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# Design Analysis Of Uav (Unmanned Air Vehicle) Using NACA 0012 Aerofoil Profile — Document Transcript 1.

DESIGN ANALYSIS OF UAV (UNMANNED AIR VEHICLE) USING NACA 0012 AEROFOIL PROFILE Alimul Rajib1, Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmud Ebna Hai1 and Md Abdus Salam2 1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Military Institute of Science and Technology, Dhaka-1216, Bangladesh. 2 Department of Aeronautical Engineering, Military Institute of Science and Technology, Dhaka-1216, Bangladesh. ABSTRACT This research work is concerned with the application of conceptual design of Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV). UAV is used for surveillance and reconnaissance to serve for the defense as well as national security and intelligence purpose. Here NACA 0012 aerofoil profile is used to design UAV by using CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) software. The aim of this research is to investigate the flow patterns and determine the aerodynamic characteristics of NACA 0012 profile by varying the angle of attack and Reynolds Number numerically. The research is carried out with symmetric aerofoil with the chord length of 0.1m. The research work explained different aerodynamic characteristics like lift force and drag force, lift and drag coefficient, pressure distribution over aerofoil etc Keywords: UAV, CFD, NACA 0012. The lift force increases almost linearly with the angle of 1. INTRODUCTION An Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) is an unpiloted attack until a

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Some of the most efficient manner. which is called a drag force.maximum value is reached where upon aircraft. enough work with the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis is not available that much till now. certain parameters like the angle of attack and others. In addition to the lift. The shape of the drag force vs. The free stream airflow has been kept 12. air is always present. The lift and drag 100mm. Its aerodynamic characteristics vary with the wing is said to stall. angle of attack is approximately parabolic.5 m/s forces developed by an aircraft will vary with . The 1. The chord length of the aerofoil is the angle of attack of the aerofoil. Various aerofoil configurations have been characteristics of an UAV. It is Experimental works on UAVs have been conducted in desirable for the wing to have the maximum lift and many places with various aerofoil profiles but not smallest possible drag. The present The shape of an aircraft is designed to make the airflow work is carried out numerically with CFD analysis for through the surface to produce a lifting force in the NACA 0012 symmetric aerofoil profile.1 BACKGROUND OF THE RESEARCH WORK present work contains mainly CFD analysis to Designing of UAVs requires designing of aerofoil determine the flow pattern and the aerodynamic section. The The flow of air over the aerofoil is varied as per angle between the relative wind and the chord line is requirement. a force parameters of aerofoil and properties of air have been directly opposing the motion of the wing through the kept constant and some have been varied. employed so far and more will be coming.

101 MPa (1. The surface static pressure is measured from the suction and the pressure side of the aerofoil through different pressure tapping points. The aerodynamic characteristics of a typical aircraft can also be experimentally investigated in the wind tunnels. pressure contours.2 AEROFOIL DESIGN a. Mach • . data have been obtained at different angles of attack starting from 0o with 1o incremental step. etc. The perpendicular plane is called an aerofoil. The present research work. The various measurement characteristics such as pressure distribution. change of angle of attack. Determination of the surface static pressure distribution. b. The density of air (ρo)= 1.2 OBJECTIVES 2. Designing of NACA 0012 aerofoil section and The vertices obtained from the C program were used to investigation of the flow pattern with the help of draw the profile line which was as follows: CFD software. The cross sectional shape obtained by the intersection of the wing with the operating pressure (Po) = 0.22 kg/m3. 1. Here NACA 0012 symmetric aerofoil profiles have been used for the Reynolds Number has been considered as variable. around a two dimensional aerofoils of UAV varies with the angle of attack. pressure contours.the and the effect of the temperature in the study has been neglected. The aerodynamic characteristics for different configurations are determined from the static pressure distribution over the surfaces of aerofoils at different angles of attack. Mach number.01 bar) and absolute viscosity (μ) = 1.789 x 10-5 kg/m-s. Fig 1: Aerodynamic forces on a typical aerofoil 2.

CFD analysis. The boundary was then given.2 It was recommended that the boundaries around the The equation was solved here by a C program to find aerofoil were far enough.number on the aerofoils in the biplane configuration.1 1.1 0 0 2. Determination of the aerodynamic characteristics from the static pressure distributions. 1260 x − x = yt ± t Fig 4: Meshing of . vertices for the aerofoil line. 2-D mode was selected. First of all.1 -0. 3516 x 2 − 0 .25 0 C 2. Discussion on the computational results of the Fig 3: NACA 0012 aerofoil section. a.− 0 . 2. 2843 x 3 + 0 .1 0 0 The boundaries were chosen such to get uniform meshing.5 m/s).000 vertices were used. 1015 x 4 0 . absolute viscosity (μ = 1.1 -0.15 0 0 geometrical feature.225 kg/m3). G 0. air velocity (v = 12. 10. 2969 0 . The parameters which needed to be constant were: pressure (atmospheric pressure = 101325 Pa). B 2. Label X Y Z b.3 Analysis of Data in Fluent The mesh file was imported to the Fluent and it required certain features. Working with vertices using GAMBIT software. density of air (ρ = 1.789 x 10-5 kg/m-s). Approximately. the 4-digit was E 0.25 0 c. WORKING PRINCIPAL The computation and graphical plotting involves the Table 1: Values of boundary vertices for NACA 0012 following sequence: aerofoil profile. 2. Working with FLUENT software.1 1. A 0. Line a 0 . c.1 DESIGN METHOD D 2.25 0 generated using analytical equations that describe its F -1. Programming to get vertices for aerofoil section using governing equation. d. The Reynolds number and Mach number were kept constant and sometimes varied as per requirement.25 0 The early NACA aerofoil series.

interval counts and successive ratios were used here.9132 1.2200 0.0000 0.8800 Re = 360000 Re = 700000 Re = 1000000 10 0.0343 1.1000 Re = 2000000 Re = 5000000 12 0. our concerned NACA 0012 aerofoil means 0% camber at 0 (zero) position (as there is no camber) and thickness of . 3.4400 0.0000 0.2200 0.4400 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 6 0.015 α 3.0727 1. So.025 of attack α and Reynolds number Re are as follows: Table3. The first digit specifies the maximum camber (m) in percentage of the chord.6600 0.1614 1. RESULTS AND GRAPHS 3.6600 0.6600 Angle of attack 8 0.0.0000 0.2072 1.4400 0.012m.1 Lift coefficient (CL) Sample results of lift coefficient CL with variable angle 0. Fig 2: NACA aerofoil geometrical construction.0390 1.2200 0. and the last two numbers provide the maximum thickness (t) of the aerofoil in percentage of chord.6 x 105 7 x 105 1 x 106 2 x 106 5 x 106 0.02 Lift coefficient Re CL 0.3423 • .2200 0 4 0.8800 0. The thickness distribution above (+) and below (-) the mean line was calculated by plugging the value of t into the following equation for each of the x coordinates.6600 0.4400 0.005 2 0.9811 1. ) (nd face both the meshing were employed here.aerofoil section (2D). Values of CL: 0. To mesh.0512 1.8800 0.0000 0.6284 0. the second indicates the position of the maximum camber (p) in tenths of chord.2673 14 .8542 0. After employing boundary and meshing the following meshed geometry was found.4400 0.01 0 0.6600 0. 3.0000 0.1212 1.2200 0.8800 0.4 Angle of attack Vs Drag coefficient: 3.8846 1.

0064 0. angle of attack graphs for various Reynolds number.0128 0.0147 0.0079 0.0184 0.3 Lift coefficient Vs Angle of attack: Fig 7: The pressure distribution for the NACA 0012 aerofoil under free stream condition for Mach number 1.0105 0. it increases with the increasing Reynolds number with angle of attack. angle of attack and (b) drag coefficient vs.0090 0.0066 4 0.0195 0. This graph shows that maximum lift coefficient is not constant for NACA 0012 aerofoil.0119 0.0081 8 0. 7.0159 These values are used to find the graphs: (a) lift coefficient vs.Fig 6: Angle of attack Vs Drag coefficient for several Reynolds number (Re).0159 0.4 0.0153 0.0083 0.0084 0.8 and angle of attack 2o.0222 0.0.0106 12 0.6 0.0064 2 0.0068 0.4 1. 1. 3.0155 0.0217 0.2 Drag coefficient (CD) Table2. 4.0067 0.2 Lift coefficient 1 0.0101 0.7 and angle of attack 4o. 3.0128 0.0072 6 0.0130 14 .0180 0. NOMENCLATURE Symbol Meaning Unit α Angle of attack Degree Re Reynolds number None CL Lift coefficient None CD Drag coefficient None kg/m3 ρo Density of air Po Operating pressure MPa μ Absolute • . Values of CD.0092 10 0.0125 0.0191 0.0065 0.0098 0.0070 0.6 x 105 7 x 105 1 x 106 2 x 106 5 x 106 0 0.0108 0.0078 0.0066 0.0073 0.2 0 0 5 10 15 20 Angle of attack Re = 360000 Re = 700000 Re = 1000000 Re = 2000000 Re = 5000000 Fig 5: Lift coefficient Vs Angle of attack for several Reynolds number (Re).8 0. Fig 8: The pressure distribution for the NACA 0012 aerofoil for inviscid flow for Mach number 0.0236 0. 3.6 0.5 Pressure Distribution over NACA 0012 Aerofoil Re CD α 3.

J. Fluent Tutorials. Dhaka. One major feature of drag coefficient is that for zero degree angle of attack it is not zero and so thus the drag force. REFERENCES 1. 1996. Finite Element Method. Schaum’s Outline Of Theory And Problems Of Programming With C 4.viscosity kg/m-s v air velocity m/s Fig 9: The pressure distribution for the NACA 0012 aerofoil for viscid flow for Mach number 0. Thesis. Turnock. this work has brought some important aerodynamic characteristics of aerofoils. Sq Ldr GM Jahangir Alam. 2. Bangladesh. Gottfried. Texas A & M University. Sc. Mainly. “Computational Evaluation Of The Periodic . 6. 5. These results found in two dimensional designs may vary with the three dimensional. From Fig 6. The design concept is a better approach to choose among various types of UAV (Unmanned Air Vehicle). James C. N. 5. 3. Date and Stephen R. BUET. DISCUSSION From Fig 5 it is seen that at zero degree angle of attack the lift coefficient is zero and it increases linearly with the increase of angle of attack. “Investigation Of The Aerodynamic Characteristics Of The Biplane Configurations Using NACA 0024 Profile”. 2005. Byron S. This mainly involved the conceptual design for better design and economical construction. parabolic curves are found as were expected. M. Texas. 2002. 2007. Reddy. 4. CONCLUSION This research work has been carried out to observe the characteristics of UAV NACA 0012. the lift coefficient decreases sharply with the increase of angle of attack and the values also vary with different Reynolds number. After reaching at a peak point.7 and angle of attack 4o. Rajesh Bhaskaran.

J.L.. Clancy. . 7.J. 3rd – Ed. Bertin J. “Aerodynamics for Engineers”. 6. “Aerodynamics”.Performance Of A NACA 0012 Fitted With A Gurney Flap”. Prentice Hall. Smith M.. L.