You are on page 1of 22

Benefits of Juvenile Correctional Facilities For Society: Through the Perspective of the Workers Jeff Groleau Sociology 481-Senior

Seminar May 4th, 2012

The purpose of this study was to examine the personal feelings of employees (guard, social workers) at a juvenile rehabilitation center and how they view the Juvenile Correctional System. Previous research focused on the viewpoints of researchers, what forms of juvenile facilities are most effective, and how the lives of juveniles are impacted inside institutions. I administered a questionnaire to employees at a juvenile center to find out how they perceived their jobs& the juveniles, and their duties to society. I examined four research questions pertaining to the conditions of the facility, how workers view their jobs, how they view the juveniles, and whether employees view their jobs as a positive aspect for society. After analyzing previous research and the questionnaire responses, I was able to find that many of the workers at a specific juvenile facility feel the juvenile system is a positive aspect for society by keeping offenders off the streets, and rehabilitating juveniles into productive members of society.

Introduction According to the U.S. Department of Justices Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), in 2010 there were 70,972 juvenile offenders in facilities in the United States. There are several different forms of detention centers such as; group homes, boot camps, shelters, or rehabilitation centers. These facilities hold juveniles that have been found guilty of committing crimes, and attempt to rehabilitate them to produce productive members of society. This research paper examines how employees at a juvenile rehabilitation center view their jobs and whether they feel the system is benefitting society. By analyzing previous research conducted on juvenile detention and conducting a questionnaire, I was able to find out that the workers feel their jobs are very important in shaping the lives of the troubled juveniles that are sent to the facility. Background Paper The problem that I researched for this project is whether the juvenile detention program in the United States is actually benefiting society and the juveniles themselves. There are several programs in society, offering juvenile offenders the opportunity to complete community service, attend rehabilitation centers, or be sent to a juvenile detention center. The options given to a specific offender can depend highly on the crime that was committed and their criminal history, or a recommendation from a judge or social worker. I examined the benefits of juvenile detention facilities because I am exploring a career in this field and wanted to gain insight about the conditions of the facilities, the personal feelings surrounding the juvenile system and which methods are most successful at lowering recidivism rates and rehabilitating the juveniles. My

working hypothesis is: By giving juvenile offenders an opportunity to rehabilitate in juvenile facilities rather than adult prisons, they will be less likely to take part in criminal activity. I examined previous research for answers to these research questions about the juvenile justice system, one being, what are the recidivism rates of the offenders that attend juvenile facilities? How likely are the criminals to change the ways that led them to the facilities and have a life of social coherence? Also, I was wondering about the priorities of Wisconsins Department of Juvenile Corrections Department; are they focused on rehabilitating the juveniles, or more focused on making them pay for their crime with hard work and lock-down setting like an adult prison. One big change throughout the country is the age at which we will send a juvenile to adult prisons, which cuts the need for a juvenile correctional facility all together. I am looking to understand why the United States has not set an age at which children are still considered children regardless of their age? It seems odd that the age changes throughout the country, even with states in the same area differing on their set age. They should all be set together so as a complete system they can start moving in the right direction. Another question that I am looking to answer is how the opportunities change for juveniles that are convicted of violent crimes compared to juveniles that are convicted of drug and non-violent crimes. I have an understanding that in our country people that commit murder and other very violent crimes are treated with much harsher penalties than those with drug charges and petty theft but what about inside the correctional system? Are the correctional officers treating them worse because of their crime or are they treating everyone with the same demeanor and respect?

The last question that I seek to answer is whether or not the juvenile system is benefitting the offenders or just throwing them into the system and not attempting to help them. I would like to find out what is happening to our offenders during and after their stay at the facilities. I am curious about whether the facility is treating them in a way that can change their feelings towards the law and if they are given a chance to better themselves. I would like to know whether they were thrown in a cell, told their length of stay, and left to change on their own compared to being given classes and sessions about self-improvement and community engagement where they can get themselves rehabilitated and back into the community as a positive member of society. The previous research has been in the perspective of the researchers, and/or examining the feelings of the juveniles. I questioned the social workers, employees, and the director of a juvenile facility to gain personal insight about how the employees at these facilities feel the juvenile system is working for society. This helped me bridge the gap from the previous research and I explored further how they are benefiting to the offenders. By having the background information, I gained a good idea of what forms of facilities to focus on, and the forms of research that has been used successfully in the past. I feel this topic is relevant because we have our adult prisons overflowing, and by utilizing juvenile facilities to help rehabilitate juvenile offenders we could lower the recidivism rates in the future. I examined two theories for my research project; the subculture theory and the social learning theory. The social learning theory states that individuals can learn new behaviors by observing individuals in a new environment. This is tied into my project because I will be able to determine if the juveniles are learning the new correct behaviors in their new environments (juvenile facilities) and see if they are becoming productive members of society. The subculture theory discusses that behaviors are influenced by individuals social and personal factors. These

factors can be new people in an environment or just a positive setting that they will be living in. As one female respondent to my questionnaire states, Many juveniles come from broken homes, and need a positive role model in their lives. This is why I used the subculture theory, to examine if new social factors in the juveniles lives are making an impact on their behaviors. In the next section, I will be examining the previous research that has been conducted on the subject and describe the ways in which they are helping to shape my research and give a basis of the juvenile justice system. Literature Review This section of the research provides an analysis of the previous research conducted on juvenile detention. By analyzing previous research, I can find out which facilities are most successful in providing juveniles with the skill sets to dissuade criminal activity. To being I was examining research to find out the living conditions of juvenile facilities. Along with this I looked for the ways they were being operated, to find out what type of environment the juveniles were being placed in. This was the basis for my research and helped me understand whether they were beneficial to the offenders. I found research describing what types of methods work for rehabilitating inmates, including the different forms of institutions such as boot camps, group homes, and correctional institutes. According to Greenwood and Turner (2009), the more these facilities are focused on rehabilitating the individuals over punishing them for the crimes, the more effective they will be in treating the needs of the inmates; By doing this, we can give them a chance to live a more productive life in the eyes of society and not continually watch them move in and out of the prison system throughout their lives (p. 368) Greenwood and Turner

(2009) focus on the alternative methods as well as the facilities for treating delinquency in juveniles. Throughout their findings they support the merit of all treatments having a form of open treatment to their problems. This article was tightly supported by Van Der Helm, Klapwijk, Stams, and Van Der Laan (2009), where they found that establishing and maintaining a group climate throughout treatment was also beneficial; using an open group climate, with group workers paying more attention to the psychological needs of the adolescents and giving them space to experiment, led to inmates feeling that they were being understood by the group workers (p.38). The main focus of the open group climate was to keep equality within the institution and have mutual respect (Van Der Helm et al. 2009). A common theme found in all successful juvenile facilities was that proper care and attention must be provided to the inmates by staff members, as stated by Sellers and Arrigo (2009) By placing an emphasis giving juveniles attention, they will begin to connect with the staff and begin a path toward accomplishing their life goals (p.447). Kurlychek and Johnsons (2010) study the risks of sentencing juvenile offenders to adult prisons. One problem found with juveniles being placed in adult prisons is that they are thrown into an environment where they feel disrespected by other inmates and staff members (p. 733). The other key points from their article (Kurlycheck and Johnson 2010) described how the juveniles would attempt to fit in by breaking the rules and obeying orders from the older inmates. They are not able to work on their own problems because they have to please everyone else to feel safe. Further, Van Der Helm et al. (2010) argue that Severe stress from being locked up can lead to either freeze or fight reactions (p.44).When the staff keeps the conditions of the facilities open and free to group therapy, the juveniles can stay relaxed and be able to work together at mental issues or reasons behind their delinquency. While the open environment may be one aspect to having successful juvenile facilities,

another aspect Loughran, Mulvey, Schubert, Piquero, and Lososya (2009) discovered in their research was the relevance of the length of stay. In their study, over 400 juvenile offenders were observed over a five-year period, and the likelihood of re-arrest was far more likely if the incarceration period was shorter than ten months (Loughran et al. 2009). To some people ten months may seem like a long sentence for a juvenile offender, but compared to the five to ten year sentences handed out in adult prisons, they are relatively short. Loughran et al. (2009) state that by increasing the length of incarceration we can limit the rate at which they can be rearrested but also it gives them an understanding of the time they will lose if they are caught committing crimes (p.723). This gives them a period to reflect on their actions and focus on what their plans are for their future. According to OJJDP (n.d.) however, the average stay at the juvenile facilities ranged from 45 days at a public facility to 106 days at a private facility. Inderbitzin (2005) conducted research at a juvenile facility that housed the inmates in cottages. The main focal point of the inmates living conditions was the central living room they shared because they could gather together and discuss their lives, but group meetings and counseling sessions were also held there. This was another example of how group counseling (Van Der Helm et al. 2009) can be beneficial to rehabilitating the juveniles. One reason the juveniles enjoy these opportunities over adult prisons is the likelihood of not being alone. They can look forward to being with other inmates like them, not 20 years younger than the person they are sleeping under. By having this option open to the adolescents, it will give them the last chance to straighten up before they face the reality of adult prison. The other aspect of juvenile facilities being successful is how they are operated and who owns them (public or private management). According to Bayer and Pozen (2005), all facilities that operate for-profit will perform far worse in respect to recidivism (p.558). They look

desirable to the communities because of the lower cost to the states but are less concerned about the wellness of their juveniles than the profits they are making. According to Bayer and Pozen (2005) Non-profit management styles are more likely to reshape the youth and have better rehabilitated when they are released because in the long run they wont be spending the money on inmates in the future if they can change their lifestyles the first time (p.573). Bayer and Pozen continue to describe the benefits of rehabilitating the youth as a necessity to having them ready for a productive life in society. They need to be concerned about the inmate personally, not their own paycheck. Wester, MacDonald, and Lewis (2008) researched the lives of juvenile and how the juvenile system affected their lives. They found that relational coping and creative coping was very beneficial to their successful rehabilitation. Talking to others when stressed, stressful occasions occur, or even engaging in socially appropriate or creative forms of coping help to decrease their stress and change their previous immediate reactions (p. 107). They can learn the correct ways to respond to different situations and respond in the correct ways in the future. By having facilities engage in group rehabilitation, inmates learn different ways to let their feelings come to the surface and respond to them in nonviolent or legal ways. Another concept stemming from the previous research described the relationships between inmates and the guards/mentors. Marsh and Evans (2008) described how inmates that could relate to the guards on a more friendly level (not as a subordinate) would be more likely to listen to the rules and follow along with therapy sessions. They also found that more one-onthem

one attention was one of the most desired aspects to benefitting their rehabilitation (Marsh and Evans 2005:49) because it helps inmates to relate to the guards and trust that what they tell them will be kept quiet. The key to changing the inmates is getting to the core of their reasons for delinquency. When they are able to let go of the part that is bothering them, they can move past it and focus on changing the remaining problems. The previous research that I have studied was focused on different forms of juvenile facilities, how they operated, and the types of environments within the facilities. They were also based on the cost to the public and the quality of confinement between the public and private sectors. For my research I want to look at the juvenile justice system through the perspective and feelings of the employees. The number of juvenile inmates in 1999 was over 100,000 (OJJDP n.d.) and that number has been declining since to roughly 71,000 (OJJDP n.d.) Being able to bridge the gap from how the researchers examined the system being run to how the employees feel it is functioning may lead to important insight. To keep the juveniles from becoming inmates at our adult prisons and costing us more money, we must focus on rehabilitating them while there are at the juvenile facilities and teaching them how to prevent themselves from facing a life in the justice system. This step begins with the employees having a passion for their jobs and caring for the juveniles well-being. Now that I was able to find out what forms of facilities work best and the methods that increase successfulness I can search for facilities that will give me the best data surrounding employees working for the best intentions of the juveniles. Theory and Methods Paper After gaining a background of the field and analyzing previous research I was able to set up a plan of action. I began by finding theories that were relevant to my topic area and then

looked at the methods previous research has utilized. I found that surveys were the most beneficial to gaining personal insight about the field and I felt that this would also help my research the most effectively. In my research, I focused on the benefits and effectiveness of juvenile correctional facilities; while doing this I used two different theories to focus my research. The first theory was the subculture theory, which Fischer (1995) states that behavior is influenced by factors such as class, ethnicity, and family status (p. 545). The second theory I used to shape my research was the social learning theory. According to Akers (1973) the social learning theory is described by a person will adopt new behaviors through observational learning in their environments (p. 4). The first theory, the subculture theory, is relevant to my research because of the social factors that influence the behaviors of juveniles. I was looking for the reasons the juveniles have been placed in the detention centers and whether they were able to control their actions after they attended the facilities. Fischer (1995) stated, Their behavior is influenced by social and personal factors, which likely still would remain after they attend the juvenile facilities (p.546), and I was wondering if they were able to better handle their actions after their incarceration. Being able to detect the main causes of the juveniles behaviors and help them react correctly would benefit the facilities successfulness and ability to return the adolescents into society as productive citizen This theory was beneficial to shaping my research because I surveyed employees about the reasons the ways juveniles responded to the employees orders and the juveniles futures (Appendix A). I was able to ask whether it was their surroundings or personal relationships that

had shaped their behavior to cause them to commit crimes. One male respondent stated, Many of the juveniles come from broken homes and rough lives, but when they arrive here, they have a surplus of people to listen and give guidance. Also, I was able to find out whether the employees had realized a difference in the juveniles actions in a new setting (in the detention center) and whether that had created a difference in the way the juveniles felt or acted. This helped me truly understand whether the juveniles behavior was shaped by their environment and/or personal relationships, or if the new environment and relationships had not made any difference in their behavior. The social learning theory was the main theory I am used to shape my research. My research was focused on how effective the employees felt juvenile facilities were at reducing the recidivism rates of the juveniles that attend them and if the juveniles are able to learn the correct behaviors from their time spent in the facilities. Akers (1973) claims that individuals learn new behaviors through observational learning in their environments; by placing a delinquent juvenile in an environment away from their previous negative influences, they may be able to focus their attention on the correct behaviors and turn their lives around. With this theory in mind I shaped my research into discovering whether the juveniles learned any new behaviors from their stay at the detention center. Also, was able to find out whether or not they were able to control their previous actions after understanding that they were unable to act that way, or get away with that. It gave me an area to base my findings of successfulness of the facilities by comparing the forms of support or counseling the staff provided for the teenagers to help shape their lives in a more positive way.

I am collected the data for my research by analyzing the previous research that was conducted about the juvenile justice system. I also conducted personal surveys/questionnaires with social workers/employees at a juvenile facility. This gave me the personal experiences of how the employees felt about the and whether they justice system and whether they have rehabilitated the juveniles or not. It also gave me the opportunity to ask about the effectiveness it has had on producing successful citizens to society. I sorted through the data to find out the specific characteristics that provide a positive environment to the inmates and shape their behaviors so they are not repeating the same mistakes throughout their lives. Van Der Greest and Bijleveld (2008) stated, The more positive experiences in juvenile facilities have been from detention centers that treated the inmates on a personal level, not just a number (p. 162). After analyzing the research and finding that rehabilitation centers have been most successful at treating the juveniles core problems and shaping them for positive lives in society, I chose a juvenile rehabilitation center in Upper Michigan and conducted a short questionnaire with several employees (social workers, a director, and other current and former staff). The purpose of the questionnaire was to examine to employees personal feeling about the juvenile justice system and find out whether they felt they were treating the juveniles problems or if they were focused on punishing them for their crimes. I asked a list of questions (Appendix A) depicting the feelings of the employees at the facility. They ranged from conditions of the facility to the benefits of the juveniles and society (for having a facility). After receiving the responses, I analyzed the answers to determine the effectiveness of juvenile facilities on society and for the juveniles well-being. The

questionnaire gave me the personal insight of employees at juvenile facilities that I was unable to find in previously conducted research. After analyzing the previous research, and combing through my personally conducted research, I was able to come to conclusions about the conditions and successfulness of the specific facility in Upper Michigan. Although the findings were limited to one location, some generalizations may be made to other similar facilities. This information was carried out to examine why juvenile facilities are benefitting society and should be utilized to keep juveniles from returning to our overcrowded adult facilities in the future. Findings The previous research conducted on juvenile facilities was focused on the observable conditions and different forms of facilities. This led me to focus my research upon the employees at these facilities to gain an understanding of the ways they feel about the system and how they feel about their jobs. I wanted to gain an understanding about how they feel, whether they are providing a positive service to society, or being paid to watch criminals and punish them for the crimes that they have committed. I also wanted to find out about the different ways in which the employees view the juvenile delinquents, such as someone who needs their guidance, or someone that deserves what has happened to them. If I am able to understand how the employees are acting towards the juveniles, I can gain an understanding of how effective the juvenile system is performing (in a sense). For my research, I conducted a small survey of six staff members at a juvenile rehabilitation center in Upper Michigan. The research that I used for my project focused on forms of juvenile detention and their benefit to society. According to Greenwood and Turner (2009), the form that was most

beneficial to the juveniles was rehabilitation centers (p. 368). To be able to thoroughly understand certain aspects of the juveniles living conditions and how the staff conducted their duties, I surveyed employees about the facility conditions, the employees feelings about juvenile detention/rehabilitation centers for society, how the employees view their job, how the employees view the juveniles, and their overall feelings about juvenile detention and their personal lives mixed together (how they feel their job is positive/negative for society). I received six responses to my questionnaire, and thoroughly examined and noted the key points from each response. After reading the responses, I went through them and looked for similarities and trends that stood out for each of them. To help analyze my data, I focused on five different research questions as I read through my questionnaire responses. The research questions I chose to focus on were: What are the conditions of the juvenile centers? Are they set up to promote positive change or to lock down offenders to punish them for their crimes? How do the employees view their jobs as well as how they view the juveniles? Do the employees feel they are treating the juveniles, or punishing them for their crimes? What are the recidivism rates, if known by the employees? Some of the similarities in the responses were the ways in which the conditions were clean and set up in a remote location that would promote peacefulness and calmness for the juveniles. This was helpful, especially for my research questions, What are the conditions of the juvenile centers? Are they set up to promote positive change or to lock down offenders to punish them for their crimes? After reviewing the questionnaire responses I found that this sample of employees seemed to believe that the center was set up to create a positive environment for the juveniles. As one male employee at the facility stated on the questionnaire, This facility is a clean, secure facility in a semi-secluded area that offers both protection and a relaxing

environment. The facility and grounds are well-maintained and cared for by highly qualified staff. This quote was similar to the responses of the majority of respondents in the sense that the centers are promoting a positive influence on the lives of the juveniles. The next aspect of my research project was to determine what forms of treatment are most likely to make a positive change in the juveniles lives. I chose the facility I did because they emphasize group therapy and an open environment. This was important to me because in the previously conducted research, I found that there were several different forms of detaining juveniles, including: boot camps, rehabilitation centers, and correctional facilities, but the group climate was found to be superior in terms of success rates. According to Van Der Helm, Klapwijk, Stams, and Van Der Laan (2009), using an open group climate, with group workers paying more attention to the psychological needs of the adolescents and giving them space to experiment, led to inmates feeling that they were being understood by the group workers (p. 38) With juveniles feeling closer to the employees, they will be more likely to take their advice and change their behaviors. As one former employee stated, After the juveniles adjusted to their new environment, they began to buy into the system and trusted that we were there to help them and not treat them as criminals. The second research question was about how the employees viewed their jobs and the juveniles. I wanted to gain an understanding about the ways employees thought about their service to societyto find out whether they felt it was an important aspect for society, or thought it could be done without. Also, I wanted to find out whether the employees treated the juveniles as criminals, or adolescents in need of guidance. Each respondent to my questionnaire stated that the juvenile centers are extremely positive for society because of the positive effects they have for society. Some of the different ways they felt it was helping was how they could keep

society safe from offenders, changing negative behaviors of the offenders, building positive relationships between offenders and workers, and giving them the tools needed to be positive contributors to society. Without these services, many felt that the juveniles could be thrown into adult prisons where they could learn more harmful behaviors or be left behind in society and not given a chance to improve their lives. The feelings the employees had about the juveniles were extremely caring. A middleaged female employee stated, I view the young people as individuals who need help in gaining a better understanding/view point so that one does not have to resort to crime; rather to ask for help, the world is a big place! This was a common trend throughout the responses: that the juveniles had come from challenging backgrounds and needed guidance to put them on the correct path. Also, they felt they were serving a purpose by being there to guide the juveniles, rather than to collect a paycheck. A middle-aged, former employee at this facility pointed out a key aspect to the juvenile system, stating, The youth commit similar crimes as adults, but it is much easier to have a soft spot for them because they are still children, many of which come from terrible home lives and have not been taught anything different. We do our best to make a positive impact, and do what we can to point them in the right direction, but it comes down to their motivation to change.

This quote leads into my next research question, Do the employees feel they are treating the juveniles, or punishing them for their crimes? Also, what are the recidivism rates? My results are all similar in the sense that the employees feel that they are treating the

juveniles to the best of their abilities, but are not always as successful as they wish. The most common theme throughout the responses is the fact that the juveniles have the final say in how they will behave when they leave the rehabilitation centers. The employees feel that the juveniles environments led them into their care, but when they return the same people will be there to lead them astray. As a whole, they felt they were treating the juveniles positively and giving them the tools to change their lives and be positive members of society but have seen past juveniles end up in the system in the future. They understand that not every child is willing to change, but they are setting them up with an opportunity to make the correct choice when situations arise in the future. The director of the facility stated, We have moderately low recidivism rates, having some extended jail visits. These facilities may be beneficial not only to society but also to the juveniles by giving them a chance to be a productive member of society. I used two theories to relate to my research findings. The first theory was the social learning theory, which Akers (1973) stated that individuals can learn new behaviors through observational learning in environments (p. 5). I analyzed my responses to find out the ways in which employees felt they were improving the juveniles lives. Many of the employees stated that they were teaching the juveniles positive, noncriminal behaviors and social skills to conduct themselves positively in society. This is clarified by one male social workers statement, We give them the skills and tools to use in an attempt at a better life outside the facility. The negative aspect of this happens when the juveniles returned to their original environments and revert to their original behavior led them to the juvenile institutions. By having low recidivism rates, the juveniles are taking in the new skills they learned at the facility to live a better and more productive life in society.

They are able to learn the behaviors taught in their new environment (juvenile facility) and use that in the outside world. The second theory I used, relating to my research, was the subculture theory, which Fischer (1995) states, Behavior is influenced by social and personal factors (p. 546). This relates to the first theory, but varies on the basis that juveniles would be changing their behavior based on the new role models and facilities in which they are being sent to for rehabilitation. In my research I found that the juveniles had an initial period of uncertainty while they became adjusted to their new home. According to my employee respondents after the juveniles understood the employees were there to help them and give them guidance, they became more accepting of the system. A younger male employee states, They see you as the role model they never had in life, having an opportunity for a chance to succeed. Each questionnaire response was different, but they all were similar on the fact that the juveniles were able to learn the new behaviors from group sessions and the positive environment they were in. Again, as stated with the social learning theory, the negative aspect pertains to the juveniles returning to the original social factors and environments that led them into the justice system originally. After finishing my research, I was able to find a gap in the previously conducted research. I found that most previous research was based on observations made about the facilities themselves, and not taking the workers into account at all. I feel that this is an important element of the system working as intended, and to neglect it. With my research, I was able to find out how the employees felt their duties were serving society and also how they viewed the juveniles in the system. If the employees feel positively about giving these juveniles the chance to live a successful life, they will give their full effort into making the system work positively for society.

I was able to link the previous research to my personal research by using the form of juvenile detention found most effective, and the methods that would lead to a positive environment for the juveniles. Conclusion I began my research by analyzing previously conducted research about the juvenile justice system, and looked for traits that would produce successful facilities. I examined the different forms of facilities (boot camps, group homes, rehabilitation centers, and detention centers) and found out that the rehabilitation centers were the most effective at reducing recidivism rates of juvenile offenders. After finding this out, I found a juvenile rehabilitation center in Upper Michigan and conducted a short survey/questionnaire with 6 employees; including regular staff, social workers, the director of the facility and a former employee. After conducting the questionnaire and analyzing the results, I was able to find support for both of the theories I used in my research, the subculture theory and the social learning theory. Also, my hypothesis, Juveniles that attend a juvenile rehabilitation/detention center are more likely to deter from criminal activity in the future than those that do not, was supported by my findings. There were several implications for my research though, including; a short time-period to conduct the research, that I only included one facility in my research, and that I only received six responses to my questionnaire. These implications may not reinforce my findings as much as a more thorough study, but the evidence was there for the specific location that I studied. For future research, the researcher could utilize several locations, varying in set-up form, and utilize many more employees in their study.

References Akers, R.L. 1973. Deviant BehaviorA Social Learning Theory Approach .Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing Co. Bayer, Patrick and David E. Pozen. 2005. The Effectiveness of Juvenile Correctional Facilities: Public versus Private Management. Journal of Law and Economics 48(2): 549-589. Fischer, Claude (1995). "The Subcultural Theory of Urbanism: A Twentieth Year Assessment". American Journal of Sociology 101 (3): 543577 Greenwood, Peter and Susan Turner. 2009. An Overview of Prevention and Intervention Programs for Juvenile Offenders. Victims and Offenders. 4: 365-374. Inderbitzin, Michelle. 2005. Growing Up Behind Bars: An Ethnographic Study of Adolescent Inmates in a Cottage for Violent Offenders. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation. 42(3): 1-22. Kurlycheck, Megan C. and Brian D. Johnson. 2010. Juvenility and Punishment: Sentencing Juveniles in Adult Criminal Court. Criminology. 48(3): 725-758. Loughran, Thomas A., Edward P. Mulvey, Carol A. Schubert, Jeffrey Fagan, Alex R. Piquero, and Sandra H. Losoya. 2009. Estimating a Dose-Response Relationship between Length of Stay and Future Recidivism in Serious Juvenile Offenders. Criminology. 47(3): 699740. Marsh, Shawn C. and William P. Evans. 2008. Youth Perspectives on Their Relationships with Staff in Juvenile Correction Settings and Perceived Likelihood of Success on Release. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice. 7:46-67. Sellers, Brian G. and Bruce A. Arrigo. 2009. Adolescent Transfer, Developmental Maturity, and Adjudicative Competence: An Ethical and Justice Policy Inquiry. Criminology. 99(2): 435-487. U.S. Department of Justice. N.d. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (OJJDP). Retrieved May 5, 2012. ( Van Der Greest, Victor and Catrien Bijleveld. 2008. Personal, Background, and Treatment Characteristics Associated with Offending After Residential Treatment: A 13-year Follow Up in Adolescent Males. Psychology, Crime & Law. 14(2): 159-176. Van Der Helm, Peter, Marian Klapwijk, Geert Jan Stams, and Peter van der Laan. 2009. What Works for Juvenile Prisoners: The Role of Group Climate in a Youth Prison. Journal of Childrens Services. 4(2): 36-48.

Wester, Kelly L., Colleen A. MacDonald, and Todd F. Lewis. 2008. A Glimpse into the Lives of Nine Youths in a Correctional Facility: Insight into Theories of Delinquency. Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling. 28: 101-118.

Appendix A This questionnaire is completely voluntary. If at any time you feel uncomfortable, or wish to end you can. If you are comfortable with continuing this questionnaire, please fill out the questions to the best of your knowledge and as thoroughly as possible. Also, if you have any additional information that you wish to write at the end, please do so. Last, this information is completely anonymous. You do not need to write your name on the answer sheet or any identifying information that could link you to the answers; please only write the answers on the sheet. I would like to thank you for taking the time to respond!

What are the conditions of the institution?

How effective do you feel juvenile rehabilitation/detention centers are for society? For the juveniles?

How do you view your job? Are you there to help the juveniles or for your own personal reasons; such as pay, its a job, or any other beneficial factors?

How do you view the juveniles? Do they treat them as a person in society, or as a criminal? Do you feel like you are making a positive impact on their lives and steering them in the correct direction? Do you feel the institution is treating the juveniles problems, or punishing them for their crime? Do you have high rates of recidivism (re-offending)? To your knowledge, do they juveniles stay free from crime in their future, or do they end up back in juvenile rehabilitation/detention centers or adult prisons?

Please just describe your overall feelings about your job as a juvenile rehabilitation/detention worker?

Any additional Information that would be helpful to the research of juvenile rehabilitation?