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Effect of swimming Programm on Dementie A mong Elderly women in Kuwait Kifaa karalla mishary Ph.D.

Abstract
Indroduction:It Is no secret that Exercise has numerous effect on the body. However, recent research approved that it has also appositive effects on the brain. in a new review article high heightens the results of more than a hundred recent human. And animal studies on this topic, michelle w.voss,of the university of Albinos at Urbana -Champaign , and her colleagues show that aerobic exercise and strength training play a vital role in maintaining brain and cognitive health throughout life . However. As a conclusion they suggest that many unanswered, question sremain in the field of effects of physical activities, including swimming. Swimming like all different Sports is very beneficial for human body in general. It helps the individuals to develop their muscle strength ,improve the cardiorepiratory system, blood circulation free the mind from stress and problems which are troubling them .The brain , is the central command of body, plays a crucial role in swimming , The brain contains nerve cells nerve cells that communicate with each other and with the muscles to enable the movements needed for swimming . swimming involves brain chemicals that stimulate muscle contractions and generate substances that may help promote a sense of well . Methods: Twinty for healthy but sedentary women , they all know how to swim volunteers to participate in this study , aged 55-62 years, participated in the 61

weeks clinical trial . Half of them participated in the swimming group(the expiramental the rest stay sedentary; however they agree to do the pre- post tests .Results significant development in health, fitness and dementia level were statisucally significant for test. Conclusions: the Finding of research showed that swimming is an effective aerobic exercise of both body and brain, the results show also that swimming is effective exercise in a weather that would help elderly women to avoid brain dementia that usually happened among elderly people.. Introduction: Unil just few years ago, doctors believed that the brain stopped making new neurons, meaning that memory began to get irreversibly worse when the body stopped developing, usually in the early 2000 that doctors know that, like any other part of body neurons weaken as people age. Loose of brain function due to neural breakdown was assumed to be normal unavoidable as part of gaing, it turns out they were wrong, in the past few years it has become clear that the barin can in fact make new neurons starting in young age and continuing to old age. literally rewire the brain can be done with new parts as the older parts wear out. The human brain is center of the nervous system. The brain monitors and regulates the bodys action and reactions, it continuously receive sensory information and rapedly analyzes this data and responds accordingly by controlling bodily actions and functions the brainstem controls breathing, heart rate and other automatic processes that are independent of conscious brain functions, the neocortex is the center of higher order of thinking, learning, and memorising.( Wikipedia,2010.). Human brain is an amazing part of the body, it can process millions of stimuli in just a hundred of seconds . however the brain requires good care and attentions to
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operate at its peak efficiency, especially as the person enter his or here forties fifties and beyond. Building better brain memory, preventing memory loss and impacting Alzheimers Disease depend on person to person lifestyle and note just the genes. ( sporns 2010).The brain , is the central command of body, plays a crucial role in swimming, the brain Contains nerve cells that communicate with each other and with the muscles to enable the movements needed for swimming, Swimming involves brain chemicals at stimulate muscle and generate substances may help promote a sense of well (Bragg,2011). Even though an adult brain only weigh about 3 pounds , it requires roughly 10 percent of the bodys energy to direct and coordinate all physical and mental functions,Exercise increase the amount of oxygen that reach the brain via bloodstream, triggering te growth of cerebral vassels and new

neurons.Forgetfulness is a common complaint among older adults they start to talk about movie they saw recently when realize you cant remember the little, theyre giving directions to their house when suddenly blank on a familiar street name . you find yourself standing in the middle of the kitchen wondering what you went in there for. as we grow older, we experience physiological changes that can cause glitches in brain functions weve always taken for granted, it takes longer to learn and recall information. Were not as quick as we used to be. In fact, we often mistake this slowing of our mental processes for true memory loss. But in most cases, if we give ourselves time , the information will come to mind. The brain is capable of producing new brain cells at any age, so significant memory loss is not an inevitable result of aging . But just as it is with muscle strength, you have to use it or lost it. Your lifestyle, health habits, and daily activities have a hug impact on the health of your brain. Whatever your age, they

are many ways you can improve your cognitive skills, prevent memory loss and protect your grey matter.( Helpguide org,2010). Review of related Research: Research in humans and animals has shown the exercise improves mood cognition. Physical activity also causes a robust increase in neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, a brain area important for learning and memory.( Praag 2008). A study examined whether participation in leisure activities during early and middle adulthood was associated with reduced risk of Alzheimers Disease, it was concluded that participation in a greater overall number of leisure activities was associated with lower risk of both Alzheimers Disease and dementia in general.( crowe et al , 2003) Exercise stimulate the growth of new brain cells , the study on rats finds. Te new cells could be the key to why working out relieves depression.Previous research showed, physical exercise can have antidepressant effects, but until now scientists didnt fully understand how it worked. ( Bryner 2007). New neurons are continuously generated in hippocampal subgranular zone throughout life, and the amount of neurogenesis is suggested to be correlated with the hippocampus- dependent function, Several extrinsic stimuli are known to modulate the neurogenesis process, among them , physical exercise has advantageous effects on neurogenesis and brain function, while inflammation shows the opposite. Exercise training facilitated both the proliferation of the neural stem cells and their differentiation into neurons.(wu etal 2007). Research in humans and animals has shown that exercise improves mood and cognition, physical activity also causes a robust increase in neurogenesis in the
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dentate grays of the hippocampus , a brain area important for learning and memory, the positive correlation between running and neurogenesis has raised by hypothesis that the new hippocampal neurons may medicate, in part, improved learning associated with exercise. He present review gives an overview of research pertaining to exercise-induced cel genesis, its possible relevance to memory function and the cellular mechanisns that may be involved in this process .(van praag H.2008) A healthy body really does mean a healthy mind , in the last decade it became clear that regular exercise beneficially affects brain function, Exercises boosts brain power by stimulating formation of new brain cells ( neurons ) the process known as neurogenesis. Also exercise strengthens connections between those cells . researchers have found the brain that are stimulated through exercise are associated with memory and learning. Physical exercise may even help prevent Alzheimers disease several studies have confirmed That regular physical activity reduces the risk of cognitive decline and dementia in old age.( Med expert 2011). Another study at Colombia university founded that human who had a exercise training program were able to grow and maintain new brain cells and nerve cells in the hippocampus region of the brain, the specific area called the dentate gyrus is responsible for helping produce neurogenesis, even more studies have discovered that those who exercise had 2 -3x increases in the birth-rate of new neurons!( Dave touretzky and cherniak 2010). Dementia is a general term that refers to a progressive decline in intellectual ability characterized by memory loss, impaired judgment, deterioration of abstract thinking and language, and personality changes. Symptoms appear gradually so that it may take months or even years before a diagnosis is made.Dementia should
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not be confused with age- associated impairment , which is a clinical term that refers to the normal forgetfulness that is expected with age ( for example , having difficulty recalling name) dementia by contrast, involves problems in multiple areas of cognition ( thinking ) and results in serious impairment.Dementia can be irreversible of reversible, but most cases of dementia are irreversible. The most common causes of irreversible dementia is Al zheimer, which is responsible for about 65 percent of dementia cases .vascular disease is also a primary causes of irreversible dementia.( johns hopkins 2011) Regular physical activities can help prevent cognitive brain disorder, according to mayoclinic: cognitive disorders that affect the nerve cells in the brain can cause memory loss that often leades to Alzheimer, disease Even moderate physical activities such as walking and swimming lead to decrease in the risk of losing brain functioning when the experience is performed two or three times a week while studying the aging brain , researchers at the Dana Foundation discovered that physical activity promotes the development of new pathways in the brain in olders. Additionally, physical activity reduced the amount of plague buildup typically associated with certain forms of dementia such as Alzheimers diseas, the brain continues with the positive effects for as seven days following the last workout, researchers concluded that exercising every other day can be sufficient for waring of age- related cognitive disorders ( Ray . 2011) To determine the effects of a 14-day healthy longevity lifestyle program on cognition and cerebral metabolism in people with mild age-related memory

complainls. Seventeen nondemented subjects, aged 3569 years (mean: 53 years, standard deviation: 10) with mild self-reported memory complaints but normal baseline memory performance scores were randomly assigned to 1) the intervention group (N_8): a program combining a brain healthy diet plan,
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relaxation exercises, cardiovascular conditioning, and mental exercise (brain teasers and verbal memory training techniques); or 2) the control group (N_9): usual lifestyle routine. Pre- and post intervention measures included selfassessments of memory ability, objective tests of cognitive performance, and determinations of regional cerebral metabolism during mental rest with [fluorine18]fluorodeoxyglucose(FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Results: Subjects in the intervention group objectively demonstrated greater word fluency. Concomitantly, their FDG-PET scans identified a 5% decrease in activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The control group showed no significant change in any of the measures. It was concluded that a short-term healthy lifestyle program combining mental and physical exercise, stress reduction, and healthy diet was associated with significant effects on cognitive function and brain metabolism. Reduced resting activity in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may reflect greater cognitive efficiency of a brain region involved in working memory. (Small et al , 2006). Research Problem: After reviewing many articles and research text on the effect of exercise on both body and mind, the researcher erialized that old women in kuwait might be in danger , because they are inactive ,which might lead them to dementia and than to Alzhaimer later.As the researcher also reviewed the related research on the barin in general and dementia in particular she realized also that swimming as an aeactivety on brproblem is very rear , however there are many research has been done on effect of walking and running. Theirfor ,research designed this research to study the effects of swimming on elderly women who suffer minor dementia. Aim of research:
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This research aimed to test hypotheses that swimming as previas research indicate about running ,walking and cycling ,theirfor it will lower level of dementia ,as well as physical fitness. Reasearch hypotheses: 1) There are statistically difference between the experimental and the control groups in physical variables under investigation for the benefit of the experimental group in post test. 2) There are statistically difference between the experimental and the control groups in body compostion(fat%) under investigation for the benefit of the experimental group in post test. 3) There are statistically difference between the experimental and the control groups in body mass index(BMI) under investigation for the benefit of the experimental group in post test. 4) There are statistically difference between the experimental and the control groups in dementia under investigation for the benefit of the experimental group in post test. Methods: Samples: Twenty for old women 58-62 years of age ,healthy physically able to walk,sufferd minor dementia,and inactive for the last five years at least ,they al know how to swimsince their were young.they all went through medical diagnoses by an expirt physition.Allsubjects were living in Kuwait for the last seven years at least.

Subjects were divided to two groups each (n=12), and equevelant in height in centimeter,weight in kilogram,and age in years. The first group were the expiramental group,the second were the controle group. Test & Measurments: All subjects went through pre and post tests including the following variables: 1) Body mass index (BMI) ,body weight in kilogram over hight in meter square (Kg/m2) 2) Body fat middle percentage,using sum of skin fold,form the middle of bysibs,subscabular,and the middle of thigh.Form the sum of the skinfold using tables developed by Myo clinic. 3) Flexbility endurance:using sit and reach test. 4) Muscles endurance:using set ups test in one minute. 5) Dementia test: utilizing clock drawing test (Appindex 3) 6) VO2 max:using 2 km walking test and calculated vo2 max by the following equations: vo2max(ml/min/kg)= 116.2-2.28walking time (sec.)- 0.11 HR0.14age-0.39BMI(Oja.1995). Procedures: After selecting the research sample and diving the examples to two group expirament ,and control group .The expirmental group was assind as swimming group and the other control group the streaching group .The swimming group went though a training program included swimming and water exercise ( App.1) .

The control group also went through a streaching program ( App.2).The two groups was tested pre and post the program that lasted for 14 days os recommended by 5 Small et al 2006.All research procedures was corducted in one of the social club in Kuwait during summer 2009. Appendix(1) - The swimming program , for the Experimental Group - 14 days swimming training program in a25 m.length pool - 14 sections,each is 45 min - Each secation stared with warm up followed by stretching for about 10 min, and ended with acooling down for 5 min. - During the 1 st.Setion (4 days) the swimming program consisted of 1 min.rest in pool after each length of swimming .Free style. - On the second section (3days) , the resting time was 1 min , but after forth and back swimming the pool length - The 4th and lat section (3days) the rest between each swimming length was 1 min . but after swimming the pool three lengths. - Subjects learned how to count their puls and record it during rest , right after each section and the next day morning right after walking up and sitting on the edg of the bed. Appendix(2) The contol group work-out consisted of only stretching exercise flexibility and stretching .Training sassions of both group were performed under supervision
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of volunteer cardiovascular hesitation a swimming trainer , and a life gard women who are a full time jap in the club., All subject were tested ( the pre test) before divided to equal , and hmage two group ( experiment & control group ( table1). Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed usin the SPSS statistical software package . small test was used to compare group. Appendix (3): Thomposon explane this test as the sample test evalutes consentrtion abilitiesm,short term memory , motor function and executive functioning . The clinician gives the person a blank piece of paper and ask him to draw an analog clock that reads.aparicular time , commonly sowthing like ten minutes after 11 according to the Dr.Peter Brinberger on the Neurosurvival website .The clinician then observes the person attempet to draw the clock.Anormally functioning person would quickly draw acircle , the number and the positions of the hands in accurate ariantation .However ,individuals ith deterntia may be able to draw the crcle but positioning the number marks and the hands is often very difficult. They may forget what time was requested or many not be able to figure out how to evenly draw 12 numbers around the circle.The Scores on this simple test often correlate strongly with scores on the MMSE and other screening tools. Across many studies , this test averages a low rate of both false negative diagnoses, according to the neurosurvival website .

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