Global Health and Health Policy 99: Research Methods in Global Health and Health Policy Harvard University Faculty

of Arts and Sciences Spring 2012 Course Syllabus Instructors: Keren Ladin ( PhD Candidate in Health Policy (Ethics) Prachi Sanghavi ( PhD Candidate in Health Policy (Evaluative Sciences & Statistics) Sorapop Kiatpongsan ( PhD Candidate in Health Policy (Decision Sciences) Alecia McGregor ( PhD Candidate in Health Policy (Political Analysis) Dorothy Romanus ( PhD Candidate in Health Policy (Decision Sciences)

Office hours to be posted online

Meeting Time and Place: Wednesdays 4 - 6 PM in Sever Hall 214

General Overview Global health and health policy are interdisciplinary fields of study that apply the theories and methods of statistics, sociology, political science, economics, management, decision science, and philosophy to study population health and health care. Research from these fields influence a variety of policy settings. For example, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, drew upon health policy research to develop programs for improving quality of care and lowering costs. Similarly, global health research informs international institutions, such as the World Health Organization, to determine health guidelines for all countries. At the local level, global health and health policy research can inform practices inside hospitals, initiate programs for diseases like HIV, and regulate the restaurant industries. In this course, we will: (1) introduce you to the fundamentals of research design and methods in global health and health policy, (2) assist you in developing your research projects, and (3) help you craft policy recommendations that can impact health care systems and public health. By understanding these fundamentals, you will also become a more discerning consumer of published research.

GHHP 99 does not meet the distributional requirements for the secondary field. Research Paper and Presentation The final research paper should include: ● ● A synthesis of relevant empirical literature and theoretical perspectives (6-8 pages) A clear discussion about how the research project fills gaps in existing knowledge or improves our understanding about the problem/field. Format requirements and expectations are listed below and will be discussed later in the semester. Course Requirements Students will be expected to complete assigned readings and participate in class discussions. but it satisfies the GHHP research requirement. grounded in a thorough literature review Execute your own research plans by collecting data. or juniors in the global health and health policy secondary field who receive prior permission from the course head. if applicable) (3-4 pages) A presentation and analysis of results from the investigation. They will also develop an original piece of health policy research. and submit the final paper on May 3. analyzing data. and identifying health policy implications Articulate your research findings – both in oral presentations (in informal class settings and in a formal “conference” setting) and in written presentation Critically evaluate empirical and theoretical papers in the global health and health policy literature Provide useful and critical comments to peers and colleagues Participate in research discussions by asking questions and sharing your evaluations of relevant global health and health policy topics Course Participants Course enrollment is limited to seniors in the global health and health policy secondary field. we hope that you will have learned to: ● ● ● ● ● ● Develop your own research questions and hypotheses. statement of hypotheses.Course Objectives By the end of this course. developing conclusions. 2012 summarizing their project. Students will also be asked to complete a small number of shorter assignments and present preliminary research findings to the class. (4-5 pages) ● ● . and description of the conceptual model (2-4 pages) A thorough description and justification of all research methods used (including sampling procedures and instruments used.

Course Grading Final grades in the course will be based on class participation. midterm presentation. During class. Three quarters of the way through the semester. . Students should use 12-point Times New Roman font and the paper should be double-spaced with 1-inch margins. and final paper. The final paper should be a minimum of 25 pages (a maximum of 30 pages) of text. students will give a short presentation on their research projects and receive feedback from their classmates and the instructors. cell phones must be turned off or set to vibrate mode. Late materials will not be accepted without prior discussion and permission from the instructors. Hypothesis Methods Homework Research Proposal Midterm Presentation Final Paper 15% 25% 3% 5% 5% 12% 20% 40% Assignments are due at the beginning of class. Research Question. excluding references and appendix sections. Class Protocol Students are expected to attend all classes and actively participate in group activities. laptops are prohibited unless approved by instructors on an individual basis. assignment completion. Please email all of the instructors if you expect to be absent. small group engagement. Class participation Assignments CITI Training Topic. During class. Faculty and students affiliated with the Global Health and Health Policy secondary field will be invited to attend the presentations.● A discussion section that includes 1) implications for health policy and/or future research and 2) a thorough description of all relevant study limitations (4-6 pages) Students should use section headers to break up the paper.

2012 at noon) Assignment Due 2 2/1/12 3 2/8/12 4 5 6 2/15/12 2/22/12 2/29/12 Ethical considerations in research Quantitative methods .Article critique 11 4/4/2012 In Class Presentations (Round 1) In Class Presentation In Class Presentation 12 4/11/2012 In Class Presentations (Round 2) 13 4/18/2012 Research in practice.descriptive inference. literature review. 2012 at noon) 7 3/7/2012 Qualitative methods 8 9 3/14/2012 Spring Break – NO CLASS 3/21/2012 Scientific Writing 10 3/28/2012 Case Study . . Hypothesis (due Monday February 6. May 3rd. hypothesis. March 19.Course Outline # 1 Date 1/25/12 Title Course Introduction – broad course requirements and logistics – and how to think about a good research question. 2012 at noon) CITI training (due February 15. cost-effectiveness analysis Quantitative methods . 2012 at noon) Research Proposal (due Monday. Hypothesis generation How to conduct a health policy study: Getting started! (Research question.causal inference Homework (will be posted. translating research into policy 14 4/25/2012 Course wrap-up Final Research Paper (25 pages) Due: Thursday. research design) In-class group work Topic. due February 29. Research Question.

Browner WS.  The Health Affairs Journal Webpage (http://www.  Creswell.Sep. We will also introduce you to ways of generating research ideas and transforming them into good research questions. 2001. We will also consider which types of research designs might be appropriate to answer your research question. Vol. depending on the type of question at hand. Williams & Wilkins: New York. 2009.” Pp. (http://www. and how might you go about collecting or accessing data.nejm. . pp. (Eds) Designing Clinical Research. 6 (Aug. “Research Design: Qualitative. Browner WS. (Available through J-STOR). Am J Health-Syst Pharm—Vol 65 Sep 1. Formulating a Hypothesis and Choosing a Study Design Alecia McGregor and Keren Ladin Description: After you’ve formulated a research question. as well as what constitutes an excellent literature review. No.pdf)  Lipowski EE. how do you go about looking for answers? In this session. and motivations behind the course design. Hearst N.. Developing great research questions. 2005).Conducting a Literature Review. Hulley Readings (Suggested):  The New England Journal of Medicine Webpage (The Health Policy Session: ngYoungInvestigators/AJHPResearchFundamentalsSeries/Developinggreatresearchquestions. you will learn how to effectively conduct the research involved in putting together your literature review. Cummings SR. Newman TB.ashpfoundation. Grady D. John W.mcgill. 2008. Readings:  Boote DN & Beile P (2005). (To be posted online) . 17-24 in: Hulley SB. course objectives. 2nd Ed. we will review the syllabus.” Educational Researcher. Lippincott. Chapter 1. “Conceiving the Research Question.Week 1: 1/25/2012 Exploring and Generating Health Policy Research Ideas and Research Sorapop Kiatpongsan and all Instructors Description In this session. Quantitative.(http://www. and Mixed-Methods Approaches” 3rd Edition. Los Angeles: Sage Publications. 3-15. “Scholars Before Researchers: On the Centrality of the Dissertation Literature Review in Research  Cummings SR. An Epidemiologic Approach. aspx) Week 2: 2/1/2012 How to Start a Research Project

http://www. available at this website: http://www6. why you are interested in studying that topic. If you have more than one topic in mind. Guatemala study from 1940s reflects a ‘dark chapter’ in medicine. such as informed consent and ethical data collection . 2001. Listening to narratives from the Tuskeee syphilis study. research question.aspx?id=4919& 2011.pdf Case:  Reverby. 91(11):1776-1782. SM. and Other Ethical Quandaries in Health Policy Research Keren Ladin Description: This class will review the components of the IRB proposal for GHHP 99 and discuss relevant and hypothesis and come to class prepared with three comments and suggestions. as well as to receive feedback on your own chosen topic. your research question.  Reverby. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 2002.pdf *For this session. Readings:  IRB-Proposal for GHHP 99 (To be posted on class website). An Ethics Framework for Public Health. ZA.1776)  Bhutta.11. Lancet.scielosp. Ethics in international health research: a perspective from the developing world.  Minogue K and E Marshall.thehastingscenter. ** Assignment Due Before Class on February 8th: Brief description (limited to 1 page) of a potential research topic in health policy.  Kass. Week 4: 2/15/2012 Research Ethics: The Harvard IRB. Science. all students are required to complete the online CITI training.91. Informed Consent.ezpprod1. 330(6001):160. 377(9778):1646-1647.full. you will have a chance to offer feedback on your peers’ research topics.aphapublications.harvard. please rank them in order by excitement or interest in the topic. http://www. and your hypothesis statement. 10/06/2010. (http://ajph.Week 3: 2/8/2012 In-Class Group Session All Instructors Description: In this session. Readings:  Read your partner’s topic. NE. We will also discuss some of the ethical challenges of health policy research using a case Hasting Center Report Blog. American Journal of Public 2010.

ezp-prod1.0S0264410X06006591-main..D. students will be introduced to causal statistical inference. 1996. (To be posted online)  Super Crunchers. Vaccine Lynne Gaffikin.H. Recommendations for Reporting Cost-effectiveness Analyses. CostEffectiveness of Cervical-Cancer Screening in Five Developing Countries. New York. M.harvard. A. Goldie.D. During the second hour. How should physicians treat evidence-based medicine? (to be posted online)  Sue J.nejm.163. Jeremy D. S3: 155. Milton Jeremy D.ama-assn. 276: 1339 – 1341. Goldie. and health resource allocation.D. Readings:  Dowd B.P. Siegel.pdf+html Please skim through this applied example of cost-effectiveness analysis:  Sue J. Ian Ayres. Dorothy Romanus Description: In this class.” 1995..pdf .B. and Thomas C.D. September..sciencedirect. NEJM 353.D.. Chapter 4. students will be introduced to the methods and applications of decision analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis in health care technology assessment..1056/NEJMsa044278 Week 6: 2/29/2012 Quantitative Methods: Causal Inference Prachi Sanghavi. Goldhaber-Fiebert. which offer solutions for conducting research when experiments are not possible or feasible.P. Weinstein. et al.D. for the Alliance for Cervical Cancer Prevention Cost Working 0264410X06006591&_check=y&_origin=browse&_zone=rslt_list_item&_coverDate=200608-21&wchp=dGLzVlS-zSkzS&md5=c0e3521a1e55fe8f95160f11c1e88ea4/1-s2. and mathematical modeling. Readings:  Alan Zaslavsky. We will discuss randomized experiments and then discuss quasi-experimental analyses.. Louise B.hul. Chapter 18: Public health policy for cervical cancer prevention: The role of decision science. M. Geoffrey P. Amparo Gordillo-Tobar. Carol Levin. Does X Really Cause Y? AHRQ. JAMA. 2002. Ph.ezpprod1.20: 2158 – 2168. M. health policy analysis. http://www.Descriptive Inference and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Prachi Sanghavi.Week 5: 2/22/2012 Quantitative Methods . http://jama.pdf  Joanna E. Town R. M. “Notes on Research Design and Data Collection. Cedric Ph. Russell.H. Goldhaber-Fiebert. Bantan Dell. http://www...hul. http://pdn. Garnett. Dr. Dorothy Romanus Description: This first hour of this class will introduce students to descriptive statistical inference and survey design.harvard. economic evaluation.academyhealth.

Schneider and J. C. Clayton Nail. A. Z. Aucott SW. Shadish. 2009. Vol. Cook. 2011: Students must email a research proposal--a document that includes both a draft Introduction (literature review. M. Readings:  Miquel-Verges F. A. Woods SL. Zaslavsky. Catherine and Nick Mays.Sc. Ayanian.” BMJ. 2002. E. Public policy for the poor? A randomised assessment of the Mexican universal health insurance programme. Gary King. 1995. 3/10 – 3/18 NO CLASS--.  Read Chapter 1: 1-26. In this session. Campbell. Trends in the quality of care and racial disparities in Medicare managed care. Chapter 2: 53-63. 311: 109-112. 128-130. Skim: 11-18 William R.124(4):e573-9. 2011. the differences between qualitative and quantitative research. Boss RD. 156-161.1056/NEJMsa051207 Please skim this example paper of a quasi-experimental design. Sulpar LJ. Ph. N. “Prenatal consultation with a neonatologist for congenital anomalies: parental Donohue PK. Chapter 8: 246-269. ***Assignment Due March 19.” BMJ. http://www. 2009 Oct.  Pope. Chapter 4: 103-110. Research Scientist and Assistant Director of the Harvard Opinion Research Program (Guest Lecturer) Description: Researchers that conduct qualitative research can provide unique and powerful perspectives on social science phenomena.. among others. 115-118.” Pediatrics. et al.. Emmanuela Gakidou.   Read: 1-10. Lancet 373(9673): 1447-54.D. Nick and Catherine Pope. Experimental and QuasiExperimental Designs for Generalized Causal Inference. “Rigour and Qualitative Research. hypothesis and significance) (5 pages) and a brief description of research methods (1 page) by 12:00pm on March 19. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Donald T. Jason Lakin. 311: 42-45.  Mays. “Reaching the parts other methods cannot reach: an introduction to qualitative methods in health and health services research. Trivedi. Chapter 3: 83-93. Epub 2009 Sep 7. and the importance of maintaining high quality standards when employing these research methods. http://dash. N Engl J Med 2005. Moore. Kosuke Immai. 1995.harvard.pdf?sequence=1 Please skim this example paper of an experimental design. Chapter 5: 135-144. The specific techniques that we’ll be reviewing include in-depth interviews and focus groups.SPRING BREAK . Nirmala Ravishankar. Thomas D.nejm. Week 7: 3/7/2012 Qualitative Methods Gillian Steel-Fisher. Ryan T. we will discuss the fundamentals of qualitative research. Vol. research question.353:692-700.

TIME magazine. Readings: None . and provide you with a set of tools that will allow you to effectively convey your findings.g. One half of the class will present this week. Discussions will also focus on challenges in describing the methodology and presenting key findings. New York Times and the Boston Globe) will be selected to be a model to discuss how health policy studies are communicated to and perceived by the public. Reading: The article will be assigned 1 week prior to the class time.Week 9: 3/21/2012 Scientific Writing: How to Communicate Your Research Effectively Guest Speaker: Donald Halstead ****NOTE-SPECIAL CLASS TIME: 6:15-8:15**** Description: This session will present ways to improve your academic writing skills. how academic writing differs from other writing forms. We will review some of the most common writing pitfalls. discuss IMRAD. and receive feedback from their peers and instructors. Week 11: 4/4/2012 Midterm Presentations Round 1 All Instructors Description: Students will give short presentations of their research in progress. Readings: TBD Week 10: 3/28/2012 A Case Study Sorapop Kiatpongsan Description: A health policy article recently highlighted in popular media outlets (e..

 ***Assignment Due May 3. “TESTING. Commencement 2007. 12/14/2009. 5. David M. Week 14: 4/25/2012 Moving Beyond-. Chapin (2010). TESTING.Week 12: 4/11/2012 Midterm Presentations Round 2 All Instructors Description: Students will give short presentations of their research in progress.How Research and Health Policy Might Be Relevant to the Rest of My Life All Instructors Description: Global health care leaders both use and create research daily. 7 : Iss.” New Yorker.harvard. Otto Eckstein Professor of Applied Economics Description: This session will illustrate the linkage between research and policy. and will illustrate the importance of evidence-based policies in today’s health care environment. The remaining half of the class will give their presentations. (2010) "The Simple Economics of Health Reform." The Economists' Voice: Vol. We’ll discuss various career options within the field of health policy. Atul. 2012 at 11:59pm: Final Research Papers . and explore how individuals in these roles employ their research skills to affect political. and economic outcomes. "The Health Care Reform Legislation: An Overview. Available online at: http://news. Readings:  Cutler. 5." The Economists' Voice: Vol. social. Vol. Article 1. PhD. Article 2. Readings: None Week 13: 4/18/2012 Research in Practice: How Research Guides Policy David Cutler. Issue 41  Remarks of Bill Gates. Our goal in this final session is to help you draw connections between the lessons discussed in class and your future career. and receive feedback from their peers and instructors. 7: Iss. Readings:  Gawande. 85.

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