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Processed Cheese Report

Chen Chen, Catherine Louise cocks, Rachael Christina Ewert, Marialuisa Imbriano, Hans Demas Kosasih (Group Green)

1.0 Abstract The effect of using emulsifying salts singularly or in combination, on processed cheese was studied. Emulsifying salts, sodium citrate, monosodium phosphate (MSP), disodium phosphate (DSP), trisodium phosphate (TSP), sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP), and tetra sodium pyrophosphate (TSPP) were used. Young cheese (which gives textural property) and old cheese (which contribute to the flavour) were used in combination or by themselves in the processed cheese manufacture. Different moisture conditions were also assessed. The results show that the emulsifying ability of different salts are MSP < DSP < TSP < SHMP < TSPP. MSP gives a crumbly texture and very oily surface on its own in comparison to DSP and TSP which tend to give good emulsification and texture properties. Processed cheese which has a higher amount of moisture added is more likely to be spreadable.

2.0 Aims To determine the effect of type of the cheese used, water content and types of emulsifier on the texture and appearance of processed cheese.

3.0 Introduction Nowadays, wide ranges of cheeses are available in the market in order to satisfy consumers palate. One of the basic cheeses that can be found is the processed cheese. Cari and Milanovi (2006) explained that processed cheese is a homogenous mass that is obtained through the mixing of different type of cheeses that are vary in term of degree of maturity with water, and emulsifying agent under a partial vacuum condition and constant agitation. The basic theory behind processed cheese productions lies on the alteration of casein in the raw cheeses due to the heat, agitation, and emulsifying agents applied into the processing stage (Cari & Milanovi, 2006)

Varieties of processed cheese such as processed cheese block and processed cheese spreads can be produced based upon the ingredients incorporated into the cheese. There are two critical ingredients that affect the characteristic of processed cheeses. First is the type and age of the cheeses, and second is the emulsifying salt. These two main ingredients play an important role in determining whether the end product will be tough, soft, spreadable, pliable, etc. In this experiment, several variations are used in the manufacture of processed cheese. Emulsifiers that are used are sodium citrate, monosodium phosphate (MSP), disodium phosphate (DSP), trisodium phosphate (TSP), sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP), and tetra sodium pyrophosphate (TSPP). In this practical group green was assigned to make five processed cheeses that were varied in term of the emulsifiers types and ratio. Other teams were assigned with different varieties such as the age of the cheese, different composition or ratio of emulsifiers, and/or combination of both variables, and the amount of moisture. This report will discuss the effect of variations of emulsifiers on the texture and appearance of the processed cheese.

4.0 Materials and methods Refer to dairy practical manual ONPS 1104, section 4.3.4 Processed Cheese Production, page 1.13

Table 1. Process flow diagram Flow Process Diagram for Processed Cheese Symbols Start / Finish Process Storage Delay Comments

Start by grating the cheeses as finely as possible. Put specified amount of each cheese and other ingredients into double boiler. Put the double boiler on stove and heat. Stir until smooth and runny

Heat the mixture until the temperature reaches around 70C Pour the processed cheese into microdiscard bag and flatten immediately Wait for it to cool The cooled product is ready for evaluation.

5.0 Result Table 2. Observation on the production of processed cheese under different variations.

No 1(a)

Variation Mature + young cheese

Observation Able to stretch and pliable but not as stretchy and pliable as young cheese. Shiny and Oily Oil separation on the surface Bubbles and dull colour Lack of protein and fat emulsification Crumbly texture Shiny and nice appearance Too soft Too moist Pliable Rubbery Shiny Magnificent flexibility Cheese spread texture Weaker body was expected due to higher moisture content Oil separation on the surface Runny texture Oily Flexible Better emulsification compare to 1% addition Shiny and stronger body but not oily Stretchy Brittle texture (Falling apart)

1(b)

Mature cheese only

1(c)

Young Cheese only

2 (a)

45% moisture + 2% DSP

2 (b) 2 (c) 3 (a)

48 50% moisture + 2% DSP 60% moisture + 2% DSP Sodium citrate (1%)

3 (b) 4 (a)

Sodium citrate (3%) MSP (2%)

4 (b)

MSP:DSP (1:2 ratio)

5 (a)

TSP (2%)

5 (b)

TSP:DSP (1:2 ratio)

6 (a)

SHMP (2%)

6 (b)

SHMP:DSP (1:2 ratio)

7 (a)

TSPP (2%)

improper emulsification due to one sodium atom Better emulsification compare to MSP only Nice and shiny appearance Did not fall apart Good emulsification Shiny, but a little weak body Shiny and pliable Stronger emulsification compare to TSP only Good emulsification Acceptable texture Tough and strong body Fat and protein complete emulsification Did not melt easily (high melt cheese) Pliable Absence of oil Softer and gentler compare to SHMP only Strong body Shiny Complete absence of breaking

6.0 Discussion

6.1 Interpretation of result According to the result, variation no 1(c) which uses young cheese only is pliable, this is because the casein of the young cheese still intact therefore gives good emulsifying ability of the milk fat. Variation 1(b) which uses the old cheese only has a very crumbly texture because, the older cheese has gone through proteolytic and lypolitic activity which has a smaller peptide chain, therefore affecting the rheology of cheese (crumbly). Variation 1 which is the mixture of young and old cheese is still pliable and stretchable due to the young cheese which gives a good texture. Cheese blend is significant in processed cheese as it contributes to the final texture. There are two types of cheese that are used in this experiment, namely old cheese and young (green)

cheese. Old cheese contributes to the flavour while young cheese contributes to the texture. A high content of young cheese will result in the formation of a stable emulsion with high water binding capacity and a production of a firm body with good slicing properties, however there is a tendency to harden during storage and development of small air bubbles due to the high viscosity of the blend. On the other hand, high content of old cheese will contribute to good flow and high melting properties but will also give low emulsion stability and soft/brittle consistency (Caric & Milanovic, 2006). Moreover, increasing the moisture content in processed cheese would produce products which tend to be liquid and runny. The moisture content and the Fat in Dry Weight (FDW) contribute to the texture of the cheese. In processed cheese the moisture content is 43% w/w and FDW 47% w/w which gives the product a firm texture. Products such as processed cheese spread which contained moisture up to 40-60% and no FDW, but contain fat of 20% would have a spreadable texture. (Fox et al., 2000).

Addtion of sodium citrate would provide emulsion stability. Sodium citrate has high buffering action (pH 5.3-6.0) but low calcium sequestration ability, low emulsification and it has little tendency to absorb moisture which makes cheese using this emulsifying salt is firm and heavy. Variation 3(a) uses the formulated processed recipe and 1% of sodium citrate which makes the texture firm but has oily surface because low concentration of sodium citrate may work with proteins but not fat. Variation 3(b) has high concentration of sodium citrate which produced harder, very stretchy and firm texture cheese, and it is caused by more calcium sequestering ability (Caric & Milanovic, 2006). The emulsifying salt in order of calcium-sequestering ability (low to high): MSP < DSP < TSP < SHMP < TSPP. It is observed that the higher the number of sodium atom used, the better the emulsifying ability. Thus, the final product would be pliable, shiny, and have firm texture (this can be observed in variation 5(a) 7). The lower the sodium atom number (MSP) would produce a processed cheese which is oily, due to least calcium sequestering ability, least emulsifying ability and least peptization, thus oil separation and crumbly texture is observed (variation 4a). In the production of processed cheese pH of the product is significant to the texture of the final product. The acidity of the processed cheese determines the consistency, structure, flavour,

keeping quality, and greatly affects the rheology and texture of the final product (Meyer, 1973 and Lu, Shirashoji & Lucey, 2006). According to Meyer (1973), the pH of processed cheese normally lies in the range of 5.4-6.2. An increase in pH of the processed cheese will increase the net negative charges on caseins and increases the electrostatic repulsion in the casein matrix (Meyer, 1973 and Lu, Shirashoji & Lucey, 2006). Whereas a decrease in pH value causes a thickening and solidifying of the cheese structure, and eventually leads to coagulation (Meyer, 1973). The concentration of emulsifying salt is of great importance as well. At constant pH, when the concentration of emulsifying salt is increased, there is increased casein dispersion, producing greater hardness in the final cooled product. Furthermore, the melting properties are also affected, with the increase in pH due to the increased of charge repulsion (Lu, Shirashoji & Lucey, 2006).

6.2 Emulsifiers Emulsifying agent which is also known as the emulsifying salt in cheese industry is a key ingredient in the production of processed cheese (Tamime, 2007; Cari & Milanovi, 2006). The purpose behind the addition of emulsifying salt is to prevent the separation of fat and moisture exudation during manufacturing and cooling, thus enhance the binding of protein and emulsification of fat (Tamime, 2007; Early, 1998). It provides a uniform structure, affecting the chemical, physical and microbial quality of the product (Caric & Milanovic, 2006). In addition, Cari and Milanovi (2006) also found that emulsifying salt offers a uniform structure, as well as affecting chemical, physical, and microbial quality of the end product. According to Early (1998) and Tamime (2007), emulsifying salt replaces calcium that present in the natural cheese with sodium in the salts. Tamime (2007) also found that the combination of heat, shear rate, and emulsifying salt converts insoluble para-casein into hydrated sodium para-caseinate which leads to higher water-binding ability. Furthermore, Cari and Milanovi (2006) added that the sequestering of calcium from natural cheeses results in the dispersion of proteins. This is supported by Early (1998) who stated that, emulsifying salt also contributes to the pH control, the breakdown of protein and the hydration of protein in order to form a more stable emulsion. The reaction of emulsifying salt can be observed in figure 1.

Figure 1. Chemical reaction in cheese processing. Adapted from Tamime (2007)

Caric and Milanovic (2006) suggest that the 'emulsifiers' used in the production of processed cheese are written with inverted commas because the emulsifying agents are chemically not true emulsifiers. They are not actually surface-active compounds although they act as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the processed cheese manufacture. Some important roles of emulsifying salts are their ability to make casein soluble by the formation of homogeneous salt; solubilise calcium paracaseinate, separating calcium and thus dispersing proteins (Meyer, 1973 and Caric & Milanovic, 2006). However, different emulsifying salts have different abilities and also vary depending on their concentrations. They are used in different application for example an increase concentration of emulsifying salt reduces the size of the fat globules which gives a firmer texture to the cheese (Fox et al., 2000). Caric and Milanovic (2006) also suggests that emulsifying salts should be able to help in hydrating and swelling of proteins, emulsifying fat and stabilizing the emulsion, controlling and stabilizing pH and forming an appropriate structure after cooling. The selection of these salts is varied based upon the products that want to be produced. The following table provide further information about which salt is better for which cheese product.

Table 3. Type of emulsifying salts used in different products Product Cheese Sauce Cheese Spreads Type of Salts MSP, DSP, TSP, sodium citrate MSP, DSP, TSP

Cheese Blocks Cheese Slice High Melt Cheese 6.2 Large batch production

MSP, DSP, TSP MSP, DSP, TSP SHMP

Using the Stephan kettle a combination of young cheese, old cheese, and cheddar cheese, 4837.4 g of total cheese was used to produce a large batch processed cheese. Nisin was added as preservative at a rate of 100ppm final weight. Nisin is one of food preservatives that had been used for almost 50 years. It is a low molecular weight polypeptide produced by Lactococcus lactis (Thomas & Delves-Broughton, 2005). Thomas and Delves-Broughton (2005) found that nisin can be used in high temperature condition, thus it can prolong the shelf-life of high treated product such as processed cheese (Thomas & Delves-Broughton, 2005). In the production of large batch processed cheese, the amount of nisin added was 1ppm, thus we need 100 g in every 1,000 kg = 0.1 g in 1 kg of the product, hence the amount added was = 4.837 0.1 0.48 g in 4.837 kg of cheeses.

Conclusion In conclusion, there are many factors that contribute to the texture and flavour of processed cheese such as the type of cheese, emulsifying salts and moisture. Based on the experiment the best processed cheese was the combination of emulsifying salts TSP : DSP (1:2) which gave a shiny appearance, perfect emulsification, and firm body.

Reference Caric, M & Milanovic, S. (2006). Processed Cheese. In Hui, Y. H. (Ed.), Handbook of Food Science, Technology, and Engineering, Volume Four (pp. 151-1 151-11). Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Early, R. (1998). The Technology of Dairy Products (2nd ed). Retrieved from http://books.google.com.au/books? id=BuR28YS4SMC&pg=PA120&dq=emulsifying+salt&hl=en&ei=QPSeTe6PAo6yvgP FuMGLBQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CEQQ6AEwAw#v=o nepage&q=emulsifying%20salt&f=false Fox, P. F., Guinee, T. O., Cogan, T. M. & McSweeney, P. L. H. (2000). Fundamentals of Cheese Science. Maryland: An Aspen Publication. Lu, Y, Shirashoji, N. & Lucey, J. A. (2008). Effects of pH on the Textural Properties and Meltability of Pasteurized Process Cheese Made with Different Types of Emulsifying Salts [Electronic version]. Journal of Food Science, 73 (8), pp. 363-369. Tamime, A. (2007). Structure of Dairy Products. Retrieved from

http://books.google.com.au/books? id=mVu6raQQmHoC&pg=PA213&dq=emulsifying+salt&hl=en&ei=QPSeTe6PAo6yvg PFuMGLBQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CD8Q6AEwAg#v=o nepage&q=emulsifying%20salt&f=false Thomas, L. V., & Delves-Broughton, J. (2005). Nisin. In P. M. Davidson, J. N. Sofos, & A. L. Branen (Eds.), Antimicrobial in Food (3rd ed). Retrieved from CRCnetBase.