JANUARY The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, UPA’s flagship aam admi scheme, turned

five on February 2, 2011. On January 14, the Ministry of Rural Development issued a notification revising the wage rates under the MNREGA from Rs 100 per day to between Rs 117 and Rs 181 (17-30 % hike) in different States. The revision under Section 6(1) of the 2005 Act, coming in wake of inflationary pressures on the poor, adjusts the wages by indexing it to the Consumer Price Index of Agricultural Laborers (CPIAL). The Justice B.N. Srikrishna Committee report was made public on January 6, 2011. It strongly advocated maintaining united Andhra Pradesh along with creation of statutory Telangana Regional Council to address the core socio-economic concerns of the backward region. On bifurcation, which has been the single point agenda of Telangana protagonists, the Committee said it was the “second best option” but could be recommended “only in case it is unavoidable and if this decision can be reached amicably among all three regions.” History met geography when Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono took the salute as the Chief Guest at India’s 62nd Republic Day parade on January 26, 2011. President Soekarno, whose close friends Jawaharlal Nehru and Biju Patnaik helped defy the Dutch colonial embargoes of the late 1940s that enabled Indonesia gain independence, was the Chief Guest at the founding of the Indian republic, in 1950. India and Indonesia signed nearly 30 agreements, including an extradition treaty and a mutual legal assistance treaty, and pledged to achieve a bilateral trade target of $ 25 billion by 2015, from about $ 11 billion in 2009-10. In January 2011, the US removed nine Indian space and defence related companies, including those from ISRO and DRDO, from its export control ‘Entity List’ in an attempt to expand high technology trade and strategic cooperation with India. The US decision meets a long pending Indian demand and is the first step to implement the export control policy initiative announced by US President Barack Obama and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on November 8, 2010, after their summit talks in New Delhi. The nine entities are Bharat Dynamics Ltd (BDL), four remaining subsidiaries of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) in the US sanction list and another four of the Indian Space Research Organisation

(ISRO). The one-man committee headed by retired Supreme Court judge Justice Shivraj V. Patil, who was appointed by the Telecom Ministry to look into the lapses in the allocation of the 2G Spectrum, submitted its report on January 31, 2011. After former Telecom Minister A. Raja resigned, the panel was set up on December 13 2010 to look into the Spectrum allocation procedures and policies from 2001 to 2009. The period also included the issuing of telecom licences during the NDA regime. The panel nailed A. Raja for procedural lapses. The report also named seven other officials in the Department of Telecom (DoT), including former DoT Secretary Siddharth Behura and R.K. Chandolia, a former lieutenant of Raja. On January 1, 2011, Dilma Rousseff became the Brazil's first female President. The former Marxist guerrilla, has evolved over the years into a pragmatic civil servant with a professed obsession for reducing poverty. On January 31, 2011, Marouf Bakhit was appointed as the Prime Minister of Jordan by King Abdullah. The move came following protests inspired by mass demonstrations in Tunisia and Egypt, but the opposition dismissed the move as insufficient. On January 15, 2011, the UN ended its peace mission in Nepal as the government and the main Opposition Maoists inked a crucial eleventh-hour deal to monitor fragile peace process. The UN mission was tasked to supervise the arms and the army of the former rebels and the military. The assassination of former Governor of Punjab province of Pakistan, Salmaan Taseer, on January 4, 2011, once again drew attention to Pakistan's controversial blasphemy laws, which have been at the center of debate of late. Religious parties have been able to force Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani to step back from the government's earlier stance of changing these laws. South Sudan overwhelmingly voted to split from the north in a referendum intended to end decades of civil war, as per the result declared on January 30, 2011. President Hu Jintao of China visited USA in second week of January 2011 to

narrow rifts between the world’s top two economies. This was the first visit of a Chinese President to USA in 13 years. Per capita income of Indians grew by 14.5 per cent to Rs 46,492 in 2009-10, from Rs 40,605 in 2008-09. The new per capita income figure estimates on current market prices is over Rs 2,000 more than the previous estimate of Rs 44,345 calculated by the Central Statistical Organisation. Per capita income means earnings of each Indian if the national income is evenly divided among the country's population at 117 crore (1.17 billion). Per capita income (at 200405 prices) stood at Rs 33,731 in FY10 against Rs 31,801 in the previous year. The size of the economy at current prices rose to Rs 61,33,230 crore (Rs 61,332.30 billion) in 2009-10, up 16.1 per cent over Rs 52,82,086 crore (Rs 52,820.86 billion) in FY'09. Based on 2004-05 prices, the Indian economy expanded by 8 per cent during the fiscal ended March 2010. This is higher than 6.8 per cent growth in fiscal 2008-09. The 98th Indian Science Congress was held at SRM University near Chennai. While 2010 was observed as the International Year of Biodiversity, from 2011 started the Decade of Biodiversity. During the decade, a UN body, much like the IPCC for Climate Change, pushed for action on biodiversity front. The Qingdao Haiwan Bridge in China is the world’s longest sea bridge. It is 42.48 km long, 8.04 km further than the distance between Dover and Calais, as also longer than a marathon. The bridge links the main urban area of Qingdao city in east China’s Shandong province with Huangdao district. January 14, 2011 marked the 250th anniversary of the third battle of Panipat. The defeat of the Marathas by the army of Ahmad Shah Abdali prepared the ground for the gradual take-over of India by the East India company. Army Day is observed in India on January 15. On January 17, 2011, Indian Navy commissioned a squadron of Unmanned

Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), named INAS 343, at Porbander, Gujarat, to enhance coastal surveillance capabilities. The UAVs have been nick-named “Frontier Formidables”. RBI has decided to circulate Rs 5 coins to commemorate the 125th birth anniversary of Dr Rajendra Prasad, India’s first President. Anti-Leprosy Day is observed in India on January 30. FEBRUARY The Economic Survey 2011 placed Bihar on top in terms of performance on growth, with the State posting a whopping 16.59 per cent growth in 20082009, the latest year for which the data is available. But Gujarat pips Bihar (which is followed by Orissa, Haryana and Uttrakhand) to the lead spot when the growth performance is measured from 2002-2003 onwards to 2009. The Economic Survey 2011 revealed that though Rajasthan, followed by Andhra Pradesh, UP, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Bihar, provided maximum employment under MNREGA in 20092010, it was Punjab which employed the maximum Scheduled Castes under the programme (Punjab also reports the lowest number of people below poverty line in India) while Madhya Pradesh employed the maximum STs, followed by Jharkhand, Gujarat and Chhattisgarh. On February 16, 2011, India and Japan signed a comprehensive economic partnership agreement (CEPA) to open markets and reduce barriers on goods, services and movement of people between the two countries. On February 18, 2011, India and Malaysia signed a comprehensive market opening pact that throws up myriad trade opportunities for both sides and give a boost to India's Look-East Policy and the prospects for its economic integration with South-East Asia. After three decades of armed conflict that cost thousands of lives in Assam, the outlawed United Liberation Front of Assam( ULFA) finally decided to sit for “unconditional” talks with the Government of India. On February 5, 2011, leaders of the outfit informed that ULFA had been invited by Union Home Minister P. Chidambaram for a preliminary round of talks in New Delhi, as a prelude to formal negotiations that would materialize once ULFA

were acquitted by a special court in the 2002 Godhra train burning incident that left 59 persons dead and triggered violence in Gujarat that claimed the lives of over 1200 people.V. Nepal's Parliament. On February 11. for which he was awarded the Nobel prize. US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton launched a landmark nuclear arms reduction pact with Russia. Hosni Mubarak stepped down as Egypt's President. including the main accused Maulvi Umarji. elected veteran communist leader and chairman of the Communist Party of NepalUnified Marxist Leninist (CPN-UML) Jhalanath Khanal as the new Prime Minister of the Federal Republic of Nepal. a new. The new START officially came into force when Clinton and Russian counterpart Sergei Lavrov exchanged ratification documents at a security conference in the German city of Munich. A military council would run the affairs of the Arab world's most populous nation. On February 22. has been introduced. Ending a seven-month-long standoff over the Prime Ministerial election. simplified income tax return form. Raman in 1928. 2011. The pact slashes existing warhead ceilings by 30 per cent over the next 10 years and limits each side to 700 deployed long-range missiles and heavy bombers. India’s first inland fish processing unit has been set up in the village of Bhutana in Karnal district of Haryana. To reduce the burden of small tax-payers. 2011.submitted its charter of demands. a showpiece of Washington’s “reset” of ties with its former Cold War enemy. The National Science Day is observed on February 28 to mark the discovery of Raman Effect by Sir C. on February 3. 2011. handing over to the army and ending three decades of autocratic rule. thirty one persons were convicted and 63 others. On February 5. bowing to escalating pressure from the military and protesters demanding that he go. The original 1991 pact expired at the end of 2009 amid stark differences over how the two sides planned to proceed. . 2011. Sugam. till a free and fair presidential election is held.

Mahatma Gandhi and the Tibetan spiritual leader the Dalai Lama have been listed by the Time magazine as the world’s top 25 political icons. Additional Rs 17. The NASSCOM India Leadership Forum (NILF) was held in Mumbai in February 2011. The Union Budget 2011 has earmarked Rs 52.5 trillion and that of China $5. Ehasan and Loy India received foreign direct investment (FDI) worth $21 billion 9Rs 96. The Hyderabad international airport has bagged the first rank in its category in the latest Airport Service Quality (ASQ) rankings of the Airports Council International (ACI). Japanese economy was estimated to be worth about $5. At the end of 2010. India has agreed to temporarily lend fragments of Buddha’s bones.8 trillion.The Union Budget 2011 has increased the Defence budget by 11 per cent. MARCH The Supreme Court of India rejected the petition for mercy killing of Aruna .200 crore on higher education. 2011 was “De Ghuma Ke”.104 crore) in the calendar year 2010.071 crore have been allotted over 2010 Budget figure of Rs 1.344 crore. to Sri Lanka for an exposition to celebrate his 2600th year of enlightenment in 2011. 2011.199 crore has been earmarked for capital expenses like weapons. China has emerged as the world’s largest economy. surpassing Japan. The theme song of Cricket World Cup. a decline of 22 per cent over 2009. special classified projects etc.000 crore for education. The SAARC Foreign Ministers’ meet was held in Thimpu. ships. which had held on to the position for over four decades.000 crore will be spent on Sarv Shiksha Abhiyan. About Rs 69. It was composed by the trio of Shankar. famously known as Kapilavastu relics.213 crore on secondary education and Rs 2. Bhutan on February 8. Rs 6.6 trillion. out of which Rs 21.47. planes. USA continues to be the largest economy of the world with the economy worth $14.

Nagaland is . respectively. in every sq km. However. At 11.64% has offered hope to policy makers. The Union Cabinet has given its nod to the Banking Regulation (Amendment) Bill. Chandigarh comes next. In contrast.46 is female literacy. 2011. Paving the way for setting up of a regulator for the insurance sector. India’s total population.4% is male literacy and 65. the US accounts for 7. India's most backward and populous States slowed down their rate of population growth.5% of the world’s population. supervised by a High Court. also called assisted suicide. Delhi tops the list of States and Union Territories in terms of density.83% a decade ago. introduced the long-awaited Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA) Bill in the Lok Sabha. while Samba in J&K has two.252 people. with 46 and 17 people. who has been in a “persistent vegetative state” for the past 37 years.5% of the population. Literacy rate of India. 82. helping the country register its sharpest decline in population growth since Independence. the apex court permitted passive euthanasia under certain. Out of this 586. according to provisional results of the decadal headcount declared by Census Commissioner C. India's population grew to 1.04% from 64.21 billion.7 are males.Shanbaug. as per Census 2011 has gone up to 74. Chandramouli on March 30. on March 24.4% of the world surface area of 135 million sq km and supports 17. The absolute addition of about 181 million people is slightly less than the population of Brazil—the world fifth most populous country—but the slower decadal growth rate of 17.297 people for every sq km. Dibang valley of Arunachal has only one person in a sq km. India accounts for a meagre 2. The move aims at providing social security to millions of employees through efficient intermediation of long-term household savings. Euthanasia.2% of the surface area with only 4. 2011.2 million. with 9.5 are females and 623. There is no law to allow it. the Union government. Among Andaman and Nicobar and Arunachal Pradesh are the least densely populated territories. as per the 2011 Census is 12102. which proposes to increase the voting rights of foreign investors in private sector banks. has been debated worldwide.

153 crore for 2010-11. the Supreme Court of India ruled that the appointment of P. 2011. On March 3. 2011. Kapadia. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh invited Pakistani leaders—both Prime Minister and President—to witness the cricket World Cup semi-final match at Mohali. played between the teams of the two nations on April 29. The verdict was given by a three-member Bench headed by Chief Justice S. the norms for overseas investment in production and developments of seeds have been liberalised. The subsidy bill for food. recommendations of the HPC “is non-est in law” and consequently his appointment “is quashed”. Relaxing the rules for foreign direct investment (FDI) in the country. This is expected to be over by December. Thomas “was in contravention of the provisions” of the CVC Act.64. on March 31.the only State that has statistically demonstrated a negative growth rate and a marginal decline in density. decided to permit the issuance of equity to overseas firms against imported capital goods and machinery. according to the 2011 census. it would start paying retailers. The Union government has approved a three-step strategy to create a foolproof system for transferring fertilizer subsidy directly to farmers. After this. Furthermore. More Indian women gained literacy over the past decade than men. On March 26.J. 2003. the government plans to track the movement of fertilizers from factories to farmers via retailers.34. and hence “it is declared” that the September 3. the Union government. 2011. The revised estimates put the subsidy bill—food. Never before have women outdone men in numbers gaining literacy over any decade.210 crore for 2011-12. as opposed to 107 million men over the same period. 2010. based on the collected data. In the first step.H. 2011. kerosene and fertilizers—at Rs 1. petroleum and fertilizers is estimated at Rs 1. A total of 110 million additional women have become literate since 2001. Canada's Governor-General dissolved the . Much against the opinion of his own Cabinet. Pakistan’s Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gilani accepted the invitation to take forward the peace initiative taken by the Indian Prime Minister.

unity and territorial integrity of Libya. The overall sex ratio has risen by 7 points to 940 females per 1000 males. This is lowest since independence. a UNSC resolution had imposed a no-fly zone over Libya. tracking of express and international shipments. the fourth in seven years. India Post has launched online portal ‘e-post office’ to provide postal transactions and tracking service online. Western forces launched a series of air and missile strikes against forces of Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi to force him to stop war on opposition forces in Libya. India. India stayed away from voting. . is 914 females against 1000 males. Announcing that he would step down as political head of the Tibetan government-in-exile. setting up a May 2 election. Former PM Thein Sein. This portal will provide electronic money order (eMO). Earlier. On March 30.Parliament after a vote of no-confidence in Tory Prime Minister Stephen Harper's government. On March 10. The content of the portal is in English. Starting March 19. postal information. wanted the UNSC to wait for the report of the special envoy of the Secretary-General. instant money order (iMO). DoP will also sell products. was sworn in as President. the Dalai Lama in his speech said he would hand over his “formal authority” to a “freely-elected” leader. as per Census 2011. Myanmar’s military handed power to a nominally civilian government after almost half a century of army rule. 2011. which also has a quarter of its seats kept aside for the military. the Dalai Lama announced his retirement plan on the 52nd anniversary of the Tibetan Uprising Day. on March 18. a key Than Shwe ally. PIN code search and registration of feedback and complaints online. as the junta was disbanded and a new President appointed. 2011. along with four other countries. sale of philatelic stamps. Child sex ratio of India. India also made it clear that it was very important to fully respect sovereignty. He is among a slew of generals who shed their army uniforms to contest the elections and are now civilian members of Parliament. Through this portal. 2011. handicrafts and other products made by small-scale industries. The next version of the portal is expected to be launched in Bangla and Kannada language.

scoring and result (TSR) system from a Swiss company at an inflated cost of R141 crore. 500 law journal articles and much more. On April 16. and condemned terrorism in all its forms and manifestations and those who supported the menace. The three-day world Sufi music festival was held on March 11-13. NUJS-Kolkata and RGSOIPL-IIT Kharagpur have come together to set up the Legal Information Institute of India. On April 25. Member of Parliament and former chairman of the Organising Committee (OC) of the Delhi Commonwealth Games (CWG). The 11th Info-Poverty World Conference was held in March 2011 at the United Nations. On April 5. The decisions were taken during the visit of Abhisit Vejjajiva. The CBI has charged him with criminal conspiracy to buy timing. NALSAR-Hyderabad. Prime Minister of Thailand. 2011. The biennial Wind Power India conference was held in Chennai. 2011 in New Delhi. APRIL On April 15. The online portal provides for 300. . holding that possessing Naxal literature or visiting jailed Maoists did not amount to sedition. World Water Day is observed on March 22. the Supreme Court granted bail to civil rights activist Dr Binayak Sen. 2011. NLSIU-Bangalore. tourism and culture and to aim towards doubling of their trade by 2014.NLU-Delhi. education. India and Thailand agreed to intensify their cooperation in the areas of trade and investment. 800 bilateral treaties. including one on cooperation in the civil nuclear energy field and another for joint exploration in the oil and gas sector. World House Sparrow day is observed on March 20. the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) arrested Suresh Kalmadi. during the official visit of Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to Kazakhstan. 2011. India and Kazakhstan signed seven key accords. 2011.000 decisions from 37 courts and tribunals.

A coalition of seven opposition parties said they also accepted the deal but with reservations. Started in year 2009. gave its approval to set up the nation’s first defence university at Binola. MAY More than 40 years after it was mooted. around 20 km from Gurgaon. India and China–has decided to transform itself to BRICS. This is the first time exports have crossed $200 billion.5 per cent. World Heritage Day. also known as the international day for monuments.On April 25. which relates to acceptance of alleged gratification. held in Sanya on south China's tropical island of Hainan on April 13-15. Civil Services Day is observed on April 21. BRIC.9 billion registering a growth of 37. India’s exports for 2010-11 have clocked $245. the Union Cabinet. 2010. parliamentarians and trainees at military academies. was the first one for South Africa. is observed on April 18. making it more representative. on May 13. World Haemophilia Day is observed on April 17. It would aim at imparting education on strategic challenges to armed forces officials. with the much-awaited induction of South Africa into the cohort. academicians. 2011. Haemophilia is a genetic blood disorder in which blood does not clot properly. On April 24. the grouping of the four countries thought to radiate the largest lessons in developing an economy–Brazil. 2011. bureaucrats. the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) named DMK Member of Parliament Kanimozhi as a co-accused in the supplementary charge-sheet filed by it before the special CBI court in the 2G Spectrum case. . Yemen's embattled President agreed to a proposal by Gulf Arab mediators to step down within 30 days and hand power to his deputy in exchange for immunity from prosecution. World Health Day is observed on April 7. Kanimozhi has been charged under Section 7 and 11 of the Prevention of Corruption Act (PCA). Russia. the 2011 summit.

focusing on making water conservation a peoples' movement in the country. In a significant development. Patil inaugurated China’s first Indian-style Buddhist temple in Luoyang city in Henan province. The Prime Minister's Council on Climate Change has approved the National Water Mission. The bidding frenzy for third generation (3-G) spectrum came to an end on May 19. 2010. Kasab is the lone surviving gunman from the attacks that killed 166 people. 2010. At the Indus Water Commissioner-level talks in New Delhi. guilty of mass murder and waging war against India. 2010. other dreaded criminals and high-profile offenders. No single operator could garner enough cash to win bids for all the 22 circles that went under the hammer. On May 3. withdrew its objection to construction of Uri-II and Chutak hydel power projects in Jammu and Kashmir. in the November 26. a Mumbai court found 22-year-old Pakistani national. Mohammad Ajmal Kasab. polygraph or brain electrical activation profile (BEAP. 2010. Reliance Communications and Aircel winning licences for 13 circles each. or nationwide. She is the first Indian Head of State to visit China in a decade. licence touching Rs 16. . the Pakistani side said it had no objection to the designs of the two power projects after the Indian side provided details of these. the Supreme Court has cited “mental privacy” to rule that police and other prosecuting agencies cannot forcibly conduct lie detector tests—narco-analysis. while acquitting two other accused. Fahim Ansari and Sabahuddin Ahmed for want of evidence. nearly five times its base price. During her visit. 2008 attacks on the city. on May 30. He has been given the death sentence. This was the 34th day of the auction and it saw the price of a pan-India. Indian President Pratibha Patil visited Beijing from May 27.In a verdict expected to weaken cases against terrorists. popularly known as brain mapping)—on accused.828 crore. with leading operators Bharti Airtel. She had been invited by her Chinese counterpart Hu Jintao and her trip coincided with the 60th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between India and China. Pakistan. suspects or witnesses.

The 'Gold To Go' machine gives out 1. Uttar Pradesh (25). while Labour bagged 258 and Lib Dems 57. while Pakistan lags behind India at 75th place. according to a report by child rights organisation Save the Children. What is more shocking in the “State of the World's Mothers 2010” report is that India is rated much lower than a host of conflict-ridden African countries like Kenya and Congo. Charu . In a rating of 423 cities. South Korea announced steps to tighten the vice on the North’s already stumbling economy in punishment for sinking one of its navy ships. featured in the list of 40 least developed countries. says there are 189 cities and towns in India with big slums. Sri Lanka at 40. Tiruchirrapalli and Jamshedpur. A survey of slums in cities and towns with a population of over one lakh as per the 2001 Census. China is at 18th place. among which Sweden is placed at the top while Afghanistan is at the bottom. Bangladesh. 5 and 10 gram gold bars as well as gold coins. West Bengal (21) and Madhya Pradesh (15). Andhra tops the list—it has 36 cities and towns with a slum population of 50. National Technology Day is observed on May 8. The Conservatives under David Cameron emerged as the single largest party with 306 seats in the 650-member House of Commons. On May 24. 2010. The report analysed a total of 166 countries. 2010. It is followed by Maharashtra with 26. Britain woke up to a hung Parliament. The world's first gold vending machine has been set-up in a hotel in Abu Dhabi in the UAE. India is ranked 73 in the list of 77 nations rated for the “best place to be a mother”. with both sides stepping up their war-like rhetoric. followed by Mysore. done by the Union Urban Development Ministry—to check their access to proper sanitation facilities. how the solid waste is managed and quality of drinking water— Chandigarh has been ranked on the top of the list.000 and above. Surat. is ranked 14.On May 7. an election outcome that this country last experienced in 1974 when the then Prime Minister Edward Heath tried and failed to persuade the Liberal Party to join him in a coalition. New Delhi.

former Union Carbide India Chairman Keshub Mahindra and seven others were convicted and sentenced to two years imprisonment. the then Chairman of Union Carbide Corporation of USA. 2010.60. nearly 26 years after the world's worst industrial disaster left more than 15. Indian Oil Corporation. New Delhi climbed to 143 rank from 145th slot in 2009. appears to have gone scot free for the present as he is still an absconder and did not subject himself to trial. These include Reliance Power. The move is expected to result in equity dilution of about Rs 1. Mumbai moved up four places to 144th rank. Wipro. On June 7. Oil and Natural Gas Corp (ONGC) and Oil India Ltd (OIL). There was no word about him in the judgement. Vienna has retained its ranking as the place offering the best quality of living in the world in an annual survey which was dominated by European cities. Lakhimpur (UP). The 11th International Indian Film Academy (IIFA) awards were held in Sri Lanka. Bengaluru remains the best placed among Indian cities in the global list at 140th rank. DLF and Tata Communications. the Union government made it mandatory for all listed companies to have a minimum public float of 25 per cent. India observed May 21 as Anti-Terror Day to mark former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi’s assassination on May 21. who lives in the United States. The 89-year-old Warren Anderson. The Union government has given national oil companies.000 dead in the Bhopal gas tragedy. Sahara India has won the sponsorship rights of Indian cricket team till 2013. 1991. 2010. The Reserve Bank of India has decided to increase the cash withdrawal limit for ATMs to Rs one lakh in a single day.000 crore by 179 listed companies.(Rajasthan). Those below this level will have to get there by an annual addition of at least 5 per cent to public holding. JUNE On June 5. Pilibhit (UP) and Srinagar (J&K) were listed among the bottom ten. freedom to price any additional .

So far. 2010. Jacob Zuma was given a rousing reception by the Indian leadership on June 4. in line with the recommendations of a panel headed by former Planning Commission member Kirit Parikh. who ended five decades of single-party rule when he swept to power in August 2009. Kazakhstan. significantly alters Canada’s stance towards India. On June 25. India and Canada signed a civil nuclear cooperation agreement. 2001. Argentina. On June 1. The US. Japanese Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama. Jharkhand came under Central rule with President Pratibha Patil accepting a recommendation of the Union Cabinet after the Congress and the BJP gave up efforts to form an alternative government following resignation of Chief Minister Shibu Soren.natural gas produced from blocks given to them on nomination basis at market rates. 2001. all gas—current and future—produced from blocks given to ONGC and OIL was priced at government-controlled rates. The pact was signed during Prime Minister Manmohan Singh’s visit to Canada. During his talks with Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. Sri Lankan President Mahinda Rajapaksa visited New Delhi on June 9. the ninth signed by New Delhi. 2010. the Union government announced that prices of petrol and diesel would become market-driven. resigned on June 2. called administered price mechanism (APM). he sought to cool down tempers in India over the plight of Tamils in his island nation by promising to quickly resettle displaced Tamils and expedite a political solution to the ethnic issue. On June 28. Namibia and Britain are the eight countries that have already signed similar pacts with India. Mongolia. becoming the fourth straight Japanese leader to leave after . Hatoyama quit at a meeting of leaders of the Democratic Party of Japan in Tokyo. Russia. as the two countries signed three key pacts. and agreed to support each other’s candidature for the nonpermanent seat at the UN Security Council for the 2011-2012 term. including one on air services. 2010. The North American nation had led the world in pushing for nuclear isolation after the 1974 tests in Pokhran. On his maiden visit to an Asian country as the President of South Africa. the United States. 2010. France. but stumbled when he confronted a long-time ally. The deal.

On July 1. the bloc left it to individual countries to decide on levying taxes on banks or adopting other means to fund future bailouts. 2010. burning residents out of their homes and shooting them as they fled. 12 countries. The Bill would impose tighter regulations on financial firms and reduce their profits. On June 9. after China announced plans to make its currency. 2010. 2010 to protect its military facilities as ethnic clashes spread in the Central Asian State. the Sensex. and the broad-based Nifty today touched their highest levels in more than two months. A Summit meeting of Leaders from the Group of 20 economic powers was held in Toronto. force banks to reduce risky trading and investing activities and set up a new government process for liquidating troubled financial firms. despite opposition from Brazil and Turkey. At the same time. voted in favour of the resolution. Russia sent hundreds of paratroopers to Kyrgyzstan on June 13. aided by the military. the US House of Representatives approved a landmark overhaul of financial regulations. targeting the powerful Revolutionary Guard. 2010. the yuan. The leaders agreed to halve deficits by 2013 and stabilise or reduce the government debt-to-GDP ratio by 2016.a year or less in office. Equity markets across the world made handsome gains on June 21. the UN Security Council slapped sanctions on Iran over its controversial nuclear programme. Canada on June 28. bringing the death toll from days of fighting to 97. were carrying out genocide. and nuclear-related investments. Ethnic Uzbeks in a besieged neighbourhood of Kyrgyzstan’s second city Osh said gangs. more flexible against the dollar. with . 2010. Witnesses saw bodies lying on the streets. Mr Naoto Kan succeeded Hatoyama as the new Prime Minister. 2010. It would boost consumer protections. bowing to pressure from opposition Maoists who had been demanding his ouster in Parliament and on the streets. India’s benchmark equity index. including the US and Britain. Prime Minister Madhav Kumar Nepal said in a televised speech that he decided to resign to end political deadlock and shore up the peace process. Nepal’s Prime Minister announced his resignation on June 31. ballistic missiles. In the 15-member Council.

which he said had reached its lowest point since the Cold War at the end of George W. Indian consumers are the greenest in the world. 2010. meanwhile. US President Barack Obama declared he had succeeded in “resetting” the US-Russia relationship. 2010 in Islamabad. Years of criminal investigation have yielded just one conviction. A . an institution on the lines of Interpol. A long-awaited inquiry into the 1985 Air India Kanishka bombing. held on June 27. including steps to apprehend or extradite persons connected with acts of terrorism and facilitate real-time intelligence sharing. On June 25. just below Canada.Lebanon abstaining and Brazil and Turkey voting against. Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) has become the first municipal body of India to cash in on cutting down carbon emissions warming the planet. claiming that a chemical used in the US violated its food safety rules. Members of SAARC have pledged to step up coordinated action against the common menace of terrorism. against a British Columbia mechanic Inderjit Singh Reyat. On June 27. Bush’s term in office. according to a global survey of 17 countries. also resolved to step up cooperation in real time intelligence-sharing and to consider Pakistan’s proposal for creation of SAARCPOL. Pakistan. for manslaughter. mostly of Indian origin. agreed to allow a resumption of US poultry exports to his country which Russia had banned earlier in 201. which killed 329 persons. Medvedev. Canada for their annual Summit meeting. G-8 leaders met in Totonto. while US consumers are ranked last. who assembled bomb components. 2010. The leaders decided to drop a commitment to complete the troubled Doha trade round in 2010 and vowed to push forward on bilateral and regional trade talks until a global deal could be done. has blamed the Canadian government for its failure to prevent the tragedy and recommended the appointment of a powerful security czar to resolve disputes between conflicting interests among security agencies. Obama was speaking to reporters in the East Room of the White House following meetings with Russian President Dmitry Medvedev. Brazil is ranked number 2. The meeting of the Interior Ministers of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation.

Bank of Maharashtra. run by the private sector ILFS group.000 tonnes of carbon over the next 10 years by stopping methane leaks from garbage. JULY The Reserve Bank India (RBI) has announced linking new branch licensing to the number of rural branches that banks open.municipal compost plant in south Delhi. the central bank has decided to give private banks a push to go rural. With financial inclusion being a key agenda of both RBI and the government. Vaxiflu-S is India’s first indigenous vaccine to counter influenza-A H1N1. in its circular. New Zealand was ranked the most peaceful. the Securities & Exchange Board of India (SEBI) announced that an entity buying 25 per cent stake in a listed firm will have . World Environment Day is celebrated on June 5. India is ranked a lowly 128 on 2010 Global Peace Index. In June 2010. RBI. World Blood Donor Day is observed on June 14. also known as swine flu. the Union government approved infusing of Rs 6.211 crore into five public sector banks—Union Bank of India. 2011. Pakistan (145) is placed among the five countries that were least peaceful. generated a first modest cheque of Rs 5 lakh in carbon emission reduction (CER) credits for its plan to keep more than 9. The new circular shifts the emphasis to a physical branch. Earlier banks were expected to reach most of the unbanked customers through the use of business correspondents. UCO Bank and Central Bank of India. followed by Iceland and Japan. On July 28. India had ranked 122 in 2009.based banking transactions. World Day against Child Labour is observed on June 12. IDBI Bank. said that “banks should allocate at least 25% of the total number of branches proposed to be opened during a year in un-banked rural (tier 5 and tier 6) centres.” An un-banked rural centre would mean a rural (tier 5 and tier 6) centre that does not have a brick-and-mortar structure of any scheduled commercial bank for customer.

Krishna and his young Pakistani counterpart Hina Rabbani Khar. Refraining from rhetoric with a clear intent to keep the dialogue process on track. On July 25. formed in the late 1980s. India and Bangladesh inked a key agreement aimed at enhancing quality of border management and ensuring cross-frontier security through measures like joint vigils to deal with human trafficking and smuggling of drugs and weapons. 2011. 2011.1 km is still un-demarcated. 2011. 2011. On July 30. On July 27. 50-member elected hill council will have more administrative and financial powers to independently run the three hill sub-divisions of Kurseong. the Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council. a historic tripartite agreement for a new council with more powers was signed on July 18. at the talks between External Affairs Minister S. of which 6. Britain’s Chancellor of the Exchequer George Osborne and his Indian counterpart. Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee. India signed a “historic” civil nuclear cooperation agreement with South Korea. New Delhi extracted an assurance from Islamabad to fight and eliminate the scourge of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations. as compared to its former avatar.M. met in London for discussions on boosting economic ties between the G-20 partners. even as the West Bengal government ruled out any division of the State. Britain and India confirmed trade deals worth billions of dollars between the two countries at talks in London.096 km border. This is seen as an attempt to lure investment after mergers and acquisitions fell 37 per cent. paving the way for the possibility of Seoul exporting its atomic power plants. On July 25. India and Pakistan also announced additional cross-LoC travel and trade confidencebuilding measures (CBMs) and resolved to find a peaceful solution to the Kashmir issue by narrowing down differences and building convergences. Kalimpong and Darjeeling. the remaining five will be nominated by the government. India and Bangladesh share 4. The new autonomous. South Korea has now become the ninth country which had signed nuclear agreement . While 45 members will be elected. 2011.to mandatorily make an offer to buy additional 26 per cent from public shareholders. Ending two decades of uncertainty in the Darjeeling hills.

Yeddyurappa of corruption and asked the Governor to take action against him under the Prevention of Corruption Act. Kumaraswamy and Congress MP Anil Lad. Janardhana and Karunakara. A joint statement issued after the strategic dialogue said the two sides covered a wide range of bilateral issues as well as global developments during the four-hour talks.with India after it got the waiver from the Nuclear Suppliers’ Group (NSG) in 2008. Jeevan Reddy and M. V. ICICI Securities and State Bank of India to manage its corpus of Rs 3. Mumbai tops the list of places having maximum number of people in urban area at 5 crore. 2011. 2011. Somanna. headed by former SC judges B. for a period of three years. Shah. along with HSBC Bank. Punjab has become the first State in India to start an integrated . during the visit of US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton. Russia.D. The two countries also signed a MoU to promote closer cooperation and the timely exchange of information between the organisations of their respective governments responsible for cyber security. Punjab. France. the Supreme Court. 2011.P. 55. on July 4. Canada. Uttar Pradesh has the maximum number of its people living in rural areas. The India-US strategic dialogue was held in New Delhi on July 18.S. Argentina and Namibia. The Central Board of Trustees of Employees' Provident Fund (EPF) has appointed Reliance Capital Asset Management.5 crore people in UP live in rural areas. and disclose the names of such bank account holders against whom show-cause notices have been issued. The other countries are the US. The report also names the two Reddy brothers. Karnataka Lokayukta Santosh Hegde’s report on illegal mining.5 trillion. accused Chief Minister B. also a member of the Yeddyurappa-led Cabinet. directed the government to set up a Special Investigation Team (SIT). both Cabinet ministers in Karnataka.B. In a far-reaching order to deal with the “massive” problem of “astronomical levels” of black money stashed in secret overseas bank accounts. submitted to the State government on July 27. JD(S) leader and former Chief Minister H. Kerala and Karnataka are now among the most urbanized States in India. Mongolia. having more than 35 per cent of their population living in urban areas. Kazakhstan.

The five cheapest cities are: Karachi (Pakistan). The five costliest places are: Tokyo (Japan). Those living on less than $1. The first sitting of NGT was held on July 4. “News of the World”. Mumbai (India). while India’s poverty rate is projected to drop to 22%. Zurich (Switzerland). Tunis (Tunisia). World Population Day is celebrated every year on July 11. 2011. On July 8. Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee launched a new set of coins and Rs 10 notes bearing the rupee symbol. The Tribunal is headed by Justice L. Panta. With this India became the second country after England to have its currency symbol printed on its notes.25 a day are considered extremely poor. 2011. The Union Cabinet has cleared a massive hike of Rs 3 crore per MP in the annual allocation of MPLAD fund that enables every MP to recommend development works in his/her constituency. Tehran (Iran) and New Delhi (India). from 55% in 1990. in that order.370 crore annually. according to the Worldwide Cost of Living survey. Mumbai and Delhi are among the five cheapest places in the world. Osaka Kobe (Japan). 2011. Paris (France). in a breathtaking response to a phonehacking scandal engulfing the media empire of Rupert Murdoch. 2011. was closed down in July 2011. The four-day fifth conference of SAARC Speakers and Parliamentarians was held in New Delhi from July 9. . as many as 320 million people in India and China are expected to come out of extreme poverty by 2015.solid waste management programme in the entire State. Oslo (Norway).S. National Green Tribunal (NGT) is a judicial body constituted to try all matters related to environmental issues. According to the UN Millennium Development Goals Report. The allocation has been hiked from Rs 2 crore per MP to Rs 5 crore per MP and will cost the exchequer an additional Rs 2. 168-year-old newspaper of Britain. Juba is the capital of the new nation of South Sudan which declared independence on July 9.

with the exposure to a single entity capped at 10%. 2011. the Parliament responded with extraordinary grace to show what it could do to honour a crusader’s urge. The RBI has suggested a 49% limit on foreign shareholding and a two-year deadline to list shares for new banks. the Government and the Opposition in both the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha came together to agree “in-principle” to the three major demands the activist had raised in his letter to Prime Minister Manmohan Singh as a condition to end his protest. executive director. the Reserve Bank of India released its muchawaited draft guidelines for new banking licences. developing markets. Maoist ideologue Baburam Bhattarai was sworn in as Nepal’s new . RICS. 2011. the extraordinary 12th day of Anna Hazare’s anti-corruption fast. In doing so. The report shows the ranking of Indian States in terms of the sustainability of their growth story.000-kilometre international border between the two neighbours. to Yes Bank Ltd. Himachal Pradesh and Haryana rank among the top 10 States in a report titled Sustainable Competitiveness Report 2011 for Indian States. with the basic message that it is looking for companies with diversified ownership and less exposure to risky business such as broking and real estate. India assumed the monthly Presidency of the UN Security Council after a gap of 19 years. 2011. After over eight hours of debate around the structure of the Lokpal Bill. On August 20. in a bid to settle the long-standing frontier-related discord. new banks’ total exposure to their founding groups should be limited to 20%. On August 29. the Parliament paved the way for the Gandhian to end his fast. Bangladesh and India inked strip maps to demarcate over 4. This signing of the strip maps containing the Bangladesh-India International border boundary line coordination point will end an outstanding issue which remained unresolved since 1947. Punjab. The last time India issued a banking license was in 2004. On August 27. 2011.AUGUST On August 1. released by Marcus Potter. According to the draft.

it was no secret that China has been pressing Pakistan to crackdown on ETIM militants for a long time. The decision was taken at the India-South Africa CEOs Forum. 2011. 2011. On August 1. The Parliament has permitted the government to mint coins of Rs 1. for the first time. due to increase in earnings from domestic assets. The Coinage Bill. 2009. 2011.884. from $10. After taking over as the Prime Minister he said that he would work to complete the fragile peace process within six months and form a national unity government to bring political stability in the nascent republic. held in New Delhi in August 2011. from some of the worst violence seen in the British capital in years. when Islamabad is reeling under pressure being exhorted by the US to carry out operations against Al-Qaida and Taliban.73 per cent to Rs 37. . The Lok Sabha had passed the Bill without discussion in March. limits payment through coins up to Rs 1. The riots erupted after a street protest over the fatal shooting of a man by armed officers and came amid deepening gloom in Britain with the economy struggling to grow amid deep public spending cuts and tax rises brought into help eliminate a budget deficit.000 denomination. China blamed Uyghur “militants” trained in Pakistan for the deadly violence in its restive Xinjiang province which left at least 20 persons dead in two days. The Reserve Bank of India’s gross income for 2010-11 rose by 12. London picked itself up on August 7.64 billion now. The name change will become official after it is cleared by the Parliament.12 crore. which politicians and police blamed on criminal thugs but residents attributed to local tensions and anger over rising financial hardship. India and South Africa have decided to increase two-way trade between both the countries to $15 billion by 2014.070. from Rs 32.Prime Minister on August 29. While. but perhaps this was the first time that it chose to openly point finger at it. passed by Rajya Sabha in August 2011.14 crore a year ago. It has been proposed to change the name of West Bengal to Paschimbanga. which peaked at more than 10 per cent of the GDP.000.

sought to calm down tempers in Bangladesh over the Teesta controversy by telling Sheikh Hasina that the two sides would continue discussions on water-sharing accords to reach a mutually acceptable. The new Bill. will replace the 117-year old Act of 1894 and will allow acquisition of multi-cropped irrigated land as a “last resort”. also known as the European Union Emissions Trading System.SEPTEMBER The Union Government has introduced in the Lok Sabha an amended version of the Land Acquisition. Upset at India backing out of the Teesta water-sharing treaty at the eleventh hour. India and 25 other countries including the US. It proposes that market value calculated for the land will be multiplied by a factor of two in the rural areas. Bangladesh retaliated by holding back the big-ticket transit treaty that would have given the North-Eastern States in India easier and faster access to the rest of the country. not used within 10 years for the purpose for which it was acquired. including airlines. The Bill also provides that any land. The Bill. fair and amicable arrangement for the sharing of Teesta and Feni river waters. large emitters of carbon dioxide. but failed to ink any water-sharing deal. will be transferred to the States' land bank and upon every such transfer. is the largest multi-national emissions trading scheme in the world. 20 per cent of its appreciated value will be shared with the original land owner. Under the EU-ETS. . China. as and when it is passed. for the first time. who arrived at Dhaka on a two-day visit. The EU-ETS. which. On September 6. within the EU must monitor and annually report their carbon dioxide emissions. Russia and Brazil. They are obliged every year to return an amount of emission allowances to the government that is equivalent to their carbon dioxide emissions in that year. India and Bangladesh signed a slew of agreements and resolved their long-standing boundary dispute. irrigated land. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh. 2011. deleting from it the previously proposed provision to impose a blanket-ban on the acquisition of multi-cropped. following West Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee’s refusal to endorse the accord. ensures a comprehensive compensation package for land owners and livelihood losers. have opposed the European Union’s plan to include aviation under its emission trading scheme (ETS) and impose emission charges on airlines flying into the region starting 2012. Rehabilitation and Resettlement Bill 2011.

chewing-gums and table-top sweeteners. about Rs 13 lakh crore of funds are parked in savings bank. 275 km east of Colombo. Former atomic energy commission chairman Anil Kakodkar has been made head of the high-level committee to review railway safety. The Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI). for use in carbonated water. The interest on these accounts had been fixed at 4% even as inflation was two-and-a-half times that level.World Heart Day is celebrated on September 29. led the strategic dialogue from Indian side. deputy chairman of Planning Commission. in September 2011. Montek Singh Ahluwalia. TRAI has renamed the National Do Not Call list as the National Consumer Preference Registry. Jammu & Kashmir has become the first State of India to get “MY Stamp” by which people will get personalised stamps with their photographs on these. SLINEX-II was the joint Indo-Lankan naval exercise held at the Trincomalee navy base. the regulatory body which makes rules for food safety. The Union government has decided to reduce the lock-in period of investment by FIIs in long-term infra bonds to one year. with an aim to increasing Indian investment in China and addressing the burgeoning trade deficit. International Literacy Day is celebrated on September 8. India and China launched their first economic dialogue in end-September. has recommended the use of Stevia. As per a rough estimate. soft drink concentrates. A new study on learning and teaching outcomes in government schools of rural India has thrown up significant challenges for the . a natural sweetener. OCTOBER Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has freed interest rates on savings deposits. Now savings rate deregulation gives people an opportunity to shift to banks that come up with better deals.

Widening the scope of human rights. Prepared by the Institute of Applied Manpower Research of the Commission. children are at least two grades behind where they should be.” a Bench comprising Justices Dalveer Bhandari and Deepak Verma observed that these rights had already covered the “individual rights such as right to health. higher than 17 per cent recorded by China during the same period and the 18 per cent estimated by the . the study tracked 30. which comes out with the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER). It does concede. 2011. that the absolute number of the poor (27 per cent according to the report) stood at 302 million. compared to 320 million in 1973. It has found that in language and Maths. Jharkhand. the report claims that between 2000 and 2007. interState disparities are getting narrower and that the improved Human Development Index has been driven by strides made in education. Himachal Pradesh. which records controversial claims and a few surprises on income. Assam. the Planning Commission released the second India Human Development Report (HDR) 2011.000 children in Standard 2 and Standard 4 in 900 schools spread over Andhra Pradesh. Pointing out that human rights were “gaining a multi-faceted dimension. On October 21. though the RTE Act stresses teacher qualifications immensely. right to livelihood. the Supreme Court has ruled that people’s right to own property fell very much within the domain of human rights. health. the UPA government cleared its ambitious national manufacturing policy (NMP) that seeks to create a massive 100 million additional jobs in the manufacturing sector by 2025. unemployment and child labour are declining. as well as create large sized industrial zones with easier compliance and labour laws. Conducted by NGO Pratham. however. The report claims that poverty. and Rajasthan. education. the Human Development Index rose by 21 per cent. literacy and sanitation. right to shelter and employment etc. it holds. neither higher educational qualifications nor teacher training are associated with better student learning. 2011. The new policy seeks to boost the stagnating manufacturing sector to contribute at least 25 per cent of the national GDP by 2025.Right to Education Act. The last India-specific report had come out in 2000.” On October 25. Sixty per cent of the poor are still concentrated in Bihar. It is the teachers’ ability to teach that matters. Besides.

2011. states the report. 2011. 2011. India and Afghanistan entered into a strategic partnership under which India will. 2010. Haryana slipped two places from 7 to 9 while Jammu and Kashmir and Uttarakhand improved a notch to finish 9th and 14th. It envisions creating a globally competitive electronics systems design and manufacturing (ESDM) industry. Afghanistan President Hamid Karzai focused on strengthening ties with India during his visit to New Delhi on October 4. on October 14. The focus of the IT policy is on deployment of ICT in all sectors of the economy and providing IT solutions to the world. among other things. Andhra Pradesh. 2011.Global Human Development Report. were occupied by Kerala. The draft national policy on information and communications technology. It is aimed at making India the hub of electronic manufacturing. Madhya Pradesh. The two countries also concluded a MoU on cooperation in the field of development of hydrocarbons and another on cooperation in the field of mineral resource development. Disillusioned by Pakistan’s attitude and its hobnobbing with the Haqqani network. respectively. Orissa and Assam—HDI improvement has been considerably above the national average. 2011. The policy proposes setting up of over 200 electronic manufacturing clusters. The top five slots. equipping and capacity building programmes for Afghan National Security Forces. Rolling out the red carpet for Myanmar President U Thein Sein. Himachal Pradesh. the Union government unveiled the draft National Policy on Electronics. During talks with the visiting leader. including nano-electronics. to meet the country's needs and serve the international market. Chhattisgarh. which aims at $400 billion turnover in 2020 by the domestic industry and focuses on reducing imports. It aims at increasing the revenues of the information technology and IT enabled services (ITES) industry to US $300 billion by 2020. India. assist the war-ravaged nation in training. was unveiled by Telecom & IT Minister Kapil Sibal on October 7. 2011. exhorted him to strengthen democratic transition in his country in an “inclusive and broad-based” manner. For the six lowest HDI states—Bihar. Delhi. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh announced the extension of a new concessional facility of $500 million line of credit (LoC) for specific . On October 3. Goa and Punjab (same as in the last India HDR 2000).

The revised treaty would allow India to access tax related information from the Swiss authorities with a prospective effect.600-km border with the north-eastern States. 2011. Un-fazed by Chinese threats. It also shares more than 2000-km-long border with China.projects in the South-east Asian country. as he sought to deepen strategic and defence ties with New Delhi. 2011 to further strengthen the ties between the two countries. which will help ease . It has helped India immensely in tackling north-eastern insurgent groups. transport. Myanmar is crucial for India as it shares nearly 1. India extended a 250 million Line of Credit (LoC) to Nepal and signed a key bilateral investment promotion and protection agreement (BIPPA). The new policy also proposes to introduce a stronger customer grievance redressal mechanism and recognise telecom as an infrastructure sector. This is in addition to $300 million line of credit already extended by India for the development of railways. power transmission lines and oil refinery there. paving way for obtaining data on black money stashed there.6 billion China-backed dam project in Yangon. particularly over Kathmandu’s increasing tilt towards China. The move comes at a time when the issue of black money stashed in Swiss banks has become a major concern in India. with political parties and civil society taking up the matter. India and Switzerland will start exchanging information on tax related matters from 2012-13 after the new tax information exchange treaty is ratified by the Swiss Parliament. Telecommunications Minister Kapil Sibal unveiled the draft National Telecom Policy (NTP) 2011 on October 10. Nepal's Maoist Prime Minister Baburam Bhattarai arrived in New Delhi on October 20. Mr Truong Tan Sang. The protocol amending the Double Taxation Avoidance Agreement (DTAA) between India and Switzerland was concluded in New Delhi on August 30 2011. President of Vietnam. Traditionally considered any ally of Beijing. The policy not only seeks to give the consumer the right to free roaming within the country but also seeks to increase the country’s tele-density to 100 per cent by 2020 and bring about transparency in spectrum allocation. he said India and other foreign nations were welcome to explore hydrocarbons in areas within his country's jurisdiction. visited New Delhi on October 11. Myanmar recently suspended a $3. 2011—a visit aimed at mending fences with India and removing any misunderstandings.

The group collectively pledged to fight terrorism by preventing the use of their territories for terrorist acts or financing and also vowed to accelerate efforts to combat piracy and strengthening maritime security in the Indian Ocean. who ruled Libya for 42 years was killed by fighters who overran his home-town and final bastion Sirte. Brazil. China. On October 20. incitement to violence or commission of terrorist acts”. the IMF and the World Bank. the United Nations science. The dictator was captured cowering in a drainage pipe full of rubbish and filth. On October 31. The 2013 CHOGM meet will be hosted by Sri Lanka. education and cultural heritage organization. he governed according to his unique political philosophy—set out in his Green Book—based on a combination of socialism and Arab nationalism.credit flow to companies for funding roll-out plans or expansion activities. India. The 5th IBSA Summit. 2011. The 54-nation bloc also committed to “unequivocally preventing the use of their territories for the support. Russia. Fiercely antiwestern and inspired by Egypt's President Nasser. Spain. and transnational terrorist organisations. Canada. 2011. while 107 countries—including France. 2011. Global diplomacy hands view the 107-14 vote as a benchmark carrying larger implications for the Palestinians’ bid for State recognition before the UN Security Council. in a closely watched vote in Paris. came out with a declaration on major global issues with focus on reforms of multilateral organisations. Belgium. His bloodied body was stripped and displayed around the world from a cellphone video. Germany. 2011. Austria. and preventing the raising and use of funds by terrorists. including the UN Security Council. to give greater voice to emerging countries like India. Palestine won full admission into UNESCO. Israel. The United States. Muammar Gaddafi. Sweden and Australia were among the 14 nations voting against the Palestinians’ UNESCO bid. Both the United States and Israel have strongly opposed both initiatives. Ireland. which was held in Pretoria on October 18. their front organisations. They also agreed to work towards implementing the necessary legal framework for the suppression of terrorist financing. the three leaders reaffirmed their commitment to increase the participation of developing countries in the decision-making bodies of multilateral institutions. South . The 2012 Commonwealth Summit concluded in Perth. Australia on October 30. On global governance reform.

National Voluntary Blood Donation Day is celebrated on October 1. biochemistry. The World Food Day is observed every year on October 16. The aim of the Day is to heighten public awareness on the scarcity of food and strengthen movement against hunger. “Sudarshan Shakti” was the massive joint exercise held by Indian Army. biomedical.Africa and Indonesia—voted in favour. New Delhi. The Union government has planned to float seven mega zones to boost manufacturing. The Union government has announced setting up of National Institute of Sports Science and Medicine (NISSM) at Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium. Manesar-Bawal (Haryana). It was on this day in 1945 that the Food and Agriculture Organisation of United Nations came into being. . ShendraBidkin (Maharashtra). These will be: Ahmedabad-Dholera (Gujarat). Khushkhera-Bhiwadi (Rajasthan). Fourteen nations—including the United Kingdom and Italy—abstained. President Pratibha Patil unveiled a bust of Rabindranath Tagore at the University of Lausanne in Switzerland on October 4. Dadri-Noida-Ghaziabad (Uttar Pradesh) and Pithampur-Dhar-Mhow (Madhya Pradesh). World Polio Day is observed on October 24. as part of the Nobel laureate’s ongoing 150th birth anniversary. nutrition. with Air Force and Navy. 2011. It is the lone surface link between the Kashmir valley and rest of the country. Global Iodine Deficiency Disorders Prevention Day is observed on October 21. International Day of Older Persons is celebrated on October 1. The institute will aim at fostering the disciplines of physiology. anthropometry and sports medicine. Dighi Port Area (Maharashtra). psychology. malnutrition and poverty. The Union Ministry of Road Transport and Highways has renamed the Lakhanpur-Jammu-Srinagar National Highway 1-A as the Lakhanpur-Jammu-Srinagar National Highway 44.

But in August 2011.3.000-crore Satyam accounting fraud. Even Sri Lanka has a higher contraception prevalence rate at 68%. The UNDP Global Human Development Index (HDI) 2011 places Norway. which aims to update corporate laws in the country and introduce modern concepts like mandatory CSR and class action suits. NOVEMBER On November 24. Australia and The Netherlands on top of . which seeks to establish an authority that will develop.Jugnu. the Union Cabinet approved the Companies Bill. 2011. One of the main drivers of high gender inequality in India. a nano-satellite built by IIT. new data points out that our adolescent fertility rates (AFR) are even more shocking at 86.6. which has the poorest (129th) Gender Inequality Index rank in South Asia (leaving aside Afghanistan which is poorer at 141). While we are worrying about high total fertility rates (TFRs) of 2. It was launched on October 12. 2011 by PSLV-C18. health and income. the Bill has undergone several modifications in view of the Rs 14. 2011. high adolescent fertility rate reflects that our child marriage prevention laws have simply not worked and our contraception prevalence rate remains poor at 54%. class action suits and a fixed term for independent directors. the Bill has introduced ideas like mandatory corporate social responsibility (CSR). the new Human Development Report of UNDP has revealed a major reason behind India’s growing numbers. a suggestion accepted by a Parliamentary panel that was examining the Bill. the Finance Ministry had proposed to cap foreign investment in the pension sector at 26%. India is ranked 134th among the 187 countries assessed for their performance in three key areas of human development—education. promote and regulate oldage income security. The Union Cabinet has given its approval for the Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority Bill. Close on the heels of the world population crossing the 7 billion-mark. Kanpur. The Bill doesn't mention the extent of foreign ownership to be allowed in Indian pension funds and in a cen tral record-keeping agency. Intended to replace the existing half-a-century-old Companies Act. is India’s first indigenously designed nano-satellite to be successfully placed into its orbit. Besides strengthening the provisions to check fraud.

On November 30. seeking to encourage a “movement for change” in the military-dominated nation. India is placed behind all its partners in BRICS. envoy to the UN in Geneva. though. the lawmakers. while Congo. on November 12. 2011. has surprised observers with a series of reformist moves in the past year. viewing the Indian Ocean region as part of India's “extended neighbourhood”. formerly known as Burma. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh spelt out initiatives spanning student scholarships. Niger and Burundi fare the worst in the annual rankings. On November 22. . signalling that for all the display of Chinese hard power. Prime Minister Singh told People’s Majlis that “The President and I have signed a historic framework agreement on cooperation for development”. India will now serve a five-year term in the Joint Inspection Unit. At the inauguration. followed by Brazil at 84. Myanmar. the Maldivian Parliament. This year. China at 101 and South Africa at 123. where Russia is the leader at number 66. India beat China fair and square in a rare direct fight for a key post in the UN.the charts. sang the national anthem as the session got under way in the Bardo palace. ten months after a popular uprising ended years of dictatorship. convincingly defeated the Chinese candidate. The 217-member Assembly is the first elected body produced by the Arab Spring. India’s candidate A. including releasing opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi from house arrest and nominally ending decades of military rule. Making clear India’s interests in this strategic chain of islands straddling key shipping and trade routes. who will be tasked with drafting a new constitution and paving the way to fresh elections. when India stood at rank 119. India retains a fair bit of international clout. 2011. US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton arrived in Myanmar on the first top-level US visit for half a century. Zhang Yan. banking and finance credit lines worth $100 million. Tunisia entered a new era of democracy with the inaugural session of its democratically elected Constituent Assembly. infrastructure projects and security and climate change cooperation in his address to People’sMajlis. 2011. During his visit to Male. India’s place remains unchanged because the index includes 18 new countries this time as against just 169 in 2010. the UN’s only external oversight body. Gopinathan.

regional leaders. The one-day conference in Istanbul followed the September assassination of an Afghan peace envoy and other high-profile assaults in Afghanistan that have diminished prospects for a negotiated settlement and intensified suspicion of Pakistani support for the insurgency. improving air. India will get the post after 35 years. among others. leaders of ASEAN handed Myanmar the diplomatic prize at their summit held on the Indonesian island of Bali. China has held the post for the past 10 years. winning 106 votes against Zhang’s 77. in a reward for hints of reform from its new government after decades of military rule. an allegation that the Pakistan’s government denies. on November 2. Demanding an end to external interference in Afghan internal affairs. had met Australian Prime Minister Julia Gillard and unveiled plans to station 2. SAARC has finally taken the shape of a cohesive grouping of nations willing to cooperate in key areas to boost their economic clout.China’s envoy to New Delhi. 2011. which brings ASEAN members together with US. In its 26th year. rail. on his first official visit to Australia. On November 17. Myanmar has won approval of ASEAN to chair Southeast Asia’s regional bloc in 2014. 2011. The Addu Declaration that the leaders agreed upon focused on the theme of “Building Bridges. China has warned Australia that it may be “caught in the crossfire” if the US uses new Australia-based military forces to threaten its interests. motor and water transport connectivity between member .500 US marines in the Northern Territory within five years. Along with the ASEAN chairmanship.” The leaders committed to work towards a huge boost in intra-SAARC trade. the decision means Myanmar will host the East Asia Summit in 2014. China and Russia. US President Barack Obama. India stressed on the need to eliminate safe havens and sanctuaries. a day after Canberra and Washington renewed a defence pact. The 17th summit of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) was held at the Addu atoll in Maldives. A decade after the Taliban government was ousted from power. Despite warnings from the US that the move was pre-mature. pledged to find ways to improve security and economic development in Afghanistan as international combat forces prepare to leave by the end of 2014. a stand that was reflected in the outcome document.

countries and putting their heads together to solve common developmental concerns. an agreement to establish a SAARC Seed Bank and two agreements on harmonising regional standards for goods and products. Buddhist sites in Sanchi have become the first blind-friendly world heritage monuments of India. PPF will now fetch 8. who will also be allowed to “feel” the grandeur in every sense. Vivek Express is the new weekly train that covers India’s longest rail route from Dibrugarh in Assam to Kanyakumari in Tamil Nadu. including the Stupa. The train was flagged-off on November 19. Queensland’s Gold Coast in Australia has been named as 2018 Commonwealth Games host. come alive for the visually-challenged. 2011. Four agreements were also signed that included a rapid response mechanism to deal with natural disasters. . Interest rate on post office savings has been hiked to 4%. They have asked for help to evacuate the population. birthday of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad. FIIs can now invest up to $15 billion in G-secs and $20 billion in corporate bonds. signages in Braille. The island nation of Kirabati has become the first to declare that its territory has become uninhabitable due to global warming. beepers and Braile map will make the monuments. National Integration Day is observed on November 19. a move that will enhance capital flows and increase the availability of resources for Indian corporate. Special tactical walk-ways. National Education Day is observed on November 11. November 7 is observed as the National Cancer Awareness Day.286 km in approximately 83 hours. The Union Finance Ministry has increased the investment limit for Foreign Institutional Investors (FII) in government securities (G-secs) and corporate bonds by $5 billion each.6% return and investment limit has also been increased to Rs one lakh per year. covering the distance of 4.

it would have necessitated a joint session of the Parliament. If the Lower House was to reject the amendments. Eleven hours after an often stormy debate. 2013 and be fully implemented as on March 31. and a major embarrassment. the Reserve Bank of India has cut the validity of Cheques and bank drafts to three months instead of the six months earlier. it also recommends Tier 1 capital comprising pure equity and statutory and capital reserves must be at least 7% and total capital must be at least 9% of RWAs.5% of RWAs. On December 29. 2011. Besides. which turned down the proposal to confer Constitutional status to the Lokpal. RBI has also suggested setting up of the capital conservation buffer in the form of Common Equity of 2. the Lok Sabha passed the Lokpal & Lokayukta Bill. But the UPA suffered a setback. the Parliament lost the historic opportunity to enact the Lok Pal law when an embarrassed government was forced to beat a hasty retreat in the Rajya Sabha. 2011. The policy has set an annual target of 20% procurement from micro. the Reserve Bank has issued draft guideline envisaging that the equity capital of a bank should not be less than 5.5% of risk-weighted loans. DECEMBER In order to strengthen risk management mechanism. The Union Cabinet has cleared a new public procurement policy under which central government departments and public sector undertakings will give preference to small scale enterprises. lacking the numbers to push through the Lokpal and Lokayukta Bill. however. On December 27. 2012. It is proposed that the implementation period of minimum capital requirements and deductions from Common Equity will begin from January 1. small and medium enterprises. when the government failed to muster two-thirds majority of the Members present and voting in the House. after incorporating several amendments. 2017. including those belonging to scheduled castes and tribes.From April 1. 2011 on December 27. A total of 185 amendments were moved by different parties and what weighed in the minds of UPA managers was that if the amendments were carried the legislation then would have to go back to the Lok Sabha. Lok Sabha passed the Whistleblowers’ Protection .

If this rate of drop is sustained. The country’s latest IMR is 47 as against 50 in 2009. taking the Manmohan Singh government a step closer to fulfilling the promise made to the “Aam Admi” in the Congress manifesto for the 2009 Lok Sabha election. on December 18. Japan today said it was not insisting on India signing the CTBT as a prerequisite for nuclear cooperation between the two countries and indicated it was open to hold talks with New . Under the proposed landmark law. for the first time ever. indicating a reduced mortality of three infants per 1000 live births. the government would provide rice at Rs 3 per kg and wheat at Rs 2 per kg to all people living below the poverty line (BPL) across the country. cleared the much-awaited National Food Security Bill. The law is aimed at providing access to food to 75 per cent of the rural population and 50 per cent of the urban households by subsidising foodgrains sold to them. The Bill also seeks to provide “adequate protection to persons reporting corruption or wilful misuse of discretion that causes demonstrable loss to the government or commission of a criminal offence by a public servant”. 2011. Child survival strategies are beginning to pay dividends with India. It envisages the Right to Service under which every individual citizen shall have the right to time-bound delivery of goods and provision of services and redress of grievances. Brushing aside fears of food scarcity and inflation. Prime Minister of Japan. India could achieve the target of bringing down infant deaths to 30 by 2015. reporting a consecutive drop of three points in Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) for the second year in a row. The Citizens’ Charter Bill. In a significant departure from its long-standing policy. including ministers. it also seeks to provide punishment for false or frivolous complaints. called the “Right of Citizens for Timebound Delivery of Goods and Services and Redressal of their Grievances Bill. as planned. the Union Cabinet. 2011. 2011. was introduced in the Lok Sabha on December 20. 2011”.Bill which seeks to provide for setting up a regular mechanism to encourage persons to disclose information on corruption or wilful misuse of power by public servants. While the measure sets out the procedure to inquire into the disclosures and provides adequate safeguards against victimisation of whistleblowers. He held wide-ranging talks with Prime Minister Manmohan Singh on bilateral issues as well as international developments. Yoshihiko Noda visited India on December 28.

while the world watched for signs of instability in a nation pursuing nuclear weapons. India and Russia signed a slew of agreements in the fields of military. the United States and other nations vowed to keep supporting Afghanistan after most foreign forces leave the country in 2014. for the first time. ending days of wrangling between India and the EU over the fate of the Kyoto protocol. UN climate negotiators. 2011. 2011. struck a compromise deal on a roadmap for an accord that will. On December 11. North Korea announced the death of supreme leader Kim Jong Il and asked its people to rally behind his young son and heir-apparent. the accord will come into effect only from 2020. dealing a symbolic blow to the already troubled global treaty. energy and trade during Prime Minister Manmohan Singh’s three-day visit to Moscow from December 15. Canada. for the first time. who had gathered in Durban. 2011. Canada became the first country to announce it would withdraw from the Kyoto protocol on climate change. as the nation faces an enduring Taliban-led .Delhi on exporting military technology to India. will. when Kyoto Protocol expires. bring India and China under the ambit of a legal mechanism guiding emission cuts. and talks on the new legal deal covering all countries will begin next year. South Africa. while President Barack Obama and South Korean President Lee Myung-bak agreed to closely monitor the events and cooperate. has long complained Kyoto is unworkable precisely because it excludes so many significant emitters. His visit came in the midst of a political unrest in Russia over allegations of rigging in the recent Parliamentary elections. On December 5. South Korea launched a high alert for its military as it faces the North’s 1. legally force all major carbon emitters to cut greenhouse gas emissions.2 million-strong armed forces. 2011. On December 19. The pact on tackling climate change must be completed by 2015. a major energy producer which critics complain is becoming a climate renegade. On December 12. The Russian leadership was keen to go ahead with the visit for the annual IndiaRussia Summit lest its postponement sends wrong signals to the world. 2011. While the new pact to be finalised till 2015.

India’s refining capacity.P. India’s ranking in transparency international’s corruption perception index has slipped to a low 95 among 183 countries. is set to increase to 238 million tonnes by 2013. For general knowledge and objective-type questions. Some books on the freedom struggle are published by the National Book Trust. General Mental Ability. with fuel demand pegged at 141. refer to General Knowledge Refresher by O. Khanna.” US Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton said. The General Studies paper covers the following areas: General Science.insurgency and possible financial collapse. it is important to be updated in all fields. Delhi celebrated 100 years of re-emergence as the capital of India on December 12. 2011. Indian National Movement. For this section. The international community has “much to lose if the country again becomes a source of terrorism and instability. it is advisable to begin preparations of the Main Exam along with the Preliminary Exam. by then Emperor of India George V. For General Mental Ability and current affairs. If one has studied a subject since school and one is comfortable in it. long-term prospects for international aid and a possible political settlement with the Taliban to ensure the country’s viability beyond 2014. It had been proclaimed as capital of British Raj on December 12. But one thing that must be kept in mind is one's aptitude. chances of doing well in it are greater rather . Current events of national and international importance. Polity. World Aids Day is observed on December 1 HOW TO PREPARE FOR CIVIL SERVICES EXAM One important thing that candidates should keep in mind is that since the time between the Main Exam and the declaration of result of the Preliminary Exam is very less. One question that is often asked by students is about the subjects that they should take up. Indian Polity and Economy. Economy. The Bonn conference was focused on the transfer of security responsibilities from international forces to Afghan security forces during the next three years. For History. History of India. shifting from Kolkata. which is 194 million tonnes per annum now. 1911. etc. Since some subjects are scoring. it is advisable to read Class 11 and 12 books published by the NCERT. it is advisable to read The Competition Master regularly. India currently has surplus oil refining capacity. World Geography. students wish to opt for them.785 million tonnes in 2010-11.

budgeting. preparations should start early. Current Affairs of National and International Importance. The aspiring candidates are expected to have keen interest in the General Studies and are supposed to have a good amount of interest in current affairs. Another consideration is the performance of candidates in the said subject in the recent past. Physics. and Engineering are considered to offer tougher questions and the candidates with exceptionally good preparation only may expect to do well. The candidates who do not have enough background in the General Studies may have to put in harder effort to catch up with the others. natural resources. is expected to know. basic books like NCERT books on Indian History and National Movement. If the optional is prepared well for the preliminary and the same subject is also planned to be opted as one of the optionals. enabling them to understand the details and developments in a better way. But this observation may not be taken as the universal truth. Engineering. the candidates who have recently taken the examination may also be . Public Administration etc in which even the candidates not having special or additional educational qualifications have been doing reasonably well. It is important. do not choose an entirely new subject in which you will have to work very hard. Generally speaking. World and Indian Geography and General Science are certain other books which can fruitfully supplement the efforts. Regular and detailed reading of a good national newspaper. Committees. latest issues of political and constitutional importance. You will also find the General Knowledge section of the website useful. Emphasis normally are placed on the general aspects of the subject which every educated person aspiring to join the Civil Services as an officer. particularly in smaller towns. Psychology. The choice of optional subject for Paper-II has to be done very carefully. Agriculture etc. Geography and Indian Constitution. General Studies General Studies paper consists of questions on Indian Polity and Economy. Mental Ability and Basics of Statistics etc. economic or political event. It may be advisable to join a coaching institute so that one keeps in touch with other students and discuss issues with them. it is very useful and saves a lot of labour. The fact that this paper needs special and thorough preparations need not be over-emphasised. panchayati raj. Over the years. the aptitude and proficiency of a particular candidate in a given subject also plays an important role in arriving at a decision. There are also quick revision notes on History. Questions on planning. Indian and World Geography. electoral reforms. General and day-to-day Science. The optional subject for Paper-II should usually be the subject in which the candidate has either attained proficiency/higher academic qualification or in which the candidate feels at home. Prepare Well Before initiating the preparations. a few things must be noted by the candidates.com. a standard competition magazine and a basic book on general knowledge is the essential pre-requisite. Once you have decided to appear in the Civil Services Exam. A look at past papers helps get an idea about the kind of questions that are asked. A good backgrounder on major national and international events assists the fresh starters to understand the background of any social. one has to look carefully for good books which cover all parts of the syllabus. Current Affairs and Current General Knowledge is covered well at competitionmaster. latest plan document and budget/economic survey. while the subjects like Mathematics. growth of nationalism. Sociology. a good and basic book on Indian Constitution.than taking up an unrelated subject which one may never have studied. Commission etc can be expected almost every year. In addition. Those readers who still have two to three years of time left for becoming eligible to go in for Civil Services Examination must begin preparations now. developmental programmes. Moreover. History of India including Indian National Movement. Availability and access to good and prescribed books is yet another consideration and often the candidates are also guided by this factor. Questions on Environment (not requiring subject knowledge but related to day-to-day issues) will also be asked. The candidates must plan ahead of time. one can be successful by self-study also. The Competition Master has published solved papers which can be referred to. Books for preliminary examination are available in plenty in common subjects but in case of specialised optionals like Mathematics. to select a good institute. There are several subjects like History. In addition. All the preparation starting from a scratch cannot be completed in the short period of 4 to 5 months and the candidates must begin preparations early. however. culture. However.

The study should be done according to the syllabus and also in the same chronological order as given in the syllabus. efforts should not be merely taking up the information but also to understand the issues involved.consulted. It is a long haul and preparations should be done with persistence.National and International ii) Indian Polity iii) Indian Economy iv) Geography of India v) Science and Technology vi) History of India and Freedom Movement vii) Study of thoughts of Mahatma Gandhi. Another important point is efficient time planning. Regular reading of the Current Affairs sections of Competitionmaster. it is advisable to keep in touch with one of these subjects which will help you when you start preparations.com will be very helpful. It has been found that even science and engineering students take up subjects like history. Success Plan for Mains Preparations for the Civil Services Mains Exam should start along with those of Preliminary exam. There are various books in the market providing practice tests. and there is little time for the mains exam if one waits for the results of the Preliminaries. left to the candidate to consult as many books as possible. Quantitative Aptitude and Objective English (especially the comprehension type questions) as much as you can. which would include not only studying the subject but improvement of writing expression. The candidates must not waste the time unnecessarily by going into lengthy details of one particular aspect. Here the choice should not only be with regard to your interests but also with regard to the study material available. Show these answers to someone you know. Jawaharlal Nehru and Rabindranath Tagore viii) Statistics and General Mathematics Ability To study current affairs. so that every aspect is studied in the required detail. Go into the background of events. it is essential to read one national newspaper. anthropology. political science. Every book has its strong and weak parts. Reading List . Moreover. Competitionmaster. The candidates must bear one thing in mind. like a teacher in your college or university. Start collecting books and readings once you have made your choice. psychology and public administration because there is a huge amount of study material available. therefore. The time available with the candidates for preparations is limited and it has to be intelligently utilised. Even if your branch of study is different. It would be wrong to presume that any single book would suffice. it is better to draw up a formal time table so that no aspects of both the papers is left unprepared. It is. leaving other important aspects untouched. This is done by writing down the answers to the questions asked in previous years' papers. Practice as much as possible for success in this section. The following topics need coverage for General Studies: i) Current Affairs . over nine months to an year. The next step is to make a time-bound study plan. This is because there is much common ground for study. grography. Get to know these issues and be clear about them so that you can answer questions on them.com provides you with some practice tests. Exhaustive study of each and every aspect of the General Studies is essential. To prepare for Section II practice solving questions on Reasoning. Choice of subjects One of the first questions that has to be answered is the choice of subjects. which covers the entire syllabus. When you are studying the round up of national and international affairs. sociology. parents or friends.

One of the important requirements of the Mains exam is that the answers should be crisp and to-the-point. one gets the impression that one knows everything but thoughts do not flow out naturally as one puts pen to paper. Analyse the answers in order to improve them. Students should remember that this list is not exhaustive and they should choose the books themselves based on recommendations of previous successful students. if you are weak in Hindi. After getting the grasp of the basic concepts. Usually. which costs heavily during the exam. pick up a General Studies book and translate it into the language in which you are weak. newsmagazines. a good atlas. with reduced emphasis on their second subject. If you do not have someone to show your answers. one each from General Studies and two from optional subjects. Another way is to write letters to friends in the language that one is weak in. Indian Polity: Introduction to the Indian Constitution. Optional subjects While studying for the optional subjects. writing down the answers is an important aspect of the preparation. some candidates organise their studies in a manner that they study one subject thoroughly. Many students make the mistake of studying for hours but have no practice in writing down the answers. Invariably. In order to improve this skill. Hence. NCERT. teachers and guides. A practice in writing is what is required to attempt the paper. However. Indian Economy: NCERT and other books on Evolution of the Indian Economy. For instance. it is important to organise one's thoughts before writing and the sequence of the answer should be from the most important/potent aspect to less important aspects. keep in mind that there is no scope for selective studies in the Civil Services Examination. One more thing that must be kept in mind is that the answers must be a little different from others and must have some extra bit that is missed out by others. The Competition Master. study the following books: History: NCERT books of class XI and XII. What is essential is that the person taking up self-study must pick up past question papers and write down the answers to questions asked therein. Take up the textbooks for classes IX. Having done that. read them again. It is also important to remember that the level of questions asked is of the Masters level examination. etc. just reading these books will not serve the purpose. start with higher level study material. a science magazine or newspaper supplements on science. IGNOU booklets and National Book Trust (NBT) publications are quite helpful. it is suggested that the candidate make a habit of beginning his study by writing answers to three questions each day. Current Events: A national newspaper. Most candidates do not have problems with regard to English and Hindi examinations and are able to qualify in them easily. The skill required is that of organising the arguments and making a coherent answer from the diverse material. For best preparation and a success plan. Hence. This exercise of re-analysis of answers improves the ability to be precise. We are giving a list as a general requirement.With regard to other topics. However. You will discover many mistakes. reflections on basic concepts and their application in real life is important. One important aspect of the Civil Services Mains Exam is that the questions do not ask for mere information as a reply. For the Preliminary paper. Questions should be chosen from previous years' papers and the answer writing should be preceded by study on the subject. XI and XII. but seek analysis backed with arguments from the candidates. it would be advisable to start from simple books. keep them away and after a gap of some time. Here again. X. it is important to have a good working knowledge of the two languages. Another thing is that the candidate must carefully read the questions in order to make out what the examiner is asking. if you choose subjects in which you do not have a basic grounding. Freedom Struggle (published by National Book Trust) Geography: Class XII books of Geography (NCERT). The whole syllabus must be completely and thoroughly covered. General Science: NCERT books on science. the books published by the NCERT are the best source of study. Studying for General Studies Giving a detailed description of the optional subjects is not feasible here but we give here some suggested readings for the General Studies paper. . This is not difficult if one has understood the issue in depth. which earlier you could not. The questions have an added spin in order to bring out the grasp of the candidate with regard to the basic concepts of the subject. try translating important essays on current affairs into Hindi which will not only improve fluency but also the general knowledge. It is imperative that equal stress be given to both the subjects you have chosen.

Statistics: Class XI NCERT book on Statistics. India Yearbook (culture chapter). The secret is to start for preparations for the interview along with the written test. Indian Geography: NCERT books on Indian Geography. Current Affairs: A national newspaper. Parliament. Remember that the interview is not a cross examination but a natural but purposeful conversation. Encyclopaedia on Indian Culture. Science: A science magazine. current affairs programmes on Doordarshan. the study should be done in more detail. Gazetteer of India. Listen to the current affairs programmes and learn to organise thoughts the way the participants do. IGNOU publications on Modern India. supplements in newspapers. citing multiple concerns. the following are suggested as well: History: India's Struggle for Independence. The candidate must exhibit an intelligent interest in events happening around him so that he appears to be a complete personality. Develop the habit of debating and discussing issues with friends or parents. The interview is not a test of specialised knowledge. the chances of guiding others would be diminished. Coaching centres are helpful in the sense that they develop a discipline of attending regular classes. If a person gives the impression of being a bookworm. the coaching centre must be chosen with care: the instructor must be erudite enough to be able to guide students. It is an opportunity to reveal the mental qualities of a candidate. Rating Nations International rating agency S&P has cut the outlook of India’s rating to negative from stable. Interview The final stage is that of interview. An instructor may be available who can give an opinion about the answers written by a candidate. If he is not well read. Finally. Indian Culture: Art and culture portions of history books. ET takes a look at the concept of sovereign rating and its implications. At the same time. newsmagazines. the candidate will meet like-minded people with whom he can develop the habit of debating and discussion. past test papers.General Mental Ability: Do the Quantitative Aptitude published in The Competition Master. Indian Polity: Introduction to the Constitution. the chances of his selection are reduced. For the main examination. It must also be remembered that preparation for the optional subjects must be done on one's own. The Competition Master carries regular analysis of the Indian Economy. there is a very frequently asked question about whether a candidate should join a coaching centre and if so. financial newspapers. Develop interests and hobbies so that you are able to answer convincingly. In addition to the above readings. books on culture published by Publications Division and National Book Trust. The idea is to see the social traits of a person and his personality as suited to a career in the Civil Services. There are cases where students clear the preliminary and the mains but fail at the last stage. as it is unlikely that any coaching centre would be able to do justice to all the subjects. However. as that has already been tested in written examination. Understand the current affairs and the issues behind the events. The Competition Master. Indian Economy: NCERT and other books on Indian Economy. which one. WHAT IS A SOVEREIGN DEBT RATING? .

International agencies evaluate the credit worthiness of national governments.33% chance of a downgrade on Tuesday. rupee depreciated and bond yields rose after the . Investors look to these ratings before making a decision. The categories are negative. The ratings range from top notch investment grade to junk bonds that are already in default and are usually denoted through letters. In the case of Standard & Poors’. as was the case on Wednesday. The outlook on India's credit rating was revised down from stable to negative and given a probability of a 33. WHAT DOES OUTLOOK REVISIT MEAN? Rating agencies generally keep the country ratings under three categories based on the probability of future action. A country under positive outlook has chances of an upgrade in its ratings and vice versa. ratings range from ‘D’ denoting payment default to ‘AAA’ indicating strong capacity to meet financial commitments. In that sense. stable and positive outlook. These ratings are a kind of forward assessment of a nation’s ability to meet its financial obligations in time and in full. The rating usually changes when there is a marked shift in economic growth. assessing their ability to pay back debt after considering economic. HOW DO SOVEREIGN RATINGS IMPACT A COUNTRY? Credit ratings focus only on a single aspect of credit. It impacts more on the sentiment. Many countries that have full capital convertibility tend to borrow for their needs from investors across the globe. WHAT CAN BE THE IMPACT OF A RATING DOWNGRADE FOR INDIA? Indian government does not borrow from the foreign markets and therefore does not seek rating from agencies. allowing the country to borrow at low rates as opposed to one with lower rating. A higher level of rating would imply lower risk. the rating action does not have a financial implication for the government. The stock indices dropped sharply. S&P’s sovereign credit ratings on India are unsolicited. the ability of the borrower to ensure timely payment of interest and principal. external situation and government finances. market and political risks.

. A ratings downgrade could automatically drive up interest costs on debt for Indians looking to borrow from abroad. drive up borrowing costs for the Indian financial institutions and Indian cos that borrow billions from the foreign markets through external commercial borrowings. The rating action can. however.rating action.

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