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o Colonial experience shaped our country today Factors in framing our constitution (1) o British Empire For many who lived in the 13 colonies where quite proud of being part of the British empire Colonies were there to be exploited Domestic conflict was overshadowed by British empire o Continental congress Ideas of revolution Boycott British stuff o Declaration of Independence o Articles of Confederation Says a lot about the current constitution Immediate reaction to British rule Only had congress, afraid of strong central power Had Unicameral congress where each state had one vote many problems Unable to resolve conflicts among themselves No neutral arbitration States imposed own tariffs on other states Numerous currencies floating around the other states The problem of the national congress itself They could barely get anything done Could not get all 13 states on board No enforcement method Slave revolts Former soldier not getting paid Working class were being foreclosed upon A lot of rebellions The US had a very weak international standing
Framer thought the colonies would be vulcanized where different countries would pit other colonies against each other o Constitutional Convention Occurred in Philadelphia may 1787 What do we do about the articles of confederation Agreed they were ineffective Justification for a strong national government Many were hesitant – schizophrenia Madison wanted a strong central government 55 delegates from 12 of the 13 states 42 where former or current members of congress 8 signed DOI signed by 39 of the 42 on September 17th Free flow of ideas Wanted delegates to think out loud Wanted to be able change their minds with out being a flip flopper Kept the public out of the discussion
o America’s Political Heritage o Elitism Wanted to limit the excesses of democracy – “philosopher kings” make decisions o Radicalism o Slavery Those who are free and those who are not Indentured servants 5 to 7 years Heavily racialized Slaves had no legal status
Other classes Merchants Loyalists And southern planters Conflicted with small farmers and shop keepers
o When British started shadowing them they got together Woman o Virtually invisible Rich and the Poor o Haves and the have not’s Native population o Both allies and adversaries to the colonists Religious component
Independence Got together and made a illegal continental congress to debate independence Decided to boycott British goods and then revolt DOI The birth certificate of America
Founding Fathers DOI was a list of grievances 1st part o preamble o making the appeal to the people and other countries nd 2 part o radical part o all men are created equal, inalliable rights, pursuit of life liberty and happiness o government derives power from the people, people has to consent to that power o when there is a bad power the people have the right to overthrow it and start anew Very conservative o As everything had precedence They where all trained in English Law
not men Two elements to government under law Constitutional law . your are “overthrowing” the Gov o Government under law Part of anti-aristocratic impulse Going against the monarchy and hereditary regime We are a government of laws.…)where others wiped any traces of former govs. the US borrowed from the British 9/25/12 Politics Distribution of power Compromise Alphias Mason Article Constitutional Shackles of a free government (2) Free gov is Involves a complexes of controls to…. Russia.on a state level Elections Every time you vote. Together… liberty and restraint form a free government o Right of Revolution Find in the DOI Consent of the governed to abolish or alter gov if it dose not have the consent of the people Original right of self defense Governments derive there power from the people Framers and Gov have institutionalized revolution by Amendments Recalls. a moral or natural right but it is your duty if you are living under a tyrant o it was really for white people but they didn't say that Mason argues that 1776 was hardly a revolution at all compared to other revolutions(China.
Made and unmade by the people Statutory law Made and unmade by the people but within the confines of the Constitution Separation of powers All men who have power should not be trusted Separating these powers so one institution/person cant trump another Title is misleading because they do share powers “separated institutions sharing powers” presidential appointments o Federalism Decentralization of power Dual system of authority Fed gov and State gov They both govern the same people Two features of US federalism Strong bicameralism Two chambers of congress The second chamber that are equal to the other chamber o House and senate has to pass the bill before it goes to the president o Only senate does confirmations and treaties Unequal representation Senate Weak Bicameralism House of commons o Has all the power House of lords o Based on monarchy and it is inherited through family inheritance o No power whatsoever They can stall some legislation National gov and states are given autonomous power .
hesitant Said it has a mini Bill of Rights Once they are listed they are confined Takes natural rights and defines them Solidified into legal principles As a result of the constitutional Shackle’s we get CHECKS AND BALANCES (arrows go both ways) 1. Electoral College people 1/30/12 Framers considered Congress to be the most important branch of government . Judiciary congress and president 5. People reps (and senate And president) 7. Senate president a. War Only way where fed can alter states or vice versa is through amendments to the constitution o Judicial review Not explicitly recognized in the constitution Marbury v. Appointments and treaties 6. President congress 4.Money. M it was the first time a Congressional law was struck down o Bill of Rights Defined rights First 10 amendments of the constitution Compromise between he federalist and the anti-federalists Federalists did not want in constitution. House senate 3. Madison John marshal says the SC is the chief interpreter of the constitution Federal courts can strike down state law. in M v. States Fed Gov 2.
) House of Representatives Requirements of being a member 2 year term no term limits Have to be at least 25 years of age Been a citizen for 7 years Be a resident of that state (close ties to community) 3/5 clause slavery is never explicitly said in Constitution southern states – 5 states had most of the slaves (30% of population) Impeachment Shared power House has sole power of Impeachment and the house votes on it Proportional representation Census .) Bicameralism (3) House and Senate Focus was on representation James madison and his Virginia plan A bicameral congress that would legislate where the states where incompetent Both chambers would be based on population and wealth (slaves) William Patterson.Article 1 is for the constitution o Double the size of Article 2 and quadruple Article 3 Article 1.Legislative Branch 10 sections to article one o 1.NJ plan A rehash of Articles of confederation Unicameral Congress with equal representation Connecticut compromise House based on population Senate based on States o 2.
) Congressional Elections and sessions of congress Constitution gives that power to the states Power of voting resides with the states Sessions of Congress Has to meet at least one day a year First Monday in December Up until 1933 – had long period of lame duck sessions Congress ends the january 3rd and begins again on January 20th o 5.) Establishes the Senate Requirements Serve for 6 years No term limits Have to be at least 30 years old and a resident for 9 years in that state Each state has 2 senators Impeachments Trials Role of VP President of the Senate Tie breaker in the senate Senate chooses their own leadership o 4.) Procedures Congress determines their own rules Can decide who is a congressman or senator Buress could not be a senator (Illinois) 1969 – Adam Powell was not seated for senate because he was absentee – .Once representative for every 30 thousand people We stopped at 435 And redistribute those districts House and Senate choose their own leader ship positions o 3.
separation of powers Paycheck comes from US Treasury makes 169.) Compensation.000 Speaker makes 200 something thousand Congressional Immunity Members of congress cannot be arrested for their opinions Separation of powers It is illegal for a member of congress to be a member of any other branch This came from England where ministers would serves as advisors to the king o 7.000 a year leaders make 188.he sued . Privileges.) Expressed powers of congress what congress can do legally Impose taxes Power of the purse Distribute the money Regulate Commerce With nations Between the states Establish post offices National communication infrastructure freedom to communicate Power to fund the arts and sciences War powers Sole authority to declare war Congress regulates the military To make all laws which should be necessary and proper… The elastic clause Vague .If person was reelected by the people they had to be seated as long as they met the requirements o 6.) Passing laws o 8.
) Restrictions on State Power not allowing states to put taxes on others states states cant conduct their own foreign policy This + section 8 transfers powers from the state level to the Feds Other relevant Articles Article 2 o Section 1 Electoral Tie HoR will determine who becomes the president Act as one state vote If there is no absolute majority o Section 2 Appoint people President must receive the advice and consent of the senate Article 3 o First 2 section is what role congress plays in the courts o Congress establishes the courts below SC o Determines jurisdictions of the courts o Have the power to determine the number of seats on the supreme court (9) o Congress determines the salaries of the SC .o 9.) Constraints on Federal power Congress cannot do anything about the slave trade until 20 years following the inception of the US Can’t regulate or abolish it Restrictions Little bill of rights Habeas Corpus o Challenge detention in Court No bills of attainder o Cant target a bill towards a group with out a court o Applicable to society No ex-post facto laws o 10.
Article 5 o Amending the constitution 2/3 majority in the house and senate ¾ of the states to agree to that amendment 38 states Article of 6 o Every member of congress must take an oath o No religious test that you have to be a member of federal government 2/1/12 Checks and Balances Legislative over executive o Power of the purse o Can override presidential veto o Can refuse to pass bills proposed by president o Can impeach and remove president o Can reject presidential appointments and treaties o Oversight. laws passed by congress o Refuse to carry our. and interprets. o Vice president casts tie-breaking vote in the senate Judiciary over Legislative o Judicial Review . or selectively enforce laws passed by congress. investigations Legislative over Judicial o Can change size and jurisdiction of federal court system o Determines number of seats on supreme court o Can propose constitutional amendments o Can reject nominations to the court o Can impeach and remove federal judges o Congress can ignore the courts Executive over Legislative o Can veto acts of congress o Can call congress into a special session o Carries out.hearings.
(4) Single-member District Plurality System o One rep for every district – 435 NJ has 13 going to 12 o In 90% of countries that have this system it is just 2 strong parties o All you need is a plurality to win.o Chief justice presides over senate during hearing to impeach the president Congress is the most vilified public institution (public enemy #1) Elections.More than any other person Running for office o Primary election Competition within the party For non-competitive district there will be no primary because there is an incumbent The primary was a product of removing the power from the parties – placed that power with the voters Very low turnout – 20%.40% of voting public Who runs? o Reps= Unrepresentative of society (john sides article) Rich. white. males who are highly educated 50% of congress is the less than 1% of the nation o Candidate centered Candidates take most responsibility Party now forms agenda around candidate unlike before .30% of registered voters Strong partisan people show up – more extreme views compared to the average voter This skews the candidate that will run in the general election o General Election Voter turnout is higher than primary elections Midterm elections are when the prez is not running Low turnout 30%.
control of body o men govern authoritative why is there a gap? Fox and lawless did a political ambition survey 3800 people from 4 professions attributed to 3 things.traditional gender socialization have gender specific family roles o women perform nearly 3x as more likely to do household chores Masculine ethos (patriarchy) o Men dominate public and private institutions o They are catered towards men Gendered Psyche o Found in confidence and the ability to self promote . 2 percent of members of congress have been women 255 members for quite along period of time women were not allowed to vote significant gender gap in ambition in running for office women do not express a lot of ambition women represent and govern differently than men o women support “women’s issues” gender equity.o Recuitment (Gendered) “political Entrepreneurs” people trying to sell themselves as candidates/ electable wide disparity based on gender since 1789. minimum wage.
6 Million o Electoral Environments Contingent Strategies When you run for congress you run against it “I will clean this place up” Differences Between House and Senate House is just one district Except for 7 states More intimacy with their constituents Districts are homogenous For Senate It is the State Less out of touch So many competing interests More prestigious position.64 Billion Dollars 2008 HR elections = $396 million 2008 Senate Elections = $419 Million 2006 AVG HR Winner Spent = 1.25 Million 2006 AVG senate Winner Spent= 9.Men tend to be more aggressive and forthcoming Women are supposed to be polite and quiet Parties tend to recruit women less o You need money 2010 elections = 3.more limelight o Makes them more competitive for interest groups – its more bang for your buck rather than the House o Incumbency Advantage Re-election Rates Since WWII HR= 93% Senate = 80% Why?!? Name Recognition Power of the Office Have a staff Constituency service .
Republican president and democratic senator Bureaucracy and government welfare Bureaucracy becomes professionalized and depoliticized with protection put in play One of the most important tools for the party.patronage/ jobs o Nepotism? Media Rise of mass communication.use the media Incumbents spend more than their competitors o Running scared Used as a deterrent against opponents 2/6/12 Transformation of Political Parties (5) Party Machine: 1830’s -1960s o How they would get the vote out for their party o Reasons for decline Primaries Australian ballot Secret ballot Had both political parties on the same ballot instead of separate Eg. made it easier for the candidates to reach out to the overs rather than using the parties to reach out Has become more capital intensive than labor intensive . War Franking Privileges o Subsidizes communication (mailers) to constituents Chest Having more money than your opponent or challenger Senators raised 10x more than opponents House Raised more than 3x opponents Advertise.
Ads Democrats Party of Multitude/ Big tent Many conflicting interests o Used to be is N. Business Liberal side Republicans Homogenous A party of morality o Have always envisioned itself as the defender of morality in US society Issue of Slavery It was immoral institution Anti. Need more money to do things!! Polls. Southern o Now its urban v.Gingrich revolution o first time in 40 years where the republicans had congress o direct mail fundraising much more consistent and much more coherent with their policies Party Mobilization $$$ . minorities and Young people Reagan Democrats o Working white class males who are conservative 1994.Immigration Much more nativist For Prohibition School Prayer Family Values Big defender for business DEMOCRAT Mcgover-fraiser reforms o Made the leadership of DEMOCRATS more open to women. country o Whites v.E v. minorities o Supporting labor v.
in zaller o Study on voting behavior .doesn't work this way Converse (1964). Race o African Americans vote democratic Senior Citizens o 25 to 35% of the voting public o old people show up Unions o Republican rate of unions have tripled Women o Me were the primary reason why women vote differently o Lean to democratic party Churches o Serve as a political institution but also a religious institution More people who attend church than union voters o Mobilize churches The south o South used to be a one party state of solid democrat.45 o 10 is independent Stronger identification with conservatives Voting Behavior Worrisome Does not conform to any theory of democracy o Vote choice is based on deliberation and the policies of the candidates. and now it is solid republican (state) o Mary louis cannabil-reading Many of the voting public identifies as an independent o 5% are truly Parties target the base of their party o The idea is that if you preach to the choir they will sing Voting public is closely decided o 45.
found that most of the publics political opinions. Clinton o Majority knew the name of the candidates dog.smaller taxes. but not that they both favored the death penalty Three theories of Voting behavior Don't listen to the people o Arbitrary and misinformed Elite cues o You can listen to the public because they are listening to the elite (informed) Inverse of Democracy. o o o for the mass public Shortcuts Larry Bartels people cognitive misers people can make correct votes with small amount of info correct vote is the vote you make before is the same after you receive more information political ignorance matters a great deal and can hurt the way we vote o o voters are making decisions on unreliable cues President Ford and the Tomale example in which he was hurt with Latinos o Informed vote.elites are providing instructions Info.can be skewed by your own ideology o Voters may adopt a parties issue stance based on the candidate o Pocketbook voting . it is based off to of your head responses o Not a lot of stuff informing these decisions In 1992 it was the election between George H w. o A clear refutation of democratic theory o Roughly 10 percent of the voting public have constrains Gives them a coherent ideology Smaller government. Bush V.Conservative Zaller (1992) o Based of Converse.
Based on how people are doing economically or have done economically miracle of the aggregate o the correct answer comes out of the crowd 2/8/12 Bicameralism 2 Congresses Separating powers Adversary democracy Representing ones own constituency House of Representatives Unitary democracy Looking out for public/national good Senate Both Houses have characteristics of both The only similarity they share is that the public elects them and they have the same goals (policy) Distinct institutional Personalities Differences in size Powers and responsibility’s differences in constituency’s Goals where the same the way of getting them was different House of Reps Peoples house More prestigious and power o More democratic legitimacy because its proportional representation (people rather than states) o Control over fiscal issues Any bill that has a tax must start in the house Capacity for much stronger leadership compared to the senate John Quincy Adams after his presidency ran for the house .
very difficult to stall legislation in the house Strong leader ship Leader runs the agenda in the house. needs strong management skills Anonymous Membership Easy to delegate tasks 5 comms/Congressman Specialists specialize in certain areas Weak leadership Much more negotiation and compromise Interpersonal Membership More responsibly 11 comms/ senator Generalists many areas this why Staffers are important because they make decisions for . and then became less powerful More aristocratic chamber o similar to House of Lords in Parliament rose in stature and became a more formidable slavery debates happened in the senate o because senate was equal representation more power longer terms more influence better staff Senate Based on Minority rights Power of the individual One senator has the same amount of power as Harry Reid. House grew in size – 435 o Made debates very difficult Pre civil war house was much more powerful As country grew house grew. means that majority has to consult with the minority Senate House Majority Rules Minority does not really matter.
I sit there thinking.just watch the floor. the senator Members of the senate can talk about a lot of things – so run for presidency Rules and Procedure Senate Extended debates (filibuster) Absence Germainess House Can attach anything to amendments that have nothing to do with the overall bill (gemainess) Cloture o Limits debates Speaker organizes whole process A lot of limitation on debates 2/20/12 – Class Barbra Sinclair and Kroger Senate Obstruction “Sit and watch us for seven days. I wonder what they’re doing in china right now?” o Sen Michael Bennett (D-CO) Lots of gridlock in the senate Individualist Senate Mid-1970’s to Present 190’s – “Polite anarchy” 1970’s External Forces Civil rights movement Feminist movement Environmental Movement Consumer rights movement Poor Peoples movement Vietnam war . You know what you’ll see happening? Nothing. When I’m in the chair.
6 per congress in 1961-1970 16. holds. or nomination by president Used by minority more than majority Rise In Obstruction – Barbra Sinclare table 1.1960 4. Interest Group community o Advocacy groups form offices o Business groups Rise of the Conservative Movement o “Rise of the silent majority”.7 per congress in 1981-1986 32 per congress in 1999-2002 36 in 2005.1 – pg.Nixon 1960’-1970’s: Internal forces More committees and sub committees More staff for committees and Senate leadership Curtailing powers of Committees Chairs Activist senate o Individuals are exploiting individual power o Diff between the House and the Senate are the rules that come with the senate o Rise in filibuster. and blocking actions Holds are a notification to the leader saying the object to the timing of a bill.2006 54 in 2007 -2008 Blocking Action 1960s= 8% of major legislation 1970’s-1980’s = 27% 1990’s –present = 51-70% Filibuster A senator or a group of senators is needed Public spectacle where a senator or group of senators will occupy the senate floor indefinitely . (6) 1 per congress in 1951.
-2.7 o Dramatic increase for senate o Close to two months from two days Delays and failures to pass bills Case Studies Civil Rights Act of 1960 o Responded to 1957 act which was very weak o Under Linden B. Johnson If he wanted to pass something. that was it Undermined the judiciary committee o Senate was in session for 157 hrs Had 2 southern senators on the floor at any given time Call for quorum at any given time o A pro civil rights filed for a cloture position To invoke cloture ¾ rather than the present day 3/5 Bill failed first Debate is renewed and the bill was passed Financial Reform 2010 o Way to regulate the banks to avoid another crisis o Problem with one of the agencies that was a part of the bill o In December of 2009 the house already passed this bill.5 days Sen.5 days 2010 HR -6.Time between Committee approval and pass it 1960. the senate would not pass until may of 2010 o Cloture was invoked to pass the bill and the process was incredibly slow and they had to move onto other issues Medicare of 1965 Legislation was truly historic. landmark pieces of legislation Fillibuster Kill a Presidential nominee or Bill Extract some time of concession from the bill in question .75 Senate -55.efficient HR -3.
Hostage taking o Extract concessions on another bill or issue Transaction costs are lower today o Senate leaders do not force these blocking actions to be public for the most part o Cloture vote, negotiate, or just give up majority(not sure if he said this)??????????? o Try to invoke cloture Limits the debate o All amendments during cloture have to be attached (Germmained) to the bill Reconciliation o Majority can use this to get around o Healthcare reform was passed through reconciliation o You cant filibuster anything during reconciliation and the amendments have to be germained just like cloture o Power of the majority Senate majority leaders o Should get more credit o Harry Reid Has been very successful in the past in inducing cloture o Herds 99 other senators, takes amount of determination
2/15/12 Congressional Committees and policymaking (7) How a bill becomes a law Congress as a conservative institution Should not expect to find a great deal of change Status-quo bias o Nothing happens at all Then add the president in and he has the power to move a bill
Size Matters House Comms. o 20 (rep. serve on Average 6)
o Policy specialists Senate committee o 16 (serve on Avg. 11) o Policy Generalists o Very dependent on Staffers
committee importance Division of Labor Central Feature of congress o Had committee even before congress E.g. congressional delegation Agenda setting o 90% of bills die within the committee system Oversight
Theories of committees Distributive o Argues that self regarding or self interested serve the congressman’s goals which may conflict with national good or public interest Allocate funds to you district or state Informational o Created to meet the needs of congress and this is the way for congress to exercise its oversight power Party-Dominated o Committee members serve as agents of their party and the majority party play an integral role in what happens
Brief history of committees Origins o Constitutional convention Styling- Changing the constitution o 1789-1810 for the first 20 years of congress you did not have standing committees but non-permanent
did not want sub-groups forming within either chamber of congress o Institutionalization 1811- 1865 Standing committees started to form started committee autonomy individual power over the whole of the body of congress Seniority system- majority party can be chair if they have served on that committee and have served the longest o Expansion 1866-1918 Power becomes concentrated o Consolidation 1919 – 1946 Speakers power is curtailed o Committee government 1947 -1964 Government is run by committee The chairs of the committees played the biggest role over policy Liberal members start pushing against committee chairs Permanent staff developed for committees o Reform Period 1965-1980 Liberal democrats upset the could not do any civil rights stuff Started pulling policy from committee chairs Very moderate reform More centrality on the members of the committees rather than chairs o Post-reform 1981- present Historic period for congress Most polarized congress in history Even more than pre-civil war How a bill becomes a law House Introduction Referral to Committees Senate Introduction Referral to Committees
Hearings Way to acquire knowledge about legislation Bring in witnesses Posturing or political theater Raise awareness Mark-ups Committee has power to change the bill Report Committee report Explains what the bills is Very influential because it summarize the intentions of the bill and adds in excerpts from the hearings Committee will vote on this Hearings Mark-ups Report calendar Debate Calendar Debate Amendments Amendments House rules committee No closed rules in senate debate the rules – o Closed or open rules Closed o Have to vote on it as it is (no amend) Votes House as a whole will vote on it And then to the senate 60/40 are votes usually Referred to Other Chamber Votes Referred to other chamber .
Same process for both chambers A bill could die at any point After it gets voted out of committee it gets placed on a calendar House rules committee debate the rules – o Closed or open rules Right after conference committee Conference Committee Chambers vote again House and senate members Sometimes just majority o But most of the time its both Held in secrecy both the house and senate vote on that bill again President Sign the bill Veto o Return bill to congress Pocket veto o Sit on bill for 10 days to sign. and if does not the law dies Veto Congressional override 2/3 majority Chances of override not good Since 1789 presidents have used their veto authority on over 2000 bills o Congress was successful in overturning about 100 times 4.3% chance Conservative Nature of Congress Status quo bias Bicameralism o Both chambers must coordinate Committees o Presidential veto .
Majority party Seniority system o One of the reasons o The seniority system is based on non competitive states o Lower voter turnouts in districts and states o This is by design 2/22/12 Nolan McCarty piece Polarization (8) 1950’s – mid 1970’s not a lot of polarization o but after more Polarization When the parties are more homogenous within and more apart externally Less Conservative democrats and Liberal republicans Smaller and smaller majorities in congress Causes of Polarization Economic Inequality o Nolan mccarrtty Multiple factors have led to Polarization o An elite phenomenon Started at the elite level and spread to the masses o Realignment North more democratic and south more republican now House of republicans changed from 2/3 democrats too 2/3 republican representing the states??????????? Senate 59-09 in 1959 there where 0 republican senators from the south and in 09 you have 60-80% republican senators from the south more liberal democratic party and more conservative republican party o Gerrymandering .
Fixing federal districts (what divides HR) so it favors one party over the other In NJ there is only one competitive district It keeps Polarization stable Some don't believe that it doesn't matter because of the senate Cant Gerrymander a state o Primary elections Competitions within the party Very low voter turnout Gone from 20% turnout to 8% And those who show up are the ones with the very extreme views which pushes them a little to the right or the left Challenger to the Incumbent is more on the farther side of spectrum and then the Incumbent moves towards the farther side to challenge the person who is challenging them and therefor the party shifts o Media If you compromise on Tv you are seen as being a traitor Theme in Polarization is gridlock o Legislative retardant Legislative output and quality of it o Legislative paralysis Part of both parties strategies by not talking to them it makes the other party look like they are holding things up o Super majoritarian difficulty o Divided government Democrat in the WH and Republican HoR The opposing party is the majority 2006 and 2008 Repub president and Democratic Gov o Strategic disagreement .
Medicare prescription reform . Make them look more extreme Consequences of Polarization More polarization leads to less productivity Pg.238 o Shows that the least polarized periods a great deal of legislative output and major legislation o Negative effects on legislative out put Decrease in maintenance of legislation o E.g.G.Economy Over compensation for issue ownership E. Federal Minimum wage Purchasing power of our Minimum wage now is equivalent to MW in 1952 Doesn't meet standards of living Increase in 96 Attached MW to every bill in congress Eventually Very modest increase with 20 million in tax breaks for businesses o Can lead to different policy or policy that is not very good Because of Polarization congress and presidents have relied on Distributive spending Making promises Throw money at your problems Gain leverage over there own pet projects so they hold the bill hostage Issue ownership Republicans own certain issues and Democrats own certain issues o Democrats –environment o Republicans. Describes a situation where a political actor does not communicate with the other side … LOOK IN ARTICLE.
g Senators have to deal with 99 other people The president is on top of the executive branch o Any one who works for the executive is under the president ultimately Three types of Powers Expressed Listed in the constitution o Section 8 article 2 Appointments o Presidents have the power to appoint. granted senate has to approve Make treaties . and Policymaking Separated Institutions Sharing Powers (sometimes) o Most powers are shared between congress and the President o Health care Reform Every democrat campaigned on this and so did Obama Presidents Have no peers E. Bush admin embraced it because senior citizens are one of the biggest voter blocks Took the democrats plan Balance free market conservatives. pharmaceutical industries Big mess of policy o Original at 400 billion and exploded to 700 billion o Prohibits government from negotiation with drug companies “Politics is not a childes game but it should not be a blood sport either” Its becoming a Zero sum game 2/29/12 presidents. Congress.
those laws don't apply to these people Commander in chief o Congress can declare war o President … Receive ambassadors o Sometimes countries will send ambassadors that the US does not recognize Convene and adjourn congress o Can stop vacation until problem is resolved Veto o After congress passes. president can veto it 2/3 majority in house and senate to override Veto 290 in house o o o o o 60 in senate (qualified) Legitimate? “Poison pen” president acts as the “3rd chamber” of congress-levinson Veto with Signing statements when they sign a bill where they wont enforce certain parts Cant only enforce some parts when you veto o Delegated Granted by congress o They tend to over delegate powers to the president Bureaucracy (has the closest relation to your every day life) o Form of social organization that forms with the size and shape of society o 3 broad powers of the bureaucracy Implementation . o International institutions and other countries Grant pardons o One of the only unilateral powers for the president o Non shared power o Commentary on legal system Have certain laws.
g FCC in 1934 They delegated power to them When congress passes laws they are vague If congress say the fcc is there to regulate in public interest Public interest is to vague Fcc says PI is Corporations Regulation Set up the rules of the game FCC regulates all broadcasting Adjudication See if stuff meets the regulations If doesn't they can punish E. Super bowl mishaps o Fcc fines Viacom o When country started it was 2 or 3 and now it is 15 More than 60 independent agencies o 6 characteristics of ANY bureaucracy Hierarchy President at the top.g. Where congress will pass a piece of legislation and Take the laws and turn them into operational procedures E. specific powers Neutrality Supposed to be non-biased in all decisions Goal orientation Certain objectives to meet Standardization Supposed to be predictable . and then the secretary Specialization Division of labor Organizing expertise Span of Control Specific responsibility’s.
Just presidents acting on their own Signing statements Proclamations movers Presidents are first movers on policy o o First o . no debate with public.o President has power over bureaucracy Organizational Powers Can reorganize those departments Create or restructure goals o Congress Oversight power of the bureaucracy Power of the purse Senate has advice and consent of nomination o Not directly accountable to the people Inherent/Unilateral Powers they give to themselves All crucial for the policymaking process William howell o A defining feature of the presidency is to go at it alone o Peace core is an executive order Kennedy signed this executive order Had to use discretionary funds Congress eventually gave full funding Congress did not like it at first o When presidents act There are specific times where there is an increase in executive orders When presidents usually act alone when there is presidential gridlock Or slim majority in congress elections Powers o Executive orders National security directives No persuasion.
doesn't want stuff to get out o Presidents deny congress what there up to Congress can restrain president Power of the purse Power of oversight and legislative authority that will undermine what the president does .but recognized nonetheless Delegate through supreme court o Free flow of ideas when presdent talks. anytime president would use veto power they would cite constitutional objections o It was constitutional they would just move on o Most presidents don't do this anymore Constitution is irrelevant to them What creates imbalance Constitution is vague Presidents have greater resources o The bureaucracy Lack collective action problems unlike congress Information imbalance Separation of Powers working Properly? o Executive privilege US V.Shift the political status quo where congress reacts to the president o Presidents are tyrants o Policy 2 things Shepard the bill in to congress Rely on unilateral powers and ignore congress Levinson reading In the past. Nixon Struck down his claim.
citizenship. residency o Know the times Numbers How long a congressman and senator can serve Filibusters have increased over the year In reform period Congressional leadership got more staff Healthcare reform Read pice by Jacob hacker and Barbra Sinclair What was the administrations congressional strategy o First 2 years in office was used o Legislative strategy What where some of the major obstacles to healthcare reform Filibuster Public spectacle o Not a public act anymore Senators just threaten a filibuster . The power of impeachment o Biggest power o Jeffry tulless 2/5/12 REVIEW look at readings house was designed to be the most powerful and the most prestigious up to the civil war then senate took over the prestige Senate has more power because of advice and consent power and individual consent Requirements to be congress man senator Age.
Presidents take different approaches Changes in party affiliation Cambell Impeachement The constitution analogizes impeachment to a criminal prosecution even though it is a political process rather than legal o 2 views of impeachment legalistic\ HR mirrors a grand jury with the power to indict Committee of the house investigates allegations House votes on counts – articles of Impeachment Goes to senate Senate becomes jury Find legal grounds to remove president from office Grounds for political view punishment is removal from office and cant hold any other postion Congress cant actually try him like an actual court So it is separate He can be tried by another court (no double jepordy) It is a political process Hearings Question executive officials Deny appointments Violating another branches power Impeachment is used to keep president in line Keep branches equal .
Constitution requires impeachemtn as part of its political process at the same time it it intents ahtat is hould not be politics What the prez did requires a political interpretation A crime depednting on political circumstances polarization causes and effects Nolan McCarty Framers What are the factors that influenced the constitution o British empire o AOC 6 constitutional shackels unilateral Newstat o persuasion matters for the presidency in William howell reading when are presidents likely to use them and not likely to used them Barbra Sinclair MOVIE Clinton tried with health care and he tried and failed Rahm Emmanuel was the force behind pushing congress Tom Daschell was not liked.had money problems (Limo thing) Ignannie would only be ok if people where forced to buy health insurance Montana senator takes over (Max Baucus) o Swawed by special intrests groups o Met with a Pharm lobbyist o Obama not allowed to cut drug prices Republicans did not want to give in .
Strategy Get through congress with out changing it Obama stuck it out with original plan War with insurance industry Democrats started going against health care bill Bill passed in senate Ted kennedy died o Seat became republican Republicans Got passed on party lines Principles o 3 committees that could negotiate one bill to be introduced in all of their committees o get as many democratic votes as possible moderate and conservative democrats without losing liberal o Obsticle Republicans did not want bill at all .
000+ cases a year o Appellate Courts 13 Geographically Based 60.1/18/2012 2:18:00 PM 3/26/11 Judicial Branch Lesser of the three co-Equals o Not a great deal of power Congress has all the money President commands the military Supreme court has Ideas Major Policymaker o Not weak in policy making o Very political Presidents pick people who think like them o Thought time we have had different interpretations of constitution and law Dual Curt system Federal Courts o They trump state courts and can order them around o District courts 94 (Trial Courts) 300.000 + cases o Supreme Court 9.500 cases Filed 80-100 cases Heard State Courts o Hear 99% of all cases Nine Justices Chief Justice + Eight Associate justice # determined by congress o Chief Justice John Roberts Anonin Scalia Anthony Kennedy Clarence Thomas .
Orrin Hatch o Clinton o Bush II 95% of all district court judges come from the same party as the appointing president American Bar Association 1946 o they set up their own committee to review the appointees Eisenhower – 1953 o Created a Link to the ABA Bush II -2001 . Ruth Bader Ginsburg Stephen Breyer Samuel Alito Sonia Sotomayor Elena Kagan Appointed by President Confirmed by Senate Lifetime appointment 800 + Federal Court Judges Lower Court Nominations Presidents have the least power over district courts Senatorial Courtesy o Senate will refuse to confirm people to federal positions(courts) if they do not have the support from the senator of their state Blue Slips o Chair of senate Judiciary committee holds confirmation hearings for all federal judges Chair will send a letter to the two senators of that state saying they would like their feedback on the nominee on a blue slip of paper For or Against Sen.
o He ended the link to the ABA because they where getting to liberal Obama Opened the link up again Nominations Constitution Silent on qualifications o Professional o Representation o Ideology Obama won’t appoint a lot of Republicans All judges have been lawyers but did not all have law degrees Other Factors Timing of vacancy o Can be a more liberal or conservative candidate Composition of senate Public approval Attributes of outgoing justice o Black outgoing judge.John Rutledge Opsies! Ike – Earl Warren Reagan – O’Connor and Kennedy Bush I – Souter Truman on Tom Clark Other Influences .bring another in o o Pool o Jewish seat Sex of candidates May have an ideal candidate but they may not exist Failed supreme court nominatiosn-27 Started with Washington o 1795.
Solicitor General o Governments lawyer Legislation o Laws can expand court. MISSED LAST 10 MINUTES OF CLASS. differentiate how we interpret constitution as well Enforcement o President and congress don't have to enforce supreme court laws Unilateral Powers/ Signing statements o President acts like supreme court regardless.GET NOTES 3/28/11 Balancing Act Contentious Nominations o Most failed type of Nomination o Since presidents are trying to leave a legacy. signing statements. make it smaller. 12% of District court Seats and 11% of seats on appellate courts remained vacant o Due to polarization o Trying to keep partisan balance District Courts confirmation rates (Sarah Binder Reading) 1947-2007 sharp decline in confirmation rates Appellate courts confirmation rates 1947 -2007 drop to 47% confirmation rate Nixon – 0 lower court rejections Reagan – 10% Clinton – 24% Failure Rates for nominations Not Even . Judges are very important because they have major influence of policy Vacancy Crisis As of March 2010.
6 months David Hamilton o Nominated to appellate court o Served on a federal trial court for more than a decade o Very centrist o 8 months for him to be confirmed o Used as pawns Failed nominees o Based off court of appeals Roughly 1 and half years to fail o Estrada example Conservative Democrats did not want him After two years he withdrew his nomination Causes Polarization o One of the biggest causes o Ideological gap between the two parties o Least polarized congress resulted in a 99% chance of confirmation Most polarized had 33% likelihood of confirmation .>10% 9th – 45% Length of Nominations Late 1950s – 6 months Late 1990s – 20 months 1947-2008 30 days to 150 days now (District court nominations) Court of Appeals 1940s – 1980s o 2 months 1990s –present o 5. DC .<60% 7Th .
Richard Nixon this describes war powers Invitation for struggle between the president and congress Fundamental Imbalance Executive Branch 24/7/365 Presidents run foreign affairs o President runs the show 24/7 unlike congress Checks and Balances? Presidents as “sole Organ” of Foreign Affairs? . there is stalling tactics o 40% less likely for a presidential election year Partisan balance of Court o Increase in the senates blocking power Courts and Presidential Power Judges have less legislative experience compared to previous judges o More professional experience with executive branch and less with federal and state legislatures o Lack of action by the congress is like tacit consent of the president 4/2/11 Why We Fight 4/4/12 “when the president does it. it is not illegal”. Divided Gov. o 6 of every 10 years is divided o a president who is a democrat and a republican congress Elections o Vacancy hoarding When you face a divided government.
o Who should lead? Collective Decision Making Constitutional Rises “Constitution assigns to congress senior status in a partnership with the president for the purpose of conducting foreign policy” Unitary executive “intolerable” to the Framers Presidential Powers Treaties o Make treaties with other countries Appoint and Receive Ambassadors o Appointments is a shared power with the senate o Presidents can receive anyone they want Commander-in-chief o Shared congressional power o Acting under the authority of congress ALL SHARED WITH CONGRESS Congressional Powers At least 14 responsibilities o Common Defense o Regulation of Military o Regulate foreign commerce o Declare war War Power Congress Declares War o “Dead Letter” let the people initiate wars through their reps David gray Adler Framers did not give a sole war making power Presidential war power is strictly defensive Repel invasions Commander-in-chief? Executive power clause? Status assigned to them by congress .
o In the execution of policy made by others This is a power to carry out the will of congress Example: Clinton’s . constitution.” Congressional Responses Power of Purse o Congress can cut funding anytime they want Legislation o (ex.” Adler World War 1 and II Cold War Powers easily surrendered are not easily recaptured.Missile attack on Iraq (Clinton. war power reading) o June 26. usurpation has replaced amendment and executive fiat has replaced constitutionalism. War powers Resolution) Presidents ignore it o War Crimes act-1996 Republican congress passed a war crimes act to restrain president Clinton Subject to international law Oversight Impeachment 4/9/11 Politics of Oversight Lack of Oversight o Ornstein and Mann o From legislative branch checking executive o Oversight is dropping from congress o More “fire alarm” hearings over “police patrol” hearings .1993 o Ordered missile attacks on Iraq based on CIA intelligence to assassinate Bush I o Cited powers that are completely baseless Power has preplaced law.
Lyndon B. Less oversights . mostly political Don't make any policies. just embaress Police Patrol is to make sure people Deals with prevention and much more proactive How can we prevent another September 11th An extensive amount of resources is used for scandals (christmass list and potentional donors) and people being tortured o Causes Congress has lost its Institutional identity Co-equal and independent branch of government Mailer. oversight will increase If you have unified Gov. Johnson asked incoming senate majority leader he still wanted to be in charge of senate caucus Not ok because they Congress acts as adjunct instead of partner “Stove piping” Committees have jurisdiction on cases They don't look at the bigger picture Permanent campaign Image making that turns governing into campaigning Government turns into a permanent campaign More time raising money rather than actually governing Partisan Composition of congress is key factor o Howell and Pevehouse They focus on foreign policy Congress can stop war If you have a divided Gov. Fire alarm is more like scandals and congress goes crazy Solyndra Fast tracked funds for the company Fire alarms don't do anything. story in the senate.
not always this way Separation of powers is based on coordination o With executive privilege it is very hard to check them because they are keeping everything secret Executive privilege during the bush administration o There is there is disdain for sharing information o There is a very guarded administration sharing the least amount of info they could o Energy taskforce. Nixon o Political process determines extent of privilege o A presumptive privilege …. Pyramid (executive) o Arlen Spector At the committee level there is problems because everyone has the same voting power Partisan surveillance within the party Can check congress through there own membership o Media wants to talk to them than everyone else o Frame argument in the media o Media prefers Prez of Congress Other Problems Executive privilege o Presidents justify holding information from congress or the courts o Don't want advisors censoring themselves if it can become public knowledge U. whose part of this energy task force Law that says you have non governmental people. o Need an opposition party in one of the two chambers of congress to have oversight Congressional collective action problems vs. peerless president o Suffers from collective action problems Egalitarian vs.S. you have to have transparency White house says the GAO and congress has no constitutional authority to oversight They gave receipts in the end . o Lots of congressional pushback here.
exposed everyone we killed through the 1970’s 1980’s. She showed that an American who joined the Taliban was being interrogated with out a lawyer and may have been tortured o Obama and whistleblowers Prosecuted the most whistleblowers through out history He campaigned on more transparency 1930s – 1960s: Era of the Imperial Presidency o Presidents is just running the agenda 1970’s – congressional Pushback o period of the imperiled presidency Church committee. house votes for articles of impeachment Like a grand Jury o Then to senate.Due to In 2002 the GAO sued the Executive branch.Present: Partisan posturing o a great deal of polarization president triumphs in the end Iran-Contra Test-ban treaty rejection War crimes act Recodifies the Geneva Convention New start treaty Nuclear treaty Russia o Superficial decent or criticism Impeachment No president has been every convicted of Impeachment o Old Jeffery tulles piece Impeachment has been mostly a political power but it has been turned into a legalistic power. senate tries and convicts the president Chief justice presides over it . court threw it out saying it was a political question o Jesslen …. and therefor marginalized President can be impeached for high crimes and misdemeanors o Starts in the house.
When.” Subjects in a representative government are capable of . What. 3 have been threatened Can be criminally tried after impeached o Impeached is for political processes Lot of aiding and a beading than presidents leading an evil plan o Congress is pushing prez to subvert congress 4/11/12 Representation Who. Why. Need a 2/3rds majority in senate o Only 2 have been tried. Where. and How You are acting on the peoples behalf A trustee is done for a specific reason and acts on their own beliefs Delegate--- Instrument Acting on the peoples behalf That assume that the constituents wishes are followed Trustee--- Personal Judgment Acting on behalf and to their benefit They will follow there own course of action Tension in Representation Between these to types Difficult to define Boils down to political assistance o You are assisting others Institutional Context o They also represent an institution o for those who are either working in the House or the senate they influence the way they represent o try to represent the majority of that group What? (Hanna Pitkin) “Acting in the interest of the represented in a manner responsive to them.
but they know this stuff has no chance of this bill to pass They do it symbolically because people say this important to us and they want it part of the congressional record May create trust and support between the representative and the constituents Surrogate representation o Representation beyond a geographical local o If you identify as socialist. governing institutions Representatives will normally act in the interests of their constituency. and access to. gender. You like to get high. Bernie sanders of Vermont is a socialist . economic and other characteristics of a representative deals with there constituency o Our gov are not very descriptive o Eg. racial. vote for bills. you represent Marijuana Descriptive representation o Pectoral representation o Deals with social. If not.thses blend in with each other Substantive representation o Representing the objective policy interests of a constituency Eg. How? (types of representation). the there is a reason why they strayed from majority sentiment. action and judgment and have control over. 1 black senator in senate Millionares make up less than one percent of country but they make up 50% of congress o Do positions of government match the demographics of citizens Symbolic representation o Descriptive representation devoid of any substance or impact is symbolic o Introduce legislation.
or you may not have elected them. but they serve as a surrogate Anticipatory representation o representatives will attempt to anticipate what their constitutes want or value in the future. o McCain is a veteran. and will act accordingly o “crafted talk” o politicians have a certain view point and through polls. can serve as a surrogate as other veterans may on represent you directly. and other things they want to bring you into there camp and they frame there message in a different sense this is a trustee style they think they are right Why? Republican Form of government Federalists Unitary Refined/ Elitist Rep Trustee/Detached Virtual with Actual Anti-Federalists Adversary Local Interests Replication Delegate Rep Actual Anti-federalists o Thought constitution would be very constrained o Wanted things to be much more democratic Direct interests of the people o Local interests Bottom up style o Delegate style Replication Instrument directly on the behalf of the people o Federalists o Senate style Unitary .
makes national politics irrelevant Skews policy o For national security big state like Wyoming got same amount of funding as NY Same amount of voting power A couple of thousand people vs millions Are preferences should be given equal worth One person one vote The senate violates this .past the post” o Distorted Policy Making Focused on the senate Population is irrelevant in the senate. based on geographic The idea of 2 congresses National legislatures Local interests This trumps national preference most of the time o Violation of Intrinsic Equality Side payments Allowing individuals to hold policy hostage.Act on behalf on the entire public rather than one sector of community National interests o Elitists Wanted a refined style They wanted to filter bad stuff out Passions of the people may be good but it may not be right When? Where Geographic representation o We are one of the few democracies that still uses geographic rather than proportional “first.
zero sum tactics Constitutional barriers to effective representation Unequal power dynamics Intersectionality . gun control. women’s rights Will take the time and energy to make sure this stuff gets passed o Leadership is different They will be more cooperative style Men will use aggressive. One of the highest inequality rates when link representation to senate 4/16/12 Skewed Outcomes Annual Share of Federal Expenditures o California = $132 per Capita o Wyoming RACE. GENDER. AND INSTITUTIONAL REPRESENTATION Hawksworth piece Katherine Tate Race and descriptive representation “Do Blacks feel that they are better represented… When their representative is Black?” o Yes… But party affiliation matters o Race and Party Gender Matters Political arena as “Gender neutral”? o Not the case o Make up 17% of congress whereas they make up half of the population o States do not have female representatives either o Incumbency advantage is even more difficult for women Governing and Leadership styles o Will support progressive issues Welfare. CLASS.
” E. can you get more research No intention on being influenced Ways to put congresswomen of color “in their place.o You cant separate who you are If you are a black female. political asymmetries.g. black congressman will be treated differently Raced-gendered Involves the production of difference.” perpetual outsider African American women reported insults o They face different power hierarchies Police would always ask for ID when entering Newt eliminated a lot of the caucuses Class Dismissed (APSA piece) -bartels Unequal voice o Why Participate? Because you can You want to Or some one asked you Resources. motivation and mobilization . and social hierarchies that simultaneously create the dominate and the subordinate. decisions on the golf course Congressional bathrooms Equal Work But not on equal terms 103rd and 104th congress o Topic extinction Absolute silence on issues Don't acknowledge them o Pendejo Game Play dumb and ask for more information Say they don't understand. you cant separate black self and female self o John Boehner will be treated differently to Pelosi o Alan West.
o Much higher levels in rich Rep responsiveness based on class o Working class “mumbles” to reps o Upper speaks in a loud clear and consistent message Reps are more responsive to them o Rich participate much and at higher levels than working class o Senators will consider views of constituents in the upper 1/3. Obama VS. Pres. Obama o Honest Leadership and open Government Act HLOGA (Passed by Sen Obama) . no weight in bottom third APSA o What government officials here is what they will do Bartels o Why are the poor being ignores Conventional wisdom not correct Nothing to do with voting Rich not more influential because they vote or know stuff about politics Modest support for contacting government officials Big one is campaign contributions Public opinion could be wrong Healthcare reform o Nobody likes healthcare reform o Every one likes those provisions o No one likes the idea Non-military Foreign aid o We think its 20% o Less than 1% of budget goes to o People think it should be 5-10% 4/18/12 Interest Groups and lobbying Sen.
O.000 People It is Hard to reform them(lobbyists) when you need them” o Thruber Lobbyists serve as prevayers of Information Last November there was 17. o Prohibits senior staff from lobbying their former office or committee for a year Then to the senate for 2 years o No travel gifts from lobbyists o Lobbyists have to register with the government Two E. ensuring that policy is not made in a bubble(lobbyists say) o E.’s and three Memos o Pres Obama Lobbyists cant take executive postions Mccain and Obama said no lobbyists registered They made exceptions though for top campaign staff You have a right to petition grievances with GOV.500 a plate dinner for Obama o Said the government should be about interests of people not lobbyists (the people at the dinner) Obama does make there visitor logs more transparent Administration in rhetoric and practice Obama . MPAA is run by a former senator o Lobbyists More importantly your treating us like predators and we are not predators o Only in executive branch Entrenched Interests Nine billion dollar industry 13.1st amendment right That's what lobbying is Recent Proposals Under Review Prohibit 2 million + Federal workers o “Gifts of free attendance” o Cant go to seminars and reception run by lobbyists Curry favor with policymakers vs.G.
it becomes strategic advisor E. Letter and spirit of the rules and regulations? o It is by the letter but not the spirit o Working their way around definition of lobbyist. Punctuated Equilibrium comes from evolutionary biology when change does occur it tend to be substantial than incremental o it is substantial because the new policy uproots the things that protect the status quo long-term stability marked by radical change Policies that did change were dramatically altered . Preserving policy. Finite attention in DC 42 of 98 issues suffered from lack of attention o funding hearing tests for newborns o even if they had no opposition 47 died in committee system when it does have attention something will happen 4.g. not crafting new policy Keeping the status quo no policy change for 60% of issues 2. Tom Daschle and healthcare reform Money and Politics Can get arount things It is very influential Money will get you a seat at the table and…? Lobbying and the status quo 98 Policy issues o 4 years last 2 years of Clinton. money has little impact 19% chance that delt with money o if the balance of resources was skewed heavily towards one side 3. first two years of Busch two administrations 1.
5. Reps are given more the details Contact i. Get notes Predictability i. Big Vs. You want the leaders on board for the house ii.E. 4. ii.“the Flay in the pluralist heaven is that the heavenly chorus sings with a strong upper-class accent E. Senators are given the big picture 2. In the senate every member counts 4/23/12 Congressional Reform Problems o Polarization In a less polarized environment you get more different types of policy o Lack of oversight o Skewed policymaking o Less output o Unilateral presidency If congress cant do their job the president picks up the slack o Too much $$$ 3. but not 80% of the US Lobbying congress (differences in house and senate) 1. Usually have direct contact with Reps but not Senators 1. . Small Picture i. Schattschneider Lobbying is elite pluralism Elites Competing on a level playing field. Reps are mass market lobbying. They have to convince the senators staff Style i. senators are more specific Champions i.
and Age Burris eventually seated Proper way? o 17th Amendment If a vacancy arises in that state Governors Issue “writs of Elections” and Make temporary Appts.Four states had vacant senate Seats EX.he had personal problems and legal conflicts Was not accepted by the house and went to the supreme court Powell V. Mccormack (1969) Residency. .14% Overwhelming majority of public does not like congress o Congress has to reform themselves Filling a Seat 2009. Citizenship. Roland Burris o Rod Blagoyavich o Senate didn't recognize the appointment He did eventually serve for little over a year o Harkens back to the 60’s when a representative had the same problem.o o o o No effect on lobbying But its everywhere Less Civility High Rejection Rates of Judicial Appts. The entire confirmation process is taking a lot longer time Vacancy Crisis 10% of district court seats are not filled Problems with representation Lots of barriers What is to be done? Is congress capable of reform in today’s political environment o Approval rating.
Jury Its not the jury who are not making the informed potions. o Competitive Elections The incumbency advantages are enormous which results in high reelection rates Non-partisan Gerry-mandering to redistrict Does not explain polarization in its entirety (eg.000 people he suggests that we should expand it to a 1000 members British parliament works with 640 Robert Dowell argues that we have one half single member districts and the other half proportional o Term Limits? Very popular among public. all of the other actors are driving them along here Committees and staff would be making positions Senate o Increase to 135 . not unconstitutional It is democratic and undemocratic It might go against popular will If you put some one in that position. Senate) o Bigger House Expanding the house by increasing the number of seats 100 years ago we stopped adding 1 rep for every 30. get drunk with power Might lose institutional power Might become stale if you stay Make a lottery for political system Eg. they are put in a powerful position and they expect it. If the state legislature deems it necessary the president can make an appointment Changes the constitution from state legislatures choosing senators to the people Larry Sabato House of Reps.
” (p. or impropriety. they would get one additional senators o Former Pres and VPs as “national Senators”? Former presidents and vice presidents if they decide not to run for any other office will become senators Says they are less partisan than congressman Definitely not going to help the situation o Term Limits? Same as house Mann And Ornstein Pres leadership More competitive elections Office of Public integrity Institutional identity.221) calls for direct democracy is ill informed.” 2 weeks in dc and 2 weeks off rather than Tuesday though Thursday you need personnel change o different type of legislator John Hibbing “I thing it is impossible to give people the congress they want. greed.new work schedule o Reforms will not eliminate arrogance. insensitivity.” Congress will never popular with the people Conventional wisdom o “the basic goal is to deprive congress of the power and the will to act contrary to the people’s wishes. what we want is more complicated than that .This would take the 10 largest states and give them 2 additional senators For the 15 second largest states.
227 o A supreme Court? Its because we don't see how they operate. we just see are opinions Bush V. nearly Half of the country (47%) “is not convinced the country would be better off if politicians had less say and the AM. People had more 48 percent favored largely undemocratic arrangements not a deep yearning for any type of direct democracy Compromise is selling out (56%) but 85 percent want congress to stop talking and take action What do we Want? o “decision makers who will act in a non-self-interested fashion.” P. the court remained in high regard with the public o Just one self-serving member can ruin it for the bunch o P236 eliminate the idea that congress enriches itself at the expense of the public.the conservative majority gave it to bush. Gore. and people would like congress more o Empathetic factor They haven’t experienced what I have experienced o .
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