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GeoSS GUIDELINES ON GOOD PRACTICES FOR PILE LOAD TEST USING KENTLEDGE METHOD IN SINGAPORE Working Group

GeoSS

GUIDELINES ON GOOD PRACTICES FOR PILE LOAD TEST USING KENTLEDGE METHOD IN SINGAPORE

GeoSS GUIDELINES ON GOOD PRACTICES FOR PILE LOAD TEST USING KENTLEDGE METHOD IN SINGAPORE Working Group
GeoSS GUIDELINES ON GOOD PRACTICES FOR PILE LOAD TEST USING KENTLEDGE METHOD IN SINGAPORE Working Group
GeoSS GUIDELINES ON GOOD PRACTICES FOR PILE LOAD TEST USING KENTLEDGE METHOD IN SINGAPORE Working Group

Working Group on Pile Load Test

GeoSS GUIDELINES ON GOOD PRACTICES FOR PILE LOAD TEST USING KENTLEDGE METHOD IN SINGAPORE Working Group
GeoSS GUIDELINES ON GOOD PRACTICES FOR PILE LOAD TEST USING KENTLEDGE METHOD IN SINGAPORE Working Group

Chairman

:

Mr Chua Tong Seng

-

GeoSS

Member

:

Dr Yet Nai Song

-

BCA

 

Mr Heng Kok Hui

-

ACES

Mr Jerry Lim Kee Chay

-

HDB

Dr Lim Ken Chai

-

IES

Dr Veeresh Chepurthy

-

LTA

Mr Lim Shiyi

-

MOM

Mr Koo Chung Chong

-

SCAL

Mr Thomas Molnit

-

Bauer (M) Singapore

Mr Jimmy Lim

-

CSC Holdings Limited

Mr Foo Hee Kang

-

Resource Piling Pte Ltd

Mr Eric Low

-

Zap Piling Pte Ltd

Revision 1: 1 s t Sept ember 2011

GeoSS 1.0 SCOPE AND OBJECTIVE OF THESE GUIDELINES The scope of these guidelines is limited to

GeoSS

  • 1.0 SCOPE AND OBJECTIVE OF THESE GUIDELINES

The scope of these guidelines is limited to the setup of pile load test using Kentledge method for Singapore practices.

In Singapore, Kentledge method of

pile

load

test

is

commonly used to

determine the geotechnical design values and response of representative pile to applied load, both in term of settlement or limit load. The size and height of

Kentledge can be massive and if not properly designed and erected, it can pose safety hazard to the workers as well as the public in vicinity. These guidelines can provide some guidance to the parties involved in the Kentledge setup to ensure that Kentledge method of pile load test is reliable, safe and acceptable.

  • 2.0 DESIGN OF THE SETUP FOR PILE LOAD TEST STARTS IN DESIGN OFFICE

Planning of pile load test setup should start from the design office. The design of the Kentledge setup should be carried out by a Professional Engineer, PE. The type and amount of Kentledge, setup and its foundation should be properly planned and detailed to ensure that the setup is stable and safe, not only during erection stage, and during pile load testing stage but also in the event of pile experiencing unexpected failure in the midst of load test.

GeoSS 1.0 SCOPE AND OBJECTIVE OF THESE GUIDELINES The scope of these guidelines is limited to
GeoSS 2.1 Type of Kentledge The type of Kentledge such as concrete blocks, steel plates or

GeoSS

  • 2.1 Type of Kentledge

The type of Kentledge such as concrete blocks, steel plates or other suitable

dead

weights chosen should suit

the

project

and takes

into account

ground

condition,

availability

of

materials,

site

constraint

and

public

safety.

Where

possible, Kentledge type of

load test should

be set-up

at

least

one

time the

least

width

of

the

Kentledge

footprint

away

from

public

access

area

or

neighbouring structures/buildings.

  • 2.1.1 Load Test Exceeding 3000 Tonnes

It is generally not recommended to use concrete blocks as the Kentledge for pile load test exceeding 3000 tonnes because of the significant height of the Kentledge. In the case of its unexpected collapse, it can potentially endanger the lives of the workers as well as the public. For large load test exceeding 3000 Tonnes, the project team can consider using steel plates, tension piles or ground anchors as the reaction load or adopting other alternative method of testing like bi-directional load test.

Large load test exceeding 3000 Tonnes using concrete blocks should only be carried out by competent Specialist Builder (Piling Works) and PE who has the relevant experience. Careful considerations should be made in all aspects like robustness in design, strict compliance of design codes, safety of neighbouring properties, safety of the workers and people carrying out the test, safety of public passing by the site, and putting in place contingency plan if tilting of Kentledge occurs during stacking or load testing.

  • 2.1.2 Weight of Kentledge

The total weight of Kentledge should be greater than maximum test load. This is to ensure the Kentledge will remain stable during the test. It is common to adopt at least 10% extra weight excluding those of test beams. The stacking of the full Kentledge should be completed before the start of the test.

Putting extra concrete blocks onto the Kentledge during the loading cycle should not be allowed. This is because the full load will be transferred to the ground in the event of pile failure. As the ground has not been fully loaded earlier, there is a possibility of bearing failure when the full load is suddenly transferred to the ground. The sudden pressure peak on the ground may also trigger unbalanced distribution of load on the ground. This may potentially lead to progressive bearing failure of the ground and eventual toppling of concrete blocks. In any event, any of the four corners of the Kentledge should not be

allowed to float

or

base of the setup.

be uplifted as this

will lead to uneven load distribution to the

GeoSS 2.1.3 Kentledge Blocks Arrangement Kentledge blocks arrangement should be designed by PE. The pattern of

GeoSS

  • 2.1.3 Kentledge Blocks Arrangement

Kentledge blocks arrangement should be designed by PE.

The pattern of

the

blocks arrangement should take into account stacking sequence and designed to enhance stability of the individual block as well as the whole of the

Kentledge setup.

  • 2.1.4 Kentledge Height to Width Aspect Ratio.

The height to width ratio of the Kentledge setup should not be more than 1.5 for stability. For area with neighbouring structures/buildings, the ratio should be reduced to not more than 1 by increasing the width of Kentledge.

  • 2.2 Design of Foundation

The foundation for the setup should be designed to support the Kentledge.

the full

weight of

GeoSS 2.1.3 Kentledge Blocks Arrangement Kentledge blocks arrangement should be designed by PE. The pattern of
  • 2.2.1 Check Geotechnical Bearing Capacity of Kentledge Base

The design check should be based on representative soil investigation results at the location of the Kentledge setup. There must be adequate site investigation to establish the possible variation of sub-soil layers below the foundation of the Kentledge. Soil parameters should be selected from appropriate test data or previous experience in similar soils. The factor of safety for allowable bearing capacity for foundation supporting the Kentledge can be computed based on conventional Terzaghi’s bearing capacity equation or other methods using sound engineering principles. This geotechnical factor of safety should generally be in the order of 2.5 to 3, with upper value to be adopted for large load test or load test near neighbouring structures/buildings.

GeoSS 2.2.2 Effect of Kentledge Setup on Neighbouring Slopes and Structures For Kentledge setup on top

GeoSS

  • 2.2.2 Effect of Kentledge Setup on Neighbouring Slopes and Structures

For Kentledge setup on top of a slope, or on top of an existing earth retaining structures, the potential reduced bearing capacity of the ground need to be analysed. The effect of the massive Kentledge bearing on ground needs to be assessed. This is to ascertain that the stability of neighbouring slopes and structural integrity of existing earth retaining structures and buildings are not affected. Excavation works next to the Kentledge should be prevented unless adequately designed. Proper drainage should be provided to avoid excessive rain water seepage into the ground supporting the Kentledge base during wet weather condition.

GeoSS 2.2.2 Effect of Kentledge Setup on Neighbouring Slopes and Structures For Kentledge setup on top
  • 2.2.3 Differential and Consolidation Settlement

of Kentledge Base

Care should to be taken to ensure that there will be no significant settlement of the Kentledge base. Adverse condition may arise where there is a varying soil profile with soft ground, close to a slope, canal or excavation. This could leads to differential settlement. As a good guide, the calculated differential settlement for Kentledge base should be within 1 in 150.

Where the ground

below the base

of

the Kentledge will likely to experience

consolidation

settlement,

the

rate

of

consolidation

settlement

should

be

examined. This is to ensure that

it

will not cause instability of the Kentledge

setup during load testing, or in the event of sudden pressure peak on the

ground resulting from a sudden pile failure. It is cautioned that a large computed total settlement under the maximum test load could be indicative of inadequate geotechnical safety factor and designer should take all necessary measures to reduce the magnitude of the total settlement.

  • 2.2.4 Ground Improvement

If the bearing capacity check indicated insufficient factor of safety or when settlement will be excessive, surface or soil improvement may be necessary.

GeoSS 2.2.5 Deep Foundation If shallow foundation is insufficient to achieve adequate factor of safety or

GeoSS

  • 2.2.5 Deep Foundation

If shallow foundation is insufficient to achieve adequate factor of safety or when settlement will be excessive, deep foundation will be required. The design of deep foundation such as steel H-piles or steel circular pipes should follow conventional piling design based on SS CP4: 2003.

  • 2.2.6 Other Systems

Other systems like reaction anchors or piles can be used. The design of such systems should comply with their respective Codes.

  • 2.3 Design of Structural Members

Design of structural members i.e. transfer beam, main beam, secondary beam, steel box, steel mat, steel piles should comply with BS5950-1:2000. Where re- used structural steel is used, the PE should consider any imperfections and conditions of such materials in his design.

  • 2.3.1 Bending Moment Capacity

The structural members should be checked for ultimate moment capacity.

  • 2.3.2 Shear Capacity

The structural members should be checked for ultimate shear capacity.

  • 2.3.3 Torsional Buckling

The structural members shall be checked for lateral torsional buckling.

  • 2.3.4 Beam Web Bearing and Web Buckling

The structural members should be checked for web bearing and web buckling

  • 2.3.5 Beam Deflection

The deflection of the beam under full load should be check to ensure it will not compromise the overall stability of the set-up.

  • 2.4 Drawing of Pile Load Test Set up

It is important that all the design consideration and output be clearly shown in the drawing to ensure compliance and easy of site supervision.

GeoSS for illustration only The spacing of beams der ived from the design calculation shou indicated

GeoSS

for illustration only
for
illustration
only

The spacing of beams der ived from the design calculation shou

indicated in the drawings.

The size

and grade of

steel should be

beams. Concrete block siz e and stacking details are important shown in drawing.

d be properly shown for all and should be

3.0 IMPLEMENTATION

DURING CONSTRUCTION STAGE

GeoSS for illustration only The spacing of beams der ived from the design calculation shou indicated
GeoSS 3.1 Site Supervision by Competent Staff The pile load test should be supervised by a

GeoSS

3.1

Site Supervision by Competent Staff

 

The pile load test should be supervised by a competent staff i.e. PE. The PE who designed the Kentledge setup and Qualified Site Supervisor, QSS should inspect the setup during erection, and load testing to detect if there is any

abnormally and instability of

the setup.

Load test

should

only be

allowed to

start

after

inspection by PE and

he

certified that there is no safety or stability

concern.

3.2

Construction to follow Design Drawing

 

On site, Kentledge base should be prepared according to design calculation. The dimension of the Kentledge base should be constructed according to the drawing. Beam sizes and steel grade area should be as specified in the drawing. Load cells and dial gauges should have valid calibration certificates.

3.3

Instrumentation and Monitoring

 

Instrumentation should be installed to monitor the stability of the Kentledge setup, from the stacking of Kentledge to load testing stage. The four bases of the Kentledge should be monitored using leveling. The base readings should be taken for the instruments and top of test pile before stacking of concrete blocks. The rate of settlement and rate of differential settlement rate should be checked at regular interval. The main steel beam should also be monitored to ensure that there is not tilting or uplifting. Where possible, data collection should be carried out remote from the kentledge base. In the event that the instrumentation readings indicate instability or trend of instability, the site staff must report to the PE so that appropriate actions could be taken immediately.

GeoSS 3.1 Site Supervision by Competent Staff The pile load test should be supervised by a
GeoSS 3.4 Safety of Workers The safety of workers is paramount. Project team to note duties

GeoSS

  • 3.4 Safety of Workers

The safety of workers is paramount. Project team to note duties and responsibilities stipulated under the Workplace Safety and Health Act and its subsidiary legislations which include WSH (Construction) Regulation 2007 and WSH (Risk Management) Regulation 2006.

Some good pile load testing practices, for instance, testing by remote control

where

workers

do

not

need

to

go

under

the

massive

Kentledge setup to

increase the test load and to take load test readings can be considered.

Risk assessments on the execution of the pile load test should address the

installation, testing, dismantling Kentledge.

and

the

zone

of

possible

collapse

of

the

Safe work procedures for installation, testing and dismantling of Kentledge should be implemented. Briefings should be carried out to all personnel involved in the works and key areas of the safe work procedures should be effectively communicated to the workers.

During the erection and dismantling of the Kentledge, workers will be exposed to Work-At-Height risks. Fall Protection Plan should be developed, implemented and effectively communicated to the workers.

Project team should also refer to SS 515:2005 on pile load test before the start of the test.

REFERENCES

BS 5950-1:2000 Structural Use of Steel Works in Building

SS CP4:2003 Code of Practice for Foundation

SS 515:2005 Code of Practice for Supervision of Structural Works

Workplace Safety and Health Act

Workplace Safety and Health (Construction) Regulation 2007

Workplace Safety and Health (Risk Management) Regulation 2006

Revision 1: 1 Sept ember 2011

Revision 1: 1 s t Sept ember 2011