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Fran De Aquino

Maranhao State University, Physics Department, S.Luis/MA, Brazil.

Copyright © 2012 by Fran De Aquino. All Rights Reserved.

Detonation velocities, greater than that generated by high explosives (~10

4

m/s), can be achieved by using the

gravitational technology recently discovered. This possibility leads to the conception of powerful shockwave

weapons. Here, we show the design of a portable gravitational shockwave weapon, which can produce

detonation velocities greater than 10

5

m/s, and detonation pressures greater than 10

10

N/m

2

.

Key words: Modified theories of gravity, Detonation waves, Shockwaves, Nozzle flow.

PACS: 04.50.Kd, 47.40.Rs, 47.40.-x, 47.60.Kz.

1. Introduction

The most important single property of

an explosive is the detonation velocity. It is

the speed at which the detonation wave

travels through the explosive. Typical

detonation velocities in solid explosives often

range beyond 3,000 m/s to 10,300 m/s [1].

At the front of the detonation zone, an

energy pulse or “shockwave” is generated

and transmitted to the adjacent region.

The shockwave travels outward as a

compression wave, moving at or near

detonation velocity. When the intensity of the

shockwave exceeds the compression strength

of the materials they are destroyed. If the

mass of the body is too large the wave energy

is simply absorbed by the body [2].

The pressure produced in the explosion

zone is called Detonation Pressure. It

expresses the intensity of the generated

shockwave. A high detonation pressure is

necessary when blasting hard, dense bodies.

Detonation pressures of high explosives are in

the range from 10

6

N/m

2

to over 10

7

N/m

2

[3].

Here, we show the design of a portable

shockwave weapon, which uses the

Gravitational Shielding Effect (BR Patent

Number: PI0805046-5, J uly 31, 2008) in

order to produce detonations velocities

greater than 100,000m/s, and detonation

pressures greater than 10

10

N/m

2

. It is

important to remember that an aluminum-

nitrate truck bomb has a relatively low

detonation velocity of 3,500 m/s (sound

speed is 343.2m/s)

*

. High explosives such as

*

When a shockwave is created by high explosives it

will always travel at high supersonic velocity from its

point of origin.

TNT has a detonation velocity of 6,900m/s;

Military explosives used to destroy strong

concrete and steel structures have a

detonation velocity of 7,000 to 8,000 m/s [3].

2. Theory

The contemporary greatest challenge

of the Theoretical Physics was to prove that,

Gravity is a quantum phenomenon. The

quantization of gravity showed that the

gravitational mass m

g

and inertial mass m

i

are correlated by means of the following

factor [4]:

( ) 1 1 1 2 1

2

0 0

⎪

⎭

⎪

⎬

⎫

⎪

⎩

⎪

⎨

⎧

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

−

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛ Δ

+ − = =

c m

p

m

m

i i

g

χ

where is the rest inertial mass of the

particle and

0 i

m

p Δ is the variation in the

particle’s kinetic momentum; is the speed

of light.

c

When p Δ is produced by the

absorption of a photon with wavelengthλ , it

is expressed by λ h p = Δ . In this case, Eq.

(1) becomes

( ) 2 1 1 2 1

1 1 2 1

2

0

2

0

0

⎪

⎭

⎪

⎬

⎫

⎪

⎩

⎪

⎨

⎧

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

− ⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

+ − =

⎪

⎭

⎪

⎬

⎫

⎪

⎩

⎪

⎨

⎧

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

− ⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

+ − =

λ

λ

λ

c m h

m

m

i

i

g

2

where c m h

i0 0

= λ is the De Broglie

wavelength for the particle with rest inertial

mass .

0 i

m

It was shown that there is an

additional effect - Gravitational Shielding

effect - produced by a substance whose

gravitational mass was reduced or made

negative [5]. The effect extends beyond

substance (gravitational shielding) , up to a

certain distance from it (along the central

axis of gravitational shielding). This effect

shows that in this region the gravity

acceleration, , is reduced at the same

proportion, i.e.,

1

g

g g

1

1

χ = where

0

1

i g

m m = χ and is the gravity

acceleration before the gravitational

shielding). Consequently, after a second

gravitational shielding, the gravity will be

given by

g

g g g

2 1 1 2

2

χ χ χ = = , where

2

χ is

the value of the ratio

0 i g

m m for the second

gravitational shielding. In a generalized way,

we can write that after the nth gravitational

shielding the gravity, , will be given by

n

g

( ) 3 ...

3 2 1

g g

n

n

χ χ χ χ =

This possibility shows that, by means

of a battery of gravitational shieldings, we

can make particles acquire enormous

accelerations. In practice, this can lead to the

conception of powerful particles accelerators,

kinetic weapons or weapons of shockwaves.

From Electrodynamics we know that

when an electromagnetic wave with

frequency and velocity incides on a

material with relative permittivity

f c

r

ε ,

relative magnetic permeability

r

μ and

electrical conductivity σ , its velocity is

reduced to

r

n c v = where is the index of

refraction of the material, given by [

r

n

6]

( ) ( ) 4 1 1

2

2

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎝

⎛

+ + = = ωε σ

μ ε

r r

r

v

c

n

If ωε σ >> , f π ω 2 = , Eq. (4) reduces to

( ) 5

4

0

f

n

r

r

πε

σ μ

=

Thus, the wavelength of the incident

radiation (See Fig. 1) becomes

( ) 6

4

mod

σ μ

π λ

λ

f n n

f c

f

v

r r

= = = =

Fig. 1 – Modified Electromagnetic Wave. The

wavelength of the electromagnetic wave can be

strongly reduced, but its frequency remains the same.

v =c v =c/n

r

λ =c/f

λ

mod

=v/f =c/n

r

f

n

r

If a lamina with thickness equal toξ

contains molecules/m n

3

,

then the number of

molecules per area unit is ξ n . Thus, if the

electromagnetic radiation with frequency

incides on an area of the lamina it

reaches

f S

ξ nS molecules. If it incides on the

total area of the lamina, , then the total

number of molecules reached by the

radiation is

f

S

ξ

f

nS N = . The number of

molecules per unit of volume, , is given by n

( ) 7

0

A

N

n

ρ

=

where is

the Avogadro’s number;

kmole molecules N / 10 02 . 6

26

0

× =

ρ is the matter

density of the lamina (in kg/m

3

) and A is the

molar mass.

When an electromagnetic wave incides

on the lamina, it strikes on front

molecules, where

f

N

( )

m f f

S n N φ ≅ ,

m

φ is the

“diameter” of the molecule. Thus, the

electromagnetic wave incides effectively on an

area

m f

S N S= , where

2

4

1

m m

S πφ = is the cross

section area of one molecule. After these

collisions, it carries out with the

other molecules (See Fig.2).

collisions

n

3

Fig. 2 – Collisions inside the lamina.

molecule

S

m

Wave

Thus, the total number of collisions in the

volume ξ S is

( )

( ) 8 ξ

φ ξ φ

S n

S n S n S n n N N

m

m m m collisions f collisions

=

= − + = + =

The power density, , of the radiation on the

lamina can be expressed by

D

( ) 9

m f

S N

P

S

P

D = =

We can express the total mean number

of collisions in each molecule, , by means

of the following equation

1

n

( ) 10

1

N

N n

n

collisions photons total

=

Since in each collision a momentum λ h is

transferred to the molecule, then the total

momentum transferred to the lamina will be

( ) λ h N n p

1

= Δ . Therefore, in accordance

with Eq. (1), we can write that

( )

( )

( )

( ) 11 1 1 2 1

1 1 2 1

2

0

2

0

1

0

⎪

⎭

⎪

⎬

⎫

⎪

⎩

⎪

⎨

⎧

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

−

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎣

⎡

+ − =

=

⎪

⎭

⎪

⎬

⎫

⎪

⎩

⎪

⎨

⎧

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

−

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎣

⎡

+ − =

λ

λ

λ

λ

collisions photons total

l i

l g

N n

N n

m

m

Since Eq. (8) gives ξ S n N

collisions

= , we get

( ) ( ) 12

2

ξ S n

hf

P

N n

collisions photons total

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

=

Substitution of Eq. (12) into Eq. (11) yields

( )

( )

( ) ( ) 13 1 1 2 1

2

0

2

0

⎪

⎭

⎪

⎬

⎫

⎪

⎩

⎪

⎨

⎧

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

−

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

+ − =

λ

λ

ξ S n

hf

P

m

m

l i

l g

Substitution of given by Eq. (9) into Eq.

(13) gives

P

( )

( ) ( )

( ) 14 1

1

1 2 1

2

0

2

0

⎪

⎭

⎪

⎬

⎫

⎪

⎩

⎪

⎨

⎧

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

−

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

+ − =

λ

ξ

c m

S n

f

D S N

m

m

l i

m f

l i

l g

Substitution of ( )

m f f

S n N φ ≅ and

m f

S N S =

into Eq. (14) results

( )

( )

( )

( ) 15 1

1

1 2 1

2

2

0

2 2 2 3

0

⎪

⎭

⎪

⎬

⎫

⎪

⎩

⎪

⎨

⎧

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

−

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

+ − =

λ

ξ φ

cf m

D S S n

m

m

l i

m m f

l i

l g

where

( ) ( ) ( ) l l l i

V m ρ =

0

.

Now, considering that the lamina is

inside a ELF electromagnetic field with

E andB , then we can write that [7]

( )

( ) 16

2

0

2

c

E n

D

l r

μ

=

Substitution of Eq. (16) into Eq. (15) gives

( )

( )

( )

( )

( ) 17 1

1

2

1 2 1

2

2 2

0 0

2 2 2 2 3

0

⎪

⎪

⎭

⎪

⎪

⎬

⎫

⎪

⎪

⎩

⎪

⎪

⎨

⎧

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

−

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

⎟

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

+ − =

λ

μ

ξ φ

f c m

E S S n n

m

m

l i

m m

f

l r

l i

l g

Now assuming that the lamina is a

cylindrical air lamina (diameter = α ;

thickness = ξ) where

( )

3 25

0

/ 10 6 . 2 m molecules A N n

l

× = = ρ ;

m

m

10

10 55 . 1

−

× = φ ;

2 20 2

10 88 . 1 4 m S

m m

−

× = =πφ ,

then, Eq. (17) reduces to

4

( )

( )

( )

( )

( ) 18 1 10 6 6 1 2 1

2

2

2

0

2

5

0

⎪

⎪

⎭

⎪

⎪

⎬

⎫

⎪

⎪

⎩

⎪

⎪

⎨

⎧

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

−

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

⎟

⎟

⎟

⎠

⎞

⎜

⎜

⎜

⎝

⎛

× + − =

λ

ξ E

f m

S n

m

m

l i

f

l r

l i

l g

.

An atomized water spray is created by

forcing the water through an orifice. The

energy required to overcome the pressure

drop is supplied by the spraying pressure at

each detonation. Spraying pressure depends

on feed characteristics and desired particle

size. If atomizing water is injected into the air

lamina, then the area to be considered is

the surface area of the atomizing water,

which can be obtained by multiplying the

specific surface area(SSA) of the atomizing

water (which is given by

f

S

d w w

r V A SSA ρ ρ 3 = = ) by the total mass of the

atomizing water (

( ) d

droplets water

w w i

N V m ρ =

0

).

Assuming that the atomizing water is

composed of monodisperse particles with

m μ 10 radius( ) m r

d

5

10 1

−

× = , and that the

atomizing water has [

3 8

/ 10 m droplets N

p

≈ 8]

then we obtain kg m r SSA

d w

2

300 3 = = ρ and

. Thus, we

get

( )

kg N V m

d

droplets water

w w i

5

0

10

−

≈ = ρ

( )

( )

( ) 18 10

2 3

0

m m SSA S

w i f

−

≈ =

Substitution of and

2 3

10 m S

f

−

≈

( )

ξ ξ ρ

α α

S S m

air l i

2 . 1

0

= = into Eq. (18)

gives

( )

( )

( )

( ) 19 1 1 2 1

2 4 2

4 2

0 ⎪

⎭

⎪

⎬

⎫

⎪

⎩

⎪

⎨

⎧

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

− + − =

λ

α

f S

E n

m

m

l r

l i

l g

~

The injection of atomized water increases the

electrical conductivity of the mean, making it

greater than the conductivity of water

( m S / 005 . 0 >>

( ) 20

4

0

mod

σ μ

π

λ λ

f

= =

where is the frequency of the ELF

electromagnetic field.

f

Substitution of Eq. (20) into Eq. (19)

yields

( )

( )

( )

( ) 21 1 10 1 2 1

3 2

4 2

7

0 ⎪

⎭

⎪

⎬

⎫

⎪

⎩

⎪

⎨

⎧

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

− + − = =

−

f S

E n

m

m

l r

l i

l g

α

σ

χ ~

where

( )

f n

r

l r

0

2

4πε σ μ =

Note that t E E

m

ω sin = .The average value

for

2

E is equal to

2

2

1

m

E because E varies

sinusoidaly ( is the maximum value

for

m

E

E ). On the other hand, 2

m rms

E E = .

Consequently we can change

4

E by ,

and the equation above can be rewritten as

follows

4

rms

E

( )

( )

( )

( ) 22 1 10 1 2 1

3 2

4

7

0 ⎪

⎭

⎪

⎬

⎫

⎪

⎩

⎪

⎨

⎧

⎥

⎥

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎢

⎢

⎣

⎡

− + − = =

−

f S

E n

m

m

rms l r

l i

l g

α

σ

χ ~

Now consider the weapon showed in Fig. 3

( ) mm 7 . 12 = α . When an ELF

electromagnetic field with frequency

Hz f 10 = is activated, an electric field

passes through the 7 cylindrical air laminas.

Then, according to Eq. (22) the value of

rms

E

χ

(for m S / 005 . 0 >> σ ) at each lamina is

( ) 23 1 10 1 2 1

4 3

⎭

⎬

⎫

⎩

⎨

⎧

⎥

⎦

⎤

⎢

⎣

⎡

− + − >>

−

rms

E ~ χ

For example, if we

get

m V E

rms

/ .93 125 ≅

) σ . Under these conditions,

the value of λ , given by Eq. (6), becomes

( ) 24 10

3

− >> χ

Therefore, according to Eq. (3) the

gravitational acceleration produced by the

gravitational mass , just after kg M

g

23 . 4 =

5

the 7

th

cylindrical air lamina ( ) ,

will be given by

mm r 150

7

=

( ) 25 / 10

2 13

2

7

7 7

7

s m

r

GM

g g

g

+ >> − = = χ χ

This is the acceleration acquired by the air

molecules that are just after the 7

th

cylindrical air lamina. Obviously, this

produces enormous pressure in the air after

the 7

th

cylindrical air lamina, in a similar way

that pressure produced by a detonation. The

detonation velocity after the 7

th

cylindrical

air lamina is

( ) ( ) 26 / 10 2

5

7

s m r g v

d

>> Δ =

Consequently, the detonation pressure is

( ) 27 / 10 2

2 10 2

m N v p

d air

>> = ρ

These values show how powerful can be the

gravitational shockwaves weapons. The

maxima resistance of the most resistant steels

is of the order of 10

11

N/m

2

(Graphene

~10

12

N/m

2

). Since the gravitational

shockwave weapons can be designed to

produce detonation pressures of these

magnitudes, we can conclude that it can

destroy anything.

6

Fig. 3 – Portable Weapon of Gravitational Shockwaves. Note that there are two sets of

Gravitational Shieldings (GS): the set A (accelerator) with 7 GS and the set D (decelerator) with 12

GS. The objective of the set D, with 12 GCC, is to reduce strongly the value of theexternal gravity

along the axis of the tube (in the opposite direction of the acceleration

7

g ). In this case, the value

of the external gravity,

ext

g , is reduced by the factor

ext d

g

12

χ , where

2

10

−

=

d

χ . For example, if the

opening of the tube ( ) α of the weapon is positioned on the Earth surface then

2

/ 81 . 9 s m g

ext

= is

reduced to

ext d

g

12

χ and, after in the set A, it is increased by

7

χ . Without the set D, the back of the

weapon can explode.

1 2 12 7

Battery

ELF

Oscillator

Water

Filter

Nozzle

Ruby-orifice

(0.38 mm diameter)

Tungsten Carbide

ρ

WC

=15,800 kg.m

-3

M

g

=4.23 kg

40 mm radius

M

g

E

Capacitor plates

α

ξ

r

7

=150 mm

HV Transformer

Spherical

detonation

2

1

D A

g

7

7

References

[1] Cooper, P. W.(1996) Explosives Engineering, New

York: Wiley-VCH.

[2] Lee, J .H.(1984)"Dynamic parameters of gaseous

detonations" ,Ann. Rev. Fluid Mech., 16

[3] Fickett, W. and Davis, W.C. (1979)"Detonation",

University of California Press, Berkeley.

[4] De Aquino, F. (2010) Mathematical Foundations of the

Relativistic Theory of Quantum Gravity, Pacific J ournal

of Science and Technology, 11 (1), pp. 173-232.

[5] De Aquino, F. (2010) Gravity Control by means of

Electromagnetic Field through Gas at Ultra-Low

Pressure, Pacific J ournal of Science and Technology,

11(2) November 2010, pp.178-247, Physics/0701091.

[6] Quevedo, C. P. (1977) Eletromagnetismo, McGraw-

Hill, p. 270.

[7] Halliday, D. and Resnick, R. (1968) Physics, J. Willey &

Sons, Portuguese Version, Ed. USP, p.1124.

[8] Yashiro, H., et al., (2010) Measurement of Number

Density of Water Droplets in Aerosol by Laser-Induced

Breakdown, Applied Physics Express 3, 036601.

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UsefulNot usefulDetonation velocities, greater than that generated by high explosives (~10E4m/s), can be achieved by using the gravitational technology recently discovered. This possibility leads to the conception...

Detonation velocities, greater than that generated by high explosives (~10E4m/s), can be achieved by using the gravitational technology recently discovered. This possibility leads to the conception of powerful shockwave weapons. Here, we show the design of a portable gravitational shockwave weapon, which can produce detonation velocities greater than 10E5m/s, and detonation pressures greater than 10E10N/m2 .

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