Optical System Multiplexing

Multiplexing

• Multiplexing
– a process where multiple analoge message signals or digital data streams are combined into one signal over a shared medium

• Types
– Time division multiplexing – Frequency division multiplexing – Code division multiple access

• Optically
– Time division multiplexing – Wavelength division multiplexing – Code division multiple access

Timeline 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2008 Optical Fibre SDH CWDM WDM CDMA .

TDM is limited by the fastest electronic transmitting. leading to so-called electrooptical bottleneck • Due to electro-optical bottleneck. optical TDM networks face severe problems to fully exploit enormous bandwidth of optical fibers Electronic signals 4x 40Gb/s delayed Optical signals S 1x 160Gb/s . receiving. • In high-speed optical networks. however. and processing technology available in OEO nodes.Time division multiplexing (TDM) • TDM is well understood technique used in many electronic network architectures throughout 50year history of digital communications.

Wavelength Division Multiplexing .

each using an individual wavelength  Typically one channel utilizes 1320 nm and the other 1550 nm  Broad channel spacing.WDM Overview Wavelength Division Multiplexer Wavelength Division Demultiplexer A B l1 Fibre l1 + l2 l1 l2 X Y l2  Multiple channels of information carried over the same fiber. several hundred nm  Recently WDM has become known as Coarse WDM or CWDM to distinguish it from DWDM .

crosstalk and non-linear effects are potential problems . unlike OTDM  Loss.WDM Overview Wavelength Division Multiplexer Wavelength Division Demultiplexer A l1 l2 l3 Fibre l1 + l2 + l3 l1 l2 l3 X Y Z B C  Multiple channels of information carried over the same fibre. each using an individual wavelength  Attractive multiplexing technique    High aggregate bit rate without high speed electronics or modulation Low dispersion penalty for aggregate bit rate Very useful for upgrades to installed fibres  Realisable using commercial components.

Types of WDM .

Optical Spectral Bands 2nd Window O Band 5th Window E Band S Band C Band L Band 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 Wavelength in nm .

WDM Multiplexers/Demultiplexers  Wavelength multiplexer types include:  Fibre couplers Grating multiplexers   Wavelength demultiplexer types include:  Single mode fused taper couplers Grating demultiplexers Tunable filters l1 l2   l1 + l2 Grin Rod Lens Fibres Grating Multiplexer Demultiplexe Grating r .

Tunable Sources  WDM systems require sources at different wavelengths  Researchers to developing precision tunable laser sources  Objective is to develop a complete module incorporating:  Multi-section segmented grating Distributed Bragg Reflector Laser diode    Thermal and current drivers Control microprocessor Interface to allow remote optical power and wavelength setting .

Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing .

Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing Wavelength Division Multiplexer Wavelength Division Demultiplexer A B l1 l2 l3 Fibre l1 + l2 + l3 l1 l2 l3 X Y C Z  Multiple channels of information carried over the same fiber. > 80 Gb/s per fiber .4 nm and less  Cost effective way of increasing capacity without replacing fiber  Commercial systems available with capacities of 32 channels and upwards. each using an individual wavelength  Dense WDM is WDM utilizing closely spaced channels  Channel spacing reduced to 0.

Sample DWDM Signal Multiplexer Optical Output Spectrum for an 8 DWDM channel system. showing individual channels .

DWDM Advantages and Disadvantages .

DWDM Advantages Greater fibre capacity Easier network expansion  No new fiber needed Just add a new wavelength Incremental cost for a new channel is low No need to replace many components such as optical amplifiers    .

DWDM versus TDM  DWDM can give increases in capacity which TDM cannot match  Higher speed TDM systems are very expensive .

8 nm   Channels lie in the range 1530.1 nm (so-called C-Band)  Newer "L-Band" exists from about 1570 nm to 1620 nm  Supervisory channel also specified at 1510 nm to handle alarms and monitoring .692 "Optical interfaces for multichannel systems with optical amplifiers"  G.DWDM Standards  ITU Recommendation is G.3 nm to 1567. 100 and 200 GHz equivalent to approximate wavelength spacings of 0.692 includes a number of DWDM channel plans  Channel separation set at:  50.4. 0.

Optical Spectral Bands .

51 1548.92 1547.93 1553.20 1530.99792458 x 108 m/s .94 1560.72 1550.04 1535.90 1532.16 1529.98 1543.73 1554.25 1540.94 1548.11 1553.72 1557.54 1554.37 1539.73 1544.92 1549.92 1555.32 1552.72 1548.14 1547.33 1543.39 So called ITU C-Band 81 channels defined 1529.77 1534.61 1531.35 1546.32 1551.15 1556.12 1536.86 1539.47 1533.17 Speed of Light assumed to be 2.72 1551.58 1558.32 1549.12 1552.07 1537.4 nm Spacing (50 GHz) All Wavelengths in nm 1528.40 1537.36 1557.68 1533.32 1545.55 1556.55 1534.77 1529.95 1541.52 1550.12 1550.79 1560.75 1556.82 1536.72 1531.12 1558.54 1542.58 1538.96 Another band called the L-band exists above 1565 nm 1533.52 1546.52 1552.19 1538.ITU DWDM Channel Plan 0.61 1537.98 1559.56 1540.22 1541.13 1559.94 1530.34 1555.75 1542.43 1540.29 1532.77 1545.16 1546.13 1544.64 1535.33 1558.51 1531.33 1535.91 1554.79 1538.53 1544.00 1542.

DWDM Components .

. amplifies and transmits signals on different frequency.DWDM: Typical Components Passive Components:     Gain equalization filter for fiber amplifiers Bragg gratings based demultiplexer Array Waveguide multiplexers/demultiplexers Add/Drop Coupler Active Components/Subsystems:    Transceivers and Transponders DFB lasers at ITU specified wavelengths DWDM flat Erbium Fibre amplifiers Transponder: an automatic device that receives. A transceiver is a device that has both a transmitter and a receiver.

Bidirectional Transmission using WDM Source: Master 7_4 .

Conventional (Simplex) Transmission  Most common approach is "one fibre / one direction"  This is called "simplex" transmission  Linking two locations will involve two fibres and two transceivers Transmitter Receiver Receiver Transmitter Local Transceiver Fibres x2 Distant Transceiver Source: Master 7_4 .

Bi-directional using WDM  Significant savings possible with so called bi-directional transmission using WDM  This is called "full-duplex" transmission  Individual wavelengths used for each direction  Linking two locations will involve only one fibres. two WDM mux/demuxs and two transceivers Transmitter Receiver lA WDM Mux/Demux A lA WDM Mux/Demux B lB Transmitter Receiver Local Transceiver l B lB lA Fibre Distant Transceiver .

Bi-directional DWDM Different wavelength bands are used for transmission in each direction Typcially the bands are called: The "Red Band". lower half of the C-band from 1528 nm  Transmitter Transmitter l1R l1B Transmitter Transmitter l2R l2B Red Band Transmitter lnR DWDM Mux/Demux DWDM Mux/Demux lnB Transmitter Receiver Receiver l1B l2B Blue Band l1R l2R Receiver Receiver Fibre Receiver lnB lnR Receiver . upper half of the C-band to 1560 nm The "Blue Band".

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