric surface reconstruction used. Surface is always sharp. Grid:29x196, time step=1e-4 s, CPU time=39 h @ 2.4GHz Opteron

10 - K-H instability 8

1x10 1x10 1x10 Amplitude [m] 1x10 1x10 1x10 1x10 1x10 1x10

-1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

3.0

Growth of instability on mesh with 29x196 volumes and double precision, explicit time scheme for volume fraction, geometric surface reconstruction.

10 - K-H instability 9

Volume fraction field from 2.0 s to 3.0 s. Implicit time scheme, without surface reconstruction. Numerical diffusion of surface can be seen. Grid:29x196, time step=1e-4 s, CPU time=46 h @2.4 GHz Opteron

10 - K-H instability

10

1x10 1x10 1x10 Amplitude [m] 1x10 1x10 1x10 1x10 1x10 1x10

-1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9

0.0

0.5

1.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

Growth of instability on mesh with 29x196 volumes and double precision, implicit time scheme for volume fraction, without surface reconstruction.

10 - K-H instability 11

With linearised Navier-Stokes equations one can analytically predict onset of K-H instability and the critical wavelength. Problem was simulated with Fluent CFD program, solving non-linear Navier-Stokes equations. VOF surface tracking in Fluent code was tested Fluent simulations: Onset of instability can be predicted without surface reconstruction, but there is a significant diffusion of the surface. With surface reconstruction, surface is always sharp, but onset of instability cannot be predicted.

10 - K-H instability 12

Homogeneous two-fluid model, with surface sharpening Viscosity not neglected, 2D Continuity equation: r ( ) + (U ) = 0 = 1 + (1 ) 2 Momentum equation: r rr r r r (U )+ (UU (U + (U )T )) = p FSTF + g + FAD = 1 + (1 ) 2 t Volumetric surface tension force: r r r FSTF = (n )n Additional force as generator of the flow:

r + 2 FAD = 1 g sin 2 (1 + 2 ) / 2

10 - K-H instability

13

Equations are solved with implicit second order accurate time scheme. Space derivates are discretized with high resolution scheme (combination of first and second order accuracy), which reduces numerical diffusion and dispersion. CFX uses some special discretization options to keep interface sharp: A compressive differencing scheme for volume fraction Special treatment of the pressure gradient and gravity terms to ensure that flow remain well behaved at the interface Equations are solved iteratively until prescribed residual is achieved in each timestep. Structured grid was used. Only a section of the tube was simulated with periodical boundary conditions.

10 - K-H instability

14

Temporal development of the interface predicted by CFX. K-H instability in experiment is observed in the middle section of the tube after ~1.8 s. Viscosity not neglected, surface tension neglected in particular simulation. Grid:29x1790, time step=1e-4 s, CPU time=20 h @2.4 GHz Opteron

10 - K-H instability 15

Volume fraction field from 2.0 s to 3.25 s. Most unstable wavelength in simulation is 40 mm. In experiment cr is 25-45 mm. Analytically predicted cr is 27 mm.

Grid: 29x196, time step=1e-4 s, CPU time=50 h @3.0 GHz Pentium

10 - K-H instability 16

1x10 1x10 1x10 Amplitude [m] 1x10 1x10 1x10 1x10 1x10

-1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8

0.0

0.5

1.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

Growth of instability on mesh with 29x196 volumes and max residual = 1e-5, double precision, different dt [s]. Tough case for CFX-5.7, very small timestep must be used

10 - K-H instability 17

1x10 1x10 1x10 Amplitude [m] 1x10 1x10 1x10 1x10 1x10 1x10

-1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9

dt=1e-3 dt=5e-3

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

Growth of instability on mesh with 29x196 volumes and max residual = 1e-5, double precision. There is no need for small timestep in CFX-10.

10 - K-H instability 18

Volume fraction field from 2.0 s to 3.35 s. Most unstable wavelength (cr) in simulation is 30 mm. Analytically predicted cr is infinitely small (in simulation cr = 2x=2 mm).

10 - K-H instability

19

1x10 1x10 1x10 Amplitude [m] 1x10 1x10 1x10 1x10 1x10

-1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8

0.0

0.5

1.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

Growth of instability on mesh with 29x196 volumes and max residual = 1e-5, double precision, different dt [s]

10 - K-H instability 20

1x10 1x10 1x10 Amplitude [m] 1x10 1x10 1x10 1x10 1x10

-1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

Growth of instability on mesh with 29x196 volumes, dt = 0.01 s and max residual = 1e-4

10 - K-H instability

21

1x10 1x10 1x10 Amplitude [m] 1x10 1x10 1x10 1x10 1x10

-1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8

0.0

0.5

1.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

Growth of instability on mesh with 29x196 volumes dt = 1e-4 and max residual = 1e-5, double precision.

10 - K-H instability 22

With linearised Navier-Stokes equations we can analytically predict onset of K-H instability and critical wavelength. Problem was simulated with CFD programs, solving non-linear Navier-Stokes equations CFX simulations: Onset of instability can be predicted with CFX-5.7 but extremely (inconveniently) small time step must be used. Numerical diffusion of surface is relatively small. There is no need for such small timestep in CFX-10.0

10 - K-H instability

23

Implemented wetting angle to assure proper behavior of free surface in contact with wall Still some problem in contact with wall Onset of instability: 2.35 s (exp.:1.9 s, anal.:1.5 s) Critical wavelength: 33 mm (exp.:25-45 mm, anal.:27 mm)

Grid:2440x40, time step=1e-3 s, CPU time=2 h @3.0 GHz Pentium 4 Not real aspect ratio

10 - K-H instability

24

Real aspect ratio, only the 65 cm in the middle of the channel is shown Time [s]

10 - K-H instability

25

KFKI experiment done at PMK-2 facility in Hungary

2870

258 142

593

574

578

8,T1 3 water

8,T2 1

8,T3

8,T4 vapour 2

10

1309

10

1150

10

5 4 11 6

10 - K-H instability

26

Simulation of the pipe in CFX

Pipe length L=2.87 m Pipe diameter d=73 mm Steam tank p=14.5 bar TV=470 K

Steam, TV=470 K

10 - K-H instability

27

2 continuity equations, 1 Momentum eq., 2 Energy eqs. k- turbulence model Thermal phase change model for interfacial heat transfer

& GL = mGL ai

ai =

& mGL =

Both phases modeled as compressible (density and temperature are pressure dependent) Steam tables with wider range of pressures and temperatures and more interpolation points was used Main unknown -> liquid-to-interface heat transfer coefficient

10 - K-H instability 28

Heat transfer coefficient is calculated using surface renewal theory introduced by Hughes and Duffey 1991

a HTC L = 2 L c p , L L

1/ 2

/ L L

1/ 4

Thermal diffusivity

aL =

L L c p,L

10 - K-H instability

29

2D simulation

Heat transfer coefficient Mass transfer rate Temperature of water Void fraction of water Not real aspect ratio Grid:10x400, time step=0.03 s, CPU time=9 h @3.0 GHz Pentium

10 - K-H instability 30

3D simulation Void fraction

10 - K-H instability

31

Interfacial mass transfer rate vs. time

0.03 0.025 0.02 0.015 0.01 0.005 0 0 2 4 time [s] 6 8 10 ny=10 ny=20 ny=40 mc [kg/s] 0.03 0.025 0.02 0.015 0.01 0.005 0 0

0.03 0.025 mc [kg/s] 0.02 0.015 0.01 0.005 0 0 2 4 time [s] 6 8 10 0 2 4 6 time [s] 8 10 3D 2D

mc [kg/s]

time [s]

0.035 0.03 0.025 mc [kg/s] 0.02 0.015 0.01 0.005 0 dx/dy=1 dx/dy=2 dx/dy=4 dx/dy=8

10 - K-H instability

32

Temperature at the top of the pipe

200 180 temperature [C] 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 5 10 time [s] 15 20 T1 T2 T3 T4

1

CFX

volume fraction

0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 5 10 time [s] 15 20

T1 T2 T3 T4

200 180 160 temperature [C] 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 5 10 time [s] 15 20

Exp.

volume fraction T1 T2 T3 T4

0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 5 10 time [s] 15 20 T1 T2 T3 T4

10 - K-H instability

33

Small increase of water temperature -> Small condensation rate Heat transfer coefficient was increased by factor 20 -> better agreement with experiment

10 - K-H instability

34

T1 measuring point

1 0,9 0,8 volume fraction 0,7 0,6 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 0 0 5 10 time [s] 15 20

cfx exp

temperature [C]

cfx exp

T1

T1

20

10 - K-H instability

35

T2 measuring point

1 0,9 0,8 volume fraction 0,7 0,6 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 0 0 5 10 time [s] 15 20

cfx exp

temperature [C] 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 5 10 time [s] 15 20

cfx exp

T2

T2

10 - K-H instability

36

T3 measuring point

1 0,9 0,8 volume fraction 0,7 0,6 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 0 0 5 10 time [s] 15 20

cfx exp

temperature [C] 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 5 10 time [s] 15 20

cfx exp

T3

T3

10 - K-H instability

37

T4 measuring point

1 0,9 0,8 volume fraction 0,7 0,6 0,5 0,4 0,3 0,2 0,1 0 0 5 10 time [s] 15 20

cfx exp

temperature [C] 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 5 10 time [s] 15 20

cfx exp

T4

T4

10 - K-H instability

38

Increased heat transfer coefficient by factor 20

Heat transfer coefficient Mass transfer rate Temperature of water Void fraction of water Not real aspect ratio Grid:10x400, time step=0.03 s, CPU time=9 h @3.0 GHz Pentium

10 - K-H instability 39

With increased heat transfer coefficient by factor 20 comparison with experiment is much better. New correlation for heat & mass transfer in stratified flow is being developed within NURESIM project Different phenomena occurs Small condensation rate -> reflection of the wave and bubble entrapping Large condensation rate -> bubble entrapping due to instability

10 - K-H instability 40

Technical University of Catalonia and Heat and Mass Transfer Technological Center, 2006

Seminar on

Two-phase flow modelling 11) WAHA code - mathematical model and numerical scheme

by

WAHA-maths-numerics

INTRODUCTION Lectures 1-2 3-6 7-10 TWO-FLUID MODELS Lecture INTERFACE TRACKING IN 3D TWO-PHASE FLOWS Lectures

ONE-DIMENSIONAL SIMULATIONS OF FAST TRANSIENTS 11) WAHA code - mathematical model and numerical scheme 12) WAHA code - simulations 13) Hands on: simulation of two-phase water hammer transient and two-phase critical flow. 14) Fluid-structure interaction in 1D piping systems DNS OF THE PASSIVE SCALAR TRANSFER IN THE CHANNEL AND FLUME Lectures 15-18

WAHA-maths-numerics 2

- WAHA code - introduction - Two-fluid model of WAHA code - "non-standard" terms in WAHA two-fluid model - Closure equations of WAHA code - WAHA code numerical scheme - operator splitting - convective terms 1st step - source terms 2nd step - WAHA special models: pipe expansion, contraction (abrupt area change), branch, forces - Water properties of the WAHA code

WAHA-maths-numerics 3

www2.ijs.si/~r4www/waha3_manual.pdf

WAHA-maths-numerics

Six-equation, two-fluid model, similar to codes like RELAP5, TRAC, CATHARE, TRACE, etc.

Continuity equations:

Momentum equations:

Internal energy equations:

g

1 dA ( x ) p p (1 - ) f ( v f w ) = g (1 - ) f ( v f w ) + + (1 - ) f ( v f w ) K x A( x ) dx t t x g 1 dA ( x ) p p g ( v g w ) + + g (v g w) K = g g ( v g w ) + g K x t t x A( x ) dx + (1 - ) f K

(1 - ) f vf vf p + (1 - ) f ( v f w ) + (1 - ) CVM p i = C i | v r | v r g ( v i v f ) + (1 ) f g cos F f , wall t x x x

(1 - ) f

(1 ) f

( v g w ) ug ug 1 dA ( x ) p p p = Q ig + g (u * u g ) + v g Fg , wall ( v g w ) p w +p + p (v g w) K + pK + g (v g w) +p g A ( x ) dx x x t x t t x

WAHA-maths-numerics

Six-equation, two-fluid model, similar to codes like RELAP5, TRAC, CATHARE, TRACE, etc.

Continuity equations:

Momentum equations:

Internal energy equations:

g

1 dA ( x ) p p (1 - ) f ( v f w ) = g (1 - ) f ( v f w ) + + (1 - ) f ( v f w ) K x A( x ) dx t t x g 1 dA ( x ) p p g ( v g w ) + + g (v g w) K = g g ( v g w ) + g K x t t x A( x ) dx + (1 - ) f K

(1 - ) f vf vf p + (1 - ) f ( v f w ) + (1 - ) CVM p i = C i | v r | v r g ( v i v f ) + (1 ) f g cos F f , wall t x x x

(1 - ) f

(1 ) f

( v g w ) ug ug 1 dA ( x ) p p p = Q ig + g (u * u g ) + v g Fg , wall ( v g w ) p w +p + p (v g w) K + pK + g (v g w) +p g A ( x ) dx x x t x t t x

WAHA-maths-numerics 6

Six-equation, two-fluid model, similar to codes like RELAP5, TRAC, CATHARE, TRACE, etc.

Continuity equations:

Momentum equations:

Internal energy equations:

g

1 dA ( x ) p p (1 - ) f ( v f w ) = g (1 - ) f ( v f w ) + + (1 - ) f ( v f w ) K x A( x ) dx t t x g 1 dA ( x ) p p g ( v g w ) + + g (v g w) K = g g ( v g w ) + g K x t t x A( x ) dx + (1 - ) f K

(1 - ) f vf vf p + (1 - ) f ( v f w ) + (1 - ) CVM p i = C i | v r | v r g ( v i v f ) + (1 ) f g cos F f , wall t x x x

(1 - ) f

(1 ) f

( v g w ) ug ug 1 dA ( x ) p p p = Q ig + g (u * u g ) + v g Fg , wall ( v g w ) p w +p + p (v g w) K + pK + g (v g w) +p g A ( x ) dx x x t x t t x

A( x, t ) = A( x) + Ae ( p ( x, t ))

WAHA-maths-numerics

dAe D dp = = K dp A( x) d E

Six-equation, two-fluid model, similar to codes like RELAP5, TRAC, CATHARE, TRACE, etc.

Continuity equations:

Momentum equations:

Internal energy equations:

g

1 dA ( x ) p p (1 - ) f ( v f w ) = g (1 - ) f ( v f w ) + + (1 - ) f ( v f w ) K x A( x ) dx t t x g 1 dA ( x ) p p g ( v g w ) + + g (v g w) K = g g ( v g w ) + g K x t t x A( x ) dx + (1 - ) f K

(1 - ) f vf vf p + (1 - ) f ( v f w ) + (1 - ) CVM p i = C i | v r | v r g ( v i v f ) + (1 ) f g cos F f , wall t x x x

(1 - ) f

(1 ) f

1) Equations of state (more later):

WAHA-maths-numerics

k d p + k duk . d k = p uk uk p

Six-equation, two-fluid model, similar to codes like RELAP5, TRAC, CATHARE, TRACE, etc.

Continuity equations:

Momentum equations:

Internal energy equations:

g

1 dA ( x ) p p (1 - ) f ( v f w ) = g (1 - ) f ( v f w ) + + (1 - ) f ( v f w ) K x A( x ) dx t t x g 1 dA ( x ) p p g ( v g w ) + + g (v g w) K = g g ( v g w ) + g K x t t x A( x ) dx + (1 - ) f K

(1 - ) f vf vf p + (1 - ) f ( v f w ) + (1 - ) CVM p i = C i | v r | v r g ( v i v f ) + (1 ) f g cos F f , wall t x x x

(1 - ) f

(1 ) f

2) Virtual mass term is used to obtain hyperbolicity of equations

Six-equation, two-fluid model, similar to codes like RELAP5, TRAC, CATHARE, TRACE, etc.

Continuity equations:

Momentum equations:

Internal energy equations:

g

1 dA ( x ) p p (1 - ) f ( v f w ) = g (1 - ) f ( v f w ) + + (1 - ) f ( v f w ) K x A( x ) dx t t x g 1 dA ( x ) p p g ( v g w ) + + g (v g w) K = g g ( v g w ) + g K x t t x A( x ) dx + (1 - ) f K

(1 - ) f vf vf p + (1 - ) f ( v f w ) + (1 - ) CVM p i = C i | v r | v r g ( v i v f ) + (1 ) f g cos F f , wall t x x x

(1 - ) f

(1 ) f

p = S (1 )( f g ) gD

10

Six-equation, two-fluid model, similar to codes like RELAP5, TRAC, CATHARE, TRACE, etc.

Continuity equations:

Momentum equations:

Internal energy equations:

g

p (1 - ) f ( v f w ) p 1 dA ( x ) + + (1 - ) f ( v f w ) K = g (1 - ) f ( v f w ) t t x x A( x ) dx g 1 dA ( x ) p p g ( v g w ) + + g (v g w) K = g g ( v g w ) + g K x t t x A( x ) dx + (1 - ) f K

(1 - ) f vf vf p + (1 - ) f ( v f w ) + (1 - ) CVM p i = C i | v r | v r g ( v i v f ) + (1 ) f g cos F f , wall t x x x

(1 - ) f

(1 ) f

4) Source terms are flow regime dependent. Source terms are: 4.1) Terms with Ci - inter-phase drag

WAHA-maths-numerics 11

Six-equation, two-fluid model, similar to codes like RELAP5, TRAC, CATHARE, TRACE, etc.

Continuity equations:

Momentum equations:

Internal energy equations:

g

1 dA ( x ) p p (1 - ) f ( v f w ) + + (1 - ) f ( v f w ) K = g (1 - ) f ( v f w ) x t t x A( x ) dx g 1 dA ( x ) p p g ( v g w ) + + g (v g w) K = g g ( v g w ) + g K x t t x A( x ) dx + (1 - ) f K

(1 - ) f vf vf p + (1 - ) f ( v f w ) + (1 - ) CVM p i = C i | v r | v r g ( v i v f ) + (1 ) f g cos F f , wall t x x x

(1 - ) f

(1 ) f

4.2a) Terms with inter-phase exchange of mass and energy with: g=-(Qif+Qig)/(hg-hf) - vapor generation term

WAHA-maths-numerics 12

Six-equation, two-fluid model, similar to codes like RELAP5, TRAC, CATHARE, TRACE, etc.

Continuity equations:

Momentum equations:

Internal energy equations:

g

1 dA ( x ) p p (1 - ) f ( v f w ) + + (1 - ) f ( v f w ) K = g (1 - ) f ( v f w ) x t t x A( x ) dx g 1 dA ( x ) p p g ( v g w ) + + g (v g w) K = g g ( v g w ) + g K x t t x A( x ) dx + (1 - ) f K

(1 - ) f vf vf p + (1 - ) f ( v f w ) + (1 - ) CVM p i = C i | v r | v r g ( v i v f ) + (1 ) f g cos F f , wall t x x x

(1 - ) f

(1 ) f

( v g w ) ug ug 1 dA ( x ) p p p + p (v g w) K w = Q ig + g (u * u g ) + v g Fg , wall ( v g w ) p +p + pK +p + g (v g w) g A ( x ) dx x x x x t t t

4.2b) Terms with inter-phase exchange of mass and energy with: Qik=Hik (Ts-Tk) - interface heat transfer terms

WAHA-maths-numerics 13

Six-equation, two-fluid model, similar to codes like RELAP5, TRAC, CATHARE, TRACE, etc.

Continuity equations:

Momentum equations:

Internal energy equations:

g

(1 - ) f 1 dA ( x ) p p (1 - ) f ( v f w ) + + (1 - ) f ( v f w ) K = g (1 - ) f ( v f w ) x t t x A( x ) dx g p g ( v g w ) p 1 dA ( x ) + + g (v g w) K + g K = g g ( v g w ) t t x x A( x ) dx + (1 - ) f K

vf vf p + (1 - ) f ( v f w ) + (1 - ) CVM p i = C i | v r | v r g ( v i v f ) + (1 ) f g cos F f , wall t x x x

(1 - ) f

(1 ) f

ug ug ( v g w ) 1 dA ( x ) p p p + g (v g w) +p + pK +p + p (v g w) K w = Q ig + g (u * u g ) + v g Fg , wall ( v g w ) p g A ( x ) dx t x t t x x x

4.3) Terms due to the variable pipe cross-section.

WAHA-maths-numerics 14

Six-equation, two-fluid model, similar to codes like RELAP5, TRAC, CATHARE, TRACE, etc.

Continuity equations:

Momentum equations:

Internal energy equations:

g

(1 - ) f 1 dA ( x ) p p (1 - ) f ( v f w ) + + (1 - ) f ( v f w ) K = g (1 - ) f ( v f w ) x t t x A( x ) dx g p g ( v g w ) p 1 dA ( x ) + + g (v g w) K + g K = g g ( v g w ) t t x x A( x ) dx + (1 - ) f K

vf vf p + (1 - ) f ( v f w ) + (1 - ) CVM p i = C i | v r | v r g ( v i v f ) + (1 ) f g cos F f , wall t x x x

(1 - ) f

(1 ) f

ug ug ( v g w ) 1 dA ( x ) p p p + g (v g w) +p + pK +p + p (v g w) K w = Q ig + g (u * u g ) + v g Fg , wall ( v g w ) p g A ( x ) dx t x t t x x x

4.4) Ff,wall , Fg,wall - wall friction (Dynamical wall friction model available too).

WAHA-maths-numerics 15

Six-equation, two-fluid model, similar to codes like RELAP5, TRAC, CATHARE, TRACE, etc.

Continuity equations:

Momentum equations:

Internal energy equations:

g

(1 - ) f 1 dA ( x ) p p (1 - ) f ( v f w ) + + (1 - ) f ( v f w ) K = g (1 - ) f ( v f w ) x t t x A( x ) dx g p g ( v g w ) p 1 dA ( x ) + + g (v g w) K + g K = g g ( v g w ) t t x x A( x ) dx + (1 - ) f K

vf vf p + (1 - ) f ( v f w ) + (1 - ) CVM p i = C i | v r | v r g ( v i v f ) + (1 ) f g cos F f , wall t x x x

(1 - ) f

(1 ) f

ug ug ( v g w ) 1 dA ( x ) p p p + g (v g w) +p + pK +p + p (v g w) K w = Q ig + g (u * u g ) + v g Fg , wall ( v g w ) p g A ( x ) dx t x t t x x x

4.5) Term with g cos - volumetric forces.

WAHA-maths-numerics 16

Six-equation, two-fluid model, similar to codes like RELAP5, TRAC, CATHARE, TRACE, etc.

Continuity equations:

Momentum equations:

Internal energy equations:

g

(1 - ) f 1 dA ( x ) p p (1 - ) f ( v f w ) + + (1 - ) f ( v f w ) K = g (1 - ) f ( v f w ) x t t x A( x ) dx g p g ( v g w ) p 1 dA ( x ) + + g (v g w) K + g K = g g ( v g w ) t t x x A( x ) dx + (1 - ) f K

vf vf p + (1 - ) f ( v f w ) + (1 - ) CVM p i = C i | v r | v r g ( v i v f ) + (1 ) f g cos F f , wall t x x x

(1 - ) f

(1 ) f

4.6) Terms for wall heat transfer are neglected in WAHA code.

WAHA-maths-numerics 17

Closure relations are flow regime dependent: WAHA flow regime map:

Horizontally stratified flow S=1 Transitional area 1>S>0 Dispersed flow S=0

> 0.95 Droplet flow 0.95 > > 0.5 Transitional flow < 0.5 Bubbly flow

0.5 vcrit

vcrit

(1 ) + vcrit = gD( f g ) g f

vr

Stratification factor S:

S K H 1 vr = L1 v critical 0

S = S K H X inclination X v X v X X 1

v r < L 2 v critical L1 v critical

(L1 L2 )

L 2 v critical v r

v r L1 v critical

1 6 = 5 10 10 3 5 10 6 0

< 5 10 6 5 10 6 10 3 10 3

X v

m v m < 2500 kg / m 2 s

2500 kg / m 2 s m v m 30000 kg / m 2 s

)(

) )

m v m 30000 kg / m 2 s < 30 0

X inclination

1 0 = 60 60 0 30 0 0

)(

30 0 60 0

X 1

60 0

1 = (1 ) 5 10 6 10 3 5 10 6 0

)(

WAHA-maths-numerics

(1 ) < 5 10 6 5 10 (1 ) 10 3 (1 ) 10 3 18

6

Dispersed flow:

Vapor volume fraction: interfacial friction coefficient: drag coefficient: interfacial area concentration:

LEGEND: - abub/ adrp is modified vapor/liquid volume fraction - d0 is average slug diameter - Re is Reynolds number

< 0.5

Ci =

Bubbly flow

1 Ci = max g CD a gf , 0.1 8

1 f CD a gf 8

0.75

CD = 24(1 + 0.1Re

) / Re

agf = 3.6 / d0

agf = 3.6 (1 ) / d0

(1 q )

0.95 q= 0.95 0.5

r

Horizontally stratified flow:

) (Ci droplet )

q

r = 0. 3

(vk vi ) 2 1 Ci = k fk a gf 8 (v g v f ) 2

k = g, f

Dispersed-to-horizontaly stratified:

Ci = S Ci stratified + (1 S ) Ci dispersed

)

19

WAHA-maths-numerics

Vapor generation rate g is calculated as:

g =

Qif + Qig h h

* g * f

,

Qik = H ik (TS T f )

Horizontally stratified flow: Dittus-Boelter type of correlation:

H ik =

2 Nuk akf kk

k = g, f

H if = S H if stratified + (1 S ) H if dispersed

WAHA-maths-numerics

)

20

Dispersed flow (Downar-Zapolski HRM model):

Legend:

H ig

6

m mixture density X - quality - relaxation time - temperature relation TS Saturation temp. Tk phase temp. hk phase enthalpy

H if =

* H ig TS Tg g hg h* f

Qik = H ik (TS T f ) k = g or f

WAHA-maths-numerics 21

Wall friction (steady): Fk , wall = f wk Minor loses at elbows:

k vk vk (1 ) k 2D m

f ml

D = 2 x

(t ) = s (t ) + un (t )

t

un (t ) = un (t t )e

+ kT cv

Instantaneous relaxation available for inter-phase heat, mass, and momentum transfer - such results are similar to results of HEM model. Boundary conditions: closed end, constant pressure (tank), and constant mass flow rate (pump). Tank allows modelling of critical flow at the boundary.

WAHA-maths-numerics 22

Numerical scheme is based on characteristic upwind methods and operator splitting. Operator splitting: 1) Convection and non-relaxation source terms - source terms due to the smooth area change, wall friction and volumetric forces are solved in the first sub step with r r r upwind discretisation:

+B = S NON _ RELAXATION , t x

2) Relaxation (inter-phase exchange) source terms: r r d A = S RELAXATION dt Relaxation source terms: inter-phase heat, mass and momentum exchange terms are stiff, i.e., their characteristic time scales can be much shorter that the time scales of the hyperbolic part of the equations. Integration of the relaxation sources within the operator-splitting scheme is performed with variable time steps, which depend on the stiffness of the source terms. Upwinding is not used for calculation of the relaxation source terms.

WAHA-maths-numerics 23

1st substep of operator splitting: convection terms with non-relaxation source terms

Equation solved:

r 1 +C = A SN R . t x

C = L L

r RA contains source terms due to the variable pipe cross-section r RF contains wall friction and volumetric forces (no derivatives).

r r r A r x 1 1 1 1 1 1 + L + L RA + L RF =0 . Equation rewritten: L t x x x

WAHA-maths-numerics 24

1st substep of operator splitting: convection terms with non-relaxation source terms

Equation rewritten:

r A r x 1 1 1 1 1 L + L + L RA + L RF =0 . t x x x

1

1

r r 1 1 = L + L RA A + L RF x . r

1 1

(allows 2nd order accurate discretisation with application of slope limiters)

+ =0 . t x

Slopes are not measured by Modified characteristic variables but rather r r 1 r with variables: 1 1

= = L + L RAA + L RF x

WAHA-maths-numerics

25

1st substep of operator splitting: convection terms with non-relaxation source terms

The combination of the first- and the second-order accurate discretisation is r n+1 r n rn rn rn rn (Godunovs method): j - j j - j -1 j+1 - j -- n ++ n =0 + ( ) j+1/2 + ( ) j -1/2 t x x where elements of diagonal matrices + + , are calculated as: t ++ + + = k f k+ + k = 1,6 - 1 , k = 1,6 f k = max 0 , k + k k k | | x 2 and k t - = k f k k = 1,6 k - 1 , k = 1,6 f = min 0 , k - k k

k

| k |

MINMOD

p = max(0 , min(1 , p ))

Van Leer p = ( p + p ) /( p + 1)

Difference scheme (basic variables) used in the WAHA code for convective r r r part is: r A j 1 / 2 + + j 1 / 2 j +1 / 2 1 + + 1 1 ++ 1 1 L + + L RA + L = L x x x t r A j +1 / 2 r r 1 1 ++ 1 1 1 1 + L RA + L R F j 1 / 2 + L R F j +1 / 2 x

WAHA-maths-numerics

26

Basic variables are ~ primitive variables,

= ( p, , v f ,vg , u f , ug )

(phasic internal energies uf , ug replaced with the phasic densities, due to the applied water property subroutines)

Conservative variables were not used due to: 1) Equations of two-fluid model cannot be written in conservative form, due to the pressure gradient terms, virtual mass terms, interfacial pressure terms, and possibly other correlations that contain derivatives... 2) Oscillations appear in the vicinity of particular discontinuities, if complex systems of equations are solved with conservative variables. 3) "Non-standard" water property subroutines are required that calculate two-phase properties ( p , , f , g ) from the conservative variables ( (1- ) f , g ,(1- ) f u f , g u g ).

WAHA-maths-numerics 27

Relaxation source terms: inter-phase heat, mass and momentum exchange terms are stiff, i.e., their characteristic time scales can be much shorter that the time scales of the hyperbolic part of the equations. Second equation of the operator splitting scheme r

is integrated over a single time step with variable time steps that depend on the stiffness of the relaxations and can be much shorter that the convective time step .

The time step for the integration of the source terms is not constant and is controlled by the relative change of the basic variables. Currently, the maximal relative change of the basic variables in one step of the integration is limited to 0.01 to obtain results that are "numerics" independent. Time step is further reduced when it is necessary to prevent the change of relative velocity direction, or to prevent the change of sign of phasic temperature differences.

WAHA-maths-numerics 28

Relaxation source terms of the WAHA two-fluid model do not affect the properties of the mixture in a given point: mixture density , mixture momentum , and mixture total energy should remain unchanged after the integration of the relaxation source terms. It is in principle possible to choose a set of basic variables:

that enables simplified integration of the relaxation source terms. Only a system of three differential equations is solved instead of the system of six. This reduction of the system is only partially taken into account in WAHA numerical scheme: only one relaxation equation for inter-phase friction is solved for the relative velocity. Similar reduction of the thermal relaxation source terms is not used, because it is difficult to calculate the state of the fluid from the variables that are result of such relaxation.

WAHA-maths-numerics 29

Abrupt area change: The abrupt area change model is needed, when flow passes through a sudden expansion or contraction area in a channel The implemented abrupt area change models are built on 3 basic assumptions:

steady-state balance conditions for conservative variables across the area change no generation (or loss) of mass, momentum and energy preservation of characteristics in each pipe

x [ k k vk A] = 0 x [ k vk ( k wk + p ) A] = 0

2 x k k vk

[ (

+ p A = [ k p ] x A

)]

i2

i2+1

i2+2

A1

i1-2 i1-1 i1

A2

k n

WAHA-maths-numerics

30

Abrupt area change two-phase test case

[MPa]

16.0 15.0 14.0 13.0 12.0 11.0 10.0 9.0 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0

0.7 0.6

WAHA, simplified

WAHA, cons-char WAHA, conservative Relap5 mod3.2.2g 1.0

[]

WAHA, simplified

WAHA, cons-char

Expansion at l = 3 m

0.8

0.9

pressure

[m]

VVF

1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0

[m]

5.0

Current abrupt area change models do not contain the generation or loss of momentum and energy, where flow passes the abrupt area change. These models especially momentum losses - must be included in abrupt area change model to obtain more realistic behaviour of flow on the abrupt area change. Important:

Abrupt area change model was verified for the single-phase flow only. Reduced CFL number is recommended with values ~0.5 Minor losses are not included in the abrupt area change model.

WAHA-maths-numerics 31

Branch model

A branch model is applied to connect three pipes in a single point Model of branch is based on the abrupt area change model. Branch model in WAHA3 tested in single phase flow only.

GEOMETRY (P1/P6/P2): Length l = 10/5/3 m Diameter d = 7.9/7.9/0.7 mm INITIAL CONDITIONS (P1/P6/P2): Temperature T = 293/293/293 K Vapor velocity v = 1/0.769/0.769 m/s Presure p = 80/80/80 bar Vapor volume fraction - pure liquid

p= const.

const.

1 1 2 3 4

.. Pipe 2.. 29 30

3 4

Closed end

...

WAHA RELAP

Pipe 1

...

97 98 99 100 1 2

...Pipe 6...

p3 [MPa]

9.4 9.2 9.0 8.8 8.6

47 48 49 50

p1 [MPa]

9.2 9.0 8.8 8.6 8.4 8.2 8.0 7.8 0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008

p2 [MPa]

9.2 9.0 8.8 8.6 8.4 8.2 8.0 7.8

WAHA RELAP

WAHA RELAP

[s]

0.010

0.000

[s]

0.010

0.000

0.002

0.004

0.006

0.008

[s]

0.010

WAHA-maths-numerics

32

Forces

- from American National Standard, ANSI/ANS-58.2-1988, Revision of ANSI/ANS-58.2-1980, Design basis for protection of light water nuclear power plant against the effects of postulated pipe rupture,, Appendix A: Derivation ofv v v fluid force equations. - WAHA code can calculate forces on the 3D piping system. Pipe 1 - Forces are calculated on the edges of the volumes.

1 2

v n n 1

..

..

v Fi

v ri

x

v ri +1

i+1

v v v F0 F1 F2

v v v Fn 2 Fn1 Fn

Ai p i vi

r F is dynamic fluid thrust force vector on pipe r d ( v ) dV r r r r r r r r F = + v v dA + pdAin + pdAout + pambient dApipe gdV dt c.v. c.s . Ain Aout Apipe c .v.

WAHA-maths-numerics

33

Forces

PIPE

GS5

0 -5000 0

MEMBRANE

GS1

CLOSED END

GS7

-10000 force (N) -15000 -20000 -25000 -30000 -35000 -40000 time (s)

0.015

total force A*p

force (N)

0.005

0.01

time (s) Total force pressure*crossection

WAHA-maths-numerics

34

EoS:

k k d p + d k = du k p uk p u k

250

Sa tura tion Va por s pinoda l (e xte nde d) Liquid s pinoda l (e xte nde d) Ne ga tive pre s s ure Va por s pinoda l Liquid s pinoda l

P res s ure [bar]

200

150

400 pressures (-95 1000 bar) 500 temperatures (273 1638 K)

100

50

Extended into negative pressure (up to 95 bar) Extended liquid and vapor spinodal lines

-50

-100 250

300

350

400

450

500

550

600

650

Temperature [K]

WAHA-maths-numerics

35

- Comparison: WAHA code with the WAHA steam tables and WAHA code with the steam tables of RELAP5/MOD3.2.2 Gamma (internal version of WAHA code) - Propagation of pressure waves in single-phase liquid and in single-phase vapor shock tube - Differences are more due to the slightly different time steps than due to the different water properties.

2100000 1900000 1700000

p(Pa)

p(Pa)

RELAP5 steam tables t=0.60514ms

length (m)

WAHA steam tables t=0.60008ms

1500000 1300000

RELAP5 steam tables t=1.0008ms

1100000 900000

1.5

0.5

1

length (m)

1.5

36

WAHA-maths-numerics

- Comparison: WAHA code with the WAHA steam tables and WAHA code with the steam tables of RELAP5/MOD3.2.2 Gamma (internal version of WAHA code) - Edwards pipe problem - rapid depressurization of the hot liquid in a horizontal pipe - Calculations were performed with instantaneous relaxation of inter-phase heat, mass and momentum transfer.

7.E+06 6.E+06 5.E+06 p (Pa) 4.E+06 3.E+06 2.E+06 1.E+06 0.E+00 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 time (s) 0.4 0.5 0.6

RELAP5 steam tables WAHA steam tables

RELAP5 steam tables

4.E-01

WAHA steam tables

2.E-01 0.E+00 0 -2.E-01 time (s) 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6

WAHA-maths-numerics 37

Technical University of Catalonia and Heat and Mass Transfer Technological Center, 2006

Seminar on

by

WAHA-simulations

INTRODUCTION Lectures 1-2 3-6 7-10 TWO-FLUID MODELS Lecture INTERFACE TRACKING IN 3D TWO-PHASE FLOWS Lectures

ONE-DIMENSIONAL SIMULATIONS OF FAST TRANSIENTS 11) WAHA code - mathematical model and numerical scheme 12) WAHA code - simulations 13) Hands on: simulation of two-phase water hammer transient and two-phase critical flow. 14) Fluid-structure interaction in 1D piping systems DNS OF THE PASSIVE SCALAR TRANSFER IN THE CHANNEL AND FLUME Lectures 15-18

WAHA-simulations 2

Edwards pipe:

CLOSED END

GS7 GS5

PIPE

MEMBRANE

GS1

L = 4.097 m, A = 4.2 10-2 m2 Transient: - rapid depressurization of the hot liquid from the horizontal pipe

Aim: - test case for codes used to simulate LOCA accidents in NPPs - to verify several WAHA code physical models like:

- propagation of the rapid depressurization wave - the pressure undershoot model - the flashing model - propagation of the void fraction wave - the two-phase critical flow - transition into the horizontally stratified flow

WAHA-simulations A. R. Edwards, T. P. O'Brien, Studies of phenomena connected with the depressurization of water reactors, Journal of the British Nuclear Energy Society, 9, 125135, 1970. 3

Edwards pipe:

CLOSED END

GS7 GS5

PIPE

MEMBRANE

GS1

Boundary conditions: - left: closed end L = 4.097 m, A = 4.2 10-2 m2 - right: constant pressure pT = 1 bar - cross-section of the break is 12.5% smaller than cross-section of the pipe. Initial conditions: -velocity: stagnant liquid -pressure p = 70 bar -temperature T = 515 K Conclusion: - The accuracy of the WAHA code predictions is comparable to the accuracy of the RELAP5 predictions despite a much simpler flow regime map and absence of a special critical flow model.

WAHA-simulations 4

Pressure in GS1 [MPa]

7

Edwards pipe:

6

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

Time [s ]

WAHA-simulations 5

Pressure in GS7 [MPa]

Edwards pipe:

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

Time [s ]

WAHA-simulations 6

Vapor volume fraction in GS5

1

Edwards pipe:

Vapor volume fraction in GS 5 []

0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

0.5

0.6

Time [s ]

WAHA-simulations 7

Temperature in GS5 [K]

Edwards pipe:

500

Temperature in GS 5 [K]

450

400

350

300

250

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

Time [s ]

WAHA-simulations 8

Super Moby Dick exp.

inlet

outlet

Transient: - high pressure Super Moby Dick experiment performed at CEA in Grenoble in 80s - steady state two-phase critical flashing flow in the convergent-divergent nozzle (Faucher). Aim: - to verify the Homogeneous-Relaxation Model (Lemonnier) used in the WAHA code to model inter-phase heat and mass transfer in dispersed flow - to verify conservation properties of the WAHA code in the variable crosssection geometry.

E. Faucher, Simulation numerique des ecoulements unidimensionnels instationnaires avec autovaporisation, Doctorat de luniverse Paris Val de Marne, (2002). WAHA-simulations 9

Super Moby Dick exp.

inlet

outlet

Boundary conditions: -inlet: constant pressure pR = 80 bar, temperature T = 549.6 K (20/465.7) -outlet: constant pressure pL = 47 bar, temperature T = 465.5 K Conclusion: - advantage of the WAHA code: critical flow is simulated with standard discretisation and boundary conditions - non-conservative numerical scheme: - overall loss of mass flow along the nozzle is less than 0.7 % - maximum non-conservation is less than ~1.5% (strong phase changes).

WAHA-simulations

10

Super Moby Dick exp.

Why critical flow?

c Vliq Vvap

[m/s]

10000

1000

100

10

[m] 0.90

11

WAHA-simulations

Super Moby Dick exp.

Why flashing flow? (VVF=)

[K]

490 485 480 475 470 465 460 455 0.00 0.15 0.30 0.45 0.60 0.75 0.1 0.0 0.3 0.2

T sat

T liq

VVF

[VVF]

0.5 0.4

490 480 470 460 450 440 430 420 410

[K]

T sat

T liq

VVF

[VVF]

1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0

[m]

0.90

0.00

0.15

0.30

0.45

0.60

0.75

[m]

0.90

WAHA-simulations

12

Super Moby Dick exp.

Pressure [bar]

WAHA 1 EXP 1 WAHA 2 EXP 2 WAHA 3 EXP 3

[MPa]

12.0 10.0 8.0 6.0 4.0 2.0 0.0 0.00 0.15

0.30

0.45

0.60

0.75

[m]

0.90

13

WAHA-simulations

Super Moby Dick exp.

[]

1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.00 0.15

WAHA 1 EXP 1

WAHA 2 EXP 2 WAHA 3 EXP 3

0.30

0.45

0.60

14

WAHA-simulations

Super Moby Dick exp.

Mass flow rate [kg/s]

WAHA 2 EXP 3 WAHA 3 EXP 2

[kg/s]

20.0 18.0 16.0 14.0 12.0 10.0 0.00 0.15

WAHA 1 EXP 1

0.30

0.45

0.60

0.75

[m] 0.90

15

WAHA-simulations

Simpsons pipe:

TANK PIPE VALVE

Measuring point

Transient: - column separation water hammer induced due by rapid valve closure.

Aim: - fundamental benchmark for two-phase computer codes because of the simple: - geometry, - initial conditions and - water hammer initiating mechanism.

A. R. Simpson, 1986, Large water hammer pressures due to column separation in sloping pipes, Ph.D thesis, The University of Michigan, Department of Civil Engineering. WAHA-simulations 16

Simpsons pipe:

TANK PIPE VALVE

Measuring point

Boundary conditions: -right: closed end (valve) -left: constant pressure pT = 3.419 bar Initial conditions: -velocity v = 0.4 m/s -pressure p = 3.419 bar -temperature T = 296.3 K Effect of the elasticity taken into account.

Conclusion: At low temperatures flashing and condensation of the steam are not governed by the heat and mass transfer between both phases, but by the dynamics of the liquid column (energy equations are not needed).

WAHA-simulations 17

Pressure near the valve [MPa]

P res s ure his tory near the valve [MP a ]

Simpsons pipe:

1.2

Expe rime nt WAHA3 - e la s tic pipe WAHA3 - s tiff pipe WAHA3 - uns te a dy friction

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

Time [s ]

WAHA-simulations 18

Simpsons pipe:

VVF his tory near the valve []

0.012

WAHA3 - e la s tic pipe WAHA3 - s tiff pipe WAHA3 - uns te a dy friction

0.01

0.008

0.006

0.004

0.002

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

Time [s ]

WAHA-simulations 19

PPP pipeline (A. Dudlik, Fraunhofer Institut Umwelt-, Siecherheits-, Energietechnik UMSICHT, Oberhausen).

- database with over 400 experiments performed at UMSICHTs test loop (total length ~ 200 m) - advanced measuring equipment (wire mesh sensor void distribution)

WAHA-simulations

20

PPP pipeline:

44.4 m -14.5 m -8.7 m

P09

P12

50.9 m

closure valve

0m N=1

bridge

P23

P01 F 1 P

P02

P03 WM 0.2 m

P06

34.5 m 60.8 m

P15

67.0 m

VALVE TANK

146.8 m

-0.2 m

PIPELINE

81.6 m 139.4 m 84.6 m

145.5 m

P18

88.7 m 77.5 m

F 2 P

turning point

B2

-18.2 m 149.4 m

142.9 m

67.9 m

F 3 P

137.0 m 90.7 m 75.5 m

WAHA-simulations

21

34.50m

6.50m

6.50m

4.

00

TANK

46.50 m

3.00m

7.50m

3.50 Transient: - column separation water hammer induced due by rapid valve closure.

Boundary conditions: -left: closed end (valve) -right: constant pressure Initial conditions: -case 135: p = 1.13 bar, -case 307: p = 9.92 bar, -case 329: p = 10.18 bar, v = 3.975 m/s, v = 4.009 m/s, v = 3.975 m/s, T = 293.7 K T = 392.1 K T = 419.6 K

22

WAHA-simulations

1.00m

PPP pipeline:

VALVE

10.00m

5.5

WAHA3 - s te a dy s ta te

PPP pipeline:

135: P res s ure his tory in P 03 [ba r]

10

15

20

Time [s ]

WAHA-simulations 23

PPP pipeline:

135: P re s s ure his tory in P 03 [bar]

60

Expe rime nt WAHA3

50

40

30

20

10

0 0

Time [s ]

WAHA-simulations 24

PPP pipeline:

307: P re s s ure his tory in P 03 [bar]

60

Expe rime nt WAHA3

50

40

30

20

10

0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Time [s ]

WAHA-simulations 25

Case 329: Pressure near the valve [MPa]

55

PPP pipeline:

329: P res s ure his tory in P 03 [ba r]

50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 2 4 6 8

10

Time [s ]

WAHA-simulations 26

1

Expe rime nt WAHA3

PPP pipeline:

Time [s ]

WAHA-simulations 27

1

Expe rime nt WAHA3

PPP pipeline:

Time [s ]

WAHA-simulations 28

Case 329: near the valve [MPa]

1

PPP pipeline:

329: Vapor volume fra ction in P 03

10

Time [s ]

WAHA-simulations 29

Case 329: pressure near the valve [MPa]

PPP pipeline:

329: P res s ure his tory in P 03 [ba r]

60

50

40

30

20

10

0 0 1 2 3 4 5

Time [s ]

WAHA-simulations 30

55

Expe rime nt WAHA3 RELAP5

PPP pipeline:

329: P res s ure his tory in P 03 [ba r]

50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 2 4 6 8

10

Time [s ]

WAHA-simulations 31

Case 329: near the valve [MPa]

PPP pipeline:

329: Vapor volume fraction in P 03

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Expe rime nt WAHA3 RELAP5

Time [s ]

WAHA-simulations 32

Case 329: pressure near the valve [MPa]

50

PPP pipeline:

329: P res s ure his tory in P 03 [ba r]

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 1 2 3

Time [s ]

WAHA-simulations 33

PPP pipeline:

329: P res s ure his tory in P 03 [bar]

50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 0 1 2 3 4 5

dx = 0.5 m (N = 299) dx = 0.25 m (N = 598) dx = 1.0 m (N = 150)

Grid refinement

Time [s ]

WAHA-simulations 34

CWHTF:

TANK CLOSED END

LE

Preferences: - database with 20 experiments performed at FZRs cold water hammer test facility (CWHTF) - two discontinuities initially present in the pipe that propagate with different velocity. Transient: - overpressure accelerates a column of liquid water into vacuum at the closed vertical end of the pipe

p1

VALVE

p2 evacuation pressure

LV

E. Altstadt, H. Carl, R. Weiss, CWHTF - |Cold Water-Hammer Test Facility, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf.

WAHA-simulations 35

CWHTF:

Experiment labeled 150601: Boundary conditions: - right: closed end - left: constant pressure (tank) constant pressure (precise geometry - pipe) Initial conditions: - p1 = 1 bar - p2 = 29 mbar - v = 0 m/s - T ~ 295 K

p1

LE

VALVE

p2 evacuation pressure

LV

Warnings: - absence of non-condensable gas model in the WAHA - no FSI effects considered

WAHA-simulations

36

50

Expe rime nt Ta nk Pipe

CWHTF:

0.35

0.4

Time [s ]

WAHA-simulations 37

1

Ta nk Pipe

CWHTF:

0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35

0.4

Time [s ]

WAHA-simulations 38

Pressure near the closed end [bar]

50

CWHTF:

0.3

0.35

0.4

Time [s ]

WAHA-simulations 39

KFKI exp.:

Preferences: - condensation induced water hammer was observed in the steamline of the integral experimental device PMK-2 that is located at the Hungarian Atomic Energy Research Institute Experiment labeled E22:

GEOMETRY: pipe length l = 2.95 m pipe diameter d = 73 mm number of volumes N = 59

Steam tank

2 1

...

Steam

...

55 56 57 58

INITIAL CONDITIONS: steam temperature Ts = 470 K liquid temperature Tl = 295 K liquid velocity vl = 0.242 m/s pressure p = 14.5 bar

Boundary conditions: - right: steam tank - left: cold water intake (constant velocity) ...very complicated thermally controled transient

H.M. Prasser, G. Ezsol, G. Baranyai, PMK-2 water hammer tests, condensation caused by cold water injection into main steam-line of VVER.440-type PWR, WAHALoads project deliverable D48, 2004.

WAHA-simulations

59

40

Profile at t = 3.75 s

1 0.9

KFKI exp.:

Transient: - liquid flows into the pipe (steam) - condensation rate increases and consequently increases relative vapor velocity over the liquid head - liquid-vapor surface becomes wavy - amplitude of the waves increase until the liquid slug is formed that captures the vapor bubble - condensation of the entrapped vapor bubble accelerates columns of liquid on both sides of the bubble - strong water hammer appears when the bubble is condensed and two liquid columns collide.

0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

Vapor

Liquid

Length [m]

Profile at t = 5.08 s

1 0.9

0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

Vapor bubble

Liquid slug

Vapor

WAHA-simulations

Length [m]

41

200

Expe rime nt WAHA3

KFKI exp.:

120 100 80 60 40

detail

dispersed

Time [s ]

WAHA-simulations 42

Technical University of Catalonia and Heat and Mass Transfer Technological Center, 2006

Seminar on

Two-phase flow modelling 13) Hands on: simulation of two-phase water hammer transient and two-phase critical flow

by

WAHA-hands-on

INTRODUCTION Lectures 1-2 3-6 7-10 TWO-FLUID MODELS Lecture INTERFACE TRACKING IN 3D TWO-PHASE FLOWS Lectures

ONE-DIMENSIONAL SIMULATIONS OF FAST TRANSIENTS 11) WAHA code - mathematical model and numerical scheme 12) WAHA code - simulations 13) Hands on: simulation of two-phase water hammer transient and two-phase critical flow 14) Fluid-structure interaction in 1D piping systems DNS OF THE PASSIVE SCALAR TRANSFER IN THE CHANNEL AND FLUME Lectures 15-18

WAHA-hands-on 2

WAHA-hands-on

title simpson test - elastic pipe *--------time constants---------------------------------* beg end maj_out min_out diff restart time00 0 2.0e-1 4.e-3 2.e-3 0.80 0.01 time01 0.2 3.0e-1 2.e-3 1.e-3 0.80 0.01 * fluid order abr_model eig_val_out extend_out maj_results switch 1 2 3 1 1 1 * ambient_press force_out force 1.e+5 0.001 *-------------minor output -------------------------------TANK * pipe volume variable print00 1 100 1 print02 1 100 2 print03 1 100 3 print04 1 100 5 print05 1 100 7 print06 1 100 9 print07 1 20 1 print08 1 20 2 print09 1 20 3 *-------------pipes -------------------------------* type name comp001ty pipe cev_01 * length elast thick rough w.fr.f p.fr.f h.m.tr. comp001g0 36.0-0 1.2e11 1.6e-3 0.0e0 0 0 0 * area incl azim f_coeff which comp001g1 2.85e-4 0. 0.0 1.0 30 + 2.85e-4 0. 0.0 1.0 100 * type press alpha_g velf velg uf ug comp001s0 agpvu 3.419e5 0.0 0.4 0.0 97.67e3 0.0 * from to comp001c0 002-99 000-00 *------------------------------------------------------* type name comp002ty tank tank_01 * length elast thick rough w.fr.f p.fr.f h.m.tr. comp002g0 0.0-0 0.0 0.0 0.0e0 0 0 0 * area incl azim f_coeff which comp002g1 2.85e-4 0. 0.0 1.0 0 * type press alpha_g velf velg uf ug comp002s0 agpvu 3.419e5 0.0 0.0 0.0 97.67e3 0.0 * from to comp002c0 000-00 001-01 *************************************************************** end

PIPE

VALVE

Measuring point

nods 100

wch_nods 100

nods 0

wch_nods 0

WAHA-hands-on

title - two-phase critical flashing flow in the super moby dick nozzle * case 20B192C: pin=20 bar, Tin=192.3 C * case 80B276C: pin=80.0bar Tin=275.5 C * case 120B305C: pin=120.0bar Tin=305.7 C *--------time constants---------------------------------* beg end maj_out min_out diff restart time00 0 0.2e+0 5.0e-3 8.0e-4 0.80 1.0 * fluid order abr_model eig_val_out extend_out maj_results switch 1 2 3 0 1 1 *-------------pipes -------------------------------* type name comp001ty pipe * length elast thick rough w.fr.f p.fr.f h.m.tr. nods comp001g0 0.9 0.0 1.588e-3 0.0 0 0 0 * crossct inclin azim which_nodes comp001g1 0.003494 0. 0.0 1.0 1 + 0.0032 0. 0.0 1.0 2 + 0.0029 0. 0.0 1.0 3 ... slide 2/3 + + * 4.126256E-3 0. 4.266039E-3 0. type press wch_nods *comp001s0 agpvt 20.08e5 comp001s0 agpvt 80.00e5 *comp001s0 agpvt 120.06e5 * from comp001c0 002-99 003-01 ... slide 3/3 0.0 1.0 89 0.0 1.0 90 alpha_g velf 0.00 0.00 0.00

90

velg

tf

tg 90 90 90

WAHA-hands-on

inlet

comp001g1 + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + 0.003494 0.0032 0.0029 0.0024 0.0020 0.0017 0.0013 0.0008 0.0005 0.000350 0.0003183 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 46 47

40 45

+ + + + + + + + + + + + +

outlet

1.3091682E-3 0. 1.3884127E-3 0. 1.4699855E-3 0. 1.5538868E-3 0. 1.6401168E-3 0. 1.7286747E-3 0. 1.8195612E-3 0. 1.9127764E-3 0. 2.0083198E-3 0. 2.1061913E-3 0. 2.2063916E-3 0. 2.30892E-3 2.413777E-3 0. 0. 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90

48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

+ + + + + + + + + +

+ +

59 60 61 62

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

Length [m]

0.9 +

+ +

1.1576643E-3 0. 1.232252E-3 0.

WAHA-hands-on

*------------------------------------------------------* type name comp002ty tank tank_01 * length elast thick rough w.fr.f p.fr.f h.m.tr. nods comp002g0 0.0-0 0.0 0.0 0.0 9 8 8 0 * crossct inclin azim f_coeff which_nodes comp002g1 0.003494 0.0 0.0 1.0 0 * type press alpha_g velf velg tf tg wch_nods *comp002s0 agpvt 20.08e5 0.0 0.1 0.0 465.5 0.0 0 comp002s0 agpvt 80.00e5 0.0 0.1 0.0 549.6 0.0 0 *comp002s0 agpvt 120.06e5 0.0 0.1 0.0 578.7 0.0 0 * from to comp002c0 000-00 001-01 *------------------------------------------------------* type name comp003ty tank tank_03 * length elast thick rough w.fr.f p.fr.f h.m.tr. nods comp003g0 0.0-0 0.0 0.0 0.0 9 8 8 0 * crossct inclin azim f_coeff which_nodes comp003g1 4.266039E-3 0.0 0.0 1.0 0 * type press alpha_g velf velg tf tg wch_nods *comp003s0 agpvt 7.000e5 0.0 0.1 0.0 465.5 465.5 0 comp003s0 agpvt 47.000e5 0.0 0.1 0.0 465.5 465.5 0 *comp003s0 agpvt 77.000e5 0.0 0.1 0.0 465.5 465.5 0 * from to comp003c0 001-99 000-00 *************************************************************** * end

WAHA-hands-on

Technical University of Catalonia and Heat and Mass Transfer Technological Center, 2006

Seminar on

by

1D-piping-FSI

INTRODUCTION Lectures 1-2 3-6 7-10 TWO-FLUID MODELS Lecture INTERFACE TRACKING IN 3D TWO-PHASE FLOWS Lectures

ONE-DIMENSIONAL SIMULATIONS OF FAST TRANSIENTS 11) WAHA code - mathematical model and numerical scheme 12) WAHA code - simulations 13) Hands on: simulation of two-phase water hammer transient and two-phase critical flow. 14) Fluid-structure interaction in 1D piping systems DNS OF THE PASSIVE SCALAR TRANSFER IN THE CHANNEL AND FLUME Lectures 15-18

1D-piping-FSI 2

- References - Introduction - types of fluid-structure interactions - Typical mathematical models for 1D FSI in piping systems - Examples - Numerical methods - Two phase FSI

1D-piping-FSI

A. S. Tijsseling, Fluid-structure interaction in liquid-filled pipe systems a review, Journal of Fluids and Structures, 10 109-146, 1996. D. C. Wiggert, A. S. Tijsseling, Fluid transients and fluid-structure interaction in flexible liquid-filled piping, ASME Applied Mechanical Review, 54 5 455-481, 2001. D. J. Leslie, A. E. Vardy, Practical guidelines for fluid-structure interaction in pipelines a review, Proc. of the 10th international meeting of the work group on the behaviour of hydraulic machinery under steady oscillatory conditions, 2001. D. C. Wiggert, Coupled transient flow and structural motion in liquid-filled piping systems a survey, Proc. of the ASME Pressure Vessels in Piping Conference, Paper 86-PVP-4, 1986. R. A. Valentin, J. W. Phillips, J. S. Walker, Reflection and transmission of fluid transients at an elbow, Transactions of SMiRT5, Paper B 2-6, 1979. R. Skalak, An extension of the theory of waterhammer, Transactions of the ASME, 78 105-116, 1956. A. Bergant, A. R. Simpson, A. S. Tijsseling, Water hammer with column separation A historical review, Journal of Fluids and Structures, 22 2 135-171, 2006

1D-piping-FSI 4

1D-piping-FSI

Fluid-Structure Interaction = FSI

Moving fluid

Pressure load

Deformed structure

Consequences: Noise, vibration, displacements and stresses (pipe) and extreme pressures (fluid). Statistical data USA (1986-2000) "Failed Pipe (Internal Force): 5979 accidents, 357 deaths, 3494 injuries, costing over $1 billion. With appropriate FSI analysis: reduction of the extreme pressures in the fluid and maximum stresses in the structure, frequency change, energy transfer control and prevention of the failures.

1D-piping-FSI 6

2

Cas e 4, with FSI (s oft pipe) Cas e 5, no FSI (s tiff pipe)

FSI during fast transients: accidental condition Conventional simulation of the fast transient: NO FSI (stiff and supported pipe)

1.5 1

Wylie about FSI: 98% pipelines not subjected no simple FSI inspection criterion FSI analysis necessary for all pipelines! FSI analyses have been performed only for the most important pipelines

P re s s ure [MP a ]

0.5

-0.5 -1

-1.5 0

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

Time [s]

Pressure near the valve (rapid valve closure transient, full axial coupling, free valve)

1D-piping-FSI

- Common Sources of FSI 1. Long lengths of unsupported or poorly supported pipework Practice: 2. Unsupported/unrestrained elbows vulnerable are parts submerged 3. Unsupported/unrestrained valves to cavitation or 4. T-junctions oxidation 5. Transient in the fluid (liquid density) - Combinations of the above - features numbered 1-5 are independently important while combinations are very important. - Vibrating machinery can induce vibrations in the pipeline. The intensity will depend on the proximity of the frequency of vibration to a natural frequency of the pipeline.

1D-piping-FSI

Another example (with and without FSI) Tank-straight pipe-valve system:

Pressure near the rapidly closed valve (rapid valve closure transient, valve is fixed no jucntion coupling effect, only Poisson coupling pipe breathing

TANK

PIPE

Pipe properties: L = 20 m, R = 398.5 mm, e = 8 mm, E = 210 GPa, = 0.3, s = 7900 kg/m3

Inital flow direction

VALVE

Initial conditions: v = 1 m/s, p = 0 Pa, f = 1000 kg/m3

Measuring point

1D-piping-FSI

P re s s ure his tory ne a r the va lve - de ta il

1.5

no FSI with FSI

3

2.5

1

0.5

1.5

0.5

-0.5

-0.5

-1

-1

-1.5

-1.5

0.05

0.1

0.15 -2

0.2

Time [s ]

-2.5

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

Time [s ]

1D-piping-FSI

10

-There are several types of waves that characterize FSI: - axial, - flexural, - rotational, - radial and - torsional stress waves in the pipeline - pressure waves in the fluid. - According to the interaction between these waves one can differentiate the following types of the coupling: - Poisson coupling: pressure waves in the fluid are coupled with axial waves in the structure and changes of the pipe cross-section. Figurativelly known as pipe breathing - Junction coupling: different waves are appropriately coupled together at geometric changes (elbows, area changes, valves, junctions, etc.). - Friction coupling: axial waves in the structure are initiated due to the difference between fluid and structure velocity less important.

1D-piping-FSI 11

- Poisson coupling leads to precursor waves - these are stress wave induced disturbances in the liquid, which travel faster than and hence ahead of, the classical waterhammer waves. - The interaction is always caused by dynamic forces which act simultaneously on fluid and pipe. It is convenient to classify the dynamic forces into two groups: - distributed forces (Poisson and friction coupling) - local forces (junction coupling)

1D-piping-FSI 12

- Classification according to the fact whether the fluid knows for pipe deformations or not: - One-way coupling or uncoupled calculation (fluid transient is evaluated in undeformed structure). Most of the FSI analyses in the past in fluid-filled systems comprised two separate analyses undertaken sequentially (uncoupled calculation). Fluid-transient code is used to determine pressure and velocity histories in rigid and anchored structure, which are used as input to a structural dynamics code. It is also possible to couple codes in each calculation time step (one-way coupling). The results are identical in both cases. - Two-way coupling - most recent FSI methods, where FSI is defined with mathematical model or where two computer codes are coupled successively in such way, that the fluid code takes into account also deformations of the structure (Abaqus-Fluent, AnsysCFX, etc).

1D-piping-FSI 13

Pre s s ure his tory ne a r the va lve - de ta il

2

no FSI with FSI

-Time-domain and frequency-domain analyses - Typical outcome of a time-domain analysis is a series of graphs showing how parameters vary in time. - Typical outcome of a frequencydomain analysis is a series of graphs highlighting the dominant frequencies in the response of various parameters. - Mathematically, time-domain and frequency-domain analyses contain the same information. It is possible, for example, to obtain frequency-domain results from a Fourier analysis of the output from a time-domain analysis. Inversely not always true.

1D-piping-FSI

1.5

0.5

-0.5

-1

-1.5

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

Time [s ]

14

- Skalaks basic 4 equation model axial movement:

Set of four linear first-order PDEs:

- no two-phase flow - no damping - no friction - no convective term - no ...

fluid:

v p f + =0 t s

v 2 N x 1 2R p + 1 2 + = 0 K Ed EAt t s t

pipe:

Qy & u x N x = t At Rp t s

& R p u x 1 N x =0 EAt t Ed t s

Poisson coupling

Junction coupling relations pipe end Constant pressure (tank), rigidly anchored structure: Closed pipe, free structure: Closed pipe, free structure, rod impact:

p = const. , u z = 0

v = u z , A f p = At

1D-piping-FSI

z

, Qy =0 , M x =0

15

z

v = u z , A f p Y rod u z v 0, rod = At

- Valve closure transient

TANK PIPE

Pipe properties: L = 20 m, R = 398.5 mm, e = 8 mm, E = 210 GPa, = 0.3, s = 7900 kg/m3

Inital flow direction

VALVE

Initial conditions: v = 1 m/s, p = 0 Pa, f = 1000 kg/m3

2

Measuring point

1.5

1.5

0.5

0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2

0.5

-0.5

-0.5

-1

-1

-1.5 0

Time [s ]

1D-piping-FSI

-1.5 0

0.05

0.1

0.15

Time [s ]

16

0.2

- Rod impact experiment

- The experiment performed at University of Dundee -The experimental apparatus is relatively simple: - no initial flow influence - no initial deformation - no influence of supports - no valve closing time effect.

2.5 Expe rime nt Ca lcula tion Ga le Ca lcula tion Tijs s e ling 2 1.5 Expe rime nt Ca lcula tion Ga le Ca lcula tion Tijs s e ling

2.5 2 1.5

P re s s ure le ft [MP a]

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

-2 0.025 1D-piping-FSI 0

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

170.025

Time [s ]

Time [s ]

- Valentins 8 equation model axial, rotational and flexural movement for plane pipelines with elbows - Skalaks model + Timoshenkos beam equations (from beam eq.)

( A +

t t

Af

& u y t

Qy s

=0

& 1 M z z =0 EI t t s

& z M z t I t t s

= Qy

18

- Rod impact experiment

- The experiment performed at University of Dundee -The experimental apparatus is relatively simple : - no initial flow influence - no initial deformation - no influence of supports - no valve closing time effect.

2.5e+006 2e+006 1.5e+006 1e+006 500000 Calculation Experiment

2e+006

Calculation Experiment

0.02

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

1D-piping-FSI

19

- Valentins 8 equation model smoth model

v p + =0 f t s t At

t t 2 Rp 2 N x 1 2R 2 p K + Ed 1 t - EA t + 2 2 R t

Qy & u x N x = t s Rp

f

( A +

t I t

Af

& u y t

Qy s

Af p - N x Rp

& z M z t s

= Qy

1D-piping-FSI 20

- Rod impact experiment

Pre s s ure at impac t e nd

2500 2000 1500 2000 1500 1000

Pre s s ure at re mo te e nd

0 0.005 0.01 0.015

Time [s ]

0.02 0 1D-piping-FSI

0.005

0.01

0.015

Time [s ]

21

0.02

- Valve closure single elbow pipe

Valve is free

VALVE

P1

PIPE 2 ELBOW

TANK

PIPE 1

=0 .3 9 = 85 m 0.3 , e , =8 t = 7 9 mm, 00 E kg = 2 /m 3 10

GP a

Valve is fixed

(multiplication fact. for deformations is 200)

Valve closure, initial pressure in the pipe is zero, fluid velocity v = 1 m/s

1D-piping-FSI

L, 2 R

22

- Valve closure Tank-pipe-valve system, pipe is arbitrary

De fo rmatio ns at t =0.0000 s

0.6 Initia l De forme d

0.4

Valve is free

0.2

Width [m]

-0.2

-0.4

Length [m]

Valve closure, initial pressure in the pipe is zero, fluid velocity v = 1 m/s

1D-piping-FSI

23

- Wiggerts 14 equations model 1D pipe in 3D space full coupling:

- additional equations for torsional motion - additional eqs. for x-z plane - radial deformations still not included (negligible)

1D-piping-FSI

24

Vectorial form of the equations valid for any system:

r r +B =0 A t z

C = A B

-1

r r +C =0 t z

The Jacobian matrix C has some very important properties: - it is analytically diagonalizable - the eigensystem is constant during the simulation due to the assumption of the single-phase flow and constant fluid density. These assumptions are generally not accurate! Consequence: -The model is suitable for numerical solutions with Method of Characteristics (MOC) MOC is most common method, other methods are mixed MOCFEM procedure, component synthesis method, and Godunovs method (WAHA).

1D-piping-FSI

25

Two phase flow modelling (void generally reduces FSI effect): - MOC: column separation concentrated cavity model (Bergant)

- predicts most of the cavitation situations (in cold water inertially controlled cavitation) - simple model to implement - Cavitation starts when pressure falls below sat. pressure the cavity volume Vc is evaluated using:

- pressure in the cavity fixed at saturation - Condensation - when overpressure wave transverses a cavity, first it has to cause the cavity to collapse. The delay action associated with this behavior emulates the reduction of fluid wave speed and its dependency on the void fraction

- Godunov method: near future, coupling of Valentine's 8 equation model with WAHA code the result will be two-phase flow FSI coupling - Coupling of two codes using best market codes + coupling at fluidstructure interface (Newtons law)

1D-piping-FSI 26

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