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**Questions and short problems
**

G. Ghione - M. Pirola - V. Camarchia

Dipartimento di Elettronica, Politecnico di Torino

V2.3 - March 2011

Contents

1 Introduction to RF and microwave integrated circuits 2

2 Passive components for RF and microwave circuits: Distributed elements, Lumped

elements 3

3 Scattering parameters, gains, stability 4

4 Active RF and microwave components 5

5 Small- and large-signal RF FET circuit models 6

6 Linear ampli…ers, couplers 7

7 Noise modeling and low-noise ampli…er design 8

1

1 Introduction to RF and microwave integrated circuits

1. Q De…ne RF, microwaves and millimeter waves from the standpoint of frequency allocation.

2. Q Suppose a radar has to be designed to detect objects of the average size of 1 cm: is an

RF operating frequency adequate to this? Explain why/why not. Suggest if the case a more

suitable frequency range.

3. 1 A dielectric medium has c

r

= 9. Evaluate the free-space wavelength at 10 GHz and the

wavelength in the dielectric medium.

4. Q Identify the L and the K bands (frequency limits). In what frequency band are GSM

cellphones operating?

5. Q Explain why signals cannot conveniently transmitted in baseband through a Hertzian chan-

nel, but rather they have to be upconverted through analog or digital modulations. Assume

as an example e.g. a hi-… signal with frequency between ~DC and ~20 kHz.

6. Q Explain why transmitting the human voice in baseband through a portable phone would be

for many reasons unpractical.

7. Q In a cellular system each cell exploits the same frequency channels (e.g. around 2 GHz),

they are allocated to di¤erent users. Explain why there is no interference between nearby cells.

8. Q Describe a basic RF RX/TX (receiver/transmitter) scheme.

9. Q List the basic RX section building blocks, starting from the antenna down to the downcon-

version mixer.

10. Q List the basic TX section building blocks, starting from the upconversion mixer up to the

antenna.

11. Q What is the di¤erence between a homodyne ad a heterodyne receiver?

12. Q What is the di¤erence between a low noise, high gain and maximum power ampli…er?

13. Q What are the typical features of planar vs. waveguide microwave circuits?

14. Q Explain the di¤erences between a hybrid and a monolithic microwave circuit.

15. Q List in order of increasing frequency range the following semiconductors: indium phosphide,

silicon, gallium arsenide.

16. Q Explain the di¤erence between a lumped and a distributed-parameter circuit. Why distrib-

uted elements cannot be integrated in an RF circuit?

17. Q Quote a few microwave …eld-e¤ect or bipolar transistors with the related semiconductor

material.

18. Q Explain the di¤erence between analog large-signal and small-signal models. Clarify what

model is linear and what model is nonlinear.

19. Q Explain the di¤erence between a memoriless model and a model with memory.

2

2 Passive components for RF and microwave circuits: Dis-

tributed elements, Lumped elements

1. Q Explain the di¤erence between a TEM and a quasi-TEM transmission line.

2. Q A lossy transmission line has per-unit-length parameters L, C, R, G. Express the charac-

teristic impedance and complex propagation constant of the line in terms of the parameters

for the general case and in the high-frequency approximation. Identify, in the high-frequency

approximation, the propagation constant and the attenuation.

3. 1 A lossless quasi-TEM line has a 50 impedance and an e¤ective permittivity c

eff

= 2.

Evaluate the per-unit-length parameters L, C. Compute the guided wavelength at 10 GHz.

4. 1 A lossy quasi-TEM line has a 50 impedance.The dielectric attenuation is 0.1 dB/cm while

the conductor attenuation is 1 dB/cm at 1 GHz. Evaluate the per-unit-length parameters R,

G. Estimate their values and the resulting dielectric and conductor attenuation at 10 GHz.

Assuming an e¤ective permittivity c

e¤

= 7, evaluate the total loss over 1 guided wavelength

at 10 GHz.

5. 1 The conductivity of a 2 jm thick conductor is o = 1 10

5

S/m. Evaluate the frequency at

which the skin-e¤ect penetration depth is equal to the conductor thickness.

6. 1 A lossless transmission line with 50 characteristic impedance and 5 mm guided wavelength

is closed on 7

L

= 50 +,50 . Compute the input impedance for a 2.5 and 1.25 mm long line.

7. Q A lossless line is in…nitely long. Is the input impedance always equal to the characteristic

impedance? Explain.

8. QA quasi-TEM line has a per-unit-length capacitance of 5 pF/mm and an in-vacuo capacitance

of 2 pF/mm. What is the e¤ective permittivity?

9. Q Sketch the cross section of a microstrip and of a coplanar waveguide.

10. Q A microstrip on 0.5 mm thick allumina substrate has a strip width of 0.5 mm. What is

(approximately) the characteristic impedance?

11. Q Sketch the attenuation of a microstrip and of a coplanar waveguide as a function of the strip

width.

12. Q Sketch the behaviour of the attenuation of a transmission line as a function of frequency.

13. Q Sketch a strip, a loop and a spiral inductor. What usually limits the frequency range on

which integrated RF and microwave inductors can operate?

14. Q List some possible uses of inductors in integrated RF circuits.

15. Q Sketch an interdigitated and a MIM capacitor.

16. 1 In a MIM capacitor the dielectric is 100 nm thick, width permittivity equal to 2. What is

the capacitance per mm

2

area?

17. Q What are chip inductors, capacitors and resistors? are they used in hybrid or integrated

implementations?

3

18. Q What is a coaxial-to-microstrip transition?

19. Q What are the main di¤erences between a coplanar and a microstrip circuit layout?

3 Scattering parameters, gains, stability

1. 1 The open-circuit voltage of a real generator is \

0

= 10 V and the internal impedance is

7

G

= 50+,50 . What is the generator available power? What is the load impedance yielding

power match to the generator?

2. 1 Suppose the normalization impedance is 50 .Locate on a Smith chart (approximately) the

following impedances: 7

L1

= 50 ; 7

L2

= 50 + ,50 ; 7

L3

= 50 ,50 ; 7

L4

= 100 ;

7

L5

= 25 ; 7

L6

= 0 ; 7

L7

= 1 .

3. 1 A transmission line with length equal to `

g

,4 is loaded with a 100 impedance. The

characteristic impedance is 50 . Locate on the Smith chart the load impedance and input

impedance. What is 7

i

? This structure is called a quarter-wavelength transformer.

4. 1 A resistive two-port has the following impedance matrix:

7 = 1

2 1

1 2

**Sketch a possible structure (implementing the above impedance matrix and evaluate the scat-
**

tering matrix (assume the normalization impedance 1

0

= 1) .

5. 1 A reactive two-port has the following impedance matrix:

7 = ,A

2 1

1 2

**Evaluate the scattering matrix assuming 1
**

0

= A and check that the properties of the S-matrix

of a lossless two-port are veri…ed.

6. 1 A real generator has internal impedance 7

G

= 50 ,50 and open circuit voltage \

0

= 10

V. Assuming 1

0

= 50 derive the power wave equivalent circuit (

G

and /

0

).

7. 1 A load exhibits a re‡ection coe¢cient equal in magnitude to -10 dB. What part (in %) of

the incident power is re‡ected?

8. 1 A real generator with

G

= 0.2 and /

0

= 1 W

1=2

is connected to a load with

L

= 0.5.

Evaluate the power delivered to the load and the maximum available power of the generator.

9. 1 A loaded two-port has the following characteristics: 1

in

= 10 mW; 1

av;in

= 20 mW;

1

L

= 100 mW; 1

av;out

= 300 mW. Evaluate the two-port gains G

op

, G

av

, G

t

.

10. 1 A two-port has the following scattering matrix (1

0

= 50 ):

o =

0 0

10 0

**Evaluate the two-port MAG. Is the two-port unilateral?
**

4

11. 1 A two-port has the following scattering matrix (1

0

= 50 ):

o =

0.1 0.01

10 0.1

**Compute the input and output re‡ection coe¢cients when the two-port is loaded on 100 .
**

12. Q Maximum power transfer between generator and load through a two-port implies simulta-

neous power matching at both ports. Is this condition always possible?

13. 1 A two-port has 1 = 2, o

21

= 15(1 + ,) and o

12

= 0.1. Evaluate the two-port MAG and

MSG. Assume the two-port is unconditionally stable.

14. Q A two-port has 1 = 2.5, j

S

j = 1.5.Is the two-port unconditionally stable?

15. 1 Discuss the stability (according to the one- and two-parameter criteria) of the two-port with

scattering matrix:

o =

,0.1 10

0.1 0.1

.

Suppose now to exchange ports 1 and 2, the new scattering matrix becomes:

o

0

=

0.1 0.1

10 ,0.1

.

Does the 2-port stability change?

16. Q Discuss the stability (according to the one- and two-parameter criteria) of the unilateral

two-port with scattering matrix:

o =

,1.1 0

5 0.1

**17. Q Is a unilateral device always unconditionally stable?
**

18. Q Suppose a device in unconditionally stable above )

0

and potentially unstable below )

0

.

Qualitatively sketch the behaviour of the device MAG and MSG as a function of frequency.

19. Q Consider two passive two-ports, one reactive (lossless), the other resistive (lossy). What

kind of property do we expect from their stability factors?

4 Active RF and microwave components

1. Q Sketch the equilibrium band diagram (1

c

, 1

v

, 1

F

) of an intrinsic semiconductor assuming

·

c

= ·

v

. Repeat for an :-doped and j-doped semiconductor. Repeat for a semiconductor

under high injection conditions (sketch the position of the quasi-Fermi levels).

2. Q Quote some compound semiconductors: wide-gap, narrow-gap, general purpose. What are

wide-gap semiconductors for?

3. Q Explain the composition of the AlGaAs and InGaAsP alloys.

4. Q Explain the purpose of compound semiconductor alloys.

5

5. Q Suppose you want to grow a lattice-matched layer of InGaAs on an InP substrate. What is

the In composition? Repeat for InAlAs.

6. Q Explain the meaning of lattice-matched and pseudomorphic heterostructures.

7. Q List the following substrates in order of availability and maturity (one of the materials is

not an available substrate today!): GaAs, GaN, SiC, Si, InP.

8. Q Explain why a GaAs substrate is semi-insulating, while a Si substrate is not.

9. Q Sketch the bandstructure (energy-momentum relation) of a direct-bandgap vs. an indirect-

bandgap semiconductor.

10. Q Qualitatively explain why the velocity-…eld characteristic of electrons in a compound semi-

conductor …rst increases, then decreases and …nally saturates.

11. Q De…ne a heterostructure and sketch the related band diagram.

12. Q Explain how a quantum well can be exploited as the conducting channel of a …eld-e¤ect

transistor.

13. Q Sketch the structure of a GaAs MESFET and the DC characteristics of the device.

14. Q Sketch the structure of a GaAs-based PHEMT and the DC characteristics of the device.

15. Q Sketch the structure of an InP-based PHEMT and the DC characteristics of the device.

16. Q List in order of performance (cuto¤ frequency) the following devices: InP-based PHEMT,

GaAs-based conventional HEMT, Si-based MOSFET, GaAs-based MESFET, GaAs-based

PHEMT.

17. Q What is the heterostructure bipolar transistor? Why are the frequency performances of this

device better than the ones of a conventional bipolar?

18. Q In a SiGe HBT-based circuit, where do you …nd Ge?

19. Q Sketch the cross-section of a GaN-based HEMT. Quote a few advantages of widegap semi-

conductors.

5 Small- and large-signal RF FET circuit models

1. Q Explain what are physics-based models, circuit models, black-box models.

2. Q Sketch a MESFET small-signal equivalent circuit and separate the extrinsic parasitics from

the intrinsic model.

3. Q Sketch the behaviour of the scattering parameters of a microwave FET.

4. Q De…ne the cuto¤ frequency of a FET and evaluate it from the intrinsic FET parameters.

5. Q De…ne the maximum oscillation frequency of a FET.

6. Q Derive the )

max

of a unilateral FET from the intrinsic parameters.

7. Q What is the typical behaviour of the MAG as a function of frequency?

6

8. Q Explain how the FET equivalent circuit can be extracted from measured S-parameters.

9. Q Sketch the large-signal equivalent circuit of a FET in DC and explain the relationship of

the output generator to the device transconductance and output resistance.

10. Q Explain how a nonlinear capacitor can be derived from small-signal measurements of the

same.

11. Q Sketch a quadratic Curtice model and justify the presence of diodes in this model.

12. 1 A FET has 1

DS

! 1, \

T0

= 2 V, drain current at ·

GS

= 0 equal to 1

DSS

= 100 mA,

output conductance 01

D

,0\

DS

= 100 mS for ·

GS

= 0, ·

DS

! 0. Evaluate the values of the

parameters of the quadratic Curtice model ,, c, \

T0

, `.

13. Q Sketch some DC and DC pulsed VI curves exhibiting low-frequency dispersion e¤ects.

14. Q To what device does the Chalmers model specially apply?

6 Linear ampli…ers, couplers

1. Q Explain the di¤erence between a maximum gain, a low-noise and a power ampli…er.

2. Q De…ne a narrowband, a wideband and an ultrawideband ampli…er.

3. Q Explain the design ‡ow of a narrowband maximum gain RF ampli…er.

4. Q Sketch the maximum gain, low-noise, maximum power working point of a FET.

5. Q Explain the operation and structure of a bias-T.

6. Q Sketch some possible FET stabilization circuits and explain why those circuits include

reactive elements together with resistive ones.

7. Q Explain why the narrowband design strategy with reactive matching sections cannot be

entirely extended to wideband design.

8. Q Justify why a wideband ampli…er with input reactive matching cannot have at the same

time ‡at gain and input matching.

9. Q Sketch a balanced ampli…er and explain why this circuit is able to provide ‡at gain and

good input matching.

10. Q What is a directional coupler? Imagine that an ideal 3dB, 90

**coupler is fed with a 100 mW
**

signal. What is the power on the coupled and the transmission port? What is the power on

the insulated port? What is the phase di¤erence between the coupled and transmission ports?

11. Q Sketch the layout of a Lange coupler and of a branch-line coupler and indicate the centerband

dimensions.

12. Q Is the hybrid ring a 90

or 180

coupler?

13. 1 A Wilkinson divider on 50 loads operates at 10 GHz. Assuming c

eff

= 4 evaluate the

lengths and characteristic impedance of the divider arms.

7

14. Q Justify the fact that a balanced ampli…er has the same gain of a single stage but twice as

the maximum power.

15. Q Explain the purpose of an RF parallel / series feedback ampli…er in terms of gain ‡atness

and input and output matching.

16. 1 We want to design 10 dB ampli…er with parallel / series feedback. What is the minimum

device jo

21

j?

17. Q Explain the operation of a distributed ampli…er. What happens if the phase velocities on

the input and output transmission lines are di¤erent? What limits the ampli…er bandwidth?

7 Noise modeling and low-noise ampli…er design

1. Q Explain why noise causes power transfer in a circuit even if it is a zero-average random

signal.

2. 1 A voltage noise source has a power spectrum of 1 (nV)

2

/Hz

1

. Assuming a bandwidth of 500

MHz, evaluate the mean square value of the noise voltage and the noise available power on 50

.Evaluate the noise available power spectral density of the generator.

3. Q Sketch the series and parallel equivalent circuits for a noisy one-port and for a two-port.

4. Q Explain the physical cause of electrical noise from microscopic ‡uctuations.

5. 1 A resistor with 1 = 1 k operates with a bandwidth of 5 GHz. Evaluate the power spectral

density at 300 K. Evaluate the spectral density of the resistor noise voltage and the r.m.s.

noise voltage value over the speci…ed bandwidth.

6. Q Sketch the PRC noise model for a FET.

7. 1 In the circuit in Fig. 1, assume 7

1

= 50 +,50 , 7

L

= 50 ,50 ; the two noise generators

are the thermal noise (Nyquist law) generators of the two impedances, respectively (i.e. i

n1

is associated to 7

1

, c

n2

to 7

L

). Assuming a 1 GHz bandwidth, evaluate at 300 K the total

power on the load.

i

n1

+

e

n2

v

L

Z

1

Z

L

i

n1

+

e

n2

v

L

Z

1

Z

L

Figure 1: Circuit from Es.7.

1

Spectral units like V

2

=Hz, A

2

=Hz etc., when the V or A unit is associated to a multiplier, like in V

2

=Hz, must

be interpreted as (V)

2

=Hz, that is 10

12

V/Hz. This meaning has been explicited in the text whenever possible.

8

8. Q De…ne the noise …gure of a two-port.

9. 1 In the circuit in Fig. 2 compute the minimum noise …gure and optimum generator impedance

assuming 7

1

= 10 , q

m

= 500 mS. The two (uncorrelated) noise generators c

1

and i

1

are

white, with spectral density equal to 100 (pV)

2

,Hz and 100 (pA)

2

,Hz, respectively. The

system bandwidth is 100 MHz.

V*

+

Z

s

e

ns

+

Z

1

e

1

g

m

V*

i

t

i

1

V*

+

Z

s

+

Z

s

e

ns

+

Z

1

e

1

g

m

V*

i

t

i

1

Figure 2: Circuit from Es. 9.

10. Q What is the behaviour of the noise …gure with respect to the minimum when the generator

impedance is varied with respect to the optimum value?

11. Q Discuss minimum noise vs. maximum gain ampli…er design.

12. Q In a minimum noise ampli…er, what is the associated gain G

ass

? Can the associated gain

be larger than the MAG?

13. 1 Two ampli…ers are cascaded (50 design) with G

av;1

= 10 dB, G

av;1

= 20 dB, NF

1

= 1

dB, NF

2

= 6 dB. Evaluate the total noise …gure according to the Friis formula.

14. 1 A resistive attenuator designed on 50 has 3 dB loss. What is the noise …gure?

15. 1 An inductive series feedback ampli…er must be designed on 50 at 10 GHz. Assuming

C

GS

= 0.2 pF and q

m

= 200 mS, evaluate 1

S

and 1

G

.Explain the purpose of the inductive

series feedback LNA design vs. the conventional LNA approach through input noise matching.

9

7. starting from the upconversion mixer up to the antenna. Q List in order of increasing frequency range the following semiconductors: indium phosphide. starting from the antenna down to the downconversion mixer. Q Explain the di¤erences between a hybrid and a monolithic microwave circuit. P A dielectric medium has r = 9: Evaluate the free-space wavelength at 10 GHz and the wavelength in the dielectric medium. Q Describe a basic RF RX/TX (receiver/transmitter) scheme. waveguide microwave circuits? 14. microwaves and millimeter waves from the standpoint of frequency allocation.g. 9. Q What is the di¤erence between a low noise. 10. Q What is the di¤erence between a homodyne ad a heterodyne receiver? 12.g. 2. Q List the basic RX section building blocks. Why distributed elements cannot be integrated in an RF circuit? 17. In what frequency band are GSM cellphones operating? 5. 18. 3. Clarify what model is linear and what model is nonlinear. gallium arsenide. 6. Q In a cellular system each cell exploits the same frequency channels (e. 19.1 Introduction to RF and microwave integrated circuits 1. Q De…ne RF. Q List the basic TX section building blocks. Q Explain why transmitting the human voice in baseband through a portable phone would be for many reasons unpractical. a hi-… signal with frequency between ~DC and ~20 kHz. silicon. Q Explain why signals cannot conveniently transmitted in baseband through a Hertzian channel. Q What are the typical features of planar vs. they are allocated to di¤erent users. 16. Q Explain the di¤erence between a lumped and a distributed-parameter circuit. Q Suppose a radar has to be designed to detect objects of the average size of 1 cm: is an RF operating frequency adequate to this? Explain why/why not. Suggest if the case a more suitable frequency range. 11. Q Explain the di¤erence between analog large-signal and small-signal models. Q Explain the di¤erence between a memoriless model and a model with memory. Assume as an example e. around 2 GHz). but rather they have to be upconverted through analog or digital modulations. 2 . Q Identify the L and the K bands (frequency limits). Q Quote a few microwave …eld-e¤ect or bipolar transistors with the related semiconductor material. 8. 15. 4. high gain and maximum power ampli…er? 13. Explain why there is no interference between nearby cells.

C. 5. Is the input impedance always equal to the characteristic impedance? Explain. P The conductivity of a 2 m thick conductor is = 1 105 S/m. Estimate their values and the resulting dielectric and conductor attenuation at 10 GHz. the propagation constant and the attenuation. G. C. What usually limits the frequency range on which integrated RF and microwave inductors can operate? 14. 4. Q A lossy transmission line has per-unit-length parameters L.1 dB/cm while the conductor attenuation is 1 dB/cm at 1 GHz. Q A lossless line is in…nitely long. Express the characteristic impedance and complex propagation constant of the line in terms of the parameters for the general case and in the high-frequency approximation. Q A quasi-TEM line has a per-unit-length capacitance of 5 pF/mm and an in-vacuo capacitance of 2 pF/mm. 6. Q Sketch a strip. Assuming an e¤ective permittivity e¤ = 7. R. 2. Compute the input impedance for a 2. Q A microstrip on 0. Q Sketch the behaviour of the attenuation of a transmission line as a function of frequency. a loop and a spiral inductor. Q What are chip inductors. 7. Q Sketch the attenuation of a microstrip and of a coplanar waveguide as a function of the strip width. P A lossy quasi-TEM line has a 50 impedance:The dielectric attenuation is 0. Q Sketch the cross section of a microstrip and of a coplanar waveguide.2 Passive components for RF and microwave circuits: Distributed elements. Compute the guided wavelength at 10 GHz. 16.5 mm.5 mm thick allumina substrate has a strip width of 0. 8. G. P A lossless transmission line with 50 characteristic impedance and 5 mm guided wavelength is closed on ZL = 50 + j50 . Q Sketch an interdigitated and a MIM capacitor. What is the capacitance per mm2 area? 17. capacitors and resistors? are they used in hybrid or integrated implementations? 3 . Evaluate the per-unit-length parameters R. Q List some possible uses of inductors in integrated RF circuits. Lumped elements 1. 12. Evaluate the frequency at which the skin-e¤ect penetration depth is equal to the conductor thickness. in the high-frequency approximation. 13. P A lossless quasi-TEM line has a 50 impedance and an e¤ective permittivity ef f = 2: Evaluate the per-unit-length parameters L. width permittivity equal to 2. evaluate the total loss over 1 guided wavelength at 10 GHz. Identify. P In a MIM capacitor the dielectric is 100 nm thick. What is (approximately) the characteristic impedance? 11. 3. 15. Q Explain the di¤erence between a TEM and a quasi-TEM transmission line. 10. What is the e¤ective permittivity? 9.5 and 1.25 mm long line.

18. 5. 4. ZL7 = 1 : 3. P Suppose the normalization impedance is 50 :Locate on a Smith chart (approximately) the following impedances: ZL1 = 50 . P A real generator with G = 0:2 and b0 = 1 W1=2 is connected to a load with L = 0:5: Evaluate the power delivered to the load and the maximum available power of the generator. ZL2 = 50 + j50 . ZL5 = 25 . P A load exhibits a re‡ ection coe¢ cient the incident power is re‡ ected? equal in magnitude to -10 dB. P A transmission line with length equal to g =4 is loaded with a 100 impedance. What is Zi ? This structure is called a quarter-wavelength transformer. gains. The characteristic impedance is 50 : Locate on the Smith chart the load impedance and input impedance. stability 1. P The open-circuit voltage of a real generator is V0 = 10 V and the internal impedance is ZG = 50 + j50 : What is the generator available power? What is the load impedance yielding power match to the generator? 2. 9. Q What are the main di¤erences between a coplanar and a microstrip circuit layout? 3 Scattering parameters. Assuming R0 = 50 derive the power wave equivalent circuit ( G and b0 ): 7. P A real generator has internal impedance ZG = 50 j50 and open circuit voltage V0 = 10 V. P A resistive two-port has the following impedance matrix: Z=R 2 1 1 2 Sketch a possible structure (implementing the above impedance matrix and evaluate the scattering matrix (assume the normalization impedance R0 = R) . Is the two-port unilateral? 4 . P A loaded two-port has the following characteristics: Pin = 10 mW. ZL4 = 100 . ZL6 = 0 . Gt : 10. ZL3 = 50 j50 .out = 300 mW. Evaluate the two-port gains Gop . 6. P A two-port has the following scattering matrix (R0 = 50 S= 0 0 10 0 ): Evaluate the two-port MAG. Q What is a coaxial-to-microstrip transition? 19.in = 20 mW. What part (in %) of 8. PL = 100 mW. Pav. P A reactive two-port has the following impedance matrix: Z = jX 2 1 1 2 Evaluate the scattering matrix assuming R0 = X and check that the properties of the S-matrix of a lossless two-port are veri…ed. Gav . Pav.

Q A two-port has K = 2:5. What are wide-gap semiconductors for? 3. 5 . the new scattering matrix becomes: S0 = Does the 2-port stability change? 16. 19. narrow-gap. P A two-port has K = 2. P Discuss the stability (according to the one. Q Sketch the equilibrium band diagram (Ec . Q Is a unilateral device always unconditionally stable? 18.and two-parameter criteria) of the two-port with scattering matrix: j0:1 10 S= : 0:1 0:1 Suppose now to exchange ports 1 and 2. Q Consider two passive two-ports. 14. Q Suppose a device in unconditionally stable above f0 and potentially unstable below f0 : Qualitatively sketch the behaviour of the device MAG and MSG as a function of frequency. Repeat for an n-doped and p-doped semiconductor. Q Quote some compound semiconductors: wide-gap. Q Explain the composition of the AlGaAs and InGaAsP alloys. one reactive (lossless). Repeat for a semiconductor under high injection conditions (sketch the position of the quasi-Fermi levels). the other resistive (lossy). 4. general purpose.and two-parameter criteria) of the unilateral two-port with scattering matrix: j1:1 0 S= 5 0:1 17. Q Maximum power transfer between generator and load through a two-port implies simultaneous power matching at both ports. EF ) of an intrinsic semiconductor assuming Nc = Nv . Q Explain the purpose of compound semiconductor alloys. Ev . Is this condition always possible? 13. What kind of property do we expect from their stability factors? 0:1 0:1 10 j0:1 : 4 Active RF and microwave components 1. j Sj = 1:5:Is the two-port unconditionally stable? 15. P A two-port has the following scattering matrix (R0 = 50 S= 0:1 10 0:01 0:1 ): Compute the input and output re‡ ection coe¢ cients when the two-port is loaded on 100 : 12. 2. S21 = 15(1 + j) and S12 = 0:1: Evaluate the two-port MAG and MSG.11. Assume the two-port is unconditionally stable. Q Discuss the stability (according to the one.

Si. 7. Q De…ne the cuto¤ frequency of a FET and evaluate it from the intrinsic FET parameters. Q What is the typical behaviour of the MAG as a function of frequency? 6 . What is the In composition? Repeat for InAlAs. 15. Si-based MOSFET. 14. Q Explain why a GaAs substrate is semi-insulating. GaAs-based conventional HEMT. 12. black-box models. GaAs-based PHEMT.5. Q Sketch the cross-section of a GaN-based HEMT. 6. 16. 7. 4. Q De…ne the maximum oscillation frequency of a FET. Q Sketch the bandstructure (energy-momentum relation) of a direct-bandgap vs. Q Derive the fmax of a unilateral FET from the intrinsic parameters. Q Qualitatively explain why the velocity-…eld characteristic of electrons in a compound semiconductor …rst increases. Q List the following substrates in order of availability and maturity (one of the materials is not an available substrate today!): GaAs. while a Si substrate is not. 3. InP. Q De…ne a heterostructure and sketch the related band diagram. an indirectbandgap semiconductor. 17. 9. Q Explain the meaning of lattice-matched and pseudomorphic heterostructures. Quote a few advantages of widegap semiconductors. GaAs-based MESFET. Q Explain what are physics-based models. Q Explain how a quantum well can be exploited as the conducting channel of a …eld-e¤ect transistor. then decreases and …nally saturates. 11. 10. SiC. Q Sketch the structure of an InP-based PHEMT and the DC characteristics of the device. 5. Q Sketch the structure of a GaAs MESFET and the DC characteristics of the device. 13. Q Sketch the structure of a GaAs-based PHEMT and the DC characteristics of the device. Q Suppose you want to grow a lattice-matched layer of InGaAs on an InP substrate. 2. GaN. Q Sketch the behaviour of the scattering parameters of a microwave FET. Q In a SiGe HBT-based circuit. 8. 6.and large-signal RF FET circuit models 1. 5 Small. where do you …nd Ge? 19. Q What is the heterostructure bipolar transistor? Why are the frequency performances of this device better than the ones of a conventional bipolar? 18. Q List in order of performance (cuto¤ frequency) the following devices: InP-based PHEMT. circuit models. Q Sketch a MESFET small-signal equivalent circuit and separate the extrinsic parasitics from the intrinsic model.

7. Q Is the hybrid ring a 90 or 180 coupler? 13. Q Explain the operation and structure of a bias-T. drain current at vGS = 0 equal to IDSS = 100 mA. Q Explain how the FET equivalent circuit can be extracted from measured S-parameters. Q Sketch a balanced ampli…er and explain why this circuit is able to provide ‡ gain and at good input matching. Q Sketch a quadratic Curtice model and justify the presence of diodes in this model. P A Wilkinson divider on 50 loads operates at 10 GHz. Assuming lengths and characteristic impedance of the divider arms. 11. ef f = 4 evaluate the 7 . 10. P A FET has RDS ! 1. Q Sketch some possible FET stabilization circuits and explain why those circuits include reactive elements together with resistive ones. couplers 1. VT 0 = 2 V. Q Justify why a wideband ampli…er with input reactive matching cannot have at the same time ‡ gain and input matching. Q What is a directional coupler? Imagine that an ideal 3dB. ow 4. 12. . at 9. Q Sketch the large-signal equivalent circuit of a FET in DC and explain the relationship of the output generator to the device transconductance and output resistance. 5. a low-noise and a power ampli…er. low-noise. VT 0 . 14. output conductance @ID =@VDS = 100 mS for vGS = 0.8. 6. Q Explain why the narrowband design strategy with reactive matching sections cannot be entirely extended to wideband design. Q Explain the design ‡ of a narrowband maximum gain RF ampli…er. 3. Q Sketch some DC and DC pulsed VI curves exhibiting low-frequency dispersion e¤ects. 8. Q Explain how a nonlinear capacitor can be derived from small-signal measurements of the same. Q Sketch the layout of a Lange coupler and of a branch-line coupler and indicate the centerband dimensions. vDS ! 0. Q To what device does the Chalmers model specially apply? 6 Linear ampli…ers. Evaluate the values of the parameters of the quadratic Curtice model . 9. 10. a wideband and an ultrawideband ampli…er. 90 coupler is fed with a 100 mW signal. 12. Q Explain the di¤erence between a maximum gain. maximum power working point of a FET. 2. : 13. Q Sketch the maximum gain. What is the power on the coupled and the transmission port? What is the power on the insulated port? What is the phase di¤erence between the coupled and transmission ports? 11. Q De…ne a narrowband.

What is the minimum device jS21 j? 17. 16.. A 2 =Hz etc. assume Z1 = 50 + j50 . Q Explain the operation of a distributed ampli…er. in1 is associated to Z1 . like in V 2 =Hz. Assuming a 1 GHz bandwidth. Q Explain the physical cause of electrical noise from microscopic ‡ uctuations. 4. 5.14. Q Sketch the PRC noise model for a FET. 8 . What happens if the phase velocities on the input and output transmission lines are di¤erent? What limits the ampli…er bandwidth? 7 Noise modeling and low-noise ampli…er design 1. noise voltage value over the speci…ed bandwidth. P A resistor with R = 1 k operates with a bandwidth of 5 GHz. must be interpreted as ( V)2 =Hz. P We want to design 10 dB ampli…er with parallel / series feedback. respectively (i.s. en2 to ZL ). 3.e. 7. evaluate at 300 K the total power on the load. P A voltage noise source has a power spectrum of 1 (nV)2 /Hz1 . 6. Q Sketch the series and parallel equivalent circuits for a noisy one-port and for a two-port. 15.7. that is 10 12 V/Hz. the two noise generators are the thermal noise (Nyquist law) generators of the two impedances. 1. evaluate the mean square value of the noise voltage and the noise available power on 50 :Evaluate the noise available power spectral density of the generator. Q Explain why noise causes power transfer in a circuit even if it is a zero-average random signal. Q Justify the fact that a balanced ampli…er has the same gain of a single stage but twice as the maximum power. Evaluate the power spectral density at 300 K. when the V or A unit is associated to a multiplier. 2. 1 Spectral units like V 2 =Hz. Evaluate the spectral density of the resistor noise voltage and the r.m. P In the circuit in Fig. Q Explain the purpose of an RF parallel / series feedback ampli…er in terms of gain ‡ atness and input and output matching. ZL = 50 j50 . en2 + Z1 in1 ZL vL Figure 1: Circuit from Es. This meaning has been explicited in the text whenever possible. Assuming a bandwidth of 500 MHz.

with spectral density equal to 100 (pV)2 =Hz and 100 (pA)2 =Hz. P An inductive series feedback ampli…er must be designed on 50 at 10 GHz. 9.8. Gav.1 = 10 dB. 14. what is the associated gain Gass ? Can the associated gain be larger than the MAG? 13. Q De…ne the noise …gure of a two-port.1 = 20 dB. Q In a minimum noise ampli…er. the conventional LNA approach through input noise matching. gm = 500 mS. 9. The system bandwidth is 100 MHz. P Two ampli…ers are cascaded (50 design) with Gav. ens + + e1 gmV* i1 it Zs Z1 V* Figure 2: Circuit from Es. 2 compute the minimum noise …gure and optimum generator impedance assuming Z1 = 10 . Evaluate the total noise …gure according to the Friis formula. What is the noise …gure? 15. Q Discuss minimum noise vs. evaluate LS and LG :Explain the purpose of the inductive series feedback LNA design vs. The two (uncorrelated) noise generators e1 and i1 are white. Q What is the behaviour of the noise …gure with respect to the minimum when the generator impedance is varied with respect to the optimum value? 11. P A resistive attenuator designed on 50 has 3 dB loss. Assuming CGS = 0:2 pF and gm = 200 mS. respectively. NF2 = 6 dB. 12. 9 . 10. maximum gain ampli…er design. NF1 = 1 dB. P In the circuit in Fig.

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