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THE CARD Introduction: The proverbs of the experts “The Card is the heart of the Spinning Mill” and “Well Carded is half spun” demonstrate the immense significance of carding for final result of the spinning operation. - There is a strong relationship between increase in production and reduction in quality: the higher the performance, the more sensitive becomes the carding operation and the greater the danger of a negative influence on quality. - The concept of carding machine is unchanged since 1770. - Since 1965 production rate has been increased from about 5 Kg/h to about 100 Kg/h, a rate of increase not matched by any other machine except the draw frame. The tasks of the card: - Opening to individual fibers, this enables elimination of impurities and performance of other operations. - Elimination of impurities occurs mainly in the region of the taker-in. The degree of cleaning achieved by modern card is very high, in the range of 90 -95%. Thus, the overall degree of cleaning achieved by the blow-room and carding room together is as high as 95 -99%. Card sliver still contains 0.05 – 0.03% of foreign matter. - Elimination of Dust, which are bound to the fibers. Significant fiber/metal and/or fiber/fiber friction is needed in order to loosen such particles, this are available in carding operation. - Disentangling of neps, The number of neps increases from machine to machine in the blow-room, the card reduces the remaining number to a small fraction, they are mostly opened out. Improvement in disentangling of neps is obtained by closer spacing between clothing; sharper clothing; optimal speed of taker-in; low doffer speeds; lower throughput. - Elimination of short fibers, this may occur at flats. Long fibers have more contact with the clothing of the main cylinder than the short fibers. Thus longer fibers are continuously caught and carried along the main cylinder, where the short fibers stay caught in the flats clothing, press into it and leave the machine in the flat stripping. The card eliminates very small percentage of short fibers about 1%. - Fiber Blending, transverse blending occurs because the card is the only machine to process individual fibers. In formation the web, and with
3) Transport roller. Generally the hank lies between 4 and 5. forwards the material to feed arrangement. evenly compress a bat of 500 – 900 Ktex. 10) Flats.. for further processing. 2) Chute feed. mote knifes.repeated rotation of the fibers on the main cylinder. intimate fiber with fiber mixing is achieved. 8) Main cylinder 9 and 12) Fixed carding segments designed to assist the carding operation. 5) Taker-in.Fiber orientation: The card is often attributed the effect of paralyzing. . but it disappears during web formation between cylinder and doffer. 4) Feed arrangement. Flats comprise 80 to 116 individual carding bars combined into a band moving on an endless path.Sliver formation. consists of feed roller and feed plate. opens the material to small flocks. A parallel condition is achieved on main cylinder. 30 to 46 of flats are always in action. 6) Grid equipment. . . 7) Suction duct to carry away the waste. The main carding operation occurs between flats and cylinder. when the material passes to main cylinder. grid bars and carding segments eliminate a great part of impurities. Operating principle: Elements of Card: 1) Pipe ducting for supplying raw material.5 Ktex in the short staple spinning mill.
Feed roll.High volume upper trunk 2.15) Stripping deice. electrically coupled to the feed roll of the card . neps and foreign matters from flats. combine the fibers into a web.This uniformity is achieved using the chute feed system.16) Calender rollers 17) Can. which aims at feeding a fiber sheet of a uniform packing density and uniform linear density (weight per unit length) to the carding machine.Integrated air volume separator 3. 18) Coiler Feed Material: Chute feed system: The fiber mat fed to the carding machine should be of a high degree of uniformity to ensure consistent opening and carding .. strips fibers.11) Cleaning unit. Doffing master. 13) Grid or cover plate 14) The doffer. The basic components of the chute feed are: 1. draw the web from the doffer. because of its substantially lower peripheral speed relative to the cylinder.
The feeding rate is normally slow to allow exposition of small portion of the fiber mat to the action of the high speed licker in (typically.4. This weight approximately corresponds to a number of fibers in the mat cross section in the range from 2 to 6 millions of fibers depending on fiber fineness. The taker-in being clothed with saw-tooth wire removes the fiber tufts from the input fiber mat. .Opening roll with pins 6.Closed air circuit with integrated fan 7.000 fibers in the card sliver cross section. or to reduce the number of fibers down to approximately 40.Self cleaning air outlet combs. 25 cm diameter. The weight of the fiber mat may typically range from 400 to 1000 g/m (Ktex). The taker-in removes about half of all trashes held in the cotton. and seed coats fragments out at the mote knives with the assistance of air draft. The centrifugal force caused by the high rotational speed of the licker-in throws the heavy trash particles.Segmented tray to secure clamping 5. The task before the carding process is to intensively open and draft this large mass down to about 3 to 5 g/m (the sliver count). Feeding and opening zone: The journey of fibers through the carding process being with feeding a uniform fiber mat prepared by the chute feed system and supplied to the carding machine using feed roller. The draft ratio (the ratio of surface speed between the taker-in and the feed roll) is typically around 1000. 700 – 1200 rpm for cotton and 400 – 600 rpm for man-made fibers). This intense reduction is mainly achieved in the zone between the feed roll and the taker-in (or licker-in).
there are two types of feed: counter direction. which consists of three taker in cylinders of the same diameter (175 mm) In this system. and unidirectional. and gentler action on the fibers (less fiber deflection). The feeding direction of the fiber mat can also impact the opening performance. many innovative design features were introduced to insure efficient opening. the unidirectional arrangement allows better adjustment to the distance between the fiber nipping point and the combing point. These two arrangements are shown in figure . the fiber mat is guided by pressing the mat against the feed roll in 10 small. independent sections of 100 mm width using the so-called “Sensofeed” feed-plate system. The distance between the fiber nipping point and the combing point (typically 0. minimum fiber damage and minimum waste of good fibers. In general. Single taker-in system) In modern carding machines. According to Rieter.5mm) plays a vital role in determining the opening performance of the licker-in. The setting of deflector blades can be adjusted from outside to control the amount of waste and trash removal.The Feeding and Opening zone (Trutzschler DK760.4-0. 1A Special clothing of feed roll prevents lap formation 2 Spring loaded feed table 3 Spring loaded measuring lever 4 Spring elements . Conventional and unidirectional feeding systems (Rieter card C50) Another innovation of the opening zone is the so-called WEBFEED system introduced by Trutzschler.
the integral feed tray SENSOFEED comprises material feed monitoring. As an additional function. . The WEBFEED system consists of three opening and cleaning rolls in series arrangements. Metal particles of thick places in the web are detected in an immediate stop of the card. The tufts are opened in a gentle way and to a higher degree than is in case with conventional licker-ins. Via an electrical reversing motion.5 First roll of WEBFEED The deflection of all springs elements are processed to become one average signal which is used as actual value of short wave leveling system. foreign particles can be simply removed before causing damage of the card.
Another advantage of using the needle roll is its life is about 10 times as long as traditional metallic wire licker-in. the fibers must be suddenly accelerated. with finer clothing and tighter adjustments. The second and the third clothing rolls open the tufts further and form a web. Gradual opening with three rolls protects the fibers. T the critical point between feed roll and licker-in. The clothing of the second and third roll is made of special steel. . When processing cotton. the first roll is equipped with short pins. This saves delicate fibers. These pins gently pluck the tufts from the clamping point of the integral feed tray SENSOFEED.Transferring an even and fine web to the cylinder results in a higher carding efficiency at the main working points (between cylinder and flats/carding segments. They have the same life as cylinder clothing . The first WEBFEED roll runs at a clearly lower speed than he the only licker=in roll of conventional cards. The card can be run at higher cylinder speeds.
). The flats are wired clothed bars rotating at a very slow speed (typically 8 – 20 cm/min) against the high speed cylinder. and 260 to 600 rpm. which is the area between the main cylinder and the flats. a carding action is accomplished when the wire of the two surfaces are inclined in opposite directions and the direction and the rates of motion are such that one surface passes the other.5. The setting between the flats and main cylinder is determined by a number of factors some of which are mechanical-related and others are material related. In the cylinder/flat area. Thus the draft is ranging from 1. cotton tufts are subjected to carding action. (at diameter is 1290 mm.5 to 2.The carding zone: Fibers that are opened and cleaned by licker-in system are transferred to the main cylinder by stripping action. the surface speed of the main cylinder should be higher than that of the licker-in. point against point. Mechanical related factors include the bearing . Fibers are stripped by the cylinder from the licker-in are transferred to the carding zone. They are usually set very close to the main cylinder. The surface speed of the cylinder may range from 1000 m/min to 2400 m/min. In principle. A typical value of the surface speed of the licker in may range from700 m/min to 950 m/min. In order to remove fibers from the licker-in by the main cylinder.
It has a diameter of approximately 1. . • In the pre-carding and in the post-carding area of the cylinder. The carding surface of the cylinder is made up of more than 10. For the remaining 8 positions the following elements can be flexibly used. 10 special elements of the MULTI WEBCLEAN system can be mounted in the most different combinations.000 m of clothing wire with approximately 6 million single points. • The main cylinder is the central element of the card. The setting is very critical in relation to the formation of the fiber neps.3 m and a working width of one meter. fiber fineness and fiber to fiber friction. depending on the task. • By shifting the WEBFEED unit and the doffer below the cylinder.condition. the shape and dimensions of the wires. Material related factors include fiber length. The first and the last elements are fixed. This results in a clothing area more than 4 m2. more room has been made for the functions of pre-carding and post-carding.
seed coat fragments and dust particles.• The cleaning element consists of a mote knife with a hood under permanent suction. • Carding element consists of two clothing strips with one support (twin top). It is used for separating dirt particles. A number of different clothing types and point populations are available depending upon the installation and the raw material. .
This consists of a trumpet guide and a second pair of calendar rolls that delivers the carded sliver through a revolving tube into the card sliver can. the relative carding speed. The substantial reduction of the surface speed of the doffer as compared to that the cylinder results in a condensation effect. The fiber web is stripped from the doffer using a stripper roller. .The Doffing Zone and Sliver forming system: Fibers that are coming out of the carding zone form a very thin web. The calendar rolls compress the fiber strand to provide better integrity and stable flo of material. The fiber strand (the card sliver) proceeds upward over guide pulleys to enter the coiler system. The weight of the web is determined by extend of carding (flats/cylinder settings. It is then passed through a pair of squeeze or crush rolls before it is finally accumulated widthwise into a fiber stand form. The web is extracted from the main cylinder by another cylinder called a doffer (700 mm diameter and up to 96 rpm). and the type of cloth on both cylinder and the flats).
.The sliver WEBSPEED forms the web to a sliver and guides it to the measuring funnel. A NEPTCONTROL permanently counts the number of neps. In order to allow an optical assessment of the web quality or to take samples. the sliver former can be opened by pushing a button. trash particles and seed coat fragments and reports it to the machine control. The data are evaluated and displayed on the screen.
The open-loop system may generally be used for correction of shortterm variations . The main objective of an autoleveller is : 1) to measure sliver thickness variation on real-time basis. . autolevelling systems may be divided into two main types: a) Open-loop autolevellers b) Closed-loop autolevellers. The input material variation is measured using a measure ment unit. and 2) to alter the machine draft so that a high consistent sliver thickness is continuously produced. In general.Card Autolevelling System: The mass uniformity of the card sliver is an essential criterion for good subsequent processing.
The difference between signals is determine d by a control unit. In other words the changes in draft are solely based on the mass variation in the . which sends a signal to a draft control unit indicating the necessar y action to be taken. In open-loop system.The measured signal is then compared to a reference signal (nominal value). there is no check on delivered sliver.
In this case. the measure ment is made on delivered sliver. the closed loop autolevell er checks the result of its action. In the closedloop system. . is generally used for correcting long-term variation.input material. In other words.
Open and closed loop contro l syste m. .
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