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elasticity 8.2 Dynamic elasticity 8.3 Hypoelasticity 8.4 Hyperelasticity 8.5 Viscoplasticity 8.6 Advanced elements 9. Modeling Material Failure > 9.1 Mechanisms of failure 9.2 Stress/strain based criteria 9.3 Elastic fracture mechanics 9.4 Energy methods in fracture 9.5 Plastic fracture mechanics 9.6 Interface fracture mechanics 10. Rods, Beams, Plates & Shells > 10.1 Dyadic notation 10.2 Deformable rods general 10.3 String / beam theory 10.4 Solutions for rods 10.5 Shells - general 10.6 Plates and membranes 10.7 Solutions for shells A: Vectors & Matrices B: Intro to tensors C: Index Notation D: Using polar coordinates E: Misc derivations FEA codes Maple Matlab Report an error
Chapter 6 Analytical techniques and solutions for plastic solids
Plasticity problems are much more difficult to solve than linear elastic problems. In general, a numerical method must be used, as discussed in Chapters 7 and 8. Nevertheless, there are several powerful mathematical techniques that can be used to find both exact and approximate solutions. In this chapter we outline two particularly effective methods: slip-line field theory, which gives exact solutions for plane strain boundary value problems for rigid plastic solids; and bounding theorems, which provide a quick way to estimate collapse loads for plastic solids and structures.
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. the stress components in the basis can be calculated as The Mohr’s circle construction (shown in the picture to the right) is a convenient way to remember these results. the slip-lines are always parallel to axes of principal shear stress in the solid.1 Interpreting a slip-line field An example of a slip-line field solution is shown in the picture on the right. Bower) Chapter 6: Plasticity.1 Slip-line field theory The largest class of solutions to boundary value problems in plasticity exploits a technique known as slip line field theory. Nevertheless. because it is not easy to find the slip-line field that solves a particular problem.Applied Mechanics of Solids (A. http://solidmechanics.org/text/Chapter6_1/Chapter6_1. Since the shear stress is equal to the shear yield stress. The theory simplifies the governing equations for plastic solids by making several restrictive assumptions: 1. one set of lines are named slip-lines (shown in red). the material is sometimes characterized by its yield stress in shear .e. the technique can be used to solve any arbitrary 2D boundary value problem for a rigid plastic solid. Plane strain deformation i. No temperature changes 4. Otherwise. displacement components in the basis shown satisfy and are functions of and only 2. a wide range of important solutions have been found. The solid is idealized as a rigid-perfectly plastic Mises solid. The material properties are characterized by the yield stress in uniaxial tension Y. Stress state at a point in the slip-line field By definition. and to outline the basis for slip-line field theory. (This is Hill’s solution to a rigid punch indenting a rigid-plastic half-space). the material evidently deforms by shearing parallel to the slip-lines: this is the reason for their name. Alternatively. The uniaxial stress-strain curve for this material is illustrated in the figure. Quasi-static loading 3. The velocity distribution and stress state in the solid can always be determined from the geometry of these lines.htm 6. This stress state is sketched in the figure. The main intent of this section is to illustrate how to interpret these solutions. the other are called lines (blue).F. k is the yield stress of the material in shear. By convention. This means that the stress components in a basis oriented with the . directions have the form where is the hydrostatic stress (determined using the equations given below). It is quite difficult to apply in practice. The slip lines consist of a curvilinear mesh of two families of lines. which always cross each other at right angles. If denotes the angle between the slip-line and the direction. Relations governing hydrostatic stress along slip-lines (Hencky equations) 17 of 25 05/07/2012 09:57 AM . No body forces 5. 6.1.. and Y is its yield stress in uniaxial tension.
The stress state can be transformed from a basis aligned with the slip-lines to the fixed basis using the Mohr’s circle construction shown in the figure.htm The hydrostatic stress can be shown to satisfy the following relations along slip-lines If the hydrostatic stress can be determined at any one point on a slip-line (for example at a boundary). we see that at b. it can be deduced everywhere else.F.org/text/Chapter6_1/Chapter6_1. The boundary conditions at a require that .. Bower) Chapter 6: Plasticity. . Here. Next. How to distinguish the and families of slip lines 18 of 25 05/07/2012 09:57 AM . at this point. Recall that . Consider first the state of stress at point a.Applied Mechanics of Solids (A. as the slip lines in this region are straight. We illustrate the procedure using Hill’s indentation solution. since the slip-lines intersect the boundary at this gives the stress parallel to the surface as . The velocity field (Geiringer equations) The velocity field can be expressed as components in a fixed basis. We can use the Hencky equation to determine so following one of the slip lines we get Using the basis-change equation we then get The pressure under the punch turns out to be uniform (the stress is constant in the triangular region of the slip-line field below the punch) and so the total force (per unit out of plane length) on the punch can be computed as where w is the width of the punch. http://solidmechanics. Note that if there is a region in the field where both slip lines are straight. We can satisfy the second condition by setting . Application to the Hill slip-line field The stress state throughout a slip-line field can be deduced by working step-by-step along the slip lines. The first condition is clearly satisfied. consider the stress state at b. Recall (or use the Mohr’s circle to see) that where is the hydrostatic component of stress. Finally The stress must be constant in the triangular region ABC. the stress is constant.. or as components parallel and perpendicular to the slip lines. Clearly.
which is constrained to deform in plane strain. and pulled upwards. The figure on the right shows the solution with and lines switched over. . The solid is assumed to be a long cylinder with its axis parallel to the direction. In practice we will compute the velocity field rather than the displacement field. so that to a prescribed where the Greek subscripts can have values of 1 or 2. Let denote the components of displacement. You can see this clearly using the Hill solution.. At point a. To find the stress under the contact. and the remainder traction. http://solidmechanics.2 Derivation of the slip-line field method.org/text/Chapter6_1/Chapter6_1. with a von-Mises yield surface characterized by yield stress in uniaxial tension or its yield stress in shear . In fact. we can trace a Here. we see that . It is loaded by subjecting part of its boundary to a prescribed velocity. with and independent of .Applied Mechanics of Solids (A. Summary of governing equations 1. 6. so the Hencky equation slip line to point b. Bower) Chapter 6: Plasticity. the slip-lines are interchangeable switching and will simply change the sign of all the stresses.F.1. strain and stress in the solid. Consider a rigid-perfectly plastic solid. 2. slip-line fields are presented without specifying which set of slip-lines should be taken as the and which should be the set it is up to you to work out which is which. and therefore to satisfy we must now choose . Strain-rate velocity relation The plastic flow rule Plane strain deformation then requires whereupon the flow rule shows that the remaining components of plastic strain rate satisfy We observe that these conditions imply that 19 of 25 05/07/2012 09:57 AM . The normal stress acts upwards on the surface so that this represents the stress induced by a rigid punch that is bonded to the surface.htm Usually.. Using the basis-change equation we then get at point b.
The stress state is sketched on the right. It is convenient to start by eliminating some of the stress components using the yield condition. Instead of solving for the stress components hydrostatic stress and the angle direction. Bower) Chapter 6: Plasticity.. http://solidmechanics. Yield criterion where 4. is the shear yield stress of the material.htm 3. we will calculate the between the direction and the to . and we have used the condition that Equilibrium conditions Solution of governing equations by method of characteristics From the preceding section. we observe that we must calculate a velocity field satisfying governing equations and stress field together with appropriate boundary conditions. we see that . we note that at each point in the solid we could find a basis in which the stress state consists of a shear stress of magnitude k (the shear yield stress). We focus first on a general solution to the governing equations. and k using Mohr’s circle We now re-write the governing equations in terms of . The remaining four equations are most conveniently expressed in matrix form where A and B are 4-dimensional symmetric matrices and q is a 1x4 vector.. and k. The first step is to find eigenvalues and eigenvectors that satisfy 20 of 25 05/07/2012 09:57 AM . defined as This is a quasi-linear hyperbolic system of PDEs. The yield criterion is satisfied automatically.F.Applied Mechanics of Solids (A. together with an unknown component of hydrostatic stress . which may be solved by the method of characteristics. Since the material is at yield.org/text/Chapter6_1/Chapter6_1. Recall that we can relate of stress: from the picture.
Applied Mechanics of Solids (A. recall the definition of ). Relations along slip-lines To complete the theory. Field equations reduce to simple ODEs that govern variations of hydrostatic pressure and velocity along each slip line. To do so we return to the governing equation along 21 of 25 05/07/2012 09:57 AM .org/text/Chapter6_1/Chapter6_1. the central issue will be to identify a set of characteristic lines that will satisfy the boundary conditions. There are two sets of characteristic lines (one for each eigenvalue) b.F.htm A straightforward exercise (set to find the eigenvalues. http://solidmechanics. Conventionally the characteristics satisfying are designated slip lines. with corresponding eigenvectors We can now eliminate A from the governing matrix equation Finally.. For this reason. the characteristics are termed slip lines the material slips (deforms in shear) along these lines. When solving a particular boundary value problem. and substitute back to get eigenvectors. The two sets of characteristics are orthogonal (they therefore define a set of orthogonal curvilinear coordinates in the solid) c. This shows that a.. or if you’re lazy use a symbolic manipulation program…) shows that there are two repeated eigenvalues. Bower) Chapter 6: Plasticity. while the orthogonal set are designated slip lines A representative set of characteristic lines is sketched on the right. The characteristic lines are trajectories of maximum shear (to see this. if we set and note that we find that along characteristic lines in the solid that satisfy The special characteristic lines in the solid can be identified more easily if we note that which shows that the slope of the characteristic lines satisfies for the two possible values of the eigenvalue . we need to find equations relating the field variables the slip-lines.
It is convenient to express the velocity vector as components in a basis oriented with the slip-lines The necessary basis-change is A straightforward algebraic exercise then yields These are known as the Geiringer equations. For the four separate eigenvectors.F. 6.org/text/Chapter6_1/Chapter6_1. The Mohr’s circle construction for this purpose is shown on the right.3 Examples of slip-line field solutions to boundary value problems When using slip-line field theory.. If the slip-line field is known. At point a.htm and substitute for B and r. and can be exceedingly difficult. Bower) Chapter 6: Plasticity. we usually hope that some smart person has already been able to find the slip-line field. Friction between the die and workpiece is neglected. Note that (i) The resultant force on EF is (ii) The resultant force on CB is zero (you can see this by noting that no external forces act on the material to the left of CB) (iii) The stress state at a point b on the line CD can be calculated by tracing a slip-line from a to b. Plane Strain Extrusion (Hill) A slip-line field solution to plane strain extrusion through a tapered die is shown in the picture on the right.Applied Mechanics of Solids (A. It is of particular interest to calculate the force P required to extrude the bar. the slip-lines intersect CB at 45 degrees. These days. The easiest way to do this is to consider the forces acting on the region ABCDEF. http://solidmechanics. In this section we give several examples of slip-line field solutions to boundary value problems. we find that reduce to Computing and simplifying the trig formulas then yields Hencky Equation: Conditions relating and along slip lines are often expressed as These are known as the Hencky equations Geiringer equations: One can also obtain simpler expressions relating velocity components along slip-lines. the first step is always to find the characteristics (known as the slip line field). This is usually done by trial and error. the stress and velocity everywhere in the solid can be determined using the Hencky and Geiringer equations.. so 22 of 25 05/07/2012 09:57 AM . and if we can’t find the solution in some ancient book we give up and clobber the problem with an FEM package.1.
Integrating this result from to gives . while the component of traction tangent to CD is zero.. 1. the slip-lines are logarithmic spirals. Consider the slip-line starting at A and ending at B. we see that . to satisfy Note that the shear stress component throughout the cylinder. At B. With designated as shown. Consider a small segment ds of the slip-line. The force required to deform the solid is therefore . and the load P are of particular interest. This means that the slip-line must cross every radial line at 45 degrees (or.i. for example. 5. In addition. At A the slip-lines meet the free surface at 45 degrees. http://solidmechanics. this gives or Note that and apply the Hencky equation from B to A to see that Finally.org/text/Chapter6_1/Chapter6_1. ). the surface is traction free. (and so is constant along the line connecting the two notches). 8. The state of stress at b follows as The state of stress is clearly constant in the region ABCD. (iv) CD has length H. which starts at point A (with cylindrical-polar coordinates ). the slip lines intersect CD at 45 degrees.Applied Mechanics of Solids (A. and ends at B (with cylindrical-polar coordinates . we also know that on CB (because the solid to the left of CB has no forces acting on it). The stress state in the neck. which requires . so that the stress state at a is . . Following the slip-line to b. Consider the slip-line. 23 of 25 05/07/2012 09:57 AM . Finally.. Both can be found by tracing a slip-line from either boundary into the constant stress region at the center of the solid. the same procedure gives 4. Tracing a slip-line from a to b. 2.e.htm that . the basis change equation shows that At a generic point . 3. The goal is to determine the stress state everywhere in the cylinder. the slip-line must meet the surface at 45 degrees ( the hydrostatic stress . Since the slip-line is at 45 degrees to the radial direction. the resultant force acting on AB is (vi) Equilibrium then gives Double-notched plate in tension A slip-line field solution for a double-notched plate under tensile loading is shown in the picture. so CD is subjected to a pressure acting normal to CD. so the Hencky equation gives . To satisfy . it must cross every circumferential line at 45 degrees). 6. so the resultant force acting on CD is (v) By symmetry.F. Pressurized cylindrical cavity The slip-line field solution to an internally pressurized rigid-plastic cylinder is shown on the right. and . 7. At point B. and to calculate the internal pressure necessary to drive the deformation. we see that . Bower) Chapter 6: Plasticity. if you prefer. These conditions can be satisfied by choosing .
The lines OE and OF are adjacent to slip lines. the radius R of the arc BC. When the value of gets too large. note that 1. A slip-line field is valid only if the rigid regions in the field do not exceed yield. The solution is valid for (radian).Applied Mechanics of Solids (A. centered at O. A solution for a sharp notch is shown in the figure to the right. http://solidmechanics.. This gives at D. Using the Hencky equation along the slip-line AB. so the slip-lines must meet the surface at 45 degrees ( ) and we must choose . and so for the rigid region to remain below yield . and so are subjected to a combined shear stress k and normal stresses as shown. from the basis 4. as shown in the picture. At point A. In the modified field.2.F. .htm This result can be compared with the axisymmetric elastic-plastic solution in Section 4. At point A. 2. To this end. Notched Bar in Bending The figure on the right shows a slip-line field solution for a notched bar subjected to a pure bending moment. You can calculate the stress at some point B between P and O by following the slip-line AB. If this cannot be done. since slip-lines are straight. but in fact this is not the case. the region PBNFG is rigid. and it turns out that the region that was assumed rigid in this solution is over-stressed (the maximum principal shear stress exceeds k) if the notch is too sharp. 3. To see this. we need first to calculate the angles and . shearing along a pair slip lines formed by the circular arcs AB and GF. taking moments for the region of the bar to the right of NOP about O shows that Substituting for d and simplifying shows that Overstressing: At first sight. we see that . the length b of the constant stress regions adjacent to the notch. The height d of point O can be found from the condition that the axial force applied to the bar must vanish. Applying the Hencky relation along a generic slip-line shows that. The slip-line field for a notched bar has a peculiar state of stress at point O there is a stress discontinuity (and singularity) at the corner. at collapse . The stress acting on the line NO is constant. note that 1. The left hand part of the bar rotates about point O. so the slip-line must meet the surface at 45 degrees ( ).org/text/Chapter6_1/Chapter6_1. Similarly. Finally. To calculate the moment. You can determine the stress at a point D between O and N by following the slip-line CD. The slip-line field can be used to determine the moment M required to deform the bar as a function of the notch angle . this solution is valid for any notch angle . 24 of 25 05/07/2012 09:57 AM . This means that it must be possible to find a static equilibrium distribution of stress which does not violate the yield criterion anywhere in the rigid part of the solid. the solid is said to be over-stressed. the rigid region OEFO collapses plastically a possible slip-line field at collapse is shown in the figure. The stress must satisfy at C. consider the rigid region of the solid just to the left of O. Integrating along the line NOP and setting the result to zero shows that 5. Substituting the values of from parts (2) and (3) then gives . At B. Bower) Chapter 6: Plasticity. and the height d of point O above the base of the beam. The slip-lines must intersect the surface at 45 degrees. the surface is free of traction. Finally . since slip-lines are straight. and the hydrostatic stress must satisfy we find that change formulas. which shows that and that . The slip-line field consists of a 90 degree fan. the surface of the wedge is traction free. To do so.. the stress acting on the line OP is constant.
the surface is traction free.. elementary geometry shows that 7. . You may extract parts of the text for non-commercial purposes provided that the source is cited. 6. so that . (8) and (9) can be solved for d. 25 of 25 05/07/2012 09:57 AM .htm 2. Bower) Chapter 6: Plasticity. 4. Hence. . In addition. 2008 This site is made freely available for educational purposes. The hydrostatic stresses at B and C must be related by the Hencky slip-line. gives 8. A to B and noting 3. Finally. The resultant force acting on the surface to the right of PBCD can be calculated as where is the hydrostatic stress along the slip-line BC. This gives and .F. taking moments about O gives This result is valid only if . so the slip-lines must meet the surface at 45 degrees. solving (5) and (6) gives equation for a which . http://solidmechanics. 5.org/text/Chapter6_1/Chapter6_1. At point D at the base of the beam. Geometry gives .. Thus. which requires avoid overstressing the rigid corner at P.Applied Mechanics of Solids (A. Tracing the slip-line gives from . Finally. . the notch angle must satisfy to (c) A. The results of (7). Bower.F. Please respect the authors copyright. We obtain two more equations relating the unknown variables from the condition that the resultant force acting on any surface that extends from the top of the beam to the bottom must vanish. . R and b 10. 9. The stress is uniform in the region CDEF.
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