Simple Can provide very fast fault clearance
<10ms for large current

J.B. Ekanayake

Limit fault energy
Arcing Time Pre Arc Time

Total Operating Time


Problematic co-ordination
Fuse A Fuse B

Definite (Independent) Time Relays



IFA approx 2 x IFB

0.9 sec

0.5 sec

Limited sensitivity to earth faults Fixed characteristic Need replacing following fault clearance

Operating time is independent of current Relay closest to fault has shortest operating time Problem -Longest operating time for the highest fault level

Instantaneous Relays B A Definite (Independent) Time Relays TIME 50 IF2 50 IF1 Current settings chosen so that relay closest to fault operates Problem Relies on the difference in fault level between the two relay locations Cannot discriminate if IF1 is closer to IF2 TOP (Relay Current Setting) IS Applied Current Inverse Definite Time Relays TIME Induction type relays Inverse Definite Minimum Time characteristic IS (Relay Current Setting) Applied Current .

Induction type relays Induction type relays Co-ordination Principle R1 R2 IF1 T IS2 IS1 Maximum I Fault Level Relay closest to fault must operate first Other relays must have adequate additional operating time to prevent them operating Consider worst case conditions. operating modes and current flows Standard IDMT Characteristics .

375s margin for EM relay.Procedure Calculate required operating current Calculate required grading margin Calculate required operating time Select characteristic Calculate required TMS Draw characteristic. oil CB •0.02 − 1 Current and TM Setting Determine the time of operation of 1A standard IDMT over-current relay having a Plug Setting (PS) of 125% (Iset) and a Time Multiplier (TM) of 0. check grading over whole curve GRADING MARGIN t’ = (2Er + Ect) t/100 + tcb + to + ts Er Ect t tcb to ts = = = = = = relay timing error CT measurement error op time of downstream relay CB interrupting time relay overshoot time safety margin .5 × TMS ≥ [ s ] I/Is− 1 VI EI 0. Operating Time (s) 100 Very Inverse (VI) 10 t= SI 1 13.1 1 10 100 Extremely Inverse (EI) t= 80 × TMS ≥ [ s ] I/Is2 − 1 Current (Multiples of Is) Grading Margin •0. The CT ratio is 400:1 and the fault current 4000A.24s margin for static relay.1000 IEC Characteristics Standard Inverse (SI) t= 0. vacuum CB Co-ordination .6.14 × TMS ≥ [ s ] I/Is0.

1 Ω 100/5 80 A 50 A A 4 MVA 11/3.6 Ω 400/5 H J 0.135 0.2 Ω 200/5 170 A K L 1.Protection of radial feeders A B C D Application of IDMT relay G 0.3 kV B 2 km cable 200 m cable 7% 240 mm2 120 mm2 C F1 F2 F3 F4 0.15 11 kV 250 MVA Directional power relay VOLTAGE Time and current grading CURRENT .95 Ω 400/5 120 A 1.225 0.96 0.75 0.46 2.946 0.635 0.

Protection of Parallel feeders A B PROTECTION OF RING MAIN FEEDER C D Drawback of over-current protection Zs Reach for L-G fault 3φ fault L-L-G fault Combine O/C and E/F protection O/C E/F Ipick-up L-G fault Reach for L-L-G fault Reach for 3φ fault L-G fault Zs1<Zs2<Zs3 Zs2 Zs1 Distance from the relay location O/C Distance from the relay location .

Earthing transformer protection I0 I0 I0 F3 I0’ I0 ’ Earthing transformer protection 2I0 I0’ I0’ 2I0’ I0’ I0 0 0 I0 I0 3I0 F5 0 3I0’ 3I0 I0’ I0’ I0’ 0 3I0 3I0’ I0’ I0’ 2I0’ .

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