GSM Fundamental


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Services & Network Architecture
Air Interface System Capacity Anti Interference Technology Network Planning Call Routing




GSM Services: Tele Services
• Telecommunication services that enable voice communication via mobile phones • Offered services - Mobile telephony - Emergency calling

GSM Services: Bearer Services
 Include various data services for information transfer between GSM and other networks like PSTN, ISDN etc at rates from 300 to 9600 bps  Short Message Service (SMS) –up to 160 character alphanumeric data transmission to/from the mobile terminal

Unified Messaging Services(UMS)
 Group 3 fax  Voice mailbox  Electronic mail



GSM Services: Supplementary
Call related services : • Call Waiting- Notification of an incoming call while on the handset • Call Hold- Put a caller on hold to take another call • Call Barring- All calls, outgoing calls, or incoming calls • Call Forwarding- Calls can be sent to various numbers defined by the user • Multi Party Call Conferencing - Link multiple calls together • CLIP – Caller line identification presentation • CLIR – Caller line identification restriction • CUG – Closed user group

GSM Network Structure
Operations and Maintenance Centre


HLR Home Location Register


VLR Visitor Location Register
EIR Equipment Identity Register


AUC Authentication centre


4/9/2012 GSM System Architecture BSC MS BTS MSC PSTN ISDN PDN GMSC BTS MS BTS MS BSC VLR EIR AUC HLR Mobile Station ( MS ) Equipment used by mobile service subscribers for access to services. A subscriber is identified with the SIM card. 8 4 . Mobile Equipment Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) Mobile stations are not fixed to one subscriber.

10 5 . rate. transmitter and receiver Common Control Unit: BTS operation and maintenance GSM Network Entity Base Station Controller ( BSC ) Managing Wireless network-BSS Monitoring BTS Controls: Wireless link distribution between MS and BTS Communication connection and disconnection MS location. adaptation. The operation and maintenance functions of BSS. handover and paging Voice encoding. transecoding (TC).4/9/2012 GSM Network Entity Base Transceiver Station ( BTS ) Base Transceiver Station (BTS) Wireless transmission Wireless diversity Wireless channel encryption Conversion between wired and wireless signals Frequency Hopping 9 BaseBand Unit: voice and data speed adapting and channel coding RF Unit: modulating/demodulating.

11 GSM Network Entity Home Location Register ( HLR ) Manages the mobile subscribers database  subscriber information  part of the mobile location information  3 identities essential the International Mobile subscriber Identity the Mobile station ISDN Number the VLR address 12 6 . updating the location registration carrying out the inter-BSC and inter-MSC tender Inter-working with other networks (IWF).4/9/2012 GSM Network Entity Mobile Service Switching Center ( MSC ) holds all the switching functions manages the necessary radio resources.

Equipment Identity Register(s) (EIR) Handling Mobile Station Equipment Identity 14 7 . if applicable The location area in which the mobile has been registered Data related to supplementary service parameters 13 GSM Network Entity AUC/EIR Authentication Center(s) (AUC) Providing the authentication key used for authorizing the subscriber access to the associated GSM PLMN.4/9/2012 GSM Network Entity Visitor Location Register ( VLR ) dynamically stores subscriber information needed to handle incoming/outgoing calls Mobile Station Roaming Number When a roaming mobile enters an MSC area. the mobile enters a registration procedure through which it is assigned a mobile subscriber roaming number (MSRN) Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity. This MSC warns the associated VLR of this situation.

of RF carriers : 124 Access Method : TDMA/FDMA Modulation Method : GMSK Modulation data rate : 270.4/9/2012 GSM Specifications-1 RF Spectrum GSM 900 Mobile to BTS (uplink): 890-915 Mhz BTS to Mobile(downlink):935-960 Mhz Bandwidth : 2* 25 Mhz  GSM 1800 Mobile to BTS (uplink): 1710-1785 Mhz BTS to Mobile(downlink) 1805-1880 Mhz Bandwidth : 2* 75 Mhz GSM Specification-II       Carrier Separation : 200 Khz Duplex Distance : 45 Mhz No.833 Kbps 8 .

8 Kbps Burst Formatting 33.6 Kbps Ciphering 33.83 Kbps Speech decoding Channel decoding De-interleaving Burst Formatting De-ciphering Demodulation Agenda Network Air Architecture Interface System Capacity Anti Interference Technology Network Planning Numbering arrangement 18 9 .6 Kbps Modulation Radio Interface 270.4/9/2012 GSM Operation Speech Speech Speech coding 13 Kbps Channel Coding 22.8 Kbps Interleaving 22.

So the useful signal is passed only in the specified timeslot. Different signal energies are distributed into different timeslots. The adjacent channel interference is restricted by connection choosing from time to time.4/9/2012 TDMA time Concept: User 3 User 2 User 1 Frequency GSM adopts TDMA/FDMA mode channel width: 200KHz each channel has 8 timeslots channel is composed of a series of timeslots of periodicity. 19 GSM Timeslot and Frame structure Frequency 200KHz BP time interval 15/26ms 20 10 .

4/9/2012 Frequency Resource GSM900 : up: 890~915MHz down: 935~960MHz duplex interval: 45MHz bandwidth: 25MHz, frequency interval: 200KHz EGSM900 : up: 880~890MHz down: 925~935MHz duplex interval: 45MHz bandwidth: 10MHz, frequency interval: 200KHz GSM1900MHz: up:1850~1910MHz down:1930~1990MHz duplex interval: 80MHz, working bandwidth: 60MHz, frequency interval: 200KHz 21 GSM1800 : up: 1710-1785MHz down: 1805-1880MHz duplex interval: 95MHz, working bandwidth: 75MHz, frequency interval: 200KHz Frequency Resource Single Band Network Which one? General Priority 900MHz 1800MHz 1900MHz Low Reason High New Operator Propagation Characteristic For Operator For Subscriber 22 11 .

4/9/2012 Frequency Resource Single Band Network Single Band Dual Band 900MHz 1800MHz Triple Band 1900MHz In a sense. 23 Frequency Resource Single Band Network Cell coverage radius : We know Propagation characteristic The higher the propagation frequency The higher the propagation loss The smaller the cell coverage radius. the network determines the handsets can be selected. most handsets support dual band. 900MHz 1800MHz 1900MHz 24 12 . But nowadays.

12s) 0 0 1 2 1 3 47 48 24 49 25 50 1 multiplex frame = 26 TDMA frames(120ms) 1 multiplex frame = 51 TDMA frame 0 1 24 25 0 1 49 50 1 TDMA frame = 8 timeslot(120/26 = 4.615ms) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 25 Physical Channel 0 8 1 9 2 10 3 11 4 12 5 13 6 14 7 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 The physical channel adopts FDMA and TDMA techs. a specified channel occupies the same timeslots in each TDMA frame. On the time domain. so it can be identified by the timeslot number and frame number.4/9/2012 Timeslot and Frame structure 1 super high frame = 2048 super frame = 2715648 TDMA frame 0 1 2 3 2044 2045 2046 2047 BCCH CCCH SDCH SACCH/TCH FACCH 1 super frame = 1326 TDMA frame(6. 26 13 .

28 14 .8) 4.6) Data CH TCH Voice CH 4.8) FR Voice Traffic Channel (TCH/FS) Enhanced FR Traffic Channel (TCH/EFR) HR Traffic Channel (TCH/HS) channel BCH CCH FCCH (down) SCH (down) BCCH (down) RACH (up) AGCH (down) PCH (down) SDCCH FACCH SACCH CCCH DCCH 27 Channel Type Traffic Channel Transmit voice and data Signaling Channel transmit the signaling and synchronous data between BTS and MS.4/9/2012 Channel Type-Summary 14.8Kbit/s HR TCH (TCH/H4.4Kbit/s FR TCH (TCH/F14.8Kbit/s FR TCH (TCH/F4.6Kbit/s FR TCH(TCH/F9.4) 9.

taking the same signal as SDCCH.4/9/2012 Channel Type BCH : Frequency Correction CHannel(FCCH) -. to transmit some specific information of user information combined with one traffic channel.. etc.) 29 Channel Type DCCH Self-help Dedicated Control Channel(SDCCH) for channel distribution information transmission Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH) combined with one traffic channel or SDCCH.broadcasting information(cell selection information. Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH) 30 15 . It occupies the service channel to transmit signaling information.for MS error correction Synchronous Channel(SCH) -.for MS frame synchronization and BTS recognization Broadcasting Control CHannel(BCCH) -.

4/9/2012 GSM Physical Channel Absolute Frequency Channel Number (AFCN) GSM Logical Channels 16 .

..7) + SACCH/C8(0 ..1) + SACCH/TH(0.... One combined channel can be mapped to a physical channel......1) + FACCH/H(0.7) BCCH+CCCH+ F S 4SDCCH/4 (Downlink) F S BCCH+CCCH+ 4SDCCH/4 (uplink) D3 D3 B B R R R R C C A2 A0 F S F S A3 A1 C C C C F S F S D0 D0 D1 D1 F S F S D2 D2 D3 D3 D0 D0 F S F S D1 D1 A0 A2 F S F S A1 A3 D2 D2 I I R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R (c) FCCH+SCH+CCCH+SDCCH/4(0. a b c d e f g There are the following combined channels: TCH/F + FACCH/F + SACCH/TF TCH/H(0...0) + FACCH/H(0.1) + SACCH/TH(0.7)+SACCH/C8(0.3) 33 F:FCCH B:BCCH R:RACH A:SACCH/C S:SCH C:CCCH(CCCH=PCH+AGCH+RACH) D:SDCCH I: idle Channel Combination Type Several logic channels combine together in some way to form some specific types of channel to transmit user data or signaling information.1) TCH/H(0... They are called combined channels...3) BCCH + CCCH SDCCH/8(0 .3)+SACCH/C4(0.....1) FCCH + SCH + BCCH + CCCH FCCH + SCH + BCCH + CCCH + SDCCH/4(0. 7) CCCH = PCH + RACH + AGCH 34 17 .4/9/2012 Structure of 51-frame Control CH 51 Frame BCCH+CCCH F S (Downlink) B C F S C C F S C C F S C C F S C C I BCCH+CCCH R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R (uplink) (a) FCCH+SCH+BCCH+CCCH 8 SDCCH/8 (Downlink) D0 D0 8 SDCCH/8 (uplink) A1 A5 D1 D1 A2 A6 D2 D2 A3 A7 D3 D3 I I I I I I D0 D0 D4 D4 D1 D1 D5 D5 D2 D2 D6 D6 D3 D3 D7 D7 D4 D4 A0 A4 D5 D5 A1 A5 D6 D6 A2 A6 D7 D7 A3 A7 I I I I I I A0 A4 (b) SDCCH/8(0.3) + SACCH/C4(0.1) + TCH/H(1..

_._. 29 TCH/F+FACCH/F+SACCH/TF 35 Channel Assignment inside cells  Large-size cell with 12 TRXs 1 TN0 group: FCCH+SCH+BCCH+CCCH.3).3)+SACCH/C4(0._. 5 SDCCH/8(0. 1 TN4 group and 1 TN6 group: BCCH+CCCH. 87 TCH/F+FACCH/F+SACCH/TF 36 18 ._. 1 TN2 group.7)+SACCH/C8(0.7). TN1-7: TCH/F+FACCH/F+SACCH/TF  The medium-size cell with 4 TRXs 1TN0 group: FCCH+SCH+BCCH+CCCH.7)+SACCH/C8(0.4/9/2012 Channel Assignment inside cells  Small capacity cell with only 1 TRX TN0: FCCH+SCH+CCCH+BCCH+SDCCH/4(0. 2 SDCCH/8(0.7)._._.

Directional cell In general. 38 19 .4/9/2012 Agenda Network Architecture Air Interface System Anti Capacity Interference Technology Network Planning Numbering arrangement 37 Cell Mode Layout Omni-directional cell O Adopt omni-directional antenna, the overall directional propagation characteristic is the same. Every directional cell adopts directional antenna. cell with multi-sector is in common use.

we suggest to adopt the sector cell. two-sector cell is adopted firstly.  Coverage Area Sector cell is often used to enlarge the cell coverage radius because of the higher antenna gain. For example. Otherwise. For special coverage . the call hour of a unit hour or the call minute of a unit minute). 39 System capacity Erlang : the traffic intensity of a totally occupied channel (i. 40 20 .e.4/9/2012 BTS Mode  Capacity When the traffic is very low. Omni-directional cell is used in common.such as road coverage. and no possibility for quick increment. the traffic of a channel occupied for 30 minutes in an hour is 0.each TRX handles 1 frequency.5 Erlang) GOS: defined as the probability of call blocking or the probability when the call delay time is longer than a given queuing time. Note: TRX-transceiver.

42 21 . Wireless channels are extremely unpredictable. Abrupt drop. or fading. hills and trees.4/9/2012 Agenda Network Architecture Functional Layer of GSM Air Interface System Capacity Anti Interference Technology Network Planning Numbering arrangement 41 Reasons for Interference The transmission path is very complex. The fading feature of the mobile channel depends on the radio wave propagation environment. ranging from the simple line-of-sight transmission to encountering such terrain as buildings. of signal strength in the land mobile wireless channel is quite common.

22 . etc. Frequency. hills. The vegetation of the region.4/9/2012 Reasons for interference Environmental factors: • Terrain (mountains. water bodies. How MS is moved.). Natural and artificial electromagnetic noises. 43 Interference Co-Channel Interference Conception: 44 the interference among the signals of cochannel cells is called co-channel interference. • • • • • • The quantity. heights. distribution and materials of buildings. Weather conditions. Result from : Frequency reuse Reduction method: co-channel cells must physically be spaced at a minimum interval to ensure adequate isolation of transmissions. plains.

4/9/2012 Interference  Adjacent Channel Interference Conception: The signal interference from the frequency adjacent to that of the signal used is called adjacent channel interference. C/A 45 Solution -Anti-interference  FH technology Dynamic power control (DPC)    Discontinuous Transceiving (DTX) Diversity receiving technique 46 23 . Reduction method: accurate filtering and channel allocation (maximizing channel intervals of the cell). Interval of frequency reuse inter-cell interference. such as C/I.

making it hop according to different schemes in different time slots.4/9/2012 Frequency Hopping Technique Reason:  counteract Rayleigh Fading  scatter interference among multiple calls 47 Types:  Base band frequency hopping keeps the transmission and receiving frequency of each carrier unit unchanged. Discontinuous Speech Transmission (DTX) Two aims can be achieved by adopting DTX mode: •lower the total interference electric level in the air •save transmitter power. but merely sends FU transmission data to different carrier units at different FN moments. TRAU BTS BTS MS 480 ms comfort noise frame 48 Speech frame 24 .  radio frequency hopping controls the frequency synthesizer of each transceiver.

49 Agenda Network Architecture Air Interface System Capacity Anti Interference Technology Network Planning arrangement Numbering 50 25 .  Space Diversity (antenna diversity)  Polarization Diversity orthogonal polarization diversity.4/9/2012 Diversity Reception Technology The multi-path propagation of radio signals causes magnitude fading and delay time. horizontal polarization and vertical polarization.  Frequency Diversity The working principle of this technology is that such fading won’t take place on the frequency outside the coherence bandwidth of the channel.

9 frequency which are distributed to 3 sites. Every site owns 3 frequency. Every site owns 3 frequency. 51 Frequency Reuse B3 C1 C3 A1 A3 B2 C1 A2 B1 B3 A2 A1 A3 C2 A1 A3 B2 C1 C3 B2 C1 B3 A2 B1 B3 A2 A1 A1 A3 C2 A1 A3 B2 C1 C3 “3 ´ 3” reuse mode: one group includes 3 sectors /site .4/9/2012 Frequency Reuse D3 C1 C3 A1 D2 B2 A1 A2 B1 B3 C2 A1 A3 D2 C1 C3 C2 D1 D3 A2 B1 C3 B2 A1 A3 D2 A1 B1 B3 C2 D1 D3 D2 C1 C3 “4 ´ 3” reuse mode: one group includes 3 sectors /site . 52 26 .12 frequency which are distributed to 4 sites.

4/9/2012 Agenda Network Architecture Functional Layer of GSM Air Interface System Capacity Anti Interference Technology Network Planning Call Routing 53 Call Routing   Call Originating from MS Call termination to MS 27 .

Forwarding call to GSMC 3. Get current status of MS 10. MS sends dialled number to BSS BSS sends dialled number to MSC 3. 5 MSC routes the call to GMSC 6 GMSC routes the call to local exchange of called user 7.10 Answer back(ring back) tone is routed from called user to MS via GMSC.15. 2.11. Calling a GSM subscribers 2.4 MSC checks VLR if MS is allowed the requested service.13.MSC asks BSS to allocate resources for call. Paging of MS 12. 8.MSC. MS answers 14.If so. Security checks 16. Forward Call to current MSC 8.17. 9.4/9/2012 Outgoing Call 1. Request MSRN from VLR 6.BSS Incoming Call 1. Set up connection 28 . Forward responsible MSC to GMSC 7. Signal Setup to HLR 4. 5. 9.

A8 algorithm for key generation 29 .A3 algorithm for authentication . SIM is provided 4-8 digit PIN to validate the ownership of SIM 3 algorithms are specified : .A5 algorithm for encryption .4/9/2012 Handovers    Between 1 and 2 – Inter BTS / Intra BSC Between 1 and 3 – Inter BSC/ Intra MSC Between 1 and 4 – Inter MSC Security in GSM    On air interface. GSM uses encryption and TMSI instead of IMSI.

4/9/2012 Authentication in GSM Key generation and Encryption 30 .

Support of Short Message Service (SMS). 8 full rate or 16 half rate TDMA channels per carrier. Full international roaming capability. Better security against fraud (through terminal validation and user authentication). Compatibility with ISDN. International roaming capability. Compatibility with ISDN. TDMA over radio carriers(200 KHz carrier spacing.leading to wider range of services 31 . User/terminal authentication for fraud control. Low speed data services (upto 9.4/9/2012 Characteristics of GSM Standard          Fully digital system using 900.6 Kb/s).1800 MHz frequency band. Advantages of GSM over Analog system       Capacity increases Reduced RF transmission power and longer battery life. Encryption capability for information security and privacy. Encryption of speech and data transmission over the radio path.

115.6 Kbps (data rate) 2.2 Kbps Data rate: 547.Automatic meter reading .Remote control and fault reporting of DG sets  Value Added Services  Future Of GSM   2nd Generation  GSM -9.4 .2 Kbps (max)  EDGE   3 Generation  WCDMA(Wide band CDMA)  Data rate : 0.5 Generation ( Future of GSM)  HSCSD (High Speed ckt Switched data)  Data rate : 76.6 x 8 kbps)  GPRS  (General Packet Radio service) (Enhanced data rate for GSM Evolution) Data rate: 14.348 – 2.8 Kbps (9.Fleet management .4/9/2012 GSM Applications Mobile telephony  GSM-R  Telemetry System .0 Mbps 32 .Toll Collection .