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AS Level

TOPIC 1 ANSWERS & MARK SCHEMES

QUESTIONSHEET 1 SUBATOMIC PARTICLES


a) (i) Atom The smallest quantity of an element to have the properties of that element (1)

Element A substance comprising atoms with identical atomic numbers (1) (ii) Substances consisting of atoms with same atomic number / same number of protons / of the same element (1) but with different mass number / different numbers of nucleons / different neutron numbers (1) (iii) Mass number The number of nucleons / neutrons and protons in an atom of an element (1)

Atomic number The number of protons in an atom of an element (1) Difference The atoms of an element have identical atomic numbers but can have different mass numbers (1) The atoms of an isotope have identical atomic numbers and identical mass numbers (1) Proton (1) , neutron (1) Proton has relative mass of 1 () and relative charge of +1 () Neutron has relative mass of 1 () and is uncharged () Hydrogen (1) Number of neutrons Number of electrons

b) Names and characteristics

Exception
c)

Radon-222
208

222 86 = 136 () 208 82 = 126 () 127 53 = 74 ()

86 () 82 2 = 80 () 53 + 1 = 54 ()

Pb2+

127 -

AS Level

TOPIC 1 ANSWERS & MARK SCHEMES

QUESTIONSHEET 2
RELATIVE ATOMIC MASS a) (i) Relative abundance of a given isotope = Amount of a given isotope (1) x 100% Sum of amounts of all isotopes of that element (1)

(ii) The weighted average mass of an atom of a given element (1) divided by 1/12th of the mass of an atom of carbon-12 (1) (iii) Ar = (79 x 0.505) + (81 x 0.495) (1) = 79.99% 80.0% to 1 d.p. (1) An amount of substance which contains the same number of particles / molecules / atoms (1) as there are atoms in 12.00 g of carbon-12 (1) The mass of 1 mole of a substance (1) No.of moles = mass molar mass (1)

b) (i)

(ii) Molar mass Relationship

(iii) 15 g of carbon-12 15 12 = 1.25 mol (1) No. of particles = 1.25 6.023 1023 = 7.529 1023 (1)

AS Level

TOPIC 1 ANSWERS & MARK SCHEMES

QUESTIONSHEET 3
THE MASS SPECTROMETER a) A B C D E F b) (i) Vacuum / to vacuum pump (1) Sample chamber (1) Ionisation chamber (1) Negatively charged plates (1) Beam of high speed cations (1) Magnet / magnetic field (1) Reduces the pressure so less thermal energy is needed to vaporise sample (1) Removes traces of previous sample (1) Reduces traces of air (1) Maximum 2 marks

(ii) A print-out / display from the electronics of the mass spectrometer scaled so x-axis gives mass/charge ratio (1) and y-axis gives the percentage abundance or relative abundance (1) (iii) Only positively charged species can be accelerated by the potential difference (1) deflected in the correct direction by the magnetic field (1) and counted / detected by the detector (1)

AS Level

TOPIC 1 ANSWERS & MARK SCHEMES

QUESTIONSHEET 4
PRINCIPLES OF MASS SPECTROMETRY

Ionisation

A stream of high speed electrons (1) bombards gaseous sample (1) and forces off a further electron (1) to form a gaseous cation (1)

Fragmentation Bond(s) rupture (1) in a gaseous cation formed from a molecule / molecular ion (1) to give smaller cations (1) and free radicals (1) Acceleration Beam of gaseous cations (1) passes through holes / slits in two negatively charged plates / cathodes (1) with a potential difference across them (1) Beams of cations are deflected by magnetic field (1) Gaseous cations with a particular mass : charge ratio hit the detector (1) The detector counts the number of cations striking it (1) Detector signal is directly proportional to abundance / number of each type of ion (1)

Deflection Detection

AS Level

TOPIC 1 ANSWERS & MARK SCHEMES

QUESTIONSHEET 5 RELATIVE ATOMIC MASS FROM MASS SPECTROMETRY


a) (i) Relative abundance of gallium-69 = 145 mm x 100% = 60.4% (1 d.p.) (1) (145 mm + 95 mm) Relative abundance of gallium-71 = 95 mm x 100% = 39.6 % (1 d.p.) (1) (145 mm + 95 mm)

(ii) Ar(Ga ) = (60.4% x 69) + (39.6% x 71) (1) = 69.79 (2 d.p.) (1) 100 % (iii) The conversion of Ga Ga+ involves loss of an electron (1) of negligible mass (1) b) (i) 1. 79Br+(g) () 2. 81Br+(g) () (1) 3. 79Br2+ (g) 79 81 + 4. ( Br Br) (g) (1) (1) 5. 81Br2+(g) (Lose 1 mark if any +ve charge is omitted)

State symbols are not essential.

(ii) Peak height is directly proportional to abundance (1) and the abundances of bromine-79 and bromine-81 in the Earths crust are similar (1) (iii) Peaks at 158 and 162 are of similar height because abundances of Br-79 and Br-81 are similar (1) The mid peak is twice as high because there is twice the probability of 79Br81Br occurring than 79Br2 or

81

Br2 (1)

AS Level

TOPIC 1 ANSWERS & MARK SCHEMES

QUESTIONSHEET 6
FIRST IONISATION ENERGY a) Definition The minimum energy required to remove one mole of electrons (1) from one mole of gaseous (1) atoms of a given element (1) to form one mole of singly charged gaseous ions (1) Cl(g) Cl+ (g) + e- (1 for species, 1 for state symbols)

Equation

b) Fourth ionisation energy of manganese (1) c) Endothermic (1) Energy must be supplied (1) to overcome the electrostatic force of attraction between negatively charged electron and the positively charged nucleus (1) d) First ionisation energies decrease in magnitude as a group is descended (1) This is because, whilst the nuclear charge increases down a group (1) this is more than offset by the increase in shielding due to the increasing number of inner shells (1) Because atomic radii increase down the group (1) the outer shell electrons are further from the nucleus and less strongly attracted to it (1) Maximum 4 marks

AS Level

TOPIC 1 ANSWERS & MARK SCHEMES

QUESTIONSHEET 7
CHANGES IN FIRST IONISATION ENERGIES ACROSS THE PERIODIC TABLE

a) These generally increase in magnitude (1) Across a period the nuclear charge / number of protons in the nucleus increases (1) and there is no increase in screening because all the elements in a period have same number of shells (1) Also, the atomic radii decrease across a period (1) Maximum 3 marks b) (i) Be B Be+ B+ (ii) O N O+ N+ () () () () 1s 2s 2p () () () ()

(iii) An atom of boron loses an electron from a 2p orbital whilst an atom of beryllium loses an electon from a 2s orbital (1) Electrons in 2s orbitals have lower energy than those in 2p orbitals (1) (Therefore more energy is required to remove them.) A nitrogen atom has a very stable electron configuration with a half-filled 2p subshell (1) An oxygen atom has a 2p orbital with two electrons in it mutually repelling each other (1) O+ ions have a very stable half-filled 2p subshell (1) N+ ions lack the stability of a half-filled 2p subshell (1) (Therefore more energy is required to remove an electron from nitrogen.)

AS Level

TOPIC 1 ANSWERS & MARK SCHEMES

QUESTIONSHEET 8
SUCCESSIVE IONISATION ENERGIES

a) X and Z belong to Group 2 (1) because their atoms each have two outer shell electrons (1) This is because there is a significant jump in the value of the third ionisation energy compared with the second, showing the third electron is in an inner shell (1) Y belongs to Group 3 (1) because its atom has three outer shell electrons (1) This is shown by the significant jump from the third to the fourth ionisation energy (1) Maximum 5 marks b) X < Y < Z (2) (Award 1 mark only if X and Y are interchanged. Note that, within a period, a Group 2 element has a higher first ionisation energy than a Group 3 element.) c) Identity of X Magnesium (1)

lg I Gradual increase (1) Sudden increase in correct place (1) Gradual increase (1)

No. of electrons removed

d)

lg I
2p

(1)

3s (1)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

No. of electrons removed

e) Low first ionisation energy () shows one electron in outer shell () Then a jump () to the next eight which increase steadily () showing eight electrons in second shell () Another jump from I9 to I10 () shows two electrons in the first shell () Maximum 3 marks

AS Level

TOPIC 1 ANSWERS & MARK SCHEMES

QUESTIONSHEET 9
ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATIONS OF ATOMS a) Copper 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s1 (1) (1) Silicon 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2 Sulphide 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 (1) b) (i) Description Diagram d p p (1) (1) (1)

Spherical / spherically symmetrical about the nucleus (1) (1)

(ii) Description Diagram

Dumb-bell shaped / double lobed (1)


y z x

(1)

c) 1s 2p 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4f 5d 6p (3) Deduct 1 mark for each mistake. d) The energy levels of the 4s and 3d orbitals are very similar (1) Depending on the chemical species in which atoms are found, sometimes 3d is higher and sometimes lower in energy (1) In the elemental forms of transition elements, 4s is of lower energy (1) Maximum 2 marks

AS Level

TOPIC 1 ANSWERS & MARK SCHEMES

QUESTIONSHEET 10
ELECTRON AFFINITY a) (i) The enthalpy change / energy released when each of 1 mole of gaseous oxygen atoms (1) gains an electron to form O- (g) (1) Allow enthalpy change (1) for O (g) + e- O- (g) (1)

(ii) O- (g) + e- O2- (g) (2) (1 for species ; 1 for state symbols) (iii) First electron affinity is exothermic (1) because the positive nuclear charge attracts a negatively charged electron (1) is endothermic (1) because O- is negatively charged and repels an incoming negatively charge electron (1)

Second electron affinity

b) (i)

Down the group from chlorine the shielding effect increases / effective nuclear charge decreases (1) the 1st electron affinities will be decreasingly exothermic / will decrease in magnitude (1)

(ii) Chlorine is in the same period as sulphur, but in a higher group (1) it has a larger effective nuclear charge (1) the magnitude of electron affinity is greater for chlorine (1) (iii) Anomalous means that fluorine does not fit in with the general trend given in b)(i) (1) The electron affinity of fluorine is of smaller magnitude / less exothermic than for chlorine (1) Fluorine is a very small atom (1) The seven outer shell electrons in a fluorine atom, being negatively charged and close together, repel the incoming electron (1) Maximum 3 marks

AS Level

TOPIC 1 ANSWERS & MARK SCHEMES

QUESTIONSHEET 11
ATOMIC RADII a) Atomic shielding Reduction of the attractive force between the electrons in the outer shell of an atom (1) and the nucleus (1) by the presence of inner shell electrons (1) Nuclear charge A positive charge (1) which is directly proportional to the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom (1) Effective nuclear charge The force of attraction experienced by outer shell electrons (1) It is affected by the nuclear charge, radius of the atom and the shielding effect (1) and therefore it is smaller than the nuclear charge (1) Maximum 2 marks

b) (i)

Across a period nuclear charge increases (1) but shielding does not alter as no more inner shell electrons are added (1) Therefore the effective nuclear charge increases (1) and outer shell electrons are pulled more closely to the nucleus and atomic radii decrease (1) Maximum 3 marks

(ii) Down a group nuclear charge increases (1) but shielding increases even more (1) so the effective nuclear charge is reduced (1) Therefore outer shell electrons are attracted less strongly and atomic radii increase (1) Maximum 3 marks (iii) Across a row of d-block elements electrons are entering an inner subshell (1) Therefore both screening and nuclear charge increase (1) These effects counterbalance each other / no great change in effective nuclear charge (1) Therefore atomic radii remain similar (1) Maximum 3 marks

AS Level

TOPIC 1 ANSWERS & MARK SCHEMES

QUESTIONSHEET 12
COMPARISONS OF ATOMIC AND IONIC RADII

a) Sodium has a larger radius than chlorine (1) They occupy the same period, and across a period atomic radii decrease (1) because effective nuclear charge increases / number of protons in the nucleus increases (1) b) Rubidium ion has a larger radius than sodium ion (1) The elements occupy the same group and down a group ionic radii increase (1) because the effective nuclear charge decreases (1) c) Radius of Cu+ is larger than that of Cu2+ (1) The nuclear charges of Cu+ and Cu2+ are the same, but Cu2+ has fewer electrons (1) Therefore outer shell electrons are pulled more closely to the nucleus (1) d) Radius of Cl- is larger than that of Cl (1) The nuclear charges of Cl and Cl- are the same, but there are more outer shell electrons in Cl- (1) Repulsion between these electrons causes an increase in size (1) e) Radius of H- is larger than that of H+ (1) H+ has no outer shell electrons (1) H- has two (1) f) Radius of O2- is larger than that of O- (1) 2O2- and O- have same nuclear charge, but O has more outer shell electrons (1) Repulsion between these electrons causes an increase in size (1)

AS Level

TOPIC 1 ANSWERS & MARK SCHEMES

QUESTIONSHEET 13
IONISING RADIATIONS

a) (i) Radiation Nature of radiation Helium nucleus / 2 He / 2 H e (1) Emission of electrons


4
4 2+

Relative penetrative power

Alpha Beta (1)

Thin sheet of paper Thin sheet of aluminium (1)

Gamma

High energy electromagnetic radiation (1)

Lead block (1)

(ii)

-ve plate (cathode)

+ve plate (anode)

Source containing emitters of , and radiation

Sketch (1) - unaffected (1) - deflected to +ve plate to a greater extent than (1) - deflected to ve plate; larger radius than (1) due to its greater mass (1) b) (i) The stone contains radio-isotopes which eventually decay to form a radio-isotope of radon (1) This enters the lungs and can result in the development of a tumour (1)

(ii) The lining of the lungs is a very thin tissue (to permit gaseous exchange during breathing) (1) Radon is a gas (1)

AS Level

TOPIC 1 ANSWERS & MARK SCHEMES

QUESTIONSHEET 14
RADIOACTIVITY

a) (i)

An isotope with an unstable nucleus which decays, emitting ionising radiation (1)

(ii) Time for the number of unstable nuclei / atoms to decay by 50% (1) Or Time for the radiation emitted by a radio-isotope to fall to 50% of its original rate of emission (1) (iii) (iv)
22 8 90

Th 4 He + 2

22 4 88

Ra

(2) (For (iii) and (iv) deduct 1 mark for 1 mistake)

228 88

Ra

0 1

e+

228 89

Ac (2)

(v) For any suggestion involving loss of 1 particle and 2 particles (1), e.g.
232 90 228 88 228 89

Th 4 He + 2
0 1

228 88

Ra (1)

Ra Ac

e+ e+

228 89

Ac Th

(1)

(1) Allow other sequences (lose 1 mark for 1 mistake) b) (i) Radon is in group 0, therefore it is a noble gas with a complete octet of outer shell electrons and is chemically unreactive (1) Its nucleus is unstable, therefore it will emit radioactivity and form an isotope of a different element (1)

0 1

228 90

(ii) 3 days and 20 hours = 92 hours 19 days and 4 hours = 460 hours 460/92 = 5 t (1) 100% 50% 25% 12.5% 6.25% 3.13% Answer = 3.13 % (1) (iii) 100% 50% 25% 12.5% 6.25% 4 t (1) 4 52 s = 208 s = 3 min 28 s (1)
t t t t t t t t t

AS Level

TOPIC 1 ANSWERS & MARK SCHEMES

QUESTIONSHEET 15
APPLICATIONS OF RADIO-ISOTOPES a) Age of sample Assumptions One half-life (1) because counts reduced by 50% (1) Fresh wood at the time it was alive contained the same proportion of carbon-14 as fresh wood does today (1) The relic was originally made from fresh wood (1) The counts had been corrected for background radiation (1) Maximum 2 marks

b) Any example e.g. iodine-131 (1) Thyroid gland in neck accumulates iodine (1) Patient takes aqueous iodine-131. Rate of uptake can be measured by a radiation counter (1) c) (i)

Sketch
counter sheet source of radiation

Explanation A source of radiation is placed just after the rollers (1) Radiation is focused at the sheet (1) Radiation passing through is counted (1) If the count is too low, the steel is too thick / the rollers are closed up (1) but if the count is too high, the steel is too thin / the rollers are opened up (1) Maximum 4 marks. The first 3 marks can be obtained from the diagram. (ii) Long half-life (1) A radioactive isotope source with a short half-life would have to be replaced regularly (1) A decrease in the count could be due either to excessive steel thickness or deterioration of the source (1) The equipment would have to be recalibrated (1) Highly penetrating radiation is needed (1) Use a emitter (accept but not emitter) (1) Maximum 5 marks

AS Level

TOPIC 1 ANSWERS & MARK SCHEMES

QUESTIONSHEET 16 TEST QUESTION I


a) (i) Protons Effect Explanation Neutrons Effect Explanation Electrons Effect Explanation Deflection towards -ve plate / away from +ve plate (1) Protons are +vely charged (1) No deflection (1) Neutrons are uncharged / electrically neutral (1) Deflection towards +ve plate / away from -ve plate (1) Electrons are -vely charged (1)

(ii) Electrons (1) They have low mass / low momentum (1)
b) (i)

Number of protons Sulphur-32 Sulphur-33 Sulphur-34


(ii)

Number of neutrons 16 17 18

Number of electrons 16 16 16 (1) (1) (1)

16 16 16

32 16

S (1)

33 16

S (1)

34 16

S (1)
All identical (1) Sulphur-34 (1) All identical (1)

(iii) Highest first ionisation energy Highest melting point Greatest chemical reactivity

(iv) Ar = (32 0.950) + (33 0.0076) + (34 0.042) (1) = 30.40 + 0.25 + 1.43 = 32.08 (1)

AS Level

TOPIC 1 ANSWERS & MARK SCHEMES

QUESTIONSHEET 17 TEST QUESTION II


a) (i) 1s2 2s2 2p5 (1)

(ii) Group 7 (1) (iii) 19 (1) (iv) X consists of one isotope only (1) (v)
19 +

F (1) and 19F2+ (1)

(vi) As successive electrons are removed, the ion which remains has an increasing positive charge (1) so that more energy is needed to remove further electrons / there is a general increase in ionisation energy (1) Discontinuity between I7 and I8 as electrons start to be removed from the inner shell (1) b) (i) (ii) Group 3 (1)

Relative abundance

(1)

(1)

69 71 Mass/charge ratio (iii)

Lg I (1) (1) (1)

10 20 No. of electrons removed

30

c) YX3 (1)