Working Group on Pile Load Test
Chairman Member : : Mr Chua Tong Seng Dr Yet Nai Song Mr Heng Kok Hui GeoSS BCA ACES HDB IES LTA MOM SCAL Bauer (M) Singapore CSC Holdings Limited Resource Piling Pte Ltd Zap Piling Pte Ltd

Mr Jerry Lim Kee Chay Dr Lim Ken Chai Dr Veeresh Chepurthy Mr Lim Shiyi Mr Koo Chung Chong Mr Thomas Molnit Mr Jimmy Lim Mr Foo Hee Kang Mr Eric Low -

Revision 1: 1st Sept em ber 2011

The design of the Kentledge set up should be carr ied out by a Prof essional Engineer.0 SCOPE AND OBJECTI VE OF THESE GUI DELI NES The scope of these guidelines is lim ited to the setup of pile load test using Kent ledge method f or Singapor e pract ices. In Singapore. Kent ledge method of pile load test is commonly used to determine the geotechnical design values and response of r epresentative pile to applied load. Revision 1: 1st Sept em ber 2011 1 . setup and its f oundation should be proper ly planned and detailed to ensur e that the setup is st able and saf e. The type and amount of Kentledge. 2. PE.0 DESIGN OF THE SETUP FO R PILE LO AD TEST STARTS I N DESIGN OFFICE Planning of pile load test setup should st art f rom the design off ice.GeoSS 1. both in t erm of settlement or lim it load. saf e and acceptable. These guidelines can pr ovide some guidance to the part ies involved in the Kent ledge setup to ensure that Kent ledg e method of pile load test is reliable. not only during erection stage. it can pose saf ety hazard to t he workers as well as t he public in vicinit y. and during pile load testing stage but also in the event of pile exper iencing unexpected f ailur e in t he midst of load test. The size and height of Kent ledge can be m assive and if not properly designed and erected.

there is a possibilit y of bear ing f ailure when the f ull load is suddenly transf erred to the ground. This is because the f ull load will be transf erred to the ground in the event of pile f ailure. Caref ul considerat ions should be made in all aspects like robustness in design. This may potent ially lead to progressive bear ing f ailure of the ground and eventual toppling of concr ete blocks.1 Type of Kentledge The type of Kent ledge such as concrete blocks.1 Load Test Exceeding 3000 Tonnes It is generally not recommended to use concr ete blocks as the Kent ledge f or pile load test exceeding 3000 tonnes because of the signif icant height of the Kent ledge. it can potentially endanger the lives of the wor kers as well as the public.1. the pr oject team can consider using steel plates. saf ety of neighbour ing propert ies. 2. W here possible. 2.GeoSS 2. The stacking of the f ull Kentledge should be complet ed bef ore the start of the test. strict compliance of design codes. Putting extra concr ete blocks onto the Kent ledge during the loading cycle should not be allowed. In the case of its unexpected collapse. availabilit y of materials. saf ety of public passing by the site. and putting in place contingency plan if tilting of Kent ledge occurs during stacking or load testing. As the ground has not been f ully loaded earlier. Kent ledge type of load test should be set-up at least one t ime the least width of the Kentledge f ootprint away f rom public access area or neighbouring structures/buildings.2 Weight of Kentledge The total weight of Kentledge should be greater than maximum test load. The sudden pressure peak on the ground may also trigger unbalanced distribution of load on the ground. In any event. any of the f our corners of the Kentledge should not be allowed to f loat or be uplif ted as this will lead to uneven load distribution to the base of the setup. It is common to adopt at least 10% extra weight excluding those of test beam s. Revision 1: 1st Sept em ber 2011 2 . For large load test exceeding 3000 Tonnes.1. This is to ensure the Kent ledge will remain stable during the test. saf ety of the workers and people carr ying out t he test. Large load test exceeding 3000 Tonnes using concrete blocks should only be carried out by competent Specialist Builder (Piling W orks) and PE who has the relevant experience. site constraint and public saf ety. tension piles or ground anchors as the react ion load or adopt ing other alt ernative method of testing like bi-direct ional load test. steel plates or other suit able dead weights chosen should suit the project and takes int o account ground condition.

5 to 3.1. Revision 1: 1st Sept em ber 2011 3 . 2. 2.2. the ratio should be reduced to not more than 1 by increasing the width of Kentledge. The pattern of the blocks arrangement should t ake int o account stacking sequence and designed to enhance stabilit y of the individual block as well as the whole of the Kent ledge setup.4 Kentledge Height t o Width Aspect Rat io.GeoSS 2. The height to widt h ratio of the Kentledge setup should not be more than 1. Soil parameters should be selected f rom appropr iate test dat a or previous experience in similar soils. This geotechnical f actor of saf ety should generally be in t he or der of 2. There must be adequate site investigation to est ablish the possible var iat ion of sub-soil layers below the f oundation of the Kentledge.5 f or stabilit y.2 Design of Foundati on The f oundation f or the setup should be designed to support the f ull weight of the Kent ledge. For area with neighbour ing st ructures/buildings.1 Check Geotechnical Bearing Capacit y of Kentledge Base The design check should be based on r epresentative soil investigation results at the location of the Kent ledge setup.1. with upper value to be adopted f or large load test or load test near neighbouring structures/buildings. 2. The f actor of saf ety f or allowable bear ing capacit y f or f oundation supporting the Kentledge can be computed based on convent ional Terzaghi’s bear ing capacit y equat ion or other methods using sound engineer ing principles.3 Kentledge Bl ocks Arrangement Kent ledge blocks arrangement should be designed by PE.

As a good guide. W here the ground below the base of the Kentledge will likely to exper ience consolidat ion sett lement. or on top of an exist ing earth retaining structures.4 Ground Improvement If the bearing capacit y check indicated insuff icient f actor of saf ety or when settlement will be excessive. It is cautioned that a large computed total settlement under t he maximum test load could be indicat ive of inadequate geotechnical saf ety f actor and designer should take all necessar y measures to reduce the magnitude of the total settlement. This could leads to diff erential settlement.3 Differential and Consolidation Settlem ent of Kentledge Base Care should to be taken to ensure that there will be no signif icant settlement of the Kent ledge base. Adverse condit ion may ar ise where t here is a var ying soil prof ile with sof t ground. Excavation works next to t he Kent ledge should be prevented unless adequately designed.GeoSS 2. 2. Revision 1: 1st Sept em ber 2011 4 .2 Effect of Kentledge Setup on Neighbouring Slopes and Str uctures For Kentledge setup on top of a slope.2. surf ace or soil improvement may be necessar y. the calculated diff erential settlement f or Kentledge base should be wit hin 1 in 150. the potential reduced bearing capacit y of the ground need to be analysed. or in the event of sudden pressure peak on the ground resulting f rom a sudden pile f ailure. 2. close to a slope. Proper drainage should be provided t o avoid excessive rain water seepage into the ground supporting the Kent ledge base dur ing wet weather condit ion. The eff ect of the massive Kentledge bearing on ground needs to be assessed. the rat e of consolidation settlement should be examined. This is t o ascertain that the stabilit y of neighbouring slopes and structural integrit y of existing earth retaining structures and buildings are not aff ected.2.2. This is t o ensure that it will not cause inst abilit y of the Kent ledge setup dur ing load t esting. canal or excavation.

e. deep f oundation will be requir ed.6 Other Systems Other systems like r eaction anchors or piles can be used.2 Shear Capacit y The structural members should be checked f or ultimate shear capacit y. steel piles should comply with BS5950-1:2000. The design of such systems should comply with their respect ive Codes. steel box. transf er beam.3 Torsional Buckling The structural members shall be checked f or lateral torsional buckling.3.4 Draw ing of Pile Load Test Set up It is important that all the design consider ation and output be clearly shown in the drawing to ensur e compliance and easy of site super vision. the PE should consider any imperf ections and conditions of such materials in his design. W here reused structural steel is used. 2. 2.2. Revision 1: 1st Sept em ber 2011 5 . main beam. 2. steel mat. The design of deep f oundation such as steel H-piles or steel circular pipes should f ollow conventional piling design based on SS CP4: 2003. 2. 2.3.1 Bending Moment Capacit y The structural members should be checked f or ultimate moment capacit y. secondar y beam.3. 2.GeoSS 2.3.3 Design of Struct ural Members Design of structural members i.4 Beam Web Bearing and Web Buckling The structural members should be checked f or web bear ing and web buckling 2.3.2. 2.5 Deep Foundation If shallow f oundation is insuf f icient to achieve adequate f actor of saf ety or when settlement will be excessive.5 Beam Deflection The def lection of the beam under f ull load should be check to ensure it will not compromise the over all stabilit y of the set-up.

GeoSS f or illustration only The spacing of beams derived f rom the design calculation sh ould be proper ly should indicated in the drawings. The size and g . Concrete block size and stacking details are impor tant and should be shown in drawing. grade of steel should be shown f or all beams.0 IMPLEMENTATION DURING CONSTRUCTION STAG E Revision 1: 1st Sept em ber 2011 6 . 3.

e. 3. Load cells and dial gauges should have valid calibr ation certif icates. The base readings should be taken f or the instruments and top of test pile bef ore stacking of concrete blocks.GeoSS 3. The rate of settlement and rate of diff erential settlement rate should be checked at regular interval. f rom the stacking of Kentledge to load test ing stage. Revision 1: 1st Sept em ber 2011 7 . 3. The main st eel beam should also be monitored to ensure that there is not tilting or uplif ting. QSS should inspect the setup during erect ion. and load testing to detect if there is any abnormally and inst abilit y of the setup. Beam sizes and steel grade area should be as specif ied in the drawing. The PE who designed the Kentledge setup and Qualif ied Site Super visor.1 Site Super vision by Competent Staff The pile load test should be super vised by a competent staff i. In t he event that the instrumentation readings indicate instabilit y or trend of instabilit y. the sit e staff must report to the PE so that appropr iat e actions could be taken immediately. PE. The dimension of the Kent ledge base should be constructed according to the drawing.3 Instrumentation and Monitoring Instrumentation should be installed to monitor the stabilit y of the Kentledge setup. The f our bases of the Kent ledge should be monitored using leveling. Load test should only be allowed to start af ter inspect ion by PE and he cert if ied that there is no saf ety or stabilit y concern.2 Construction to foll ow Design Draw ing On site. data collect ion should be carr ied out remote f rom the kentledge base. W here possible. Kentledge base should be prepared according to design calculat ion.

Project team should also ref er to SS 515:2005 on pile load t est bef ore the start of the test. Br ief ings should be carried out to all personnel involved in the wor ks and key areas of the saf e work procedures should be eff ectively communicated to the workers. Some good pile load testing practices.4 Safet y of Workers The saf ety of wor kers is paramount. f or instance. During the erection and dismant ling of the Kentledge. testing by remote control where workers do not need to go under the massive Kentledge setup to increase the test load and to take load test readings can be considered. dismant ling and t he zone of possible collapse of the Kent ledge. REFERENCES BS 5950-1:2000 Structural Use of Steel W orks in Building SS CP4:2003 Code of Practice f or Foundation SS 515:2005 Code of Practice f or Supervision of Structural W orks W orkplace Saf ety and Health Act W orkplace Saf ety and Health (Construct ion) Regulation 2007 W orkplace Saf ety and Health (Risk Management) Regulation 2006 Revision 1: 1st Sept em ber 2011 8 . Project team to note dut ies and responsibilities stipulated under the W orkplace Saf ety and Health Act and its subsidiar y legislations which include W SH (Construct ion) Regulation 2007 and W SH (Risk Management) Regulation 2006. test ing. testing and dismant ling of Kentledge should be implemented. workers will be exposed to W ork-At-Height risks. Saf e work procedures f or installation. Risk assessments on the execution of the pile load test should address the installat ion. implemented and ef f ectively com municated to the wor kers.GeoSS 3. Fall Protect ion Plan should be developed.

Revision 1: 1st Sept em ber 2011 .