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# "The ideal voltmeter has infinite resistance as we want as little current to be drawn as possible from the circuit under

test. Meanwhile, the ideal ammeter has zero resistance, so as to drop as little voltage as possible as electrons flow through it. " 1. You want a voltmeter to measure voltage without affecting current, so with an infinite resistance, no current will flow through it. You want an ammeter to measure current without affecting voltage, so with a zero resistance, there will be no voltage drop across it. Obviously you'll never achieve either, but those are the ideal cases. 2. Think of electricity flowing through a wire as being like water flowing through a pipe. The amperage, or current, would be analogous to "gallons per minute". The voltage would be like "pounds per square inch" of pressure. So, to accurately measure current (amps), you want as much current flowing through the meter as is safe for the meter, so low resistance is desired. To accurately measure electrical pressure (voltage), you want a high resistance to flow so the meter itself does not siphon off enough flow to drop the pressure it is trying to measure. 3. There are two parameters measured frequently in electric energy: voltage and amperage. Because the apparatus used to measure them, have some distorting characteristics of their own, two problems are a) the measure of the "avidity" between two poles or points with different potential (voltage) is distorted by the measuring apparatus or voltmeter, because when the current flows along (low resistance expressed in ohms) does not retain the energy long enough as to measure the TRUE values of the difference of voltage measured.... (it would be ideal if electrons were stuck in the apparatus, however, electrons have to flow, given thus, a slightly "low" artificial reading) something that is impossible in real physics... b).-The Ammeter, measures the flux of electricity through a given conductor (wire, piece of metal, water, you name it)...however, because it has spirals of metal, as part of the mechanism inside of it, it has a natural "resistance" that distorts the reading of the true amperage, that is, the amount of flow of electrons through a given conductor, giving a slight "low reading" and the waste of some energy in the form of warmth, heath (kinetic or radiant energy) dispersed electrons that could not be read, as compared with the theoretical. Mathematical expected values. The paragraph refers, that, there is as yet, no perfect apparatus to measure neither true voltage nor amperage in a given conducting system.

ACID

FORMULA

kA

pkA

acetic acid ascorbic acid (1) ascorbic acid (2) boric acid (1) boric acid (2) boric acid (3) butanoic acid carbonic acid (1) carbonic acid (2) chromic acid (1) chromic acid (2) citric acid (1) citric acid (2) citric acid (3) formic acid heptanoic acid hexanoic acid hydrocyanic acid hydrofluoric acid lactic acid nitrous acid octanoic acid oxalic acid (1) oxalic acid (2) pentanoic acid phosphoric acid (1) phosphoric acid (2) phosphoric acid (3) propanoic acid sulfuric acid (2) sulfurous acid (1) sulfurous acid (2) uric acid

## H(C2H3O2) H2(C6H6O6) (HC6H6O6)H3BO3 (H2BO3) (HBO3)= H(C4H7O2) H2CO3 (HCO3)H2CrO4 (HCrO4)

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1.74 E-5 7.94 E-5 1.62 E-12 5.37 E-10 1.8 E-13 1.6 E-14 1.48 E-5 4.47 E-7 4.68 E-11 1.82 E-1 3.24 E-7 7.24 E-4 1.70 E-5 4.07 E-7 1.78 E-4 1.29 E-5 1.41 E-5 6.17 E-10 6.31 E-4 8.32 E-4 5.62 E-4 1.29 E-4 5.89 E-2 6.46 E-5 3.31 E-5 6.92 E-3 6.17 E-8 2.09 E-12 1.38 E-5 1.05 E-2 1.41 E-2

4.76 4.10 11.79 9.27 12.7 13.8 4.83 6.35 10.33 0.74 6.49 3.14 4.77 6.39 3.75 4.89 4.84 9.21 3.20 3.08 3.25 4.89 1.23 4.19 4.84 2.16 7.21 12.32 4.86 1.98 1.85 7.20 3.89

H3(C6H5O7) (H2C6H5O7)(HC6H5O7) H(CHO2) H(C7H13O2) H(C6H11O2) HCN HF H(C3H5O3) HNO2 H(C8H15O2) H2(C204) (HC2O4)H(C5H9O2) H3PO4 (H2PO4)(HPO4)= H(C3H5O2) (HSO4)H2SO3 (HSO3)
=

## 6.31 E-8 1.29 E-4

H(C5H3N4O3)

SYSTEM NAME methanoic acid ethanoic acid propanoic acid butanoic acid pentanoic acid hexanoic acid heptanoic acid octanoic acid nonanoic acid decanoic acid

NUMBER OF CARBONS 1 carbon 2 carbons 3 carbons 4 carbons 5 carbons 6 carbons 7 carbons 8 carbons 9 carbons 10 carbons

COMMON NAME formic acid acetic acid propionic acid butyric acid valeric acid caproic acid enanthic acid caprylic acid pelargonic acid capric acid ACIDS' lauric acid myristic acid palmitic acid stearic acid arachidic lignoceric pkB 4.13 4.75 3.32 3.30 4.22 5.90 3.37 4.20

THE FOLLOWING ARE 'FATTY dodecanoic acid 12 carbons tetradecanoic acid 14 carbons hexadecanoic acid 16 carbons octadecanoic acid 18 carbons eicosanoic acid 20 carbons tetracosanoic acid 24 carbons BASE alanine FORMULA kB

## C3H5O2NH2 7.41 E-5 1.78 E-5 4.79 E-4 5.01 E-4

ammonia (water) NH3 dimethylamine ethylamine glycine hydrazine methylamine trimethylamine (CH3)2NH C2H5NH2

C2H3O2NH2 6.03 E-5 N2H4 CH3NH2 (CH3)3N 1.26 E-6 4.27 E-4 6.31 E-5