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LiverpoolHome of the beatles, not well known for musicians Quarrymen- Original name of the beatles Documentary Recording- Recording music just as it would sound if it were live. All musicians are in the same room at the same time Studio Construction/ “Virtual Acoustical Space”- Type of recording that replaced documentary recording. Individual tracks were recorded and later compiled Skiffle- Type of drumming played by Ringo Starr Issues of Transformation- The beatles changed their style as they progressed whiched led to more incisive meaning to their songs, but this led them to somewhat lose their identity Freedon in the Foundation- The beatles did not have freedom in their melody, instead they mixed up the rhythm section and the chord progressions of their songs. External REfernces- The beatles made references to other artists and incorporated their music into their music. “You’ve got ot hide your love away” is an example of them mimicking Bob Dylan Big Bands Blues Form- African American form of music mimicked by the beatles esp. in the early years. Included the three terms below as well as call and response 12 Bar Blues- A form of blues music that was 12 bars long, included AAB lyrical format and usually a I-IV-V chord progression AAB- Lyrical format were the same thing is said twice in slightly different ways and melodies followed by a second lyrical “response” I-IV-V- chord progression based on the first, fourth, and fifth notes of a given scale Oral Tradition- passing on stories, myths, legends, ect… by language rather than by writing, predominate in African cultures. Lead to the development of early African American music which was mimicked by the beatles Absence of Common Practice Coded Messaging- In the 60’s it was not appropriate to say certain things bluntly, therefore the beatles, and others, slightly modified what they said and use references to portray their meanings Call and Response- When there is interaction between different parts of a band. One musician can sing or play a melody, and another can respond to that melody Acoustic Guitar- A guitar that is does not require electrical equipment. Variety of Color- changing the texture to add depth to their music Fade in/Fade out- chaning volume to enter or leave a song Intro- Beginning of a song. Coda- The end of a song Rhythm- The division of time into a succession of beats Melody- horizontal, part you remember Harmony – vertical, chord, background Polyrhythm- Multiple simultaneous rhythms Antiphonal Dialogue- Opposing voices Polyphony- Multiple voices Virtuosic- Highly skilled playing Texture- Style, dynamics, combination of color and rhythm Instrumentation- What instruments are being played Form- organization of different sections of a song Duration- Length Tone Painting- texture/color/rhythm, I can’t manage to put a meaning for this into words Duple Meter- rhythm based on a meter of 2 ¾ Meter – 3 beats per bar. Waltz like rhythm Media Length- I don’t know this Major or Minor Chords- Major sounds happy, minor sounds scary Spatialization- I don’t know Monophonic Sound Recording- Old fashion recording were all the sounds come out of all the speakers Stereo Sound Recodring- Sounds come out of different speakers Reverberation

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Rhythm Section- Instruments who play the background Front Person- Person in the band who does all the writing and everyone knows the best Rhythm Guitar – Guitar who plays the background chords rather than melody Improvisation- Making things up as you go along Stride Piano2 Standard Responses to Music 1. To be in awe of the music (Wagner’s Operas) 2. To feel as if you’re part of the music and musicians, you can identify with (Jack Johnson) Divison of Labor in a band: 1. Frontline- play the melodies (in Armstrong’s band: cornet, clarinet, trombone) 2. Rhythm- play background (piano, bass, drums, banjo, tuba) 3 Ways to talk abot music: 1. 2. 3. Work Song- Songs that slaves sang while they worked Lomax Brothers- Commissioned by the library of congress to record the least tainted African American music Instruments of Early Jazz- Banjo, tuba, clarinet, cornet, drum Laminate- layers that seem as if they are one, but are a mix of many Exnomination- To take away the name, white people did this from their own music and this differentiated them from african American music Circumlocution- to speak around; music that is based off of speech patter (west African) Tonal Language- Languages were the same word can have different meanings depending on the tone used Brian Epstein- The Beatles manager, did the tour and advertising stuff George Martin- The Beatles producer, did everything related to their music Bessie Smith- Sang “Empty Bed Blues” and example of 12 Bar blues Buddy Holly- Musician who help bring about a lot of changes in music, died on Shick’s uncles farm Louis Armstrong- brought about a change in improvisation and started the concept of playing solos while the rest of the band only backed I Saw Her Standing There- Lack of chord change emphasizes the upcoming chord change, two people sign “I”l, , With the Beatles Twist and Shout- Recorded at the end, one of many covers by the Beatles, With the Beatles Anna (Go to Him) Empty Bed Blues- 12 Bar Blues, keeping form constant allows you to highlight the lyrics and other parts of music All My Loving- Difference in tempo between the voices (polyrhythm) It Won’t Be LongI’ll Be Back- A Hard Days Night, growing complexity, transition form major to minor, sing I in same pitch, sing you in harmony A Hard Day’s Night- A Hard Days Night And I Love Her – Spanish style guitar, I think? West End Blues- Louis Armstrong, example of how he changed music and had a front man who plays the melody while everyone supports him Heartbreaker (live @ BBC) Kansas City- Cover song Eight Days a Week- Beatles for sale, Fade in, drop off instruments who lyrics can be heard better Can’t Buy Me Love - Instruments come in and out, You’ve Got to Hide Your Love Away- Help! Folk song, words on a Bob Dylan song, written as a tribute to Bob Dylans style, ¾ meter Act Naturally- Ringo Singing a country song Every Little Thing- started using acoustic guitar, had to be fixed in studio so the electric guitar doesn’t over power the acoustic, example of “virtual acoustical space” add instruments allow more expressiveness and allow better presentation of complex lyrics, sounds underscore meaning of song, Yesterday - Paulines Song, Help!, string instruments add contrast and relate a melancholy feeling Please, Please Me -1963 With The Beatles (Meet the Beatles)- 1963

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Hard Day’s Night- 1964 written in 2 weeks Beatles for Sale - 1964 Help- 1965 result of growing complexity from early albums