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Abstract
This section summarizes the contents and explains the organization of the Electrical Manual. This manual is divided into two volumes. Volume 1 contains the engineering guidelines with accompanying appendices. Volume 2 contains specifications, industry codes and standards, and engineering drawings and forms. PC disks with EG specifications are included at the end of Volume 2. Both volumes have a table of contents and a complete index to aid you in finding specific subjects.

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Scope and Application


The Electrical Manual provides engineering guidelines and specifications pertaining to electrical engineering. These guidelines include design and calculation procedures, sample calculations, standard engineering practices, and data for designing electrical power systems, and guidance for applications of electrical components. The guidelines also contain background information and references. The model specifications include comments that explain their provisions and clarify interpretations based on Company experience. This manual is written for entry-level engineers and nonspecialists regardless of experience. This manual should not be used as a substitute for sound engineering judgment, nor should it take precedence over the judgment of the experienced specialist in electrical engineering. The intent of this manual is to provide practical, useful information based on Company experience and established practices. Therefore, forms are provided in the front of the manual for your convenience in suggesting changes. Your knowledge and experience are important for improving subsequent printings and keeping this manual up to date.

Organization
The colored tabs in the manual will help you find information quickly. White tabs are for table of contents, introduction, appendices, PC disks, index, and general purpose topics. Blue tabs denote engineering guidelines. Gray tabs are for model specifications, industry standards, and standard drawings. Red tab marks a place to keep documents developed at your facility.

Engineering Guidelines
The Electrical Manual covers a range of topics relating to electrical systems and equipment: system design; system studies and protection; hazardous (classified) areas; motor control centers; switchgear, protective devices, switches, and transformers; grounding systems; installation of electrical facilities; wire and cable and lighting; auxiliary power systems; and electrical checkout, commissioning, and maintenance. A summary of each section of the manual with pertinent specifications is given below.

Section 100, System Design


This section contains guidelines for the design of an electrical distribution system, to be used when designing a new distribution system or making significant additions to an existing system. The section gives an overview of the electrical design

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process, from project inception through detailed final design, including: design concepts and practices; load summary, power source, and auxiliary power systems; bus arrangement, system voltages, and one-line diagram; system studies, equipment sizing, and enclosure selection; feeder and branch circuit systems; and grounding, lighting, and system protection. Other sections of the manual are cited for details for specifying equipment. A flow chart illustrates the sequence of design activities required for designing an electrical distribution system and directs the reader to other pertinent sections of the manual. Also included are a list of references, an appendix for sizing automatic transfer switches (Appendix A), a technical paper, Features of a Power System Incorporating Large AC Motors/Captive Transformers (Appendix B), Model Specification ELC-MS-1675, Installation of Electrical Facilities, and data sheet and data guide for ELC-DS-597, Instructions for 480 V Motor Control Rack Specification and Arrangement.

Section 200, System Studies and Protection


This section gives an introduction to electrical power system studies for the design of new systems or the modification of existing systems. These studies, which serve as a framework for analyzing critical factors in power system design, include: a short-circuit study, a motor-starting study, and a load flow analysis. Also included is a brief discussion of studies for transient stability and harmonic analysis. A list of references is provided along with a technical paper for performing a short-circuit study (Appendix C).

Section 300, Hazardous (Classified) Areas


This section discusses the classification of locations for electrical installations. It gives guidance for the selection of electrical equipment for hazardous (classified) areas. Topics discussed include: definitions of hazardous (classified) areas; maximum operating temperature and equipment enclosures; hermetically sealed devices and intrinsically safe systems; and nonincendive equipment and purged enclosures. A list of references is included along with the engineering form ELCEF-652, Conduit Stub-up Arrangement.

Section 400, Motor Control Centers


This section provides information for selecting 600 volt, 2400 volt, and 5 kV motor control centers (MCCs). It discusses the relationship of motors and starters, control methods, ratings, enclosures, selection, and customizing. Also included is a discussion of motor protection, overvoltages, and surge arrestors, and descriptions of NEMA ratings. The section refers to Company model specifications, data sheets and data guides, and engineering forms that relate to motor control centers and starters. Model specifications included in this manual with data sheets and data guides are: ELC-MS3977, Medium Voltage Current-limiting Fused Motor Starters, and ELC-MS-4371,

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Adjustable Frequency Drives. Other relevant data sheets and guides included are: ELC-DS-366, Motor Control Center Specification and Arrangement, and ELC-DS597, Motor Control Rack Specification and Arrangement. Engineering form ELCEF-592, Wiring Diagram for Motor and Contractor Installation, is also provided.

Section 500, Switchgear


This section discusses switchgear assemblies and their application in an industrial facility. Specific steps in the design process are identified, including the use of standard forms and major selection factors. The section also aids in selecting switchgear for distribution and application of power up to 15 kV nominal. Also included is a glossary of terms and acronyms and a list of references. Two model specifications are included: ELC-MS-3908, Medium Voltage 5 kV and 15 kV Metal-Clad Switchgear, and ELC-MS-3907, Low Voltage (600 V maximum) Drawout Circuit Breaker Switchgear. Data sheets and guides relating to this section are: ELC-DS-3908, Medium Voltage Switchgear, and ELC-MS-3987, Low Voltage Switchgear.

Section 600, Protective Devices


This section addresses the two major electrical system hazards, overload and short circuit, and the risk posed by each. It discusses system protective devices, particularly circuit breakers and fuses, and the operation of the principal components of any protective scheme. The section also discusses indirect protective control, specifically relays for large motors. Circuit breakers and fuses are described with their typical numerical values. Also included are examples of relay coordination studies and time-current curves, a comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of fuses, and a list of references.

Section 700, Switches


This section describes and compares five types of switches used in power circuits: disconnect switches, load interrupter switches, safety switches, automatic transfer switches, and oil-fused cutouts. These switches are compared on the basis of their interrupting capabilities, and fusing is discussed for all except the disconnect switch. Model specification, data sheet, and data sheet guide for ELC-MS-3944, Load Interrupter Switches, are included. The standard drawing relating to this section is GFP99972, 480 Volt Stand-by Power System One-Line Diagram.

Section 800, Transformers


This section provides technical and practical guidance for specifying distribution, power, lighting, and control transformers, including insulation for transformers, classes of self-cooled transformers, and grounding resistors and bushing current transformers. This section also lists and briefly discusses: documents containing the latest applicable standards and codes; ratings, including operating conditions; design characteristics; accessories, including liquid level gage, fluid thermometers, pressure vacuum gage, pressure relief diagram in cover, sampling device, pressure regu-

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lator, provisions for cooling fans, sudden pressure relays, and neutral current transformer; and quality assurance tests. To determine transformer size, use the guidelines in Section 100. Section 600 describes transformers for relaying (current transformers and potential transformers), and describes transformer types and their special roles in the power system. A transformer data sheet, ELC-DS-401, and data sheet guide are also included, along with an appendix, Minimum Requirements for Dry-Type Transformers (Appendix D).

Section 900, Grounding Systems


This section contains guidelines and procedures for selecting grounding methods for generation and distribution systems. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed and specific recommendations are made. Included are: procedures for system, equipment, lighting, and static grounding of Company installations in the United States; descriptions of how and where to ground electrical systems and what equipment to use; methods of preventing static buildup; and how to protect against the effects of lightning. This section also includes the mandatory and recommended practices for grounding and the design parameters for grounding systems for onshore and offshore applications. Two model specifications pertaining to this guideline are: ICM-MS-3651, Installation Requirements for Digital Instruments and Process Computers, and ELC-MS1675, Installation of Electrical Facilities. Standard drawings relating to this section are: GD-P99734, Grounding DetailsGrounding Electrodes; GF-P99735, Grounding DetailsEquipment Connections; and GF-J1236, Typical Ground System for Digital Instruments and Process Computers.

Section 1000, Installation of Electrical Facilities


This section discusses general design and installation practice for electrical facilities, with reference to specification ELC-MS-1675, Installation of Electrical Facilities, included in the manual. Specific guidance is given for the design and installation of conduit systems, cable tray systems, and direct burial cable. Also included is a discussion of the installation of electrical equipment: switchgear, motor control centers (MCCs), transformers, UPS systems, and UPS batteries. Besides Model Specification ELC-MS-1675, a list of standard electrical items (Pitems) are included (ELC-MS-4377), along with seven standard drawings (see Section 1082) and engineering form ELC-EF-70, Conduit and Wire Schedule. Also provided with this guideline are the following: Installation Practices for Cable Raceway Systems (Appendix E); API RP 540, Recommended Practice for Electrical Installations in Petroleum Processing Plants; and API RP 14F, Design and Installation of Electrical Systems for Offshore Production Platforms.

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Section 1100, Wire and Cable


This section gives guidance in the selection of wire and cable for power, lighting, control, instrumentation, and communication circuits. The details of the construction of wire and cable are discussed, including conductors, outer jackets, armor, and shielding. Special wire and cable system designs and typical cables are addressed, including: instrument and telemetering cables; power limited tray cable; high temperature, flame retardant, and fire cable; thermocouple extension cable; computer cable; fiber optic cable; shipboard, submarine, and submersible pump cables; instrument, control, and alarm cable; and fire hazard area cable. A glossary with definitions of terms and abbreviations and acronyms is also included, along with a list of references and standards. Four model specifications that pertain to this guideline are included in the manual: ELC-MS-2447, 5 kV and 15 kV Insulated Power Cable; ELC-MS-3551, Instrument and Control Cable Single and Multi-pair (or multi-triad) Construction; ELC-MS3552, Twisted and Shielded Thermocouple Extension Cable Single and Multi-pair Construction; and ELC-MS-3553, 600 Volt Multi-conductor Control Cable. Industry standards contained in the manual are: API RP 14F, Design and Installation of Electrical Systems for Offshore Production Platforms, and API RP 540, Electrical Installations in Petroleum Processing Plants.

Section 1200, Lighting


This section gives technical and practical guidelines for the design and selection of lighting systems. It defines and describes lighting, different types of light sources, factors to consider when selecting lamps and fixtures, and the design, layout, and maintenance of lighting systems. Design considerations, including acceptable lighting levels for specific areas, economic factors, safety issues, and different methods for determining the number and layout (location) of fixtures, are also discussed. Types of light sources (lamps) discussed include: incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps, high intensity discharge lamps, and lamp designations. The lighting calculations include discussions of the lumen maintenance factor (LMF), the watts-per-square foot method, and the iso-footcandle method, with examples of fixture layout using the iso-footcandle method. This section also contains a glossary and list of references and the following engineering forms: ELC-EF-484, Lighting Schedule; ELC-EF-599, Lighting Standards, Flood Lighting Fixtures and Manufacturing Details; and ELC-EF-600, Standard Lighting Poles, Fixtures, and Receptacle Mountings.

Section 1300, Auxiliary Power Systems


This section describes auxiliary power systems in industrial plants and provides guidelines for specifying the most commonly used equipment for auxiliary power systems. It also lists and describes various disturbances and outages in power systems, their effects, and methods for managing them. Power conditioning equipment discussed includes: power synthesizers, motor-generators, uninterruptible

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power supply (UPS), and dual feeds. A list of references and industry standards is also included. Two model specifications with data sheets and data sheet guides pertain to this section: ELC-MS-2643, Solid State AC Uninterruptible Power Supply; and ELCMS-4802, DC Power Battery Storage System. Standard Drawing GF-P99972, 480 V Stand-by Power System One-Line Diagram, is also referenced.

Section 1400, Electrical Checkout, Commissioning, and Maintenance


This section establishes requirements for the checkout and commissioning of newly installed or upgraded electrical systems. It discusses preventive maintenance of electrical systems and equipment. Inspection and testing checklists are provided. Company equipment specifications and data sheets for factory checkout and testing of most equipment are also in this section. Testing methods and topics discussed include: visual inspections, insulation testing, insulation liquid testing, protective device testing, impedance and resistance measurements, infrared inspections, transformer fault-gas analysis, functional and operational testing, and factory testing. Standard references are cited as well as the following specifications and engineering forms: ELC-MS-2469, DC High Potential Testing Medium Voltage Cable and Electrical Equipment; ELC-MS-4744, Electrical Systems Checkout and Commissioning; DRI-EG-3547, Inspection and Testing of Large Motors and Electrical Generators; and ELC-EF-645, High Potential Test Record Sheet.

Section 1500, Adjustable Speed Drives


This section discusses the application of low voltage (LV) and medium voltage (MV) adjustable speed drives. It covers basic theory of drives, when to apply an adjustable speed drive and the economic benefits of drives. Also discussed are the steps involved with selecting and installing drives. Specific studies, like rotor dynamic and harmonic analysis are also briefly described. Finally, testing, commissioning and maintaining drives is covered.

Section 1600, Design of Electrical Systems for ESP Installations Guideline


This section contains a guideline that is intended to provide guidance unique to the design of electrical systems for oil-field Electrical Submersible Pump (ESP) installations. Downhole operating conditions are harsh and ESPs can have relatively short run lives. If application issues related to the electrical system are not sufficiently considered, they can contribute significantly to problems and unreliability of the ESP system. Due to the large variation in downhole conditions (e.g., depth, temperature, pressure, fluid characteristics, liquid flow rates, and well injection fluids or gases) this guideline focuses on above ground design issues.

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Specifications Drawings and Forms (Volume 2)


This part of the manual contains (1) Company specifications in commented form; (2) Company standard drawings and forms that pertain to the areas discussed in the guidelines; and (3) industry standards that are pertinent to the guidelines.

Other Company Manuals


The text sometimes refers to documents in other Company manuals. These documents carry the prefix of that manual. The prefixes and their referents are: Prefix CIV CMP COM CPM DRI ELC EXH FFM FPM HTR ICM IRM MAC NCM PIM PMP PPL PVM TAM UTL WEM Company Manual Civil and Structural Compressor Coatings Corrosion Prevention and Metallurgy Driver Electrical Heat Exchanger and Cooling Tower Fluid Flow Fire Protection Manual Fired Heater and Waste Heat Recovery Instrumentation and Control Insulation and Refractory General Machinery Noise Control Piping Pump Pipeline Pressure Vessel Tank Utilities Welding

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Abstract
This section provides engineering guidelines for the design of an electrical distribution system. It should be used when designing a new distribution system or making significant additions to an existing system. This section gives an overview of the electrical design processfrom project inception through detailed final design. Design considerations and practices are also discussed. An overview of major design concepts, such as system studies and grounding, is presented. Other sections in this manual that describe these concepts in more detail are referenced. Procedures for sizing equipment are included and other sections of the manual are cited for details for specifying equipment. Also included is a flow chart showing the typical sequence of design events and directing the reader to other sections of the manual. Contents 110 111 112 113 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 130 131 System Design Introduction Design Procedure Basic Design Considerations Conceptual Design Load Summary Type of System Power Source Auxiliary Power Systems Bus Arrangement System Voltages One-Line Diagram Area Classification Detailed Design System Studies 100-26 100-6 Page 100-3

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132 133 134 135 136 137 140 141 142 143 144 145

Equipment Sizing Enclosure Selection Feeder and Branch Circuit Systems Grounding Lighting System Protection References Model Specifications (MS) Standard Drawings Data Sheets (DS), Data Guides (DG), and Engineering Forms (EF) Appendices Other References 100-60

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110 System Design


111 Introduction
This section presents recommendations for the design of an electrical system. Factors that influence design are discussed, and procedures for sizing equipment are included. Recommended design practices and alternate designs are described. Figure 100-1 illustrates the steps involved in the system design process. It also identifies other sections of this manual that contain more detail about specific subjects and guidelines for selecting equipment.

112 Design Procedure


This section should be used with other information (e.g., the process Piping and Instrument Diagram and Plot Plan) to develop a one-line diagram and to select a distribution system. A one-line diagram (Figure 100-2) is a schematic drawing that illustrates the overall electrical system configuration and contains information on equipment sizing. It is described in more detail in Section 127. Figure 100-2 identifies other sections of Section 110, System Design, where guidelines that pertain to particular equipment can be found. The overall system design is divided into two stages: conceptual design and detailed design. Conceptual design begins at the inception of a project and includes: 1. 2. 3. 4. Gathering process and load data. Choosing the most suitable system configuration and bus arrangements for the particular application. Selecting a power source. Determining system voltages.

Detailed design involves: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Developing the one-line diagram. Performing system studies. Sizing equipment and feeder systems. Designing grounding and lighting systems. Designing system protection.

113 Basic Design Considerations


The following basic design considerations must be included in the design of all electrical systems.

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Fig. 100-1

System Design Guide

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Fig. 100-2

General One-Line Diagram for Electrical Distribution System

Safety. Safety of life and preservation of property are the most critical factors that must be considered when designing an electrical system. Established codes and standards must be followed in the selection of material and equipment to ensure a safe system design. Petroleum production and processing involve flammable liquids and gasses, often at elevated temperatures and pressures. Electrical systems must be designed to prevent accidental ignition of these flammable liquids and gases. Reliability. The degree of continuity of service required is dependent on the type of process or operation of the facility. Some facilities can tolerate interruptions, while others cannot. The power source, the electrical equipment, and the protection system should provide the maximum dependability consistent with the facility requirements and justifiable costs. Maintenance. Maintenance requirements should be considered when designing electrical systems. A well-maintained system is safer and more reliable. Systems

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should be designed to allow maintenance without major interruptions to the process. It is important to consider accessibility and availability (for inspection and repair) when selecting and locating equipment. Operating and maintenance personnel should be consulted for preferred system configurations and existing maintenance procedures. See Section 1400, for more details about maintenance. Flexibility. Flexibility of the electrical system determines the adaptability to meet varied requirements during the life of the facility. Voltage levels, equipment ratings, space for additional equipment, and capacity for increased load should be considered. Simplicity of Operation. Operation should be as simple as possible to meet system requirements. Simplicity of operation is a necessary factor in achieving safe and reliable systems. Voltage Regulation. Utilization voltage must be maintained within equipment tolerance limits under all load conditions. Poor voltage regulation is detrimental to the life and operation of electric equipment. Cost. While initial costs are important, the lifetime cost also should be considered. Safety, reliability, voltage regulation, maintenance, and potential for expansion should be considered in designing electrical systems and selecting equipment. Cost reductions achieved by using inferior apparatus should never be made at the expense of safety and performance.

120 Conceptual Design


121 Load Summary
A load summary is a detailed listing of all loads to be served by the electrical distribution system. It is used to determine the power requirements of a systemin order to properly size power sources, distribution equipment, and feeder systems. The load summary also aids in determining system voltages.

Load Data
To develop a load summary, data on all loads to be served and information about the facility processes should be collected first. Generally, industrial facility loads are a function of the process equipment. A list of loads must be obtained from the process and equipment designers. The list should include nameplate ratings of motors, brake-horsepower of electric motor-driven equipment, and kVA and kW ratings of all other process equipment. If available, design operating loads should be included. It is important that the system electrical designer acquire knowledge of the facility processes. This knowledge will assist in estimating loads and selecting the proper system and components. At the initial stages of design, accurate load data may be limited. Loads must be estimated until the design is finalized. It is better to estimate loads on the high side to avoid undersized equipment.

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Load Layout
For large facilities, a load layout should be created using the plot plan to show major load components. If available, individual horsepower ratings should be obtained. Loads located on the plan give a geographical view of the load density, which can be used to assist in devising a logical power distribution scheme. Familiarity with existing facilities is also helpful. A load center is defined as an assembly (lineup) of low-voltage (0-1000 volts) or medium voltage (1001-100,000 volts) switchgear. Load center breakers typically feed large motors, motor control centers, or other load centers. Areas containing high load densities should be identified as possibly requiring load centers. The load layout should then be used to assist in selecting the power distribution scheme. Section 122 discusses selection of the various types of distribution systems. Once the basic system has been selected, the load layout is used to assign loads to individual load centers and motor control centers (MCCs). Loads should be assigned to busses before beginning the load summary so that individual summaries can be made for each bus, making it easier to size system components. A low voltage motor control center (MCC) is a group of motor starters and thermal magnetic circuit breakers rated up to 600 volts. Typically, 460 volt motors rated 200 hp or less are fed from MCCs and started with combination motor starters. Larger 460 volt motors commonly are started with circuit breakers if they draw too much current for combination motor starters. A combination motor starter consists of a circuit breaker, a contactor, and an overload relay. Other loads (e.g., lighting and heating) are served by thermal magnetic circuit breakers in the motor control center. See Section 400, Motor Control Centers. A medium voltage MCC is a lineup of motor starters rated up to 7200 volts. Starters typically employ a current limiting fuse, a draw-out air or vacuum contactor, and ambient compensated overload relays.

Detailed Load Summary


A detailed load summary can be developed once the load data has been gathered, a load layout made, a basic distribution system chosen, and the loads assigned to individual busses. The procedures described in Sections 122 through 126 of the conceptual design phase must be performed before starting the one-line diagram and detailed load summary. The load summary is developed for three main reasons: 1. To determine the power requirements for each load center and motor control centerpermitting the designer to select distribution voltages and size distribution equipment (e.g., transformers, buses, circuit breakers, starters, and feeders). To determine power requirements for the entire systempermitting power sources to be sized. To provide a basis for a cost estimate.

2. 3.

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First, separate load summaries should be developed for each load center and motor control center. Next, the totals from these summaries should be combined to determine power requirements for the entire system. It is best to begin summarizing at the furthermost downstream bus (often a motor control center). Summarizing in the upstream direction should continue until the source is reached. Each new summary in the upstream direction will include load data from previous downstream summaries for use in sizing upstream equipment. Figure 100-3 shows an example of a one-line diagram for an electrical distribution system during the conceptual design phase. Figure 100-4 is a load summary for this system.
Fig. 100-3 One-Line Diagram for Load Summary Example

All significant loads in the electrical system, including planned future loads, should be listed on the summary by equipment type and number. Brake horsepower should be listed for electric motor-driven equipment. Horsepower ratings should be listed for electric motors and kVA ratings for other loads (e.g., lighting transformers, power receptacles, and heat tracing).

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The load summary should include a calculation of connected load. Connected load is the sum of electric ratings for all equipment served by the system, including planned future loads.
Fig. 100-4 Equip. No. MCC #300 WO-1 HTR-1 LP-7 MP-304 MP-304A MP-305 MP-305A LP-8 MP-308 Welding Outlet Heater Lighting Panel Pump Pump (Spare) Pump (Future) Pump (Future Spare) Lighting panel (Stand-by) Firepump (Stand-by) 30 43 43 20 20 50 50 25 25 20 40 100 50 50 25 25 50 30 50 30 50 30 50 30 25 25 20 40 100 50 20 40 100 50 Load Summary for System Shown in Figure 100-3 Rated hp Connected Load(1) (kVA) Intermittent Load (kVA) Running Load (kVA) Peak Load (kVA) Stand-by Load (kVA)

Description

BHP

___ Total Load Center #100 MP-101 MP-102 MP-103 MP-104 MCC#300 Pump Compressor Pump Compressor MCC #300 200 250 200 250 200 250 200 250 390 ____ Total 1290 390

__ 20

___ 295

___ 315

__ 80

200 250 200 250 20 __ 20 295 ____ 1195

200 250 200 250 315 ____ 1215 80 __ 80

(1) For motors where power factor and efficiency are not known, assume 1 hp load requires 1kVA.

Running load is the actual electrical load of the facility during operation. Running load is used to size utility service, generators, transformers, feeders, motor control centers, circuit breakers, and uninterruptible power supplies. To determine running load, individual loads must be identified as either continuous, intermittent, or spare. Running load is the sum of all continuous loads, including planned future continuous loads. Intermittent loads are included on a percentage basis; spare loads are not included in running load calculation.

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A continuous load is defined as a load that is expected to operate continuously for 3 hours or more. Intermittent loads are loads that operate continuously for periods of less than 3 hours. Spare loads are operated only when other loads are not operating. Power factor and efficiency must be known to calculate the running load. Power factor is defined as the ratio of real power (kW) to apparent power (kVA). A load with a low power factor (e.g., a motor) draws more current than a load with a higher power factor. Efficiency is defined as the ratio of output power to input power. Initially, only estimated horsepower ratings may be available, and power factor and efficiency must be estimated. When power factor and efficiency are not known, consider 1 hp of load to require 1 kVA of power. As actual power factors and efficiencies become available, particularly for large motors, the load summary should be updated. Two factors used to calculate the running load of motors for the sizing of transformers are demand factor and run factor. Demand factor is the ratio of actual operating load to nameplate rating. Run factor is the percentage of hours operating per day, expressed as a decimal equivalent. These factors generally are not used in the load summary. However, in cases where many large intermittent motors are connected to a bus, run factors and demand factors should be included in the running load calculations for economic reasons. Peak load, the maximum instantaneous load drawn by a system during a stated period of time, is obtained when the facility is operating at full capacity and the maximum instantaneous intermittent load is energized. All intermittent loads on a system normally will not be energized at the same time. Therefore, to estimate peak load the process must be evaluated to determine when the maximum intermittent load will be energized. Peak load is the sum of the running load and the maximum instantaneous intermittent load. Stand-by loads should be identified on the load summary to enable the electrical system designer to design the stand-by power system. Typically, stand-by loads include critical loads that cause damage to the process or product if power is interrupted, loads required for black start-up of a generator (e.g., jacket water heaters and pumps), selected plant lighting and HVAC loads, and sewage pumps. Emergency loads deemed essential for personnel safety (e.g., building egress lighting) and UPS loads that require clean uninterrupted power (e.g., computers and certain electronic instrumentation) should also be identified on the load summary. Typically, emergency loads are powered from unit equipment separate from the stand-by system because of the more stringent requirements of emergency systems. Refer to Sections 124 and 1300 for more information on stand-by, emergency, and UPS power systems. As the design evolves, load estimates should be updated constantly. It is important to coordinate with other design disciplines to ensure that up-to-date data are used.

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122 Type of System


Once the load layout has been developed and areas of high load concentrations have been identified, a power distribution scheme can be selected. A system should be selected that will distribute power to the load centers by the most economical and reliable means possible that meets the particular facility requirements. The primary distribution voltage can be distributed to the load centers economically and reliably with the following systems: Radial Primary selective Primary loop Secondary selective

Radial System
In the radial system, one primary service feeder supplies power from a distribution transformer to the loads (at utilization voltage) from a load center. This system is simple in operation, and expansion is accomplished easily. A disadvantage of the radial system is that a loss of the source or primary feeder will shut down all loads connected to that load center. Also, loads must be shut down for system maintenance and servicing. The radial system is satisfactory only for installations where the process allows sufficient down-time for adequate maintenance. Figure 100-5 is an example of a radial system.
Fig. 100-5 Example Depicting Radial System From IEEE Standard 142, 1993, Ch. 2. Used with permission

Primary Selective System


Protection against the loss of a primary supply can be gained through the use of a primary selective system. Each unit substation is connected to two separate primary

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feeders through switching equipment to provide a normal source and an alternate source. If the normal source fails, the distribution transformer is switched to the alternate source. Switching can be either manual or automatic, but there will be an interruption of power until the load is transferred to the alternate source. If both sources can be paralleled during switching, some maintenance of the primary cables (and, in certain configurations, switching equipment) may be performed without interruption of service. Cost is higher than for a radial system because of duplication of the primary cable and switchgear. Figure 100-6 is an example of a primary selective system.
Fig. 100-6 Example Depicting Primary Selective System From IEEE Standard 142, 1993, Ch. 2. Used with permission

Primary Loop System


The primary loop system offers the same basic protection against loss of primary supply as the primary selective system. A primary cable fault can be isolated by sectionalizingallowing restoration of service. The cost of this system may be slightly less than the primary selective system. The disadvantage of this system is that locating a cable fault in the loop is more difficult. The method of locating a fault by sectionalizing the loop and reclosing should not be performed since it is an unsafe practice because several reclosings on the fault may be required before the fault is located. In addition, a section may be energized from two directions. For these reasons, the primary loop system is not recommended for new facilities. Figure 100-7 is an example of a primary loop system.

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Fig. 100-7

Example Depicting Primary Loop System From IEEE Standard 142, 1993, Ch. 2. Used with permission

Secondary Selective System


If two unit substations are connected through a normally open secondary tie circuit breaker, the result is a secondary selective system. If the primary feeder or a transformer fails, the main secondary circuit breaker on the affected transformer is opened and the tie circuit breaker closed. Operation may be manual or automatic. Maintenance of primary feeders, transformers, and main secondary circuit breakers is possible with only momentary power interruption (or no interruption if the stations can be operated in parallel during switching). Complete station maintenance will require a shut down. With the loss of a primary circuit or transformer, the total substation load can be supplied by one transformer. To allow for this condition, one or a combination of the following features should be considered. 1. 2. 3. 4. Size the transformers so that either one can carry the total load (with fans). Provide forced-air cooling to the transformer(s) designated for emergency service. Designate nonessential loads that can be shed during emergency periods. Use the temporary overload capacity of the transformers (and accept the loss of transformer life).

A variation of the secondary selective system, a distributed secondary selective system, has two substations in different locationsconnected by a tie cable with a normally open circuit breaker provided in each substation. The cost of the additional tie circuit breaker and the tie cable should be compared to the cost advantage of locating the unit stations nearer the load center.

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In locations where interruptions cannot be tolerated, a variation of the secondary selective system is to provide a normally closed tie breaker, putting the two load centers in parallel. However, this method is allowed only if the available short circuit does not exceed the ratings of the secondary buses and breakers. Figure 100-8 is an example of a secondary selective system.
Fig. 100-8 Secondary Selective System From IEEE Standard 142, 1993, Ch. 2. Used with permission

123 Power Source


The power supply usually affects system reliability more than any other component. Whether power is obtained from a utility company or is generated, it must be reliable. Electrical failures can cause costly production down-time and equipment damage, as well as increase the risk of injury to personnel. Voltage dips can also be particularly troublesome when computers or high intensity discharge (HID) lighting (e.g., mercury vapor and high pressure sodium) are in use. When considering a utility as the source of power, it is important to investigate the outage history and the quality of the power from the utility. By assigning a dollar value to lost process time due to power interruptions, the degree of reliability required can be determined. If a facility elects to generate power, the quality and reliability of the generated power must be considered, as well as economics. Many economic factors must be considered when deciding whether to produce power or to buy it from a local utility. It is important to remember that many operations, notably refinery operations, require dual sources of power. The utility must be able to provide service to the double-ended substations that are common in refineries, and at a competitive cost. The feasibility (primarily from an economic standpoint) for a facility to generate its own electricity should be evaluated. Perhaps waste gases, waste heat, or other fuels are available at the facility to operate a generating unit; if not, the availability and cost of fuel should be determined. Should

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facility generation be total or partial? Should steam or hydrocarbon-fueled drivers be used? The cost of utility power varies from region to region, normally increasing with the distance transmitted. Obviously, the utility rates for power should be compared to costs of Company generation. If an adequate, economic, and reliable utility power source is available, the cost of stepping down the voltage to the desired level must be investigated. The cost of the utility providing stepdown transformers should be compared to the cost of the Company providing them. It is important to compare the time required to design and construct a facility generating unit to the time required for a utility to install or expand a substation or transmission line. It takes time to complete the engineering, obtain rights-of-way, prepare environmental statements, and file permit applications; and the delivery time for large equipment can be quite long. Also to be considered are available space, requirements for protection and coordination with the utility protection system, and metering requirements.

124 Auxiliary Power Systems


An auxiliary power system is designed to supply and distribute power to equipment when the normal electrical supply is interrupted. There are two types of auxiliary power systems: emergency and stand-by. This section describes each system, lists typical loads, and discusses criteria used in the selection and sizing of power sources. See Section 1300, Auxiliary Power Systems, for equipment details. The first step in designing auxiliary power systems is to identify the loads as either emergency or stand-by since there are different requirements for each system. Emergency systems are intended to automatically supply illumination and power to designated systems essential for personnel safety during power interruptions. These systems often are legally required and are classed as emergency systems by authorities having jurisdiction. Typical emergency loads include exit signs and lights required for the safety of personnel. Other loads connected to emergency power systems are ventilation systems essential to maintain life, fire and gas detection and alarm systems, elevators, fire pumps, and industrial processes where power loss would cause safety and health hazards. The National Electrical Code (NEC) requires that emergency power must be transferred automatically to emergency loads within 10 seconds after loss of normal power. Wiring of emergency circuits must be completely independent of all other wiring. Wiring is not permitted to utilize the same raceways, cables, boxes, or cabinets as normal wiring. See NEC Article 700 for complete requirements. Stand-by systems are used to provide electric power to aid in fire fighting, rescue operations, and control of health hazards. Typical loads include communication systems, ventilation and smoke removal systems, sewage disposal, certain lighting and HVAC systems, and industrial processes that, if stopped, could create hazards or hamper rescue or fire fighting operations.

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Stand-by systems also provide power to critical loads that could cause damage to processes or products, serious interruption to the process, or discomfort to personnel if power were interrupted. Equipment required to minimize re-start time or to initiate black start-up are often supported by the stand-by system. See NEC Articles 701 and 702 for requirements for transfer time, type of transfer, and wiring for stand-by systems.

Auxiliary Power Source


Once standby and emergency loads are identified, the number and type of power sources required can be determined. Emergency and stand-by loads may be fed from the same source or from separate sources. Because of requirements on wiring and transfer time for emergency loads, it is usually more economical to connect them to unit equipment and connect stand-by loads to a generator set. However, emergency and stand-by loads are sometimes connected to one source. Four types of power sources available for emergency and stand-by systems are: engine driven generator set, storage batteries, uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems, and unit equipment. Engine Driven Generator Set. This power supply may be used to provide both emergency and stand-by power. Means must be provided for automatic starting of the engine and automatic transfer of loads to the auxiliary source. This is the most common power source for emergency and stand-by loads. Storage Batteries. A storage battery supply consists of batteries and a batterycharging system. Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS). This power supply typically consists of a battery bank continuously charged from the supply line through a charger and an inverter that converts the DC voltage of the batteries to an AC supply. UPS is used to supply emergency and stand-by loads that require a high quality of conditioned power with no interruptions. Unit Equipment. Individual unit equipment consists of a rechargeable battery, a battery-charging system, and a relaying device to automatically energize the equipment (e.g., lamps) upon failure of the normal supply. This power source is used primarily for emergency illumination.

Design Criteria
General. The following questions should be addressed when designing emergency and stand-by power systems. 1. What are the power requirements? Is high reliable and quality power (such as that serving process controls or computers) required, or would commercial quality power be acceptable? What are the motor starting requirements? What future loads are anticipated?

2. 3.

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4.

What are the stand-by power requirements? Is power required for only a short length of time (e.g., for an orderly shutdown), or must power be provided until commercial power is restored (e.g., to prevent hazards to equipment or personnel or financial losses)? Must power be available under no-break conditions, or are momentary outages acceptable? If so, what frequency of occurrence is acceptable? Can more than one facility be supplied from a single source? Can the utility improve the reliability of its service to an acceptable level? If so, at what cost? What is the utilitys outage history (number and duration of outages)? Is the quality of service improving or deteriorating? Is the utility matching load growth with new facilities, or must old facilities carry a greater burden? For on-site generation, what sources of prime mover energy are available? Steam and gaseous or liquid hydrocarbon fuels are the usual choices. The economic and technical considerations involve: fuel costs and long term availability; maintenance costs and personnel requirements; atmospheric and noise pollution; and potential value of waste heat. For large on-site generation facilities where prime mover energy is in excess of facility needs, is there a possibility of cogeneration with the utility?

5. 6. 7. 8.

9.

UPS System Design. Conventional Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) system designs use state-of-the-art UPS technology, with 1950 technology branch circuit components. Often, the resulting system does not meet the expectations of an uninterruptible power system. Frequently a short circuit develops on a branch circuit, causing the entire system voltage to drop, resulting in the loss of critical loads. A UPS is not normally designed to supply the necessary short circuit current to clear a fault. To clear a fault, the UPS automatically transfers to the bypass. Upon sensing a fault, the SCRs in the static transfer switch begin conducting in about 1/2 cycle. For a period of 2 to 6 cycles, the UPS inverter output and the bypass are in parallel, supplying fault current. After 6 cycles, the inverter-output circuit breaker opens and fault current is supplied by the bypass. Since most short circuits are ground faults and most UPS branch circuits are protected by circuit breakers, the short circuit condition persists for about 2 - 10 cycles. During the fault time period of between 0.03 to 0.2 seconds, all UPS branch circuits are subject to the effects of the fault, notably a low-voltage condition. If any UPS loads are sensitive to voltage fluctuation, e.g., solenoid valves, motor contactors, control system relays, or computers, a power interruption may occur. Normally, fast clearing of faults has not been considered when selecting branch circuit protection and when sizing the maintenance bypass circuit, the transformer, and the branch circuits. To sustain a tolerable voltage level, the complete UPS system must be able to clear a 120-volt branch circuit fault in less than 1/2 cycle (0.008 seconds). Underwriters Laboratory (UL) Class CC, J, and T current-limiting fuses are the only 120-volt branch circuit protective devices that can clear a fault in 1/2 cycle and maintain system preservation. Class CC fuses are preferred because

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they are in-rush tolerant. The short circuit current available however must be high enough to be in the CL range of the fuse. When sizing branch circuit protection, the smallest rated fuse should be selected. The smaller the fuse rating, the lower its current limit. For example, a 20 ampere class J fuse begins current limiting at 200 amperes, but a 10 ampere class J fuse begins current limiting at about 100 amperes. As long as the fuse is in its CL range, it will blow in less than 1/2 cycle. Otherwise, it does not afford an advantage over a circuit breaker. Class J and T fuses in ratings from 1A to 30A are available in the same fuse clip size. Class CC fuses require a different fuse clip. When sizing the branch circuit conductor, #12 copper should be the smallest size specified. Smaller wire increases the branch circuit impedance and lowers the available fault current. 120-volt circuit breakers are unable to respond as quickly and are therefore unsatisfactory for providing system voltage preservation during a fault. The best clearing time is about three cycles and system voltage can fall well below 50%.

Sizing the Auxiliary Power Source


The National Electrical Code (NEC) requires that the power source for an emergency system be designed with adequate capacity and rating to carry safely the entire connected load. A stand-by system does not have this requirement. It is recommended that power sources supplying stand-by loads be sized according to peak load. Procedures for sizing power sources for emergency and stand-by systems are described below. See Section 1300, Auxiliary Power Systems, for equipment details. Generator Sets. See Section 132 for information on sizing auxiliary generators. Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) Sizing. The calculations to size a UPS require a complete system load analysis, including (1) connected loads (watts and power factor), (2) load demand, and (3) peak load currents. Once the load is determined, an allowance for spare capacity of 10 to 20% is recommended. See Section 1300, Auxiliary Power Systems, for additional information. The maximum peak inrush current is usually insignificant on large systems. On smaller systems, the equipment inrush may be very important for determining the required rating. Consultation with the UPS manufacturer is recommended. The UPS is selected to provide the needed quantity and quality of power to specific loads, for the required time period. Battery Sizing. The size of batteries depends not only on the size and duration of each load, but on the sequence in which the loads occur. To properly size batteries and chargers, a detailed load profile should be developed. For details on sizing battery systems, refer to ANSI/IEEE Std 485, IEEE Recommended Practice for Sizing Large Lead Storage Batteries for Generating Stations and Substations. Unit Equipment. Unit equipment, typically used only for emergency lighting, is selected based on the amount of illumination required. The batteries and charger are sized by the manufacturer of the equipment.

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125 Bus Arrangement


The four most common types of bus arrangements are: Single-ended Double-ended Ring Bus Breaker-and-a-half scheme

The arrangement(s) selected depends upon the needs of the particular process. A combination of bus arrangements should be used to achieve the required reliability and selectivity. In general, system costs increase with system reliability if component quality is equal. The first step in selecting a bus arrangement is to analyze the process to determine its reliability needs and potential losses in the event of power interruption. Some processes are minimally affected by interruption; in these cases, a simple singleended bus arrangement may be satisfactory. Other processes may sustain long-term damage by even brief interruptions. A more complex system, with an alternate power source for critical loads, may be justified in these cases. Circuit redundancy may be required in continuous-process systems to allow equipment maintenance. Although the reliability of electric power distribution equipment is high, optimum reliability and safety of operations require routine maintenance. A system that cannot be maintained because of improper bus arrangements is improperly designed.

Single-Ended Bus Arrangement


A single-ended bus arrangement, also known as a radial system, utilizes a single primary service and distribution transformer to supply all feeders. System investment is the lowest of all circuit arrangements since there is no duplication of equipment. Operation and expansion are simple. If quality components are used, reliability is high. However, loss of a cable, primary supply, or transformer will cut off service. Equipment must be shut down to perform routine maintenance and servicing. Where the industrial process allows enough down-time for maintenance and is minimally affected by interruptions, the simple radial system or the single-ended bus arrangement is recommended. Figure 100-9 shows the single-ended bus arrangement.

Double-Ended Bus Arrangement


A double-ended bus arrangement, also known as a secondary selective system, utilizes two unit substations connected through a normally open secondary tie circuit breaker. This type of bus arrangement is commonly used in industrial installations where high reliability is required. If the primary feeder or a transformer fails, the circuit breaker protecting the affected transformer is opened, and the tie circuit breaker is closed. Operation may be manual or automatic. Maintenance of primary feeders, transformers, and main secondary circuit breakers is possible with only a momentary power interruption (or

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Fig. 100-9

Single-Ended Bus Arrangement From IEEE Standard 142, 1993, Ch. 2. Used with permission

no interruption if the stations can be operated in parallel with the tie breaker closed during switching). If this arrangement is ever operated with the tie breaker closed, the available short circuit current must not exceed the short circuit rating of the bus and interrupting rating of the breakers. Complete station maintenance requires shut down. With the loss of one primary circuit or transformer, total substation load may be supplied by one transformer. To allow for this condition, one or a combination of the four features outlined in Section 122 for a secondary selective system must be implemented. Where a process cannot be shut down for maintenance and interruption of power cannot be tolerated, a double-ended bus arrangement or secondary selective system is recommended. Each transformer should be sized to carry 75% of the total running load on both buses at its self-cooled, 55C rating. The transformers should be dual rated with provisions for future fans. This provision ensures that when one transformer is out of service (such as for repairs) the other transformer will be able to carry the total running load on both buses (at their 65C rating, with forced air cooling). This design feature can be used for the main power source or for substations within a facility. Figure 100-10 shows the double-ended bus arrangement.

Ring Bus Arrangement


A ring bus arrangement is used primarily when two utility sources supply the facility. The ring bus arrangement offers the advantage of automatically isolating a fault and restoring service if a fault occurs in one of the sources. Normally all breakers of a ring bus arrangement are closed (Figure 100-11). If a fault occurs in Source 1, Breakers A and D operate to isolate the fault, while Source 2 feeds the loads. A fault anywhere in the system results in two breakers operating

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to isolate the fault. Configuring the system with source connections and load connections diagonally opposite affords breaker-failure relaying and a continuous source of power to the load, even if a breaker fails to operate and the adjacent breaker must clear the fault. For example, if a fault develops on source 1, breakers D and C will normally clear the fault. If breaker C fails to open, breaker B clears the fault. Source 1 remains in service, providing power to one of the load transformers.
Fig. 100-10 Double-Ended Bus Arrangement From IEEE Standard 142, 1993, Ch. 2. Used with permission Fig. 100-11 Ring Bus Arrangement From IEEE Standard 142, 1993, Ch. 2. Used with permission

Manual isolating switches are installed on each side of the automatic device to allow maintenance to be performed safely and to allow the system to be expanded without interruption of service. This system is less expensive than the breaker-and-a-half scheme described below, but more expensive than single- and double-ended bus arrangements.

Breaker-and-a-Half Scheme
A breaker-and-a-half scheme (Figure 100-12) is used extensively as an alternate scheme to the ring bus arrangement in main facility substations where more than one source of power is available. As its name implies, this arrangement requires one-and-a-half breakers for each source (three breakers for every two sources) in the scheme. Normally all the breakers are closed. This arrangement offers a high degree of security since a faulted area will in no way affect other operating sections. This design has particular advantage when more than one major circuit must share the same right-of-way where the possibility of a double circuit outage is increased.

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Fig. 100-12 Breaker-and-a-half Scheme From IEEE Standard 142, 1993, Ch. 2. Used with permission

126 System Voltages


To select distribution and utilization voltages, the following factors should be considered: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Specific loads served (size and voltage level). Voltage level supplied by the utility or on-site generation. Existing voltage levels in the facility. Cost of electrical equipment and cable at different voltage levels and current ratings. Losses due to higher current (at lower voltages). Overall system flexibility (i.e., the capability for future expansion).

A major consideration when choosing voltage levels is the cost of equipment and cable. The advantage of a higher voltage system is that less current is required for the same power than for lower voltage systems. In some cases, equipment and cable

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rated at higher voltage levels may be more economical because of the reduced current rating required. A higher voltage system is also more efficient because of lower power losses. Standard nominal system voltages for the United States are listed in Table 1 of ANSI/IEEE Standard 141. There are three system voltage classes. The low voltage class contains all nominal system voltages below 1000 volts. The medium voltage class contains nominal system voltages equal to or greater than 1000 volts, but less than 100,000 volts. The high voltage class contains nominal system voltages equal to or greater than 100,000 volts.

Distribution Voltage
In most facilities it is necessary to distribute power at a voltage higher than or equal to the utilization voltages. When choosing a distribution voltage, the first voltage level to consider should be the incoming utility (or generator) voltage. If the utility supplies a voltage in the range of 12,000 volts to 15,000 volts, it is often economical to use this voltage as the primary distribution voltage for the facility because step down transformers are not required. If the utility supply is over 15,000 volts, transformation to a lower voltage is typically required. An economic study should be made to determine the primary distribution voltage (based on load), future expansion, and distances between load centers. Typical primary distribution voltages are 13,800 volts, 4160 volts, and 2400 volts. Other voltages, dictated by the standard utility voltage levels in the area, may be encountered in some systems. For large plant facilities, the preferred primary distribution voltages are 13,800 volts and 4160 volts, but the selection depends on the total facility load and distance that the primary distribution voltage must be transmitted. Primary distribution voltages above 15 kV are seldom recommended in Company facilities because of significantly higher costs for equipment rated above 15 kV. In most large facilities where facility load is less than 10,000 kVA, 4160 volts or 2400 volts is the most economical primary distribution voltage. Depending on the size of motors at the facility, a 4160 volt system may be less expensive than a 2400 volt system. The same 5 kV class of switchgear and motor controllers is used for both 2400 volt and 4160 volt systems; however, lower current-rated breakers and controllers are required for the 4160 volt system. Cable costs are also usually less on the 4160 volt systems (since smaller conductors can be used). The cost of 4160 volt motors is typically 5 to 10% more than for 2400 volt motors. For facilities where the load is 10,000 to 20,000 kVA, an economic study (including consideration of the costs of future expansion) must be made to determine the most economical primary distribution voltageusually between 4160 and 13,800 volts. For facilities where the load is 20,000 kVA or larger, it is most economical to use 13,800 volts for primary distribution.

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Utilization Voltage
Selection of utilization voltage is primarily dependent on the equipment to be served. Listed below are utilization voltages and motor voltages available, based on the size of individual motors installed at the facility (Reference: API Standard 541). Motor Horsepower (hp) 3500-25,000 1000-12,000 400-7000 250-4000 Up to 600 Utilization Voltage (V) 13,800 6900 4160 2400 480 Motor Rated Voltage (V) 13,200 6600 4000 2300 460

The above list demonstrates a large overlap in motor horsepowers and utilization voltages. For example, a 5000 hp motor could be added to a 13,800 volt system, a 6900 volt system, or a 4160 volt system. The preferred utilization voltages are 480 volt, 4160 volt, and 13,800 volt. However, some existing facilities have 2400 volt systems, and some utilities provide 6900 volt service; these situations may make it more economical to choose one of these levels. The best utilization voltage depends on what voltages are available, the capacity of the bus at those voltages, and the availability and cost of installing motors at the various voltages (including the cost of the motor). If bus capacity is available at 13,800 volts, 6900 volts, and 4160 volts, then it becomes an economic choice of which voltage level to use after considering the cost of the motor, starter, and feeder. Similarly, for motors up to 250 hp, one should consider the available system voltages and bus capacity at each voltage to select the best utilization voltage for the motor. For motors between 100 and 200 hp, typically the most cost effective utilization voltage is 480 volts. If 480 volt capacity is not available but 2400 volt or 4160 volt capacity is, the latter voltage may be more economical. The preferred utilization voltage for small loads (such as integral horsepower motors below 100 hp) is three-phase 480 volts. Some floodlights, parking lot lights, or other outdoor lights where voltage drop is a problem, may be best served at 480 volts. Small dry-type transformers rated 480-208/120 volt or 480-240/120 volt are used to provide 208 volt three-phase, 120 volt-single phase, and 240 volt single phase for convenience outlets, lighting, and other small loads.

127 One-Line Diagram


A one-line diagram is a schematic drawing that uses graphical symbols and standard nomenclature to illustrate the overall configuration of an electrical system. Standard symbols are used to represent electrical equipment, and single lines are used to show the interconnection of the components. Information on size, type, and rating of the electrical equipment is also included. A complete one-line diagram, in

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conjunction with a physical plan of the installation, should provide enough data to plan and evaluate an electrical system. See Standard Drawing GF-P99988 for information found on a typical one-line diagram and for practices used in system design. Standard form ELC-EF-541 should be used for standard electrical symbols. See: Exhibit I of API RP 14F for symbols for offshore applications. The following items should be shown on a one-line diagram: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Power Sources. Generators; transformers; voltages; available short-circuit current; and grounding methods of separately derived sources. Metering and Relaying. Meter types, relay types, CT and PT ratios. Transformers. Capacity, voltages, impedance, connection, and grounding method. Buses and Bus Duct. Voltage, current rating, and short circuit bracing. Medium Voltage Switchgear. Current rating and MVA rating. Medium Voltage Motor Starters. Current rating. Low Voltage Switchgear. Current rating, frame size, trip setting, and options (e.g., LT, ST, I.). Low Voltage Motor Control Centers. Current rating, frame size, and trip setting of molded case circuit breakers, and NEMA sizes of starters. Fuses. Size and type.

10. Feeders. Size, number of conductors, and conduit size. 11. Loads. Size and description. One-line diagrams should also show known future additions; the effect of such additions should be part of the original system planning. The actual drawing should be as simple as possible. Since it is a schematic diagram, it need not show geographical relationship.

128 Area Classification


Locations are classified according to the presence of flammable gases or vapors, combustible dusts, or easily ignitible fibers or flyings. Hazardous (classified) locations must be identified in order to select proper electrical equipment for these areas. Restrictions are placed on the type of equipment used, and on its operation and maintenance. See Section 300 for a detailed discussion of classified areas and selecting electrical equipment for these areas.

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130 Detailed Design


131 System Studies
Several studies are conducted in the design phase of a project. Probably the most important of these studies is the short circuit study, which determines the maximum short circuit current that could flow at all points in the system. This information is used when specifying the current interrupting ratings and bracing for electrical equipment. A load flow study, a transient stability study, and a harmonic study may also be required. A load flow study determines the real and reactive power in the system under normal and special operating conditions. It is useful for determining voltage drops, transformer tap settings, and power factor. A transient stability study is applicable only to facilities with synchronous motors and generators. It models the electrical system and examines the effects on motors and generators of system transients, such as faults, switching, and relay action. This study determines if the synchronous motors and generators will fall out of synchronism during transients and checks if they are capable of returning to synchronism shortly after transients dampen. It also determines if the system may become unstable, which could result in a shut down. A harmonic study may be necessary if a facility includes power factor correction capacitors or large semiconductor power conversion equipment (such as AC and DC drives for motors and UPS systems). Facilities with this equipment may be susceptible to harmonics generated by the equipment. These harmonics may cause problems elsewhere in the system (e.g., capacitor failure, blown fuses, malfunctioning computers, or overheated equipment). A harmonic study analyzes system harmonics and problems in the design. A voltage drop study may be necessary if motors comprise the majority of the loads. When adding large motors to a facility, consideration must be given to the voltage drop that occurs when these motors are started, and a study must be made to ensure that the power system has sufficient capacity to start the motors. The motorstarting voltage drop on the system must be limited to avoid problems with contactors and relays dropping out and high intensity discharge (HID) lighting fixtures extinguishing. It is recommended that the system be designed to limit the initial motor-starting voltage drop at the main bus to less than 15%. Voltage drop should never exceed 20%. Sometimes it is difficult to limit voltage drop to 15 to 20%, particularly when installing large motors on systems with limited short circuit capacity. Alternate methods to across-the-line starting are often required (e.g., reduced voltage starting, soft starting using solid state controllers, and wye-delta starting). A motor-starting study typically includes voltage drop calculations, acceleration time calculations, different methods for starting motors, and voltage vs. torque relationships (to determine if there is sufficient accelerating torque to start motors). Section 200, System Studies and Protection, discusses various system studies and

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explains their use and requirements. Section 600, Protective Devices, explains how to conduct a relay coordination study.

132 Equipment Sizing


This section provides guidelines for sizing: Generators Transformers Switchgear Motor control centers Switches

Once the equipment has been sized, refer to other sections of this manual for guidelines for specifying equipment.

Generators
Three types of generators are discussed in this section: (1) primary power, (2) standby, and (3) emergency. A primary power generator supplies electrical power for normal operations. A stand-by generator supplies power to stand-by loads only. If emergency loads are connected to a generator, it is considered an emergency generator and must be designed according to NEC requirements for emergency systems. See Driver Manual for guidance in determining horsepower requirements for the prime mover. Following are guidelines for sizing generators. Step 1. Determine the generator power requirements, Pg (in kilowatts). It is recommended that Pg for primary power generators equal running load plus known future running load plus 10 to 20% spare capacity. For stand-by and emergency generators, it is recommended that Pg equal total connected load plus known future connected load plus 10 to 20% spare capacity. Select a standard generator rating (PG) equal to or greater than Pg. It is recommended that the generator rating be based on a NEMA Class B temperature rise. The generator should be specified with NEMA Class F (or Class H) insulation so that it will operate below its insulation temperature rating during normal operating conditions. This design reduces the stress on the insulation and increases generator life. The generator will also be able to operate in overload conditions for short periods of time and still remain below the allowable temperature ratings. Determine the generator voltage drop during starting of the largest motor. Usually a 15 to 20% voltage drop is acceptable if the motor is not started often. The designer should refer to the generator manufacturers motor starting applications data. As a rule of thumb, if the generator rating (in kW) is at least five times the numerical value of the horsepower of the largest motor, the voltage drop will not be greater than 15% with the generator already loaded to 50 to 75%.

Step 2.

Step 3.

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Transformers
Transformer sizing should be based upon running loads (determined from nameplate ratings) for motors, lighting transformers, and other equipment that will be, or may be, operated under normal conditions (i.e., other than power outage). Assume 1 hp equals 1 kVA for induction motors. Spare motor drivers should not be considered part of the running load for the purpose of sizing transformers, except that capacity should be provided for starting the largest spare motor with all normal motor drivers running. Motor drivers of installations having one motor-driven unit and one turbine-driven unit should be considered part of the running operating load for the purpose of sizing transformers. Transformer capacity, as used here, is the self-cooled rating without fans, at 55C rise. In general, power transformers (500 kVA and above) should be supplied with 55C/65C temperature rise ratings and provisions for future forced air cooling. A transformer dual-rated with a 55C/65C temperature rise is capable of supplying 112% of its 55C kVA rating at the 65C rise. See Section 800, Transformers, for a detailed explanation of transformer temperature rise and fan cooling ratings. Single transformers with secondary ratings of 600 volts or less should be sized so that the initial running load does not exceed 80% of the self-cooled 55C rating. Individual transformers with secondaries of less than 400 volts should not exceed a rating of 125 kVA, and transformers with secondaries be- tween 400 and 600 volts should not exceed a rating of 750 kVA, without a detailed investigation of the effects of high short circuit currents on secondary equipment. A single transformer at 2400 volts or more should not have an initial running load exceeding 90% of its self-cooled 55C rating. When sizing transformers for double-ended substations, calculate the running load on both buses; loads should be balanced between the buses. Each transformer should be sized to carry 75% of this total running load at self-cooled, 55C rating. It is recommended that each transformer have dual ratings (55C/65C). Therefore, when one transformer is out of service, the remaining transformer will be able to supply 112% of its rated kVA, or 84% of the total running load, at 65C. Sixteen percent of the load must be dropped until the other transformer is brought back into service or the transformer may be operated in an overloaded state, if ambient conditions allow overloading without exceeding its 65C rise rating. If it is not desirable to drop loads while one transformer is out of service, 55C/65C rated transformers with fan cooling or larger sized transformers may be used. For example, a 2500 kVA, 55/65C, fan-cooled transformer sized to carry 75% of the total running load can actually carry 105% of the total running load with the fans on, thus giving some leeway for adding load in the future. Engineering judgment and load considerations should be used to decide if fan cooling should be provided for the transformers upon installation. Example. Size transformers serving a double-ended substation. Total running load on both buses is 940 kVA. The minimum size transformer required is 0.75 x 940 = 705 kVA.

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Consulting the table below, which lists standard transformer kVA sizes, a 750 kVA, 55C/65C transformer is selected. Without fan cooling, one transformer can supply 1.12 x 750 = 840 kVA of running load at its 65C rise. Thus, 100 kVA of load will need to be dropped in order to stay within the transformer operating limits. If the transformers are equipped with fans, one transformer will be able to supply 1.29 x 750 = 968 kVA. In this case, one transformer will be able to carry the entire running load with 28 kVA to spare. As an alternate, of course, two 1000 kVA transformers without fan cooling could be selected. Standard Transformer Ratings (kVA) Single-Phase 3 5 10 15 25 37.5 50 15 30 45 75 112.5 150 225 75 100 167 250 333 500 833 300 500 750 1000 1500 2000 2500 1250 1667 2500 3333 5000 6667 8333 3750 5000 7500 10,000 12,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 37,500 50,000 60,000 75,000 100,000 10,000 12,500 16,667 20,000 25,000 33,333

Three-Phase

Motor-starting requirements must be considered in sizing power transformers. Transformers should be sized so that the voltage drop on the secondary of the transformer does not exceed 15 to 20% when starting the largest motor with all other loads connected to that bus operating (including both buses in a double-ended substationbut not including spare units). In general, the self-cooled kVA rating of power transformers should be at least three times the horsepower rating of the largest motor served by the transformer. See Section 200, System Studies and Protection, for details. A transformer serving a single motor is called a captive transformer or unit transformer. A captive transformer is a special application of a standard transformer, and not a uniquely designed transformer. Captive transformers are used primarily to reduce system voltage drop during motor starting. The additional impedance of the transformer in series with the motor reduces inrush current. However, the voltage drop at the terminals of the motor during starting must also be considered to ensure that there is no starting problem. Using a captive transformer may also be econom-

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ical because of reduced motor cost. See Appendix B for information on the advantages and disadvantages of using captive transformers. An important consideration for sizing captive transformers is the impact loading on the transformer during starting. In the motor/captive transformer combination, the transformer kVA rating closely approximates that of the motor kVA requirement. Under starting conditions, this requirement imposes a sizeable thermal and impact load on the transformer. Pulsating loads and frequent motor starting may place unusual duty on the transformer. The transformer application curve should be checked to ensure that acceptable operating limits are not exceeded. Figure B-6 of Appendix B shows a transformer application curve for pulsating or short-time loads. For applications outside of acceptable limits, a larger transformer should be specified, or the manufacturer should be consulted. If a motor is operated continuously with infrequent starting (less than once every 4 hours), the load is not considered pulsating, and the installation is considered a usual service condition (per ANSI/IEEE C57.12.00), then the conventional ruleof-thumb (1 horsepower = 1 kVA) can be used to size the transformer. For other applications, a larger transformer may be required. Captive transformers must be sized so the voltage at the motor terminals is sufficient to ensure adequate starting torque for the load. Consult the transformer manufacturer when sizing captive transformers. Transformer Impedance. In general, transformers with manufacturers standard impedance are satisfactory. Higher impedance is sometimes needed to reduce the short circuit current (to match secondary equipment rating). However, voltage drops increase with higher impedance and should be checked. Conversely, lower impedance lowers the voltage drop, but increases the available short circuit current. Impedances higher or lower than standard values increase transformer costs. Refer to Table 72 in ANSI-IEEE Std 141 for standard impedance values of three-phase transformers. Connection of Transformer Windings. There are four fundamental three-phase transformer connections: delta-wye, delta-delta, wye-delta, and wye-wye. The connection recommended for most applications is delta-wye (delta winding on the primary and wye winding on the secondary). The wye-connected secondary windings can be used as a three-wire or four-wire system, depending on the application. It usually is used as a three-wire system with the neutral grounded; however, a fourth wire connected to the wye neutral can be used to support single-phase loads (such as lighting). Each winding connection has advantages and disadvantages that make it suitable or unsuitable for particular applications. When paralleling with an existing system, the same connection scheme must be used to provide identical phase shifting; otherwise potentially destructive circulating currents may flow. 1. Delta-Wye Advantages Effective control of phase to neutral over-voltages

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Easy detection of phase-to-ground faults Isolation of ground-fault current from the high voltage (delta) side, thus not affecting ground relaying on the high voltage side

Disadvantages Possibility of large phase-to-ground fault current, leading to possible sustained arcing. (See high-resistance grounding in Section 900, Grounding Systems, for recommendations.) Interruption of critical processes due to disconnection of equipment upon detection of a ground fault. (See high-resistance grounding in Section 900, Grounding Systems.) Entire system rendered inoperable by failure of one winding

2.

Delta-Delta. Not recommended for new installations, except where required to parallel with an existing system. Advantages Low level of line-to-ground fault current Low flash hazard to personnel (from line-to-ground faults) Continued operation of equipment after one ground fault Three-phase power still available if one winding fails, although loadcarrying capability must be derated

Disadvantages Neutral-to-ground over-voltages uncontrolled and can lead to equipment breakdown and shorter life Overvoltage stresses caused by unremoved faults Possible reduced insulation life (from over-voltages) Large circulating currents unless delta windings have identical impedance ratings Difficulty in locating ground faults. (There are, however, methods of creating high resistance grounding schemes, similar to wye winding with high value neutral resistor, that allow ground faults to be found quickly without interrupting operations.)

3.

Wye-Delta. Not recommended for new installations, except where required to parallel with an existing system. Advantages Low levels of line-to-ground fault current Low flash hazard to personnel (from line-to-ground faults) Continued operation of equipment after one ground fault

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Disadvantages 4. Neutral-to-ground over-voltages are uncontrolled and can lead to equipment breakdown and shorter life Overvoltage stresses caused by unremoved faults Possible reduced insulation life from overvoltages Difficulty in locating ground faults Entire system rendered inoperable by failure of one winding

Wye-Wye. Not recommended except when required by utilities. Advantages Advantages on the secondary side similar to those of delta-wye connection, except ground fault currents not isolated from the primary side

Disadvantages Voltage collapse of the neutral if a single-phase load or unbalanced load is placed on the secondary. This problem can be solved with tertiary deltaconnected windings. Higher cost due to insulation degradation and requirement of tertiary delta windings Third harmonic voltages impressed upon line-to-line voltages, resulting in additional voltage stress on equipment. (Third harmonics can be significantly reduced by using three-phase core-type transformers.) Interference in communications circuits from third harmonic ground currents

For more information about transformer connections, consult System Grounding for Low-voltage Power Systems and Transformer Connections, both available from General Electric Company.

Switchgear
Switchgear sizing is based on the following parameters: Continuous current rating of bus Continuous current rating of breakers Interrupting rating of breakers Momentary current rating of breakers Short circuit rating of bus

Continuous Current Rating of Bus. The current capacity of a bus is determined by its material (e.g., copper) and its physical size. The standard main bus ratings for medium voltage switchgear are 1200, 2000, and 3000 amperes. For low voltage switchgear, the standard bus ratings are 800, 1600, 2000, 3200 and 4000 amperes. The continuous current rating of the main bus should be a minimum of: 1.25 times the full load current of the largest running motor, plus the full load current of

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remaining running motors, plus the primary rated current of transformer loads, plus the full load current for future motor load for future space provided. If the switchgear is served from a transformer, the main bus should be sized to carry the rated full load current of the transformer (with fans). When sizing two buses connected through a tie-breaker (i.e., a double-ended substation), each bus should be sized to carry the rated full load current of its transformer (with fans) only. Example. Determine the main bus rating for 4160-volt switchgear with the following load summary. Two - 1000 hp motors (running) Two - 500 hp motors (future) 5000 kVA of connected transformer load For motors, assume 1 kVA per hp and calculate the load using the method described above. kVA = 1.25 (1000) + 1000 + 2 (500) + 5000 = 8250 kVA 8250 kVA I = ------------------------------------------ = 1146 Amperes ( 4.16 kV ) ( 1.732 )
(Eq. 100-1)

Therefore, the recommended minimum standard bus rating is 1200 amperes. If the switchgear is fed from a 10,000 kVA dual-rated transformer, the main bus should be sized to carry the maximum full load current of the transformer with fans at 65C rise. Full load current of the 10,000 kVA transformer with fans at 65C is: ( 10,000 kVA ) ( 1.12 ) ( 1.25 ) I = -----------------------------------------------------------------4.16 kV ( 1.732 ) = 1943 Amperes
(Eq. 100-2)

Since the maximum full load capability of the transformer is 1943 amperes, a 2000 ampere bus should be selected (to provide for future expansion) rather than the 1200 ampere bus indicated by the running load calculations. Continuous Current Rating of Breakers. Conductor ampacity requirements are based on the load and can be determined by using NEC Article 220 (see Section 134 below for sizing conductors). The continuous current rating of circuit breakers is determined by the ampacity of the conductors they protect (NEC Article 240-3). Feeder breakers that serve a bus are typically rated the same as the bus. The continuous current rating of a main circuit breaker must not exceed the ampacity of the main bus it is feeding. Typically, the two are rated the same.

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Industry standard continuous current ratings (frame sizes) for medium voltage breakers are 1200, 2000, and 3000 amperes. These breakers are tripped by protective relays, set for the load being fed by the breakers. For details see Section 200, System Studies and Protection. Industry standard continuous current ratings for low voltage power breakers are 800, 1600, 2000, 3000 and 4000 amperes. These breakers are available with various sizes of solid state overcurrent trip devices (i.e., current sensors and rating plugs). These trip devices are available with long time delay, short delay, instantaneous and ground fault options. Correct selection depends on the load (see Specification ELCMS-3987 for more details). See Section 200, System Studies and Protection, for information on trip settings. Interrupting Rating of Breakers. The interrupting rating of a protective device is the fault current that the device can interrupt safely. A low voltage circuit breaker operates in the first half cycle of a fault, so the interrupting rating must be greater than the short circuit current calculated at one-half cycle. A medium voltage circuit breaker begins to interrupt fault current during the third cycle. Therefore, the short circuit current must be calculated at three cycles. See Section 200, System Studies and Protection, for details on calculating fault currents and determining the necessary interrupting ratings for switchgear. Ratings for low and medium voltage circuit breakers are given in Figures 100-13 and 100-14.
Fig. 100-13 Maximum Short Circuit Interrupting Ratings for Low Voltage Power Circuit Breakers with Instantaneous Direct-Acting Trip Elements Maximum 3 Symmetrical Short Circuit Interrupting Ratings Nominal Voltage (volts) 600 600 600 600 600 480 480 480 480 480 Rated Max Voltage (volts) 635 635 635 635 635 508 508 508 508 508 Frame Size (amperes) 800 1600 2000 3200 4000 800 1600 2000 3200 4000 Standard Rating (kA) 22 42 42 65 85 30 50 50 65 85 High Rating (kA) 42 65 65 85 85 42 65 65 85 85

Medium Voltage Breakers. The physics of arc interruption are such that oil-blast and air-magnetic circuit breakers can interrupt a higher current at a lower voltage. To take advantage of this capability, the K factor was introduced into the ANSI standards for medium voltage circuit breakers. The K factor is a dimensionless number

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which defines the range of voltage over which the rated short circuit current increases. Breakers using this technology have a constant MVA interrupting rating between VRated Max and VRated Max/K; and a constant current interrupting rating, equal to K times rated short circuit current, at voltages below VRated Max/K.
Fig. 100-14 Short Circuit Ratings for Medium Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated Maximum Voltage (kV, rms) 4.76 4.76 15 15 15 Rated Continuous Current (amperes, rms) 1200, 2000 1200, 2000, 3000 1200, 2000 1200, 2000 1200, 2000, 3000 Rated Short Circuit Current @ Rated Max Voltage (kA, rms) 29 41 18 28 37 Maximum Symmetrical Interrupting Capability (kA, rms Sym) 36 49 23 36 48 Close and latch Short Circuit Current (kA, Crest) 97 132 62 97 130

Rated Voltage Range K Factor 1.24 1.19 1.3 1.3 1.3

By applying the K factor adjustment, the symmetrical interrupting ratings of breakers can be adjusted for different operating voltages (to a limit of V/K) by the following formula: Symmetrical current interrupting capability = rated short-circuit current {Rated Max Voltage/Operating Voltage}.
(Eq. 100-3)

Example Given a 4.76 kV, 2000 ampere circuit breaker with a rated short circuit of 29 kA, a maximum symmetrical interrupting capability of 36 kA, and a K factor of 1.24. Determine the adjusted interrupting rating of the circuit breaker when applied at: (A) 2.4 kV and at (B) 4.16 kV. Solution 1. Since the operating voltage of 2.4 kV is below the V/K ratio (4.76/1.24) of 3.84 kV the circuit breaker is in its constant current interrupting capability of K times rated short circuit current. Symmetrical current interrupting capability = 1.24 x 29 kA = 35 kA. The operating voltage of 4.16 kV is in the constant MVA interrupting rating of the circuit breaker; therefore, the interrupting capability is given by Equation 100-3. 4.76 Symmetrical current interrupting capability = 29 --------- = 33kA . 4.16
(Eq. 100-4)

2.

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Figure 100-15 gives the adjusted interrupting current values and actual MVA ratings for medium voltage circuit breakers operating at the various plant voltage levels.
Fig. 100-15 Adjusted Interrupting Current Values and Actual MVA Ratings for Medium Voltage Circuit Breakers Operating at the Various Voltage Levels Rated Maximum Voltage kV, rms 4.76 Rated Short Circuit Current kA, rms 29 System Operating Voltage kV, rms 4.76 4.16 2.4 4.76 41 350 4.76 4.16 2.4 15 18 500 15 13.8 12.47 15 28 750 15 13.8 12.47 15 37 1000 15 13.8 12.47 Interrupting Current @ Operating Voltage, kA 29 33.2 36 41 46.9 49 18 19.6 21.7 28 30.4 33.7 37 40.2 44.5 Actual MVA @ Operating Voltage 239 239 150 338 338 204 468 468 468 727 727 727 961 961 961

Nominal MVA 250

Circuit breakers using vacuum and SF6 puffer interrupters are essentially constant current interrupters up to a limiting maximum voltage. For this type of technology, a K factor of 1.0 is appropriate; however, to meet existing ANSI standards for metal clad switchgear, K factor ratings other than 1.0 are given. Equipment manufacturers must select vacuum and SF6 interrupters to meet the necessary interrupting current requirements at the low-end of voltage range for the voltage-class equipment. This results in vacuum and SF6 breakers of higher interrupting capability at higher applied voltages. For example, the 1000 MVA (nominal) vacuum breaker has an interrupter rating for 48 kA to allow for a low-end voltage range of 11.5 kV (V/K = 15/1.3) for 15 kV class equipment. This corresponds to an actual MVA rating of 961 at 11.5 kV. The actual MVA rating of a vacuum circuit breaker applied at 13.8 kV is 1147 MVA; however, ANSI Standards specify the capability to be rated at an interrupting short circuit current of: 15 40.2 kA 37 --------- or 961 MVA 13.8

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In order to apply the circuit breaker at 1147 MVA, the equipment manufacturer must test the breaker at this fault level per ANSI standards, before the circuit breaker can be nameplated with the higher interrupting rating. Nevertheless, an additional safety margin exists when applying vacuum and SF6 circuit breakers. Momentary Current Rating of Breakers. The momentary rating of a protective device is the maximum fault current that the device can physically withstand without failure. This commonly is referred to as the close-and-latch rating. This rating is determined from the one-half cycle calculation of short circuit current. Since a low voltage circuit breaker interrupts during the first half cycle, its interrupting rating is equal to the momentary rating. See Section 200, System Studies and Protection, for details about calculating fault currents and determining momentary ratings for switchgear. Short Circuit Rating of Bus. The bus must have a short circuit rating (bus bracing) equal to or greater than the maximum available short circuit current both from the source and connected motors. To determine the available short circuit current at the bus see Section 200, System Studies and Protection.

Motor Control Centers (MCCs)


Motor control centers are sized on the basis of the following parameters: Continuous current rating of bus Short circuit rating of the main bus Continuous current rating of breakers and combination starters Interrupting rating of breakers and combination starters

Continuous Current Rating of Bus. The recommended minimum current rating of the main (horizontal) bus should be 1.25 times the full load current of the largest running motor, plus the full load current of remaining running motors, plus the primary rated current of transformer loads, plus the full load current of future motor load for future space provided, plus 10 to 20% for future load capacity. If the motor control center is fed from a transformer, the main bus should be sized to carry the rated full load current of the transformer (with fans). Industry standard main bus ratings for 480 volt motor control centers are 600, 800, 1000, 1200, 1600, and 2000 amperes. The method of calculating the continuous current rating of the vertical bus is exactly the same as that for calculating the current rating of the main horizontal bus, except only the loads in a specific vertical section should be used. The industry standard for the continuous current rating of the vertical bus is 300 amperes. The manufacturer will size the vertical buses; however, particular attention should be given to vertical sections where continuous current rating may exceed 300 amperes. Optional vertical bus ratings of 450 amperes and 600 amperes are available. If the load in any vertical section exceeds 300 amperes, a 450 ampere or 600 ampere bus may be specified, or the load should be rearranged in such a way

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that the continuous current rating in that vertical section does not exceed 300 amperes. If the motor control center (or panelboard) is three-phase 4-wire, the neutral bus should be rated for one-half the capacity of the main horizontal bus continuous current rating. For example, if the main bus is rated 600 amperes, the neutral bus should have a rating of 300 amperes. Most of the load on the motor control center is balanced three-phase; therefore, the unbalanced current flowing in the neutral bus is not expected to exceed half the capacity of the main horizontal bus. Examine the single phase loads, however, to determine if the neutral capacity could be exceeded. Example. Determine the main bus rating for a 480 volt MCC with the following running loads: Two - 200 hp Motors Three - 75 hp Motors 40 kVA Miscellaneous Load Assume 1 kVA per hp. The recommended minimum bus capacity (including 20% spare capacity) is: kVA = 1.2 (1.25 200 + 200 + (3 75) + 40) = 858 kVA 858 kVA I = ------------------------------------ = 1032 Amperes ( 480V ) ( 1.732 )
(Eq. 100-5)

Therefore, a 1200 ampere rating is selected. It should be noted that the standard 1000 ampere bus would have been adequate for the present load on the motor control center; however, experience indicates that the load on the motor control center typically increases throughout design (and even after the facility is in operation). It is good practice to provide 10 to 20% extra capacity on the main bus for future load growth. Short Circuit Rating of Main Bus. The main bus must have a short circuit rating equal to or greater than the maximum available symmetrical short circuit current, both from the source and from the connected motors. To determine the short circuit current at the motor control center, see Section 200, System Studies and Protection. The industry standard short circuit rating for motor control center bus is 22,000 amperes. Optional short circuit bus ratings of 42,000, 65,000 and 100,000 rms symmetrical amperes are available. It is recommended that the total short circuit current of motor control centers be limited to 22,000 amperes so that standard starter units and buses can be used. The use of current-limiting reactors in the incoming-line circuit to MCCs will allow the use of standard MCC buses and starter on systems with high short circuit avail-

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ability. These reactors can be sized to limit the short circuit current to the MCC to the accepted industry standard level (usually 22,000 amperes). This method of MCC protection has the advantage of being less expensive than using an MCC with a higher short circuit rating or adjusting the size of the supply transformer to limit faults. However, the disadvantage of this method is that reactors increase voltage drop. Applications that cannot tolerate the voltage drop of a reactor can be protected by using a current-limiting fused breaker in each starter and feeder circuit. This method of protection is more expensive than adding current-limiting reactors to the incoming-line but may be less expensive than adjusting transformer sizing to limit fault current. Continuous Current Rating of Breakers and Contactors. Conductor ampacity requirements are based on the load and are determined by using NEC Article 220. The maximum continuous current rating of circuit breakers is determined from the ampacity of the conductors they feed (NEC Article 240-3). The continuous current rating of the main breaker must not exceed the continuous current rating of the main bus. The maximum continuous rating of low voltage molded case circuit breakers is 1200 amperes. Therefore, low voltage power circuit breakers must be used for sizes over 1200 amperes. A short delay trip feature should be included on the main breaker to allow coordination with upstream breakers. An alternative design is to omit the main breaker and provide remote trip capability to the upstream breaker. In this case, the MCC bus should have a voltmeter and an ammeter. Main circuit breakers may be deleted, however, only where permitted by NEC. Feeder breakers in MCCs provide both overload and short circuit protection for the insulated conductors feeding the load. Feeder conductors, according to NEC, shall have an ampacity of not less than 125% of the continuous load current. After the feeder conductors are sized, the trip setting of the feeder breaker should be set to match the conductors ampacity. If the standard trip setting of the circuit breaker does not correspond to the ampacity of the conductors, then the next higher rating is allowed by NEC. Molded case circuit breakers can also be used for manual switching. Combination starters are recommended to feed motors 200 hp or less. A combination starter consists of a circuit breaker (usually magnetic only) or an adjustable motor circuit protector (MCP) in combination with a contactor and overload relays. NEMA sizes for combination starters are based on motor horsepower. NEMA starter sizes and maximum horsepower are listed in a table on the data sheet ELCDS-597. MCPs are rated corresponding to NEMA starter sizes. The continuous ratings of MCPs are also listed in the table in ELC-DS-597. The trip setting of the MCP is set at 10 to 13 times the full load current of the motor. The overload relay in each phase of the starter is selected on the basis of the full load current of the motor. For a 1.0 service factor motor, the maximum overload relay setting is 115% of full load

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current; for a 1.15 service factor motor, the maximum setting is 125% of the full load current. Interrupting Rating of Breakers and Combination Starters. Breakers and starters should have the same current interrupting rating as the short circuit rating of the main motor control center horizontal bus.

Switches
Disconnect Switches. Disconnect switches are not designed to interrupt load current. The continuous current rating of a disconnect switch must be greater than the continuous load current of the load. The short circuit momentary rating must be greater than the maximum available fault current. Load Interrupter Switches. Load interrupter switches can interrupt load current. Their continuous current rating is sized the same as for disconnect switches. Load interrupter switches are available in 600 amperes and 1200 amperes continuous ratings and 40,000 amperes asymmetrical momentary current ratings. Voltage levels typically are 600 volts and higher. Low Voltage Safety Switches. Low voltage safety switches are rated at 600 volts, and may be fused or unfused. Safety switches are sized the same as disconnect switches except when used to switch: Motor loads. The load should not exceed 80% of the current rating of the switch at its rated voltage (NEC Article 380-14). Resistive, inductive, or tungsten-filament lamp loads. The load should not exceed the current rating of the switch at the voltage involved (NEC Article 380-14).

Low voltage safety switches are available in various sizesfrom 30 amperes to 1200 amperes, with short circuit momentary ratings of 10,000 symmetrical amperes or more. Standard short circuit ratings up to 200,000 symmetrical amperes can be obtained by combining them with current limiting fuses. Automatic Transfer Switches. Automatic transfer switches should be sized according to procedures described in Appendix A, Sizing of Automatic Transfer Switches (Automatic Switch Co.).

133 Enclosure Selection


Equipment enclosures are used to isolate live parts, protect equipment from environmental conditions, and satisfy area classification requirements. They are provided on large groups of equipment, such as motor control centers and switchgear, as well as for individual circuit breakers, switches, and motor starters. Enclosures are specified by NEMA type according to location (i.e., indoor or outdoor), environmental conditions (e.g., wind, rain, dust, and ice), corrosive conditions, and area classification.

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Indoor enclosures are less expensive than outdoor enclosures. The decision to install equipment indoors or outdoors is dependent on cost, space considerations, proximity of the utilization equipment to the switchgear or motor control center, and the number of units to be supplied. If outdoor enclosures are used, greater care must be taken to ensure that the equipment is protected from water, weathering, and corrosion. Often, outdoor enclosures are provided with space heaters to prevent moisture condensation. If possible, equipment should be installed outside of and away from hazardous (classified) locations to minimize the likelihood of fire and explosion and to reduce the cost of installation. NEMA Standards 250 and ICS 6 describe the types of electrical equipment enclosures and their applications. Below is a brief description of enclosure types recommended for typical applications: NEMA Type 1 enclosures are recommended for general-purpose use in unclassified, indoor locations where the equipment and enclosures are not exposed to unusual service conditions. The primary purpose of these enclosures is to prevent accidental contact by personnel with the enclosed energized equipment. NEMA Type 1A (Type 1 with neoprene gaskets) enclosures are recommended for the same basic applications as NEMA Type 1, but where some protection against dust and falling dirt and limited protection against light and indirect splashing are required. The enclosures, however, are not dust-tight or watertight. NEMA Type 3R enclosures are recommended for many outdoor locations primarily to provide a degree of protection against falling rain, sleet, and external ice formation. NEMA 3R enclosures have solid bottoms and tops. NEMA Type 4 enclosures are recommended for indoor or outdoor locations where protection against windblown dust and rain, splashing water, and hosedirected water is required. NEMA Type 4X enclosures are recommended for use in most indoor or outdoor locations where corrosion protection is required. In addition to being corrosion-resistant, this type of enclosure is watertight and dust-tight. NEMA Type 7 enclosures are suitable for Class I, hazardous (classified) locations. NEMA Type 9 enclosures are suitable for Class II, hazardous (classified) locations. Enclosed heat generating devices must not cause external surfaces to reach ignition temperatures of the surrounding atmosphere. If available, UL-listed NEMA Type 7 (or 9) enclosures with NEMA 4 features are recommended for outdoor classified area applications.

Walk-in and Non-walk-in Enclosures. Walk-in and non-walk-in enclosures are used to house motor control centers and switchgear in outdoor locations. In a walkin enclosure, there is enough room inside the enclosure to work on the equipment in front of the gear. Non-walk-in enclosures do not have room in the enclosure to work. Walk-in enclosures are recommended only for onshore facilities because the

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moist, salt air offshore can create potentially dangerous conditions for personnel to work inside the limited-space enclosures. Power Houses. A power house is a complete, custom-designed electrical distribution system in a prefabricated building. It may contain medium or low voltage switchgear, starters, motor control centers, relay panels and control panels. Completely wired and tested units reduce field installation time (over conventional methods). Power houses should be considered when there is significant interconnecting wiring since all internal wiring is done in the factory. Power houses should be selected on the basis of cost, installation and check-out time, and local preference. Another advantage of power house construction is that it may be depreciated as electrical equipment (as opposed to a building which has a longer depreciation period). Outdoor Switchracks. When it is necessary to install local starters in the field for a small group of motors located in a certain area, switchrack mounted starters may be desirable. For use in outdoor unclassified areas, NEMA Type 4 enclosures are usually recommended (NEMA 4X in corrosive atmosphere). NEMA Type 7 enclosures are required in Class I locations and NEMA Type 9 in Class II locations. Switch racks may contain other equipment; for example, lighting panels, control stations, lighting transformers, and circuit breakers.

134 Feeder and Branch Circuit Systems


Feeders and branch circuits are used to distribute electrical power throughout facilities. A feeder is defined as all circuit conductors between the service equipment or source of the separately derived system (e.g., a transformer) and the final branch circuit overcurrent device. A branch circuit is defined as the circuit conductors between the final overcurrent device and the load. This section describes how to size conductors and raceways. Once conductors have been sized, refer to Section 1100, Wire and Cable, for their selection. The routing of conduit and cable is extremely important. Space for routing feeders and branch circuits should be reserved as early as possible in the layout and design. See Section 1000, Installation of Electrical Facilities, and Specification ELC-MS1675 for specific guidelines on routing and installing wire and conduits and cable systems.

Conductors
Conductors must be sized to meet five different criteria: Current carrying capacity (ampacity) Voltage drop Terminations Short circuit duty Mechanical strength

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Current Carrying Capacity. Requirements for sizing feeder and branch circuit conductors are provided by NEC. The current carrying capacity (ampacity) of a feeder conductor must be equal to or greater than 125% of the continuous load plus the noncontinuous load (NEC Article 220-10). Branch circuit conductors must have an ampacity not less than the maximum load to be served (NEC Article 210-19 and 220-10). Branch circuit conductors supplying a single motor must have an ampacity equal to or greater than 125% of the motor fullload current rating (NEC Article 430-22). Conductors supplying two or more motors must have an ampacity equal to or greater than the sum of the full load current rating of all the motors plus 25% of the largest rated motor in the group (NEC Articles 430-24 and 430-25.) NEC Tables 310-16 through 310-19 contain rated ampacities for conductors rated 02000 volts, and Tables 310-69 through 310-84 contain rated ampacities for conductors over 2000 volts. The ampacity ratings of conductors are dependent on conductor material, ambient temperature, type of insulation, type of raceway, and the number of conductors in the raceway. Copper is the preferred conductor material because of its high conductivity and resiliency. Even though aluminum conductors are light weight and inexpensive, aluminum is very ductile, which causes terminations to loosen, resulting in high resistance, heat, and fires. Copper is required by the MMS in offshore OCS areas. The ampacity of conductors must be derated for the following conditions: high ambient temperatures; more than three conductors in a raceway; installation in underground electrical ducts; and direct burial cable. Ambient temperature derating factors for conductors rated 2000 volts or less are included in NEC ampacity Tables 310-16 through 310-19. For conductors over 2000 volts, temperature derating is determined by the following formula: TC TA 2 TD I 2 = I 1 -----------------------------------------TC TA 1 TD
(Eq. 100-6)

where: I1 = ampacity from NEC tables at ambient, TA1 I2 = ampacity at actual ambient temperature, TA2 TC = conductor temperature from NEC tables (C) TA1 = ambient temperature from NEC tables (C) TA2 = actual ambient temperature (C) TD = dielectric loss temperature rise from IEEE S-135 (IPCEA P-46426) NEC Appendix B contains tables for better approximation of 0-2000 volt cable temperatures for specific installations (these ratings are also based on

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Equation 100-6). Although the code says these are not part of the code but included for information only, they may and should be used for more accurate ampacity estimates. When there are more than three conductors in a raceway or cable, the ampacities given in NEC tables must be derated by the derating factors following the tables. Derating factors do not apply to conductors in conduits 24 inches long or shorter. The ampacities of cables installed in underground duct banks and of direct buried cables (as listed in NEC Tables 310-77 through 310-84 and NEC Appendix B Tables B-310-8 through B-310-10 may be required to be derated if not installed per Figure 310-1 of NEC. Computer programs for derating are available. The type of insulation used depends on a number of factors which must be considered before making a final selection. Selection depends on: voltage rating, type of voltage (i.e., AC or DC), shielding, size of load, length of circuit, type of raceway, operating conditions, and cost. These factors are all described in detail in Section 1100, Wire and Cable, which contains recommendations for selecting power, control, instrumentation, telemetering, and thermocouple cables. Insulation for power cables rated above 5 kV is divided into two classifications: grounded neutral service (100% insulation level) and ungrounded neutral service (133% insulation level). Cables with 100% insulation level may be used where the system is provided with relay protection such that ground faults will be cleared as rapidly as possible (1 minute maximum). Cables with 133% insulation level are applicable to situations where the clearing time requirements of the 100% level cannot be met or where additional insulation strength is desired. Faults must be cleared on 133% insulation level cable within 1 hour. In general, 133% insulation level cable is recommended for medium voltage installations because of increased cable life and decreased likelihood of faults. NEC Table 310-64 provides insulation thickness requirements for shielded conductors rated 2001 to 35,000 volts. Shielding is recommended on conductors rated 5 kV and higher. NEC Table 310-63 provides insulation thickness requirements for nonshielded conductors rated 2001 to 8000 volts. For cable tray installations, the cable type must be listed specifically for use in cable trays. Single conductors below 1/0 cannot be used. NEC Article 318 contains requirements for cables installed in tray. Descriptions of operating conditions and temperature ratings for low voltage insulations may be found in NEC Table 310-13. If the required conductor size is larger then 500 MCM, paralleling conductors should be considered. The rate of increase of the ampere rating per circular mil of a conductor decreases with increase of cable size because of skin effect and smaller radiating surface per circular mil. Standard size conductors used for paralleling are usually more readily available and easier to install than conductors larger than 500 MCM. Paralleling conductors allows the use of two conduits, which may be less expensive than large wire in one conduit over 4 inches. Note that the conductors should be installed so each conduit contains all three-phases (A, B, and C) to mini-

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mize induction heating. NEC Article 310-4 contains requirements for paralleling conductors. Voltage Drop. Voltage drop should be considered when sizing conductors. In most circuits, the voltage drop is not significant. However, for long runs (particularly at low voltage) and conductors feeding critical circuits, the voltage drop should be calculated to ensure satisfactory operation. The NEC recommends (for efficiency of operation) that voltage drop should not exceed 3% on any feeder or branch circuit. It also recommends that the total voltage drop on all conductors between the service-entrance equipment and connected loads be limited to 5%. For motor circuits, not only the steady state voltage drop but also the starting voltage drop must be considered. Because of the phaser relationships between voltage, current, resistance, and reactance in AC circuits, voltage drop calculations require a working knowledge of trigonometry for making exact computations. Fortunately, most voltage drop calculations are based on assumed limiting conditions, and, therefore, approximate formulas are adequate. For balanced three-phase AC circuits the approximate voltage drop formula is: VD = 1.732 IL (Rcos + Xsin)
(Eq. 100-7)

where: VD = voltage drop in circuit, line to line, in volts I = current flowing in the conductor, in amperes L = length of one conductor (i.e., distance from overcurrent device to end device), in feet R = line resistance for one conductor, in ohms per foot X = line reactance for one conductor, in ohms per foot = angle whose cosine is the power factor of the load For single phase AC circuits the approximate voltage drop formula is: VD = 2IL (Rcos + Xsin)
(Eq. 100-8)

where: VD = voltage drop in circuit, line to neutral, in volts I = current flowing in the conductor, in amperes L = length of one conductor (i.e., distance from overcurrent device to end device), in feet R = line resistance for one conductor, in ohms per foot

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X = line reactance for one conductor, in ohms per foot = angle whose cosine is the power factor of the load In using these formulas, the line current is generally considered to be the maximum or assumed load current carrying capacity of the conductor. The resistance R is the AC resistance of the particular conductor used and of the particular type of raceway in which it is installed. R depends on the size of the conductor, the type of conductor (copper or aluminum), the temperature of the conductor (normally 75C for average loading and 90C for maximum loading), and whether the conductor is installed in magnetic (steel) or nonmagnetic (aluminum or nonmetallic) raceway. The reactance X depends on the size and material of the conductor, whether the raceway is magnetic or nonmagnetic, and on the spacing between the conductors of the circuit. The spacing is fixed for multi-conductor cable; however, it may vary with single conductor cables, so an average value is required. Cable manufacturers values of R and X should be used when available. Table 9 of NEC lists AC resistance and reactance values for 600 volt conductors installed in PVC, aluminum, or steel conduit. This table also lists values of effective impedance (defined as Rcos + Xsin) calculated at 0.85 power factor. The angle between the load voltage and load current is determined from the power factor of the circuit: = arccos (power factor). Voltage drop tables are sufficiently accurate to determine the approximate voltage drop for most problems. A voltage drop table has been developed to easily determine voltage drop for most lighting circuits. See Section 136 for details. For single phase DC circuits the voltage drop formula is: VD = 2ILR
(Eq. 100-9)

where: VD = voltage drop, in volts I = current flowing in the conductor, in amperes L = length of one conductor (i.e., distance from overcurrent device to end device), in feet R = DC resistance of conductor, in ohms per foot If the calculated voltage drop is excessive, a larger conductor size should be selected. If voltage drop is a problem with several loads, it might be more economical to move the power center (substation) closer to the load. Termination. Conductors should be sized to limit conductor operating temperatures to those designated for the termination devices involved. For UL listed devices, unless marked with higher temperature limits, the terminals of devices

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rated 100A or less are typically limited to operating temperatures of 60C. Devices rated in excess of 100A are typically limited to 75C. In selecting circuit conductors, the designer shall assure that the actual conductor temperature does not exceed the temperature rating of the terminal device. The derating required for motor circuits and continuous loads on devices such as circuit breakers, which limit the actual current allowed in circuit wiring, should be considered when determining conductor operating temperature. Other factors such as ambient temperature within enclosures and the single conductor configuration of most terminations also can be taken into account when determining the actual conductor temperatures attainable. In metal-enclosed switchgear, power cables usually terminate on buswork, not directly on the terminals of the main switching device. This is in contrast to panelboard, switchboard and motor control center construction, where power cables may terminate on the terminals of molded-case circuit breakers or starters. The allowable temperature rise of the connections to insulated cables and the allowable temperature of the air surrounding these cables is given in the ANSI switchgear standards, ANSI/IEEE C37.20.1 for low-voltage switchgear, and ANSI/IEEE C37.20.2 for metal-enclosed interrupter switchgear. All three of these standards require the same temperature for these features. Paragraph 4.5.5 of each of these standards limits the temperature of the air surrounding insulated power cables to 65C, when the switchgear assembly is equipped with devices having the maximum current rating for which the assembly is designed, is carrying rated continuous current, and is in an ambient temperature of 40C. Table 4 of each standard limits the temperature rise of silver-or tin-surfaced connections to insulated cables to 45C, or a total temperature of 85C. The tests to demonstrate conformance with these limiting temperature rises require including appropriate sizes and lengths of power cables in the continuous current path. Short Circuit Duty. Conductor size should be checked to avoid severe permanent insulation damage from short circuit currents during intervals of fault-current flow. Selection of cable size for short circuit duty should be based on anticipated actual short circuit current (including the effect of breaker impedance, conductor impedance, arcing fault impedance and breaker trip time). See Section 200, System Studies and Protection, for information on calculating short circuit currents. Short circuit duty requires a minimum conductor size according to ICEA requirements for transient temperature limits to avoid damaging thermal and mechanical stresses. The minimum conductor sizes for various insulations are shown in Table 79 of IEEE Std 141 or in ICEA P-32-382. See Section 1100, Wire and Cable, for details. Mechanical Strength. For control wiring, the minimum recommended single conductor size is 14 AWG. The minimum conductor size recommended for instrumentation and thermocouple cables is 18 AWG for single pairs and 20 AWG for multiple pairs. The minimum recommended conductor sizes for power and lighting circuits are given below. Voltage of Conductor (volts) Up to 2000 Minimum Conductor Size (AWG) 12

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2001 to 5000 5001 to 8000 8001 to 15,000 Above 15,000

8 6 2 1

Example Calculation for Sizing Conductors. This example illustrates how to size conductors to feed a 100 hp motor. Design Parameters a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. Voltage and frequency of utilization: 480 VAC, 60 Hz Raceway: steel conduit, above ground Conductors: three copper, 600 volt, type THW single conductors, rated 75C Circuit Length: 400 feet from overcurrent device to motor Voltage drop allowed: 3% (cable drop only) Ambient temperature: 35C (105F) maximum Short circuit current available: 15,000 amperes symmetrical Power factor of motor: 0.85 Ground: high resistance, with an alarm for manual fault clearing

Tables Used a. b. c. d. IEEE Std 141, Table 79, Minimum Conductor Sizes for Fault Current and Clearing Times NEC Table 310-16, Allowable Ampacities NEC Table 430-150, Full-Load Current - Three-Phase Alternating Current Motors NEC Table 9, AC Resistance and Reactance for 600 V Cables

Conductor Sizing a. b. Minimum size for mechanical strength: 12 AWG (based on circuit voltage) Minimum size for load current: From NEC Article 430-150, the load current for a 100 hp motor is 124 amperes. NEC Article 430-22 requires that the branch circuit conductors be sized to carry 125% of motor full load current: 1.25 x 124 amperes = 155 amperes. From NEC Table 310-16, 2/0 AWG, THW, 75C rated conductor temperature has an ampacity of 175, and the derating factor for 35C ambient is 0.94. Therefore, the maximum ampacity is 175 (0.94) = 164.5 amperes. Since the maximum ampacity of the conductor is greater than 155 amperes, 2/0 AWG conductors should be selected.

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c.

Minimum size for short circuits: 6 AWG for 15,000 amperes fault at 1/2 cycle and 2/0 AWG for 15,000 amperes fault at 10 cycle clearing time for PVC insulation. (See Table 79, IEEE Std 141.) Maximum of 3% voltage drop in feeder at load current VD = 1.732 IL (Rcos + Xsin) I = 124 amperes L = 400 ft

d.

From Table 9 of NEC, the effective Z (defined as Rcos + Xsin) at 0.85 power factor for 2/0 AWG is 0.00011 ohms per foot. VD = 1.732 (124) (400) (0.00011) = 9.45 volts 9.45 %VD = --------- 100 = 2.0% 480
(Eq. 100-10)

For motor starting voltage drop calculation procedures, see Section 200, System Studies and Protection.

Raceway Systems
Four types of raceway systems are commonly used to distribute electrical power in industrial systems. Conduit systems Cable trays Direct burial cables Submarine cables

Conduit Systems. Underground conduit systems are used when it is necessary to provide a high degree of mechanical and fire protection and when overhead conduits would be difficult or expensive to install (e.g., when no means for adequately supporting conduit is available). It is recommended that underground conduits be enclosed in a red concrete bank for protection from damage and for ease of recognition during excavation. In an underground conduit system, schedule 40 PVC conduit, rigid galvanized steel conduit, PVC coated galvanized steel conduit, and PVC coated aluminum conduit may be used. Aboveground conduit systems are generally used where there are overhead pipeways or structures to provide support for the conduits. Overhead conduits should be either schedule 40 rigid, hot dipped galvanized steel or schedule 40 copper-free aluminum conduit, as dictated by overall economics and facility site requirements. See Section 1000, Installation of Electrical Facilities, for details about selecting and installing conduit systems. Figure 100-16 shows some of the advantages and disadvantages of the different conduit systems.

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Sizing of conduit is based on the percentage of cross-sectional area of conduit filled by the conductors or cables. Tables 1 through 8 in Chapter 9 of NEC are used to determine conduit fill and the maximum number of conductors allowed. Tables 3A, 3B, and 3C may be used to determine the number of conductors if only one type of conductor is installed in the conduit. If a combination of conductor types is needed, the percentage of fill must be calculated using Tables 4 through 8. For conductors not included in Chapter 9, such as compact or multi-conductor cables, the actual dimensions should be used. When a conduit or nipple installed between junction boxes, cabinets, and similar enclosures does not exceed 24 inches in length, 60% of the total cross-sectional area may be filled. In general, the minimum recommended size of conduit used in underground systems is 1 inch. For aboveground systems, the minimum recommended size is 3/4 inches for galvanized steel and 1 inch for aluminum. Example Calculation for Sizing a Conduit Size a conduit that contains three 4/0 AWG THWN copper wires and one 4 AWG THWN copper ground wire. From Table 1 of NEC, 40% fill is allowed for four conductors in conduit. From Table 5 of NEC, which lists approximate diameter and cross-sectional area of various conductors: Total area of three 4/0 THWN wires is 3 x 0.3278 = 0.9834 in2. Area of one 4 AWG THWN conductor is 0.0845 in2. Total area of the conductors is 0.9834 + 0.0845 = 1.0679 in2. From Table 4 of NEC, for more than two conductors at 40% fill, the minimum trade size of conduit allowed is 2 inches. Conductor jamming in the conduit must be considered when sizing conduits. See Section 1000, Installation of Electrical Facilities. Cable Tray Systems. A cable tray system offers low installed cost, system flexibility, easy accessibility for repair or addition of cables, and is space saving when compared to conduits where there are large numbers of circuits with a common routing. Cables used in cable tray systems must be approved specifically for cable tray installations (e.g., TC Type Cables). In most process facility cable tray installations, armored cables are used instead of TC cables. The four different types of cable trays are ladder, solid bottom, trough, and channel. The normal sizes (widths) of cable trays are 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 inches.

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Fig. 100-16 Comparison of Raceway Systems Method of Distribution Underground conduit General Aboveground conduit General Rigid conduit and single conductor wiring. Advantages Best protection against mechanical and fire damage. More accessible for maintenance, repair and additions. Most readily available materials. Electricians familiar with installations. Provides high degree of mechanical protection. Not recommended for Company installations. Same as for rigid conduit, but more resistant to corrosion. More resistant to corrosion than conduit coated just on outside. Highest resistance to corrosion. Very low cost. Low installed cost; easy accessibility for repair or addition of cable. Easy conventional installation. Additions and modifications simply made. Inexpensive. Light weight. Corrosion-resistant in most atmospheres. More corrosion-resistant than galvanized steel. Disadvantages Not accessible for maintenance, repair, and additions. Greater exposure to fire, explosion, corrosion, and mechanical damage. Requires intermediate supports. Expensive fittings; high exposure to corrosion; structural supports always required. Labor intensive. Not allowed by MMS in classified areas offshore. Same as for rigid conduit. Expensive. Friction factor for pulling wire is greater than for conduit with no inside coating. Very expensive. Not approved for Class I areas. Has history of installation problems. Additional supports required. Greater exposure to fire, explosion, corrosion, and mechanical damage.

IMC conduit with single conductor wiring. PVC coated conduit (coated on outside only) with single conductor wiring. PVC coated conduit (also coated on the inside) with single conductor wiring. Rigid PVC conduit with single conductor wiring. Cable tray - General

Galvanized steel cable tray with multi-conductor cable wiring. Aluminum cable tray with multiconductor cable wiring. PVC coated cable tray with multiconductor cable wiring.

High maintenance cost. Susceptible to corrosion in some atmospheres. Subject to corrosion pockets despite PVC coating. High cost. Usually available only in 12-foot lengths. Most expensive. No ground continuity. Subject to deterioration by U/V.

Fiberglass cable tray with multiconductor cable wiring.

Least susceptible to corrosion.

Ladder cable tray is used primarily with power cables and other heat-producing cable. It permits liberal air flow, but does not offer total protection against damage from external sources. Solid bottom cable tray is not commonly used because its cost is about 30 to 50% more than the ladder type. Solid bottom cable tray affords maximum protection against damage, but, because it has a solid bottom, it provides no ventilation. Solid

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bottom cable tray should be used only for instrumentation, control, and communication cables that do not develop heat. Trough cable tray permits average ventilation and average protection against cable damage. It represents a compromise between the primary features of ladder and solid bottom tray. Channel cable tray is a small tray primarily used to carry one or two cables from the main cable tray to the vicinity of cable termination. This cable tray is used when there is not space for larger tray or when large tray is uneconomical. The sizing of cable trays depends upon the rated voltage level, type of conductors or cables, and sizes of conductors or cables in the cable trays. The complete design and sizing of a cable tray system should be in accordance with Article 318 of NEC. To determine the quantity of cables and conductors rated 2000 volts nominal or less permitted in a cable tray, refer to Articles 318-9 through 318-11. For cables and conductors rated over 2000 volts nominal refer to Articles 318-12 and 318-13. When sizing cable trays, consideration must be given to loading and support systems. Trays are available in different strengths for minimizing sagging. For more details on cable tray installation, see Section 1000, Installation of Electrical Facilities. Example Calculation for Sizing a Cable Tray System Size a ladder cable tray to hold 12 1/C 250 MCM and three 1/C 1000 MCM conductors. The conductors are type THWN rated 600 volts. By the formula in NEC Table 318-10, Column 2, the area of all cables smaller than 1000 MCM should not exceed the maximum allowable fill area resulting from the computation. Area of one 250 MCM conductor (NEC Table 5, Chapter 9) = 0.4026 in2. Area of twelve 250 MCM conductors = 12 0.4026 = 4.83 in2. Diameter of one 1000 MCM conductor (NEC Table 5, Chapter 9) = 1.317 inches Sd = Sum of the diameter of three 1/C 1000 MCM THWN wires. Sd = 3 1.317 = 3.951 inches (1.1 Sd) = 1.1 3.951 = 4.34 in2. From Table 318-10 for 6 inch cable tray, the maximum allowable fill area is 6.5 4.34 = 2.16 in2. Since the area of the 250 MCM conductors (4.83 in2) is larger than 2.16 in2, a 6 inch cable tray is not large enough. From Table 318-10 for 12 inch cable tray, the maximum allowable fill area is 13.0 4.34 = 8.66 in2. Since the area of the 250 MCM conductors is smaller than 8.66 in2, a cable tray 12 inches wide and 6 inches deep should be selected to conform to NEC. In addition, the cable weight should be checked to ensure that it does not exceed the manufacturers recommendations for maximum deflection.

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See Figure 100-16 for a comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of wire and conduit systems and cable tray systems. Direct Burial Cables. Cables may be buried directly in the ground if of a type permitted by Article 310-7 and installed in accordance with Article 300-5 of NEC. Direct burial cables are recommended only when the need for future maintenance along the cable run is not anticipated. The cables used must be suitable for direct burial and identified for such use (NEC Article 310-7). Direct burial cables rated over 2000 volts nominal must be shielded (NEC Article 310-7.) The metallic shield, sheath or armor must be grounded per NEC Article 310-7 (for personnel safety in the event of accidental dig-in). Refer to Tables 300-5 and 710-3(b) of NEC for minimum depth requirements. For direct burial cable installation details, see Section 1000, Installation of Electrical Facilities. Submarine Cables. Submarine cables are used primarily to provide power to offshore platforms from shore and from one platform to other. Submarine cables are generally medium voltage to high voltage cables. For more information see Chevron Eastern Region-ELEP, Electrical Construction Guidelines for Offshore, Marshland, and Inland Locations.

135 Grounding
Grounding is essential for personnel safety, compliance with various codes, prolonging insulation life (by limiting overvoltage), and for fast selective isolation of ground faults (thereby improving equipment protection). Various types of grounding are described below. For a detailed discussion on grounding, refer to Section 900, Grounding Systems. System Grounding. System grounding involves grounding the neutral point of separately derived sources (e.g., transformers and generators). A completely ungrounded system can be hazardous to personnel and is subject to excessive overvoltage. There are three methods of system grounding: solid, low resistance, and high resistance. A solidly grounded system is connected directly to ground through an adequate ground connection where no impedance has been inserted intentionally. Solidly grounded systems are not subject to excessive over-voltages during ground fault, but values of ground fault current can be large. They are used on low voltage systems (0-1000 volts) and systems over 15 kV when immediate tripping is desired. A low resistance grounded system is grounded through an impedance, primarily resistive, where the ground fault current is limited between 25 amperes and several hundred amperes. The system limits ground fault currents to a value that will minimize damage to equipment, yet allow sufficient ground current for selective relay performance. Low resistance grounded systems are not subject to excessive overvoltage due to arcing faults. They are used on 2 kV through 15 kV systems. A high resistance grounded system is grounded through an impedance, primarily resistive, where the ground fault current is limited to less than 10 amperes. The

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basic objective of the system is to prevent tripping by the first ground fault (allowing continued process operation). This system must be provided with a means for detecting and locating faults. The system is not subject to transient overvoltages due to arcing faults. This method is used on 480 volt, three-phase, three-wire systems not requiring connection of line-to-neutral loads and is rarely used on systems over 5000 volts. When used on 2400 and 4160 volt systems, the protective system may be designed to either trip or not trip on the first fault. Equipment Grounding. Equipment grounding involves the connection to ground of all metallic non-current carrying parts in the facility (e.g., transformer enclosures, switchgear and motor control center cabinets, motor frames, junction boxes, cable tray, conduit, armor and shields of cable, buildings, and vessels not inherently grounded). When separate below-grade ground loops around substations, structures, and buildings are used, all loops should be interconnected and tied to groups of driven ground rods. The primary objective is to protect personnel from electrical shock by limiting the potential difference between equipment and ground to a safe levelunder both normal and fault conditions. Lightning Protection Grounding. Lightning protection grounding may be required for the protection of buildings, tall structures, overhead power lines, and electrical equipment to minimize damage and personnel shock hazards in areas of frequent thunderstorm activity. These areas may require the installation of air terminals, down conductors, and ground rods for buildings and tall structures, the installation of an overhead ground wire for pole lines and substations, and the installation of surge arresters on pole lines and in substations. Areas with frequent thunderstorm activity require more protection, possibly the addition of air terminals and surge arrestorsdetermined on the basis of facility experience for the particular site involved. When used, air terminal and surge arrester ground wires should be run as directly as possible to separate ground rods, with a minimum number of bends and no sharp bends. The ground rods should be interconnected and also tied into the main ground loops. Capacitors, installed along with surge arresters at the terminals of large motors, are used to protect rotating machinery insulation. Static Electricity Grounding. Static electricity grounding concerns the grounding (bonding) of equipment and piping involving flowing combustible liquids or dust to prevent the accumulation of static charges that could spark over and cause a fire or explosion. Tank car and tank truck loading and unloading of gasoline are examples where bonding and grounding are required. Static grounds should be connected directly to the facility grounding system.

136 Lighting
The scope of this section is limited to the selection of lighting voltage levels, sizing lighting transformers and panelboards, and lighting voltage drop calculations. Section 1200, Lighting, provides information on light sources, lighting fixture selection, lighting system design, lighting calculations, fixture layout, and emergency lighting requirements.

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Voltage Level
The most common voltage level for lighting fixtures is 120 volts. Incandescent lighting fixtures are available in 120, 208, and 240 volts. Fluorescent lighting fixtures are available in 120, 208, 240, and 277 volts. High intensity discharge (HID) lighting fixtures are available in 120, 208, 240, 277, and 480 volts. Fixture supply voltages of 277 volts and less are preferred. However, it may be necessary to use 480 volts for floodlighting applications (e.g., lighting parking lots) when many large-wattage fixtures and long branch circuits are involved. Many operating locations have standardized particular voltage levels for certain fixture types. This should be investigated before selecting a voltage level.

Lighting Transformer and Panelboard Sizing


A lighting transformer is used to reduce the voltage feeding a panelboard. Lighting transformers are typically rated 50 kVA and smaller and may be single phase or three-phase. However, three-phase lighting transformers and panelboards are preferred to allow better load balancing. A panelboard is used to distribute power to individual branch circuits; each circuit must be protected by a circuit breaker. Panelboard phases must match feed phases (e.g., a three-phase four-wire panelboard must be selected for a three-phase fourwire circuit.) NEC limits the maximum size of a panelboard to 42 overcurrent devices. A two-pole breaker is considered to be two overcurrent devices, and a three-pole breaker is considered three overcurrent devices. The total continuous load on any overcurrent device is limited to 80% of its rating, unless the assembly (overcurrent device and enclosure) is approved for continuous duty at 100% of its rating. In many expansion applications, sufficient spare capacity will be available on existing lighting transformers and panelboards, located in the vicinity of the new lighting system. If not, a new transformer and panelboard will be required. Standard Drawing ELC-EF-484 can be used to arrange circuits, provide balanced phases, determine panelboard size, and determine transformer load and size. Future load growth should always be considered when sizing lighting transformers and panelboards. It is recommended that both be sized to carry the total continuous running load plus 25% spare capacity. A minimum 15 kVA transformer is recommended to reduce voltage drop and to provide high fault current levels on long branch circuits that otherwise may not have sufficient fault current to trip the breaker.

Voltage Drop Calculations


NEC recommends (for efficiency of operation) that lighting branch circuits be sized to prevent a voltage drop exceeding 3% at the furthest fixture and 5% on the feeder and the branch circuit combined. The voltage drop for lighting circuits may be determined using the applicable formulas given in Section 134. However, for most lighting circuits, the voltage drop table shown in Figure 100-17 may be used to simplify calculations. This table is for single-phase, two-wire, AC systems with a power factor of 0.90. It was developed

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for copper conductors installed in magnetic conduit. The circuit footage used in the table is the distance from the overcurrent device to the end device (i.e., conduit length). Other voltage drop tables for single-phase two-wire systems typically use the linear length of wire from the overcurrent device to the end device plus the length of return wire back to the overcurrent device. Figure 100-17 takes into account the return length. The rated operating current of each fixture (including lamp and ballast) should be used when calculating voltage drop. Figure 100-17 was developed for a conductor operating temperature of 60C, but it may be used without significant error for conductor temperatures up to 75C. The two examples given below demonstrate how to use the voltage drop table. When a common neutral is used and the loads are balanced, neutral currents cancel because they are out of phase. In this case, the voltage drop equals one-half the voltage drop for each circuit with separate neutrals. However, the conductors should be sized for the case with full current flowing in the neutral to account for the unbalanced (worst) case when all lamps are not operating Assumptions for using the voltage drop table for single-phase, two wire circuits: 1. 2. 3. The conductors are copper, installed in rigid steel conduit. The circuit is single-phase two wireungrounded (hot) and grounded (neutral) conductors. The tables have already taken into account the total circuit length in feet (i.e., the length of wire from the source to the light and back to the source), so the measured distance is just the length of the conduit. Conductor temperature is 75C or less.

4.

Example 1. Calculate the percentage voltage drop for two 120V, 250 watt HPS floodlights installed on the same pole, 500 feet from the panel (Figure 100-18). The rated operating current for each 250 watt HPS fixture is 2.7A (from manufactures literature). For two 8 AWG conductors: Ampere feet = (2.7A + 2.7A) (500ft) = 2700 A-ft VD = 3.78V (from Figure 100-17) 3.78 %VD = --------- 100 = 3.2% 120
(Eq. 100-11)

Since the voltage drop exceeds 3%, the next larger size wire is investigated. For two 6 AWG conductors: Ampere feet = 2700 A-ft VD = 2.5V (from Figure 100-17)

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Fig. 100-17 Voltage Drop Table

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Fig. 100-18 Voltage Drop Calculation, Example 1

2.5 %VD = -------- 100 = 2.1% 120


(Eq. 100-12)

Therefore, two 6 AWG conductors are acceptable for this circuit. Example 2. Calculate the voltage available at each fixture and the percent voltage drop at the further fixture for the circuit shown in Figure 100-19. Source voltage is 120 volts, and wire size is 8 AWG.
Fig. 100-19 Voltage Drop Calculation, Example 2

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The rated operating current for each 250 watt HPS fixture is 2.7A (from manufacturers literature). Total current drawn at each fixture is shown in Figure 100-19. at V1: Ampere Feet = (5.4 + 8.1 + 5.4)(50) = 945 A-ft at V2: Ampere Feet = 945 + (8.1 + 5.4) (50) = 1620 A-ft at V3: Ampere Feet = 1620 + (5.4)(40) = 1836 A-ft From Figure 100-17, using two 8 AWG wires, the voltage drop at each point is: VD1 = 1.35 volts VD2 = 2.27 volts VD3 = 2.57 volts The voltage at each fixture (V1, V2, V3) is: V1 = VS - VD1 = 120 - 1.35 = 118.65 volts V2 = V1 - VD2 = 120 - 2.27 = 117.73 volts V3 = V2 - VD3 = 120 - 2.57 = 117.43 volts The percentage voltage drop at the furthest downstream fixture is: 2.57 %VD3 = --------- 100 = 2.14% 120
(Eq. 100-13)

Therefore, 8 AWG wire is large enough for this application.

137 System Protection


Power systems must be protected with fuses or circuit breakers against faults and current overloading. It is extremely important that the protective devices (e.g., circuit breakers, relays, and fuses) have coordinated operation to provide selective tripping; that is, the device nearest the fault (the primary protection) should trip before the devices closer to the power source (secondary protection). With proper coordination, the smallest possible portion of the electrical system is shut down when clearing a fault. Improper coordination can be very costly if an entire facility is shut down to clear a minor fault. Coordination is a part of the system design and is determined in a relay coordination study. Section 600, Protective Devices, describes how to select relays, current transformers and potential transformers, and how to plot relay curves on the timecurrent coordination sheet. It also discusses the major relays used for protection of components in an industrial electrical system.

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140 References
The following references are readily available. Those included with an asterisk (*) are included in this manual or are available in other manuals.

141 Model Specifications (MS)


*ELC-MS-1675 Installation of Electrical Facilities Standard Manual Transfer Panel for Double-Ended Substations 480-V Stand-by Power System, One-Line Diagram Typical One-line Diagram Data Sheet for Instructions for 480 V Motor Control Rack Specifications and Arrangement Data Guide for Instructions for 480 V Motor Control Rack Specifications and Arrangement Schedule of Motors and Starters Lighting Schedules Electrical Symbols and Index of Reference Drawings Equipment Schedule and Reference Drawings

142 Standard Drawings


GF-P99968 GF-P99972 GF-P99988 *ELC-DS-597 *ELC-DG-597 *ELC-EF-204 *ELC-EF-484 *ELC-EF-541 *ELC-EF-759

143 Data Sheets (DS), Data Guides (DG), and Engineering Forms (EF)

144 Appendices
Automatic Switch Company (ASCO) *Sizing of Automatic Transfer Switches, Part I, ASCO Facts Vol. 2, No. 12 (Appendix A). *Sizing of Automatic Transfer Switches, Part II, ASCO Facts Vol. 2, No. 13 (Appendix A).

145 Other References


American Petroleum Institute (API) *RP 14F *RP 540 Design and Installation of Electrical Systems for Offshore Production Platforms Recommended Practice for Electrical Installations in Petroleum Processing Plants IEEE Recommended Practice for Electric Installations on Shipboard. Distribution, Power and Regulating Transformers. IEEE Recommended Practice for Electric Power Distribution for Industrial Plants.

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) ANSI/IEEE Std 45 IEEE Std C57 ANSI/IEEE Std 141

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ANSI/IEEE Std 446 ANSI/IEEE Std 485 Vol. IA-9 No. 3

IEEE Recommended Practice for Emergency & Standby Power Systems for Industrial and Commercial Applications. IEEE Recommended Practice for Sizing Large Lead Storage Batteries for Generating Stations and Substations. Features of a Power System Incorporating Large AC Motors/Captive Transformers, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, May/June 1973. National Electrical Code (NEC). System Grounding for Low-Voltage Power Systems. Transformer Connections, Dec. 1967. Short Circuit Characteristics of Insulated Cable Enclosures for Electrical Equipment (1000 Volts Maximum) Enclosures for Industrial Controls and Systems.

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) ANSI/NFPA 70 GET-3548 GET-2H ICEA P-32-382 NEMA 250 ANSI/NEMA ICS6 General Electric Company (GE)

Insulated Cable Engineers Association (ICEA) National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA)

Other Publications Beeman, Donald. Industrial Power Systems Handbook. New York: McGraw-Hill
Book Co., Inc., 1955.

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Abstract
This section introduces the engineer to electrical power system studies that can aid in the design of new systems or the modification of existing systems. The studies serve as a framework for the systematic analysis of critical considerations in power system design. The studies include: a short circuit study, a motor starting study, and a load flow analysis. The discussions in this section concentrate on how and when each study may be appropriate, the quality of data required for each study, and how to use the study results. Also included is a brief discussion of studies for transient stability and harmonic analysis. Contents 210 211 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 Introduction System Studies Summary Short-Circuit Studies Scope Reasons for a Short-Circuit Study When to Conduct a Short-Circuit Study Short-Circuit Study Methods Short-Circuit Analysis: Example Using the Per-Unit Method Comments on the Short-Circuit Calculation Example Computer Methods for Calculating Short-Circuit Current Electrical Systems Analysis Computer Programs Motor-Starting Studies Scope Reasons for a Motor-Starting Study When To Conduct a Motor-Starting Study Voltage-Drop Calculations Data for a Voltage-Drop Calculation Voltage-Drop Calculation: Example 200-32 200-4 Page 200-3

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237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 250 260 270 271 272 273 274

Correcting for Unacceptable Voltage Drop Motor Acceleration Time Calculation Computer Programs That Simulate Motor-Starting Load-Flow Studies Reasons for a Load-Flow Study When To Conduct a Load-Flow Study Data for a Load-Flow Study Interpreting Computer Load-Flow Data Transient-Stability Studies Harmonic Analysis Studies References Model Specifications (MS) Standard Drawings Data Sheets (DS), Data Guides (DG) and Engineering Forms (EF) Other References 200-55 200-57 200-58 200-54

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210 Introduction
This section explains when system studies should be conducted and how to do them. The following studies are discussed: Short-circuit Motor-starting Load-flow Transient-stability Harmonic analysis

Relay coordination is discussed in Section 600, Protective Devices. Computers are generally used to perform the calculations in the above studies. To use computer programs properly, it is necessary to have a good understanding of the calculations involved and the expected results. Manual calculations are still used to make first-order approximations and to check computer solutions. For this reason, both manual and computer-based techniques are discussed.

211 System Studies Summary


A brief summary of each system study discussed in this section is presented below. A review of these summaries will guide the reader to information appropriate for the task. Short-circuit studies (Section 220), sometimes called fault studies, are used to determine how much current will flow if there is a short circuit at any point in the system. This information is needed before specifying switchgear, motor control center starters, circuit breakers, and wire and fuses to ensure that the devices which are chosen are capable of interrupting or withstanding the available short circuit current without being damaged mechanically or electrically. The results of a shortcircuit study are used to calculate the settings of protective relays within the system, and to select fuse and circuit breaker time-current characteristics. Motor-starting studies (Section 230) are usually conducted for large motors, 500 hp or larger, and are sometimes done for smaller motors fed by weak power systems, long feeders or branch circuits. The objective of a motor-starting study is to determine if a motor will start and accelerate the driven equipment, and to determine voltage dips at various points in the electrical system when the motor is started. Usually it is unacceptable to allow the voltage to drop below 80% of the nominal voltage anywhere in the system during the starting of a motor. High intensity discharge (HID) lighting may extinguish and some control relays may drop out if the voltage drops lower. Load-flow studies (Section 240) utilize the same information required for shortcircuit studies in addition to facts about the operational loading conditions of the system. Load-flow studies are run on a computer program that simulates the actual currents and power flows in the system. These programs produce tabulations of the magnitude and phase angle of the voltage at each bus and the real and reactive power flowing in each line. The studies also determine line losses and are useful for

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selecting the tap positions on power transformers. Information from load-flow studies is used to predict voltage drops within the system and the overload status of distribution circuits. A load-flow study is a prerequisite for a transient-stability study. Transient-stability studies (Section 250) are usually completed following shortcircuit and load-flow studies. Transient stability is the ability of a power system to withstand a disturbance without a loss of synchronism in its synchronous machines. A transient-stability study simulates typical system disturbances and analyzes their effects on the rotating synchronous machines in the system. Harmonic analysis studies (Section 260) may be needed when using large silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) drives, power conversion equipment, or power factor correction capacitors. Harmonic frequencies generated by the SCR equipment can cause problems with computer systems, blow capacitor fuses, exceed allowable harmonic levels on utility lines, cause communication circuit interference, and cause overheating of transformers and neutral conductors. A harmonic analysis may be used to evaluate these problems in advance and to design for them.

220 Short-Circuit Studies


221 Scope
A short-circuit study is a calculation of the magnitude of fault current which will flow if a short-circuit occurs in the system. If the values of prospective fault currents are known, it is possible to select circuit breakers, fuses, starters, switches, cables, motor control centers, and switchgear capable of withstanding the forces of, or interrupting the currents caused by, the fault. It also is necessary to know the potential fault current values at every point in the electrical system in order to properly set protective relays for coordinated protection during a fault. This section discusses basic methods for conducting short-circuit studies. Simple examples demonstrating the calculation techniques are presented along with a summary sheet of formulas for quick reference. References are included for finding more information and examples of the commonly accepted methods of conducting rigorous short-circuit studies. It is not the intent of this guideline to repeat the detailed explanations given in these references, but rather to recommend that they should be consulted when performing critical short-circuit studies. Also included, as Appendix C, is an article on the MVA method, which describes a simple method for approximate calculations and field use. A typical computer program for a short circuit study is also discussed with the resulting output. Other programs are listed with source addresses and phone numbers.

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222 Reasons for a Short-Circuit Study


In any system subject to a fault current there is a short period of time before protective devices operate when the system components are exposed to high-fault currents. A short-circuit study helps ensure that system components are appropriately sized to withstand the mechanical and electrical stress of the fault currents prior to clearing. A short-circuit study also provides information used to coordinate protective devices in the system.

223 When to Conduct a Short-Circuit Study


A short-circuit study should be conducted at the following times: Prior to ordering electrical equipment for the system. This should be followed by a complete study, including calculation of ground faults. Before finalizing the design of a new electrical system, the study should be completed according to IEEE Standard 141 (Red Book) and the appropriate ANSI standards (for applicable components). For example, there is a standard for high voltage circuit breakers, one for low voltage power circuit breakers, and another for high voltage fuses. These references are listed in the Red Book, Chapter 9. When adding a major electrical addition to an existing system. Examples are the addition of a cogeneration facility or a new crude unit to a refinery. When making electrical additions and the fault values are unknown or may have changed since the previous short-circuit study. Every 4 to 5 years in an existing plant. Short-circuit studies should be reviewed and updated periodically as the utility fault contributions may have changed, or system changes may have been made without consideration of the effects on fault levels. This review is of particular importance if the margin between the equipment ratings and the available fault levels is less than 10 to 20%. Whenever large motors or a large number of small motors are added to an electrical system. Additional motors could raise the fault levels significantly, and a new study should be made or the existing study should be revised. Whenever the electrical source to a system is modified. The fault levels could change, and a study should be made before modification.

Once a short-circuit study has been completed, it should be available for periodic update and reference. This record will make future studies easier to perform. Conducting a plant study requires a large amount of data. Future studies will reuse most of the existing data, often with only minor changes.

224 Short-Circuit Study Methods


There are several methods of making short-circuit calculations including: MVA method (see Appendix C, Short Circuit ABC: Learn It In an Hour, Use It Anywhere, Memorize No Formula)

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Ohmic method IEEE Per-Unit method

The MVA method is probably the easiest to use. The ohmic method is seldom used since it requires extensive calculations to reflect impedances across transformers. It is not discussed in this section. The IEEE Per-Unit method is the most commonly used.

The MVA Method


The primary application of the MVA method is for quick calculations in the field, or for quick checks of calculations done by computer or by the per-unit method. It also is useful as a preliminary study to determine if a computer study is necessary. If there is sufficient margin between the equipment capabilities and the maximum fault current indicated by the MVA method, a computer study may not be necessary. Usually the results of the MVA method are fairly close to the results obtained by more rigorous methods. The main limitation of the MVA method is that it neglects system resistance. It is necessary to include the system resistance for accurate calculations of low voltage systems and to calculate the fault duties of medium and high voltage circuit breakers by the IEEE Red Book Per-Unit method. An article by M. Yuen explaining the MVA method is included as Appendix C. This article presents the material in an easy to understand manner, and is recommended to those unfamiliar with this method.

The IEEE Red Book (Per-Unit) Method


The Per-Unit method as described in the IEEE Red Book (Reference 1) is the most widely accepted method for short-circuit calculations because it is accurate and versatile, and because the ratings of the equipment in the ANSI standards are based on this method. This is the method which should be used to determine the required equipment ratings on large electrical projects. The Per-Unit method is utilized in most computer programs for the solution of short-circuit studies. The Red Book should be consulted when performing a large or critical study, as it incorporates the detailed methods currently accepted by IEEE. A description and example of the Per-Unit method is presented below. Line-to-Neutral Model. The object of modeling is to reduce the entire system to an equivalent circuit, as shown in Figure 200-1. Ohms law can then be applied, and the fault current is calculated by the equation: IFault = EL-N/Z
(Eq. 200-1)

The system is modeled as a single phase line-to-neutral circuit with a single phase line-to-neutral driving voltage (E L-N). The modeled impedances are real and reactive circuit impedances (Zequiv.) associated with the motors, cables, transformers, generators, and utility.

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Fig. 200-1

Equivalent Circuit of Fault Network

The diagrams in Figures 200-2 and 200-3 demonstrate how the line-to-neutral model is derived from the three-phase representation of a system with a bolted fault. A three-phase bolted fault is a short circuit where all three phases are connected at the fault location by a zero impedance path. In Figure 200-2(b), the generator is represented by a single phase driving voltage. Its inductive reactance is represented by Xs, and its resistance is represented by Rs. The non-motor load is simply a resistance and reactance added to the feeder circuit resistance RL and reactance XL. In Figure 200-2(b), the three-phase representation (Figure 200-2(a)) has been replaced by an equivalent line-to-neutral model. Most of the fault current, IF, flows through Xs and Rs to the fault and back to the neutral side of the generator. A very small amount of load current may still flow to the non-motor load. Since the voltage is almost zero with respect to neutral at the fault location, IL is usually neglected, resulting in the refined line-to-neutral model of Figure 200-2(c). The commonly seen impedance diagram, shown in Figure 200-2(d), represents the line-to-neutral model of Figure 200-2(c). Figure 200-3(a) shows a three-phase faulted system consisting of a generator or utility and motor load. When a fault occurs, the voltage at the fault drops to almost zero, and the motor slows down. While it is slowing down, it acts as an induction generator and contributes additional fault current IM to the fault. There are now two voltage sources in the line-to-neutral model in Figure 200-3(b). Since the per-unit voltage of both sources is near unity at the instant of fault, Thevenins law allows them to be combined into one voltage source, as shown in Figure 200-3(c). The impedance diagram, shown in Figure 200-3(d) represents the line to neutral model of Figure 200-3(c). Maximum Fault. In most systems, the maximum fault is a three-phase bolted fault.

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Fig. 200-2

Derivation of Line-to-Neutral Models with Non-Motor Loads for Short-Circuit Studies

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Fig. 200-3

Derivation of Line-to-Neutral Models with Motor Loads for Short-Circuit Studies

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Another type of fault is a line-to-line fault. This fault occurs when two of the phase conductors are connected with zero impedance. The magnitude of this fault is usually 87% of the three-phase bolted fault, so if the system is designed to withstand a three-phase bolted fault, it will also withstand a line-to-line fault. A third kind of fault is the ground fault. This fault is usually less than the threephase bolted fault. It is important to note that the ground fault impedance network (known as the zero sequence network) is different from the three-phase bolted fault network. An approximation of the ground fault current is necessary for coordination of ground fault relays. In some refineries and industrial plants, the ground fault current is limited to a known quantity by high or low resistance grounding, therefore a ground fault study is usually unnecessary. Representing Motors as an Impedance. For standard fault calculations, motors are represented by a per-unit reactance quantity, X"d, the subtransient reactance of the motor. This value can be obtained from the motor manufacturer (usually shown on the motor data sheet). The subtransient reactance may be approximated by:

(Eq. 200-2)

The subtransient reactance is given in per-unit with respect to the kVA base of the motor. Section 225 below includes an example of a short-circuit analysis using the per-unit method and also demonstrates how to convert the per-unit value to the chosen base. Asymmetrical and Symmetrical Fault Values. Usually at the instant a system fault is initiated, the short-circuit current wave is not completely symmetrical as shown in Figure 200-4. The first few cycles are offset from the symmetrical zero current axis by a DC component because the short-circuit impedance of the system is primarily inductive. Therefore, the current behaves in accordance with the properties of an inductor, inducing a voltage equal to:

(Eq. 200-3)

It then follows that the initial slope of the current curve must be E/L. The current cannot change instantaneously to coincide with the symmetrical steady state waveform. The DC component of the current waveform does, however, decay over a few cycles, and the current wave changes to the symmetrical form. The time required for the DC component to decay depends on how much resistance is in the circuit. The size of the initial asymmetrical peak depends on the point on the voltage waveform

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Fig. 200-4

Asymmetrical and Symmetrical Fault Current Wave Shapes From IEEE Standard 142, 1993, Ch. 2. Used with permission.

at which the short-circuit is initiated. A short-circuit initiated at a voltage zero crossing causes the maximum asymmetrical peak of current. The asymmetry of the initial current waveform is important because the peak of the asymmetrical current can be much greater than the peak of the symmetrical current. The electrical equipment must be able to withstand the electrical and mechanical stresses associated with this increased current. Circuit breakers and fuses must have the capability to interrupt the asymmetrical current. To account for the asymmetry of the current wave, it is standard practice to first solve for the symmetrical rms short-circuit current and then apply a multiplying factor to the result. A 1.6 multiplying factor may conservatively be applied to faults at all voltage levels. If the IEEE Red Book method is used, smaller multipliers (indicated in the Red Book) may be used, possibly resulting in lower calculated fault current values. Momentary Ratings and Interrupting Ratings. The momentary rating (closing and latching rating of post-1964 circuit breakers) of medium and high voltage circuit breakers and electrical equipment is the maximum rms asymmetrical current which the equipment can withstand. It is not the value of the current which the circuit breaker interrupts.

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The interrupting rating of a circuit breaker is the short-circuit current which a circuit breaker will interrupt over a range of voltages from the maximum design kV down to the minimum operating kV. It is less than or equal to the momentary rating. Short-Circuit Impedance Networks. Different impedance diagram networks are used depending on the purpose of the short-circuit study. The three most important networks are: First cycle network Interrupting case network 30-cycle network

The difference among these networks is their representation of motor reactance. The first cycle network is used for calculating the short-circuit current for comparison with the interrupting ratings of fuses (low and high voltage) and low voltage circuit breakers. These devices interrupt the short-circuit current sometime within the first cycle. Subtransient reactances are used to represent rotating machines in this network. Most manual calculations use the first cycle network, since it is the most severe case. For additional information, see the IEEE Red Book. The interrupting case network applies to medium and high voltage circuit breakers which interrupt the short-circuit current at the 2, 3, 5, or 8 cycle point, depending on the design of the circuit breaker. Within two to eight cycles after the initiation of the short circuit, the motor contribution has decreased. Multipliers are applied to the motor subtransient reactances to represent them as smaller contributors to the fault current. Multipliers are also applied to the calculated fault duties, depending on the speed of the circuit breaker (2, 3, 5, or 8 cycle) and the proximity of the fault to generator and utility sources. As a result, the calculated rms symmetrical short-circuit current is smaller than that of the first cycle network. The 30-cycle network determines the short-circuit current which time delayed relays will experience after the asymmetrical component and motor contributions have died out. This network ignores the motors in the network, only considering generators and passive elements, such as transformers and cables. The calculated short-circuit current for this network is smaller than either the first cycle network or the interrupting case network. Per-Unit Values. The per-unit (PU) system is a mathematical tool using per-unit values to simplify short-circuit calculations. A per-unit value is a ratio of a number to a base number.

(Eq. 200-4)

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For example, if the base number is 225, the per-unit value of 17 is 17/225 = 0.076 per-unit on a base of 225. The per-unit value of 225 on a base of 225 is 225/225 = 1 per-unit. Percent Values. Percent values are obtained by multiplying the per-unit value by 100.

(Eq. 200-5)

To change percent values to per-unit values, divide the percent value by 100. For example, a transformer which has an impedance of 6% has an impedance of 0.06 per-unit. Impedance of electric equipment is usually given in percent. It is convenient to convert these figures immediately to per-unit by dividing by 100 (to avoid confusion). Base Value Relations. To use the per-unit system, first select base values of voltage, current, ohms, and kVA for a given electrical system. These bases provide a reference to which resultant per-unit values can be compared. Using the selected base values, express all parts of the electrical system in per-unit terms as follows:

(Eq. 200-6)

(Eq. 200-7)

(Eq. 200-8)

In a similar manner, the base quantities can be determined from the following basic equations:

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Single-Phase System Equations


Base kVA Base Amps = ------------------------ = I b Base kV
(Eq. 200-9)

Base Volts Base Ohms = -------------------------- = Ohms b Base Amps


(Eq. 200-10)

Note

Single-phase voltages are given in line-to-neutral values.

Three-Phase System Equations

(Eq. 200-11)

(Eq. 200-12)

Note Base kVA is the three-phase kVA, and base voltage is line-to-line voltage. Base Ohms is ohms per phase. All per-unit formulas are summarized in Figure 200-5.
Fig. 200-5 Per-Unit Calculation Summary Sheet for Three-Phase Systems (1 of 2)

Actual Quantity Per-Unit Quantity = -----------------------------------Base Quantity Base kVA = Base kV Base Amperes 3

Base kVA Base Current (Amperes) = Base kVA ( 1000 ) = ------------------------------------------------------------------3 ( Base kV ) 3 ( Base Volts ) Base MVA ( 1000 ) Base MVA ( 10 6 ) = -------------------------------------- = ---------------------------------------3 ( Base kV ) 3 ( Base Volts )

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Fig. 200-5

Per-Unit Calculation Summary Sheet for Three-Phase Systems (2 of 2)

Base Volts ( Base Volts ) 2 Base Impedence (Ohms) = ---------------------------------------------- = -------------------------------------Base kVA ( 1000 ) 3 ( Base Amperes ) ( Base kV ) 2 ( Base kV ) 2 ( 1000 ) = ------------------------------------------ = -------------------------Base MVA Base kVA

Changing Base kVA kVA New Base P.U. Ohms on kVA New Base = ----------------------------------- P.U. Ohms on kVA Old Base kVA Old Base Changing Base Volts ( Old Base Volts ) 2 P.U. Ohms on New Base Volts = P.U. Ohms on Old Base Volts --------------------------------------------( New Base Volts ) 2 Utility Impedance MVA Base 1. Given Utility Short Circuit MVA: P.U. Zutil = -----------------------------------Utility S.C. MVA 2. Given Utility P.U. Ohms on a Different MVA Base: Desired MVA Base P.U. Ohms on Desired MVA Base = -------------------------------------------- P.U. Ohms on Given MVA Base given MVA Base 3. Given Utility Short Circuit Amperes (RMS symmetrical): Base kVA P.U. Ohms = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3 ( S.C. Amperes ) ( kV Rating of System ) Transformer Impedance %Z Tx Base kVA P.U. Ohms = ------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------100 kVA ( Self-Cooled ) of Transformer Cable Impedance Base MVA P.U. Ohms = Actual Impedance in Ohms -------------------------( Base kV ) 2 Motors Base kVA P.U. Ohms = x"d ------------------------ ; where motor kVA = F.L. Amps Motor kV Motor kVA Generators Base kVA P.U. Ohms = x"d ---------------------------------Generator kVA
Note All voltages are Line-to-Line. All kVAs are three-phase.

Selecting Base Values. At the beginning of a short-circuit study, it is necessary to select a single base kVA or MVA and base voltages for every voltage level in the system. In the example one-line diagram, Figure 200-6, the base MVA is chosen to be 100 MVA. This base MVA applies to all voltage levels in the entire system. The

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choice is arbitrary and any value will work, although typical values are 10 MVA or 100 MVA. The chosen base voltages are 115 kV, 13.8 kV, 4.16 kV, and 480 volts. Notice that each bus has its own base voltage, usually the nominal voltage of the system. It is important to note that the base voltages on the high and low sides of a transformer must have the same ratio as the transformer turns ratio. Changing kVA Bases of Circuit Elements. The impedance of transformers and the reactances of motors and generators are given in percent referenced to the kVA rating or base of the device. To be used as per-unit impedances on the chosen system base, they must be converted to the new kVA base. To do this, use the following formula: kVA new = -------------------- Ohms pu old kVA old
(Eq. 200-13)

Ohms pu

new

Changing Voltage Bases of Circuit Elements. Sometimes a machine rated at one voltage may be used in a circuit at a different voltage. To be used as per-unit impedances on the chosen system base, they must be converted to the new kV base. To do this, the following formula is used: ( kV old ) 2 = ----------------------- Ohms pu old ( kV new ) 2
(Eq. 200-14)

Ohms pu

new

Changing Both kVA and Voltage Bases. Impedances may be changed to a new kVA base and a new kV base by combining the equations above, as follows: ( kV old ) 2 kVA new = Ohms pu ----------------------- -------------------old ( kV ) 2 kVA
new old

Ohms pu

new

(Eq. 200-15)

These equations for changes of bases are demonstrated in the example in Section 225 below. For further detailed information on the use and application of the per-unit system, see References 1, 2, and 5. General Step-by-Step Procedure for Short-Circuit Calculations. The step-bystep procedure for short-circuit calculations is as follows: 1. Use a system one-line diagram to collect the necessary data. Include all significant system components and impedances, as shown in Figure 200-6. Identify all buses on the one-line diagram with unique numbers. It is helpful to identify all circuit components such as generators (G1, G2, G3...), transformers (T1, T2, T3...), motors (M1, M2, M3...) and cables (C1, C2, C3...).

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Fig. 200-6

Example One-Line Diagram

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Figure 200-6 shows a one-line diagram with the information needed to perform a short-circuit study. Data that needs to be gathered include the following:
Fig. 200-7

Utility short-circuit MVA (and X/R ratio if calculating per Red Book) Cable lengths and impedances Motor (see Figure 200-7), transformer, reactor, and generator impedances
Typical kVA to HP Ratios and Subtransient Reactances for Motors 1 HP = 1 kVA 1 HP = 1 kVA 1 HP = .8 kVA

Induction Motor Synchronous Motor, .8 PF Synchronous Motor, 1.0 PF Induction Motors Above 1000 HP at 1800 RPM or less Above 250 HP at 3600 RPM All others, 50 HP and above Lumped motors, below 50 HP Synchronous Motors 1200 RPM and greater 514 RPM through 900 RPM 450 RPM and less
Note

Xd"= .17 Xd" = .17 Xd" = .20 Xd" = .28 Xd" = .15 Xd" = .20 Xd" = .28

All per-unit values have the kVA rating of the motor as the base kVA. These must be converted if a different kVA base is being used in the system study.

2.

Choose a base kVA or MVA, a base voltage for the system, and a base voltage for every bus throughout the system. At this point, it is useful to make a table showing base volts, amps, and ohms for each voltage level in the system. See Figure 200-8(a). The base kVA or MVA applies to all voltage levels in the system. Determine the fault location for which solutions are desired. If doing a large study for a new plant, use a computer to determine the fault value of every bus in the system. A bus is wherever a circuit-interrupting device or switch is connected. If purchasing a new MCC, only the available fault current at that location in the system is of interest. Collect and convert impedance data. In this step, the impedances of all significant circuit elements are collected and converted to per-unit impedances at the proper base voltages and system base kVA chosen in Step 2. Prepare an impedance diagram. The diagram should show the per-unit impedance of every component in the system. See Figure 200-8(b).

3.

4.

5.

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6. 7.

Combine impedances until there is a single resultant impedance between the infinite bus and the fault. See Figures 200-9 through 200-13. Calculate the short-circuit current using: E pu I scpu = -------Z pu
(Eq. 200-16)

Then, multiply the per-unit amperes by the base current at the voltage level of the fault location to obtain the symmetrical fault current in amperes.

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8.

Apply the appropriate multiplying factors to obtain the asymmetrical or total current value of the short circuit.

Fig. 200-8

Preparing an Impedance Diagram for Short-Circuit Calculations

8(a) Determining the Base Quantities for the Impedance Diagram Example

8(b) Impedance Diagram Example Using Per-unit Impedance

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225 Short-Circuit Analysis: Example Using the Per-Unit Method


The following example presents a short-circuit calculation to determine the threephase bolted fault current at the location in the electrical system where a new 480volt transformer and substation are to be added. This calculation is made to determine the required interrupting rating of the transformers secondary main breaker and the low voltage circuit breakers in the motor control center. The example also estimates the asymmetrical or total fault current for comparison with devices rated in total or asymmetrical current values. Figure 200-6 is the one-line diagram for this example. This example illustrates the basic mechanics of the per-unit method of calculating faults. Resistances are ignored, resulting in a very conservative solution. The reactances associated with the motors are subtransient reactances with no multipliers, resulting in a conservative first cycle rms symmetrical fault calculation. For interrupting case fault calculations subtransient reactances, refer to Tables 24 and 25 of IEEE 14. To determine the asymmetrical value of the fault current, a multiplier of 1.6 is applied to the rms symmetrical fault current, resulting in a conservative solution when the X/R ratio is not considered. The differences between the per-unit method of this example and the Red Book method are also discussed. Step 1. Prepare a System One-Line Diagram

The example one-line diagram is shown in Figure 200-6. It contains all transformer sizes (based on self-cooled ratings) and percent impedances, all induction and synchronous motor sizes, subtransient reactances, and power factors for the synchronous motors. Also shown are the cables of significant length (to introduce additional reactance into the calculation). The maximum available fault (MVA) from the utility is given. Notice that all buses, transformers, cables, and motors are given a unique identifier (such as B1, TX1, C1 and M1). Step 2. Choose the Base MVA and Base Voltages

100 MVA is chosen for the base. The base voltages are chosen to be consistent with the nominal voltages of the system: 115 kV, 13.8 kV, 4.16 kV, and 480 volts. At this point, the impedance diagram is drawn (Figure 200-8(b)) showing the base volts, base amperes, and base ohms for each voltage level in the system. Notice that the 100 MVA base applies to all levels of voltage in the system. This kind of diagram is useful to change back and forth between base values in per-unit, and actual values, such as ohms and amperes. The method used to calculate the base values for the 115 kV level in the diagram is shown in Figure 200-8(a). Step 3. Decide on the Fault Location

In this example, a new transformer, TX4, and 480-volt motor control center are to be added to an existing system. It is necessary to calculate the maximum fault at the motor control center to determine the required interrupting rating of the transformer secondary main breaker and MCC breakers, and the fault withstand capability of the

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480-volt MCC bus and mechanical components. The fault location is designated F1 in Figure 200-6 and is indicated in each of the impedance diagrams that follow. Step 4. Convert and Collect Impedance Data

The impedance data are shown on the example one-line diagram, Figure 200-6. The formulas used to convert the data are summarized in Figure 200-5. The data are converted to per-unit values of reactance on a 100 MVA base. ZTX XTX indicates that resistance is not being considered. The per-unit reactance calculated is approximately equal to the complex impedance in magnitude because resistance is usually small compared to the reactance in medium voltage systems. Common practice in medium voltage systems is to consider reactance only, which results in a higher calculated fault value than if both resistance and reactance are considered. The per-unit values of all electrical components on the one-line diagram are calculated by applying the formulas from the calculation summary sheet, Figure 200-5.

Utility Impedance

(Eq. 200-17)

Transformer Impedances

(Eq. 200-18)

(Eq. 200-19)

(Eq. 200-20)

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Cable Impedance
The cable used is 500 MCM copper cable with two cables per phase in magnetic conduits. Each cable is 1500 feet long and the voltage level is 13.8 kV. To obtain the impedance, see Reference 2. Commonly, the resistances and reactances of cables are used (See Tables N1.3 and N1.7 in Reference 1). These must be converted to perunit by dividing by base ohms. For this example, the reactance is 0.02% per 1000 feet on a 1000 kVA base. For 1500 feet of cable the impedance is:

(Eq. 200-21)

To change 0.03% to a per-unit value, divide by 100. The result is 0.0003 per-unit on a 1000 kVA base. Next, convert the per-unit value from a 1000 kVA base to a 100 MVA base. This is calculated by using the change of base kVA formula in Figure 200-5. (Note: 1000 kVA = 1 MVA)

This is the per-unit impedance of one of the cables, but there are two per phase, so divide the value by two to obtain: ZC1 XC1 = 0.015pu

Motor Impedances
The basic formula used for motor impedance is: kVA b Z Motor X Motor = x --------------------------d Motor kVA
(Eq. 200-22)

M1 and M2 are both 3000 hp induction motors. If the actual subtransient reactance is available from the manufacturer, use that value to calculate the per-unit impedance. However, if it is not available the data in Figure 200-7 show that for induction motors, 1 hp = 1 kVA, and that the subtransient reactance of this size of motor is 0.17 per unit on its own kVA base. Because this motor is 3000 hp, its own kVA base would be 3000 kVA. To convert this per-unit value to a 100 MVA base use the change of base kVA formula given in Figure 200-5:

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(Eq. 200-23)

M3 and M4 are synchronous motors with 0.8 power factor (pf). The data in Figure 200-7 show that, for synchronous motors with 0.8 pf, 1 hp = 1 kVA, and that the typical subtransient reactance is 0.20 per unit on the motors kVA base. The change-of-base calculations for M3 and M4 are similar to those for M1:

(Eq. 200-24)

(Eq. 200-25)

To handle the motors on the 480-volt motor control center bus (M5, M6, M7, M8, and M9) in this example, all motors on the bus have been lumped as one large motor with a subtransient reactance of 0.25 per unit on its own kVA base. Normally, the motors would be individually represented with the reactances listed in Figure 200-7. The data in Figure 200-7 indicates that 1 hp = 1 kVA. The total hp of the lumped motors is 450 hp, so the total kVA is 450. Using the 0.25 per-unit figure on the 450 kVA base and converting it to the 100 MVA base:

(Eq. 200-26)

Step 5.

Prepare the Impedance Diagram

The per-unit values calculated for the electrical components above are now shown in the impedance diagram of Figure 200-8(b). Notice that the per-unit impedances of the motors are connected between the infinite bus (so-called because it has zero impedance) and the motor supply bus. The motors are acting as induction generators and contribute to the short circuit as discussed in Section 224. Step 6. Combine Impedances in the Impedance Diagram

The next task is to simplify the impedance network until a single resultant impedance remains between the infinite bus and the chosen fault location. This is accomplished by combining reactance values following the same rules as combining resistors in series and parallel.

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(Eq. 200-27)

The various intermediate impedance diagrams between the initial and the final are shown in Figures 200-9 through 200-13.
Fig. 200-9 Impedance Diagram Reduction (Step 1)

Fig. 200-10 Impedance Diagram Reduction (Step 2)

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Fig. 200-11 Impedance Diagram Reduction (Step 3)

Fig. 200-12 Impedance Diagram Reduction (Step 4)

Fig. 200-13 Impedance Diagram Reduction (Step 5)

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Step 7.

Calculate the Fault Current

Calculate the available fault current using:

(Eq. 200-28)

The final resultant per-unit impedance between the infinite bus and the fault location is the value to use for Z. In this example, it is 7.303 per unit on a 100 MVA base. To arrive at the symmetrical per-unit fault current, solve the following equation.

(Eq. 200-29)

The 1 in the numerator is the one, per-unit, driving voltage in the line-to-neutral model. The driving voltage represents the prefault voltage. Since the prefault voltage is the base voltage at the fault location, it is 1.0 in per unit volts. To convert the 0.137 per unit amperes to actual amperes, refer to Figure 200-8(a). This table shows that the base amperes at the level of the fault location is 120,281 amperes. To calculate the actual short-circuit current, multiply the per-unit amperes by the base amperes as follows: SCA (rms symmetrical) = 0.137 x 120,281 = 16,478 amperes
(Eq. 200-30)

This value can now be compared directly to the interrupting rating of the proposed secondary main circuit breaker of TX4. The interrupting rating of this circuit breaker and all circuit breakers in the 480-volt MCC fed by this breaker should be at least 16,478 amperes. It is common practice to specify breakers with interrupting ratings which exceed the calculated maximum fault by 15-to-20% or more, to allow for future system short-circuit growth. Step 8. Obtain the Asymmetrical or Total Current Value of the Short-Circuit Current When calculating the short-circuit current using a reactance network without considering resistance, it is conservative to use a multiplying factor of 1.6 applied to the rms symmetrical short-circuit current to determine the asymmetrical shortcircuit current. This current is sometimes referred to as total current. The total current may be used for comparison with electrical components which have ratings related to total rms current or asymmetrical current, such as current limiting fuse curves which show peak let-through, depending on the available asym-

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metrical fault current. Although low voltage circuit breakers must withstand the asymmetrical current also, they are rated in symmetrical rms current interrupting values which have already considered the asymmetrical components up to certain limits. For a more detailed consideration of this topic see ANSI C37.13.

226 Comments on the Short-Circuit Calculation Example


The preceding example demonstrates a conservative, basic method for determining the short-circuit current typical of medium voltage systems when resistance is not a significant factor. In lower voltage systems with long cable runs, resistance has an increasing effect on reducing the short-circuit currents. If resistance is ignored in those situations, an overly conservative solution may be reached. For more detailed calculations, see the IEEE Red Book for calculation methods. The Red Book uses the same basic method demonstrated here with the following refinements: 1. The Red Book calculates three different solutions based on three different networks, depending on how the short-circuit calculations will be applied. It has one method for high voltage circuit breakers, another for low voltage circuit breakers and fuses, and another for time-delayed relay devices. The Red Book includes the resistance value of each component for the high voltage circuit breaker interrupting rating study and solves two networks to the point of fault, an X network and an R network. When the two networks are solved, an X/R ratio is established at the point of fault and used to select tabulated multiplying factors which are applied to E/X values to establish total rms current interrupting duties. Depending on the network being calculated, the Red Book prescribes additional multipliers to be applied to the subtransient reactances based on motor type. The Red Book refers to the appropriate ANSI standard for the multiplier to obtain the asymmetrical, or total, rms current. The net effect of the differences between the method employed in this example and the method of the Red Book, is that the Red Book method gives (yields) a lower calculated fault current. The ratings of circuit breakers are based on the Red Book method, which is recommended for detailed calculations.

2.

3.

4.

227 Computer Methods for Calculating Short-Circuit Current


An example of a computer calculation of a more complex system than the example above is shown in Figure 200-14. The program employed is the GE computer program SHCKT$ used for calculating three-phase short-circuit currents. The nodal diagram used with this program is shown in Figure 200-15. All buses are numbered, and the bus numbers appear in the input and output summaries of the computer program.

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Fig. 200-14 G.E. Three-Phase Short-Circuit Program (1 of 2) (Courtesy of the General Electric Company)
CASE: 1-FCY Page- 1 GENERAL ELECTRIC CO. INDUSTRIAL POWER SYSTEMS THREE PHASE SHORT CIRCUIT PROGRAM FIRST CYCLE CALC. FOR BREAKER DUTIES PER ANSI C37.13-1981 05/29/85 100 MVA BASE 60 HERTZ 10700 LINE WITH C-A TIE CLOSED- C-2 OPEN CASE: 1-FCY NORMAL PLUS C-A CLOSED AND C-2 OPEN C-1 OPEN A-1 CLOSED INPUT DATA BUS 0 1 2 3 4 6 7 8 8A 15A 15B 16A 20 21 17 18 10 26 22 12 9 27 28 5 13 19 C3 C4 C11 TO BUS SWG1070 1L 2L 3L 4L 6L 7L 8L 8AL 15AL 15BL 16AL 20L 21L 17L 18L 10L 26L 22L 12L 9L 27L 28L 5L 13L 19L C4 C5 27 R P.U. .11129 .66296 2.44082 2.91850 1.10471 2.03245 2.44082 5.53145 2.19204 1.59992 1.58087 1.53214 .64238 .47226 5.53145 1.50204 4.97831 1.50204 5.53145 5.53145 1.49907 3.54013 1.44251 1.52379 2.37090 1.46528 .01718 .04349 .90148 X P.U. .49526 3.92082 10.41311 9.86118 5.86152 8.67092 10.41311 16.22288 9.35177 8.48910 8.38804 7.46832 3.79914 2.99679 16.22288 6.40807 14.60060 6.40807 16.22288 16.22288 7.30714 10.38265 7.03141 6.91756 10.11484 7.14243 .01215 .03075 .17398 COD 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 EPSCAC

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Fig. 200-14 G.E. Three-Phase Short-Circuit Program (2 of 2) (Courtesy of the General Electric Company)
C11 SWG1070 A1 A2 SWG1070 B1 *BUS 3 19 A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 E/Ze Ze = .59196 .02269 .01641 .03087 .01679 .01281 .11424 .02769 .02074 .03901 .01697 .01618 0 0 0 0 0 0

= 9.196 KA (226/17MVA) AT74.31DEG.,X/R= 3.56, 14.200 KV .119557 +j 14.71 .425678 IASYM BASED ON X/R= 10.65

1.6*ISYM = CONTRIBUTIONS IN KA BUS TO 3L *BUS A1 BUS 3 MAG .028 E/Ze= Ze= CIRCUIT BREAKER TYPE MAX DUTY LEVEL MULT. FACTOR CONTRIBUTIONS IN KA BUS TO SWG1070 3 BUS A1 A1 MAG 7.649 .004

ANG 76.844

BUS A1

TO

BUS 3

MAG 9.168

ANG 74.303

8.190 KA( 201.44MVA) AT77.02DEG.,X/R= 4.34, 14.200 KV .111536 +j .483743 5SYM 8.19 1.000 5TOT 8.19 1.000 3SYM 8.19 1.000

8TOT,SYM 8.19 1.000

ANG 75.721 79.513

BUS A2

TO

BUS A1

MAG .506

ANG 84.642

Fig. 200-15 Nodal Diagram for Short Circuit Study (Courtesy of the General Electric Company)

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The model used in the computer run of Figure 200-14 simulated faults at over 70 different locations shown in the nodal diagram. An advantage of the computer solution over the manual solution is that it gives the currents in the branches feeding the fault bus, not just the total fault current. Only part of the input and output for the program is presented. Two different cases were run for each location. The first case is the first cycle case, similar to the example presented above. First cycle (momentary), short-circuit currents are used to compare equipment mechanical strength requirements, closing and latching requirements for medium and high voltage circuit breakers, and interrupting duty for fuses and low voltage circuit breakers. The second case calculated the interrupting rating requirements for medium voltage circuit breakers. The first cycle case shows the input data, consisting of the resistance and reactance in per-unit values on a 100 MVA base for every branch between nodes. Also shown for the first-cycle cases, are examples of the output produced by the computer. For Bus 3, the rms symmetrical fault current E/Z is 9.196 kA. The current at the faulted bus lags the infinite bus voltage by 74.31 degrees. The X/R ratio of the fault location is 3.56. The base voltage of Bus 3 is 14.2 kV. The equivalent impedance from the infinite bus to the fault point is 0.11957 + j0.425678 per-unit. The total asymmetrical current using the 1.6 multiplier is 14.71 kA. Using the actual X/R ratio of 3.56 to determine the asymmetrical multiplier from tables within the computer produces a total asymmetrical current of 10.65 kA by this method. This value, 10.65 kA, is considerably less than the value obtained by using 1.6 as a standard multiplier (as in the example). Following the fault current summary, the study shows fault current contributions from other buses. Also calculated is the interrupting case. Next to Bus A1, E/Ze (the symmetrical fault current) is 8.190 kA. The same information discussed in the first cycle case is also provided. Following that are the fault levels to be compared to medium and high voltage circuit breakers with 8, 5, or 3 cycle interrupting times, depending on whether or not they are rated in total current or symmetrical current. The multiplier is determined by internal tables and relates to the X/R ratio. The multiplier times the symmetrical fault current gives the maximum duty level.

228 Electrical Systems Analysis Computer Programs


The following programs have been used successfully by the Company and are recommended for analysis of electrical systems. 1. Electrical Transient Analyzer Program (ETAP) is the most usuable set of PCbased programs to analyze electrical systems. ETAP is available from: Operation Technology, Inc. 17870 Skypark Circle, Suite 102

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Irvine, CA 92714 (714) 476-8814 This set of programs includes loadflow, short circuit, motor starting, simple dynamic stability, cable ampacity derating, and cable pulling programs. The cost of this set of programs is approximately $7,500. 2. The General Electric computer program SHCKT$ used in the short-circuit example presented above is available on disk from: General Electric Company Industrial Power Systems Engineering 1 River Road, Building 6, Third Floor Schenectady, NY 12345 (518) 385-4500 This program, available on a timeshare basis, also contains a motor-starting program, a load-flow program, and a data-reduction program (in addition to the short-circuit program). 3. Another IBM PC-based program is the ESAPP Program available from: Electrical Systems Analysis, Inc. 16545 S. Archer Drive Oregon City, OR 97045 (503) 655-3615

The ESAPP program performs short-circuit analysis. The output has current values in phase and symmetrical component format. 4. Westinghouse has a group of programs known as Westcat. They are available on a time share basis from: Westinghouse Electric Corporation Advanced Systems Technology 777 Penn Center Boulevard Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15235 (412) 824-9100 The Westcat program can perform short-circuit analysis, load-flow, dynamic stability, and impedance calculations. Westinghouse also has harmonic-analysis, data-reduction, and device-analysis programs.

230 Motor-Starting Studies


231 Scope
A complete motor-starting study consists of two parts: a voltage-drop calculation and an acceleration-time calculation.

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232 Reasons for a Motor-Starting Study


Motor-starting studies should be done in preliminary form as early as possible in a project. If the calculations are completed before the motor is specified, the torque vs. speed and starting current limitations on the motor can be calculated. Early studies make use of typical torque vs. speed characteristics and starting current values of motors similar to the one to be purchased. When the bids are received, enough information should be available to determine if the motor will meet the system requirements.

233 When To Conduct a Motor-Starting Study


A motor-starting study is not always necessary. If a 30-hp motor-driven centrifugal pump is being added to a motor control center that already supplies a 50-hp motor and centrifugal pump which starts and runs without problems, it is safe to assume that a 30-hp motor will start more easily than the 50-hp motor and that a study is not necessary. Several reasons for conducting a motor-starting study are: Transformer kVA is less than three times the motor kVA Cable between transformer and motor reduces available short-circuit kVA at the motor to less than eight times motor- starting kVA Ratio of bus short-circuit kVA to motor-starting kVA is 8 or less Load has high inertia Utility restricts utility-line voltage drop

These are general guidelines only. Special conditions, such as starting a motor under load where high starting torque is needed would require a motor-starting study even if none of the above criteria were met. If, for example, a 200-hp motor that will drive a reciprocating pump or a compressor is being added, and it is powered from a 500 kVA transformer with a 6% transformer impedance and long cables between the motor control center and the motor, it will be necessary to conduct a motor-starting voltage drop study (and possibly an accelerating time study). The reason that a study is required is that the transformer kVA is not much larger than the motor kVA, so there may be excessive voltage drop through the transformer, causing low voltage at the motor terminals. Another reason for conducting a motor-starting study is that a reciprocating compressor or pump has a higher breakaway torque (the amount of torque required to initially move the crank shaft) than for a centrifugal pump. Motor-starting torque is proportional to the square of the voltage. If the voltage dips to 80% of normal, the motor will deliver only 64% of its normal starting torque, which may not be enough to drive the pump. The long cable length feeding the motor further decreases the voltage at the motor terminals. If the system has 500 hp or larger medium voltage motors, a motor-starting calculation is almost always recommended.

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234 Voltage-Drop Calculations


When a motor is first started, it performs in a similar manner to a transformer with its secondary shorted and draws line current four to six times its normal full load current. As this current flows to the motor terminals from the power source through power lines, transformers, and other impedances in the system, various voltage drops occur. When all these voltage drops are accounted for, the voltage at the motor terminals can be significantly less than 100% of the bus voltage feeding the motor. This voltage reduction during motor starting occurs to some extent at every point in the electrical system. If the voltage drop is too large at any of these points, it can cause problems throughout the system. Lights may flicker, dim, or even extinguish momentarily during motor starting. Many utilities limit the size and current inrush of motors to prevent voltage drops of more than 5% at the utility. Some utilities require less than a 2% drop on their lines. If the voltage drop exceeds 15 to 20%, control relays may drop out causing shutdowns or erratic operation of systems and computers. In some instances, the voltage drop during starting maybe so severe that the motor will not start at all. It will just hum, drawing locked rotor current at the reduced voltage until its breaker or starter trips on overload. The largest voltage drop occurs at the motor terminals, and should be designed to be less than 15%. In extreme cases where weak power systems are involved, 20% or more may be allowable.

235 Data for a Voltage-Drop Calculation


The following data are needed to perform a complete motor voltage-drop calculation. 1. Motor nameplate information a. b. c. d. e. 2. 3. 4. Voltage Full-load current Horsepower rpm at full load Locked-rotor current or locked-rotor kVA

Starting power factor (or an approximation) System impedance data (including the utility) Running load on system at time of starting (and approximate power factor if more accuracy is desired).

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236 Voltage-Drop Calculation: Example


Circuit Model. The motor-starting voltage-drop calculation normally utilizes the per-unit method, as does the short-circuit study. For more information on the perunit method, see Section 220, Short-Circuit Studies, and References 2 and 5. For a motor-starting voltage-drop study, it is necessary to use the minimum available short-circuit MVA available from the utility, as this will produce the most severe voltage drop calculation (the conservative case). The location of the motor impedance in the line-to-neutral circuit model for the motor-starting study is different from the location of the motor impedance in the model for the short-circuit calculation. Figure 200-16 presents an example of a oneline diagram for a sample voltage-drop calculation. Figure 200-17 shows the line-toneutral model used for a short-circuit calculation at point A. In the short-circuit case, the motor is a current source that contributes to the fault and is modeled as an impedance in parallel with the series combination of the utility and the transformer impedances. In the motor-starting example, shown in Figure 200-18, the motor is not a source of current as in the short-circuit example, so its impedance is in series with the utility, transformer, and cable impedances. As shown in Figure 200-18, the voltage drop at the utility can be calculated directly by voltage division as a ratio of the utility impedance to the total impedance in the circuit. Similarly, the terminal voltage at the motor can be calculated as a ratio of the motor-starting impedance to the total impedance of the circuit. Use the per-unit system to calculate the voltage drop. How to Represent the Starting Motor as an Impedance. To model the starting motor as an impedance, find the starting kVA of the motor. Smaller motors will have a locked-rotor code on their nameplate as (described in NEC 430-7). This code gives the locked-rotor kVA per horsepower range. Multiply the horsepower by the locked-rotor code value to obtain the locked-rotor (starting) kVA. Use the maximum kVA per horsepower in the range for the particular locked-rotor code, to be conservative. To change the locked-rotor kVA to MVA, divide by 1000. Suppliers of larger motors will give the maximum locked-rotor current, ILR, at the rated motor voltage. To calculate the locked-rotor MVA in this case, use the following formula:

(Eq. 200-31)

It is important to use the motor nameplate voltage for Vmotor. For example, the nameplate voltage of the motor in Figure 200-16 is 2.3 kV, although the bus voltage is 2.4 kV.

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Fig. 200-16 Example of a One-Line Diagram for Motor Starting

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Fig. 200-17 Short Circuit Model for Fault Current at Point A

Fig. 200-18 Circuit Model for Motor Starting Voltage Drop at Point A

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Once the locked-rotor kVA is calculated, it must be changed to a per-unit impedance value at the same base voltage as that of the system impedance diagram. This is calculated by the following formula:

(Eq. 200-32)

This equation calculates the impedance (Z) of the motor. For approximate calculations in medium voltage systems, impedance can be considered to be all reactance (X), ignoring resistance, as shown in the example in Figure 200-19. In this case the impedance is assumed equal to the reactance.

Example of Motor-Starting Voltage-Drop Calculation Using the Per-Unit Method


Calculate the utility voltage drop during starting and the terminal voltage of the motor as shown in Figure 200-16, using the per-unit method described in Section 220. Approximate motor-starting studies can be done using the MVA method. Although this method is simpler, it is not as versatile. The MVA method is described in Appendix C. After assembling the required data and one-line diagram, complete the following tasks: 1. 2. 3. 4. Make an impedance diagram. Calculate component impedances on a common MVA base. Choose the base voltage of the system. Calculate voltage drop.

For the example, the following steps were completed in accordance: 1. 2. 3. 4. An impedance diagram was drawn (Figure 200-19). Impedances were calculated on a 100 MVA base. 13.8 kV and 2.4 kV were chosen as base voltages. The voltage drop was calculated as 73% full voltage at the motor terminals upon starting.

In this example, system resistance was ignored since it is a medium voltage system and the reactive component of impedance has the largest effect. Cable impedance is also ignored in this example; however, it should be included in low voltage motorstarting cases and medium voltage cases with long cable runs. The calculation summary in Section 220 (Figure 200-5) shows how to derive the cable impedance (which could be included in the motor-starting impedance diagram).

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Fig. 200-19 Motor Starting Voltage Drop Impedance Diagram

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In this example, the voltage at the instant the motor starts is 73% of the 2.4 kV bus voltage. This is equal to 76% of the motor nameplate voltage (2.3 kV). A 76% starting voltage (24% voltage drop) is a very marginal voltage for starting the motor and is the value used to adjust the motor torque vs. the speed curve. It may be allowable if further investigation shows there is enough torque to start the load, and if it will not cause control problems at the motor bus (or elsewhere in the system); for example, causing the relays to dropout. The torque vs. voltage relationship is discussed below in Section 238. The voltage drop on the 13.8 kV utility bus was found to be 1.5%. This means that if the utility voltage at the time the motor was started was 13.8 kV, the voltage would drop to 13.6 kV as the motor accelerated. When the motor reaches rated speed, the current drops to the normal loaded value, and the voltage drops throughout the system return to normal.

Effect of Running Load


The running load at the time of starting a motor can make the voltage drop more severe because the voltage may be initially something less than 1 per unit. For example, if there were a large running load on the 2.4 kV bus in Figure 200-16, the voltage prior to starting the 1500 hp motor would be something less than 2.4 kV (due to the running load voltage drop). An approximate means of accounting for the voltage drop due to running load is to model the running loads as a lumped impedance on the bus. For example, if there is a 500 hp combined load already running on the 2.4 kV bus (Figure 200-16), this could be modeled as 500 kVA. This 500 kVA can be represented conservatively by an impedance using the following formula:

(Eq. 200-33)

The impedance representing the running load is located in the impedance diagram as shown in Figure 200-20. The effect of running load can sometimes make the voltage drops throughout the electrical system, and at the motor terminals, a few percentage points higher than if it were not considered. For this reason if the initial calculation without considering running load indicates a marginal voltage drop, then the effect of running load should be calculated. Computer programs that calculate motor-starting voltages can easily calculate the actual effects of running load.

Including Resistance in the Motor-Starting Circuit Model


The resistive component of impedance becomes important in low voltage motorstarting calculations where a significant portion of the voltage drop is due to resistance. In medium voltage motor-starting calculations, knowing the effect of resis-

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Fig. 200-20 Running Load Impedance

tance produces a slightly more accurate solution; however, this makes manual calculations more time consuming, particularly if running load is also considered as a complex impedance. If high accuracy is required because the predicted voltage drop by manual calculation is marginally acceptable, use a computer program such as the one described in Section 239. A further refinement of the motor-starting impedance diagram includes the resistive component of the utility, transformer, cable, running load, and starting motor impedances. Utility Including the resistance of the utility in the impedance diagram is illustrated in Figure 200-21. The utility is resolved into a complex per-unit impedance, R +

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jX. It is necessary, however, to know the short-circuit MVA and the X/R ratio of the utility source. Transformer Transformer impedance can be resolved into R and X components by using typical X/R ratios for transformers from the IEEE Red Book if the impedance and kVA of the transformer are known. These data may also be obtained from transformer test data. Motor Impedance The motor impedance (from Equation 200-2) may be resolved into R and X components if the starting power factor is known. On large motors, the manufacturer can provide the starting power factor. If it is not available, it can be assumed that starting power factor is 0.2, a reasonable approximation. If the 1500 hp motor depicted in Figure 200-16 (with an impedance of 12.462 perunit ohms) has a starting power factor of 0.2, then its impedance can be resolved into R and X components as shown in Figure 200-21.

237 Correcting for Unacceptable Voltage Drop


If the starting voltage drop calculation predicts that a motor will produce too large a voltage drop for the system, several options for correcting the problem are available. 1. 2. Specify a motor with a smaller starting current to limit the voltage drop. See Section 200 of the Driver Manual for further discussion. Use a reduced voltage starter to start the motor. Reducing the voltage at the time of starting will reduce the motor-starting current and associated utility or plant voltage drop. However, it will also reduce the available starting torque by the square of the ratio of the reduced voltage to the motor voltage. This method can be used only when there is net accelerating torque to sacrifice, which should be verified before specifying reduced voltage starting. See Section 440, Starting Methods for Motors, for specific methods of reduced voltage starting. Find a power supply source with a larger available short-circuit MVA to start the motor. Such a power source has less impedance and will allow larger starting currents to flow without as great a voltage drop on the utility. Consider feeding the motor from a larger transformer. This alternative will cause the voltage drop across the transformer to be smaller, allowing a larger starting voltage at the motor. Install a capacitor bank connected to the motor-starting bus during motor starting to cancel out the reactive current drawn by the motor during starting. This arrangement will reduce the starting current and the associated voltage drop. References 5 and 7 give examples of this application.

3.

4.

5.

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Fig. 200-21 Resistance in the Motor Starting Model

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6.

Use an adjustable speed drive unit as a soft-starter for the motor. The use of a drive on a motor can almost eliminate the starting inrush current; however, this is a very expensive alternative if the adjustable speed feature is not needed.

238 Motor Acceleration Time Calculation


The following information is necessary to make a time calculation for net starting torque and acceleration. Most of this information is available from the manufacturer. WK2 (moment of inertia) of the motor rotor WK2 of the driven equipment, referenced to the same rpm as the motor rotor Torque vs. speed curve of the motor for 100% of motor nameplate voltage, and another curve for the percent of rated motor terminal voltage predicted in the starting voltage drop calculation Torque vs. speed curve of the driven equipment (may use assumed curves for noncritical installations) Instantaneous voltage drop at the motor terminals from the motor-starting voltage-drop study Speed of the motor at full load, and speed of the driven equipment if it is gearbox-connected to the motor Current vs. speed curve for the motor at full voltage Power factor vs. speed curve for the motor

Basic Mechanical Relationships


The acceleration time of a motor is governed by the torque developed by the motor, by the counter-torque developed by the driven equipment, by the moment of inertia (WK2) of the motor and driven equipment, and by the operating speed. Torque, horsepower, and speed (rpm) are related by the following formula:

(Eq. 200-34)

where: Torque = tangential effort in ft-lb hp = horsepower developed rpm = revolutions per minute The full load torque of the 1500 hp, 1780 rpm motor depicted in Figure 200-16 is:

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(Eq. 200-35)

The term full load torque is defined as the torque associated with the horsepower rating of the motor at operating speed. The acceleration time of the motor and driven load are governed by the following relationship:

(Eq. 200-36)

where: t = Time, in seconds WK2 = Total moment of inertia of motor and driven equipment, in lb-ft2 rpm Change = Increment of speed change, in rpm. T = Net accelerating torque, in ft-lb To use this equation to predict the acceleration time, a torque vs. speed curve for the motor and the driven load is needed (usually available from the manufacturer).

Torque vs. Speed Curve of Motor and Driven Load


Figure 200-22 is an example of a combination torque vs. speed curve for a 3500 hp, 1800 rpm induction motor and the pump it drives. This information was supplied by the motor vendor, who obtained the torque vs. speed data for the pump from the pump manufacturer. As indicated on the motor torque vs. speed curve in Figure 200-22, the motor produces 84% of its full-load torque on starting (Point A). This value is known as starting torque or locked-rotor torque. As the motor accelerates the load, the motor torque at first slowly increases, then rapidly increases until it peaks at 95% speed. Motor torque then drops rapidly until the operating speed is reached (in this case 1780 rpm). The motor rated speed of 1800 rpm is not reached, even at no load condition, because motor torque is not developed at synchronous speed. At 1800 rpm, there is no relative motion between the induction motor rotor and the rotating magnetic field to induce rotor current which is required to produce torque. Discharge Valve on Centrifugal Pump. For centrifugal pump, speed-torque curves, be aware of the difference between the curves with the discharge valve open and those with the valve closed. When the discharge valve is closed, less torque is required at a given rpm. Check the position of the discharge valve, open or closed, when the pump is to be started and use the appropriate curve. To be safe, use the worst case scenario. Figure 200-23 shows the difference between the two cases.

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Motor Operating Speed. The speed at which the system will operate is determined by the intersection of the motor torque vs. speed curve with the load torque vs. speed curve. In Figure 200-22, the intersection is at point C, 1780 rpm.
Fig. 200-22 Induction Motor Starting Characteristics (Calculated) at 100% Line Voltage

Net Accelerating Torque. If a motor is to accelerate to operating speed, the torque supplied by the motor must exceed the torque required by the load at every speed except at the operating point (where they are equal). The margin by which the motor torque exceeds the load torque (at any speed from standstill to the operating point) is known as net accelerating torque. The net accelerating torque at 50% of synchronous speed (as shown in Figure 200-22) is about 70% of motor full-load torque (0.70 x 10323 ft-lbs = 7226 ft-lbs). The bold arrow shows where the measurement is

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taken at 50% speed. The net accelerating torque on starting is 84% - 14% = 70%. At other points on the curve, the net accelerating torque changes with speed can be determined.
Fig. 200-23 Compared Effects of Open and Closed Pump Discharge Torque

Effect of Reduced Voltage. The net accelerating torque changes drastically with the terminal voltage of the motor since the motor torque is proportional to the square of the motor terminal voltage. If the voltage drops to 85% of rated voltage when the motor starts, the torque available on starting will be only (0.85) 2 or 72% of the starting torque at full voltage. Figure 200-22 is the speed torque curve for a 3500 hp motor at 100% of rated voltage during starting. Figure 200-24 presents the same information except at 85% of rated motor voltage during starting. By comparing motor torques at similar speeds for the two curves, it can be seen that if the voltage drops to 85% during starting, the motor torque for all speeds is shifted down to 72%. If only the curve at 100% of rated motor voltage is available and an adjusted curve based on the motor-

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Fig. 200-24 Induction Motor Starting Characteristics (Calculated) at 85% Line Voltage

starting voltage drop is required, the square relationship between terminal voltage and torque can be used as a good approximation to shift the motor torque curve.

Current vs. Speed Curve for a Starting Motor


Figure 200-24 demonstrates that the starting current of the motor decreases slowly until about 85% speed is reached, then it decreases rapidly. As the starting current decreases while the motor is turning, the voltage drop becomes less severe; therefore, there is higher motor terminal voltage as speed increases. This increase in voltage causes the motor torque to be higher than if the same reduced voltage encountered at initial starting is maintained until the motor reaches operating speed. For this reason, it is conservative to shift the 100% motor torque vs. speed curve by

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the square of the voltage, as described above, at all speeds. In reality, the same voltage drop will not be present at all speeds.

Power Factor vs. Speed Curve for a Starting Motor


Figure 200-22 also shows the power factor vs. speed curve for a starting motor. Notice that the first value for the curve is about 0.21 and the slope does not rise appreciably until the motor attains about 80% of speed. The slope of the curve then increases rapidly with speed and reaches a final value of about 0.92 at running speed. The fact that motors start with a low power factor contributes to large starting currents. One way to reduce these large starting currents is to add correction capacitors that switch into the circuit during motor starting. This arrangement improves the starting power factor of motors and results in greatly decreased starting currents. Once the motor reaches operating speed, the capacitors usually can be switched out of the circuit since most motors have reasonable power factors at running speed.

Example of a Motor Acceleration Time Calculation


For this example, the motor shown in Figure 200-16 will be used. This motor has a full load torque of 4424 ft-lbs at 100% terminal voltage of 2300 volts. Steps to calculate total acceleration time are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Calculate WK2 (moment of inertia) of motor, gearbox, and pump. Verify that there is a net positive accelerating torque at all times (from the motor and pump torque vs. speed curves). Divide the motor and pump torque vs. speed curves into an equal number of increments. Calculate the time for the motor to accelerate through each increment. Add the acceleration times calculated for each interval. The sum is the total time to accelerate the motor and load to full speed.

Step 1. To calculate the acceleration time, first calculate the combined WK2 of the motor, the gearbox, and the pump. From the information in Figure 200-16, the motor rotor has a WK2 of 1900 lb-ft2 at 1780 rpm. The gear box has a WK2 of 300 lb-ft2 at 1780 rpm, and the pump rotor has a WK2 of 10 lb-ft2 at 7000 rpm. Notice that the pump WK2 is not at the same rpm as the rotor and gear box. The pump WK2 must be referred to the motor rated speed by multiplying it by the ratio of the squares of the two speeds. Then all values for moment of inertia (WK2) are added to obtain the total moment of inertia, shown below:

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(Eq. 200-37)

The value to use for Step 2.

WK2

in the accelerating time equation is 2355

lb-ft2.

Because the voltage drop calculation predicts a drop in motor terminal voltage to 76% of the rated 2300 volts, use the motor torque vs. speed curve for 76% voltage. Seventy-six percent is a rather severe voltage drop, and it is necessary to look closely at the torque vs. speed curve of the motor and the load to determine if there is net accelerating torque at all points. These curves must be obtained from the manufacturer of the motor. Step 3. The motor and pump torque vs. speed curves are shown in Figure 200-25. The curve has been divided into 10 equal increments (each 10% of rated speed), and the perunit net accelerating torque has been measured and drawn at the center of each of these sections. The curve can be divided into smaller increments for greater accuracy. Figure 200-25 shows that the minimum net accelerating torque in any speed interval is 0.22 per-unit or 22% of motor full load torque. Therefore, there is sufficient net accelerating torque, even though only 76% voltage (24% drop) is expected on starting. Ten percent is a good guideline for the minimum acceptable net accelerating torque at all points from startup to operating speed. Step 4. Using the accelerating time equation, calculate the time required to accelerate through each 10% increment of total speed (178 rpm), based on the midpoint net acceleration torque shown in each interval.

(Eq. 200-38)

For example, in the first interval, the net percent accelerating torque is 0.28 per-unit. The full load motor torque is 4424 ft-lb, so the net accelerating torque is:

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Fig. 200-25 Speed vs. Torque for the Example Motor and Load Acceleration Calculations

T = Tpu x T total T = 0.28 x 4424 T = 1,238.72 ft-lb WK2 is 2355 lb-ft2 and the speed change is 10% of 1,780, or 178 rpm. Thus, the accelerating time for the first interval is:

(Eq. 200-39)

Acceleration times for all the intervals are listed in Figure 200-26. The value in each row of the time column (Figure 200-26) is the time for the motor to accelerate through the speed interval. The sum of these is 11 seconds, the total time to accelerate to 1780 rpm.

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Fig. 200-26 1500 HP Motor Accelerating Time Calculation Speed Interval 0 - 10% 10 - 20% 20 - 30% 30 - 40% 40 - 50% 50 - 60% 60 - 70% 70 - 80% 80 - 90% 90 - 100% P.U. Net Acc. Torque 0.28 0.32 0.34 0.30 0.30 0.25 0.24 0.22 0.22 0.38 Net Acc. Torque 1238.72 1415.68 1504.16 1327.20 1327.20 1106.00 1061.76 973.28 973.28 1681.12 Total Acceleration Time Time 1.10 0.96 0.90 1.03 1.03 1.23 1.28 1.40 1.40 0.81 11.14

This accelerating time information may now be used to plot the motor-starting current vs. time curve on the motor time overcurrent relay protection sheet. The only question remaining is: Will the motor exceed its thermal protection limits in the 11 seconds required to reach operating speed? This question can be answered by plotting the motor acceleration time vs. current curve on the same time current coordination sheet as the motor thermal limit curve.

Correcting for Unacceptable Acceleration Time


If the acceleration time study indicates that it will take too long to accelerate the motor, consider the following options: 1. 2. Use a larger size motor if additional voltage drop during starting is available. Specify a motor with a higher torque characteristic. This will increase the net accelerating torque, but does so at the expense of motor efficiency. Motor manufacturers can vary the torque vs. speed characteristics of motors by changing the design of the rotor bars. If starting the motor loaded is the problem, install an interlock or stipulate an operational requirement so that the motor can only be started if the driven equipment is unloaded.

3.

239 Computer Programs That Simulate Motor-Starting


Several computer programs can simplify calculating motor-starting voltage drop and acceleration time. One of these is the General Electric timeshare program, MOTST$.

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The information required for the GE program is similar to that used in the manual calculation previously discussed; however, this program also includes running load, impact load, and tapped transformers. It allows the user to change cases very easily. The program can model the running load as constant impedance, constant kVA, or constant current, to more accurately model the behavior of the on-line loads as voltage changes during the starting of the motor. The computer program input requires WK2 values, motor and load torque vs. speed curve points, power factor vs. speed curve points, current vs. speed curve points, and impedance diagram information. The output is shown in Figure 200-27.
Fig. 200-27 G.E. Motor Starting Program (Courtesy of the General Electric Company)
GENERAL ELECTRIC MOTOR STARTING PROGRAM LINE IMPEDANCES ON 10 MVA BASE ABC STEEL SCHDY, NY START 8000 HP MOTOR CASE 1A - 04/02/80 BUS SOURCE 1 2 2 3 BUS R 0.003 0.005 0.0053 X 0.0197 0.022 0.332 1 1 TAP P.U. INITIAL VOLTAGE 1.002

LOAD BUS 1 2

CONSTANT MVA MW .00 5.52 MVAR .00 3.42

CONSTANT I MW .00 .00 MVAR .00 .00

CONSTANT Z MW .00 .00 MVAR .00 .00

STARTING MOTOR DATA HP 8000.0 % SPEED 0 2 10 KVA 7796.3 %FL AMPS 395 390 385 M-KVOLT 6.60 BUS KVOLT 6.90 %PWR FACTOR 13.3 13.3 15 WK-2 526000.0 %MOT TRQ 59 58 56

SYN. RPM 360 %LD TRQ 10 0.1 0.2

START CAP(KVA) .0

TIME (SEC) 0.00.0+ 1.42 BUS1 1.002 .972 .972

VOLTAGE BUS2 .992 .929 .929 BUS3 .000 .442 .442 MW 5.55 6.70 6.70

SOURCE MVAR 3.52 17.88 17.88 VOLTS .000 .462 .462 %M-TRQ .00 12.61 12.39

MOTOR %LD-TRQ .00 10.00 .10 %AMPS .0 180.3 180.3 %SPEED .00 .00 2.00

APPROX. FINAL MOTOR SPEED IS 99.8 % IN 52.23 SEC

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240 Load-Flow Studies


241 Reasons for a Load-Flow Study
A load-flow study models an electrical power system for normal, abnormal, or special case operating configurations. It determines the magnitude and phase angle of the voltage at each bus, and the real and reactive power flowing in each line. The study examines the effects of changing lineups, adding motors, taking transformers out of service, changing taps on transformers, adding capacitor banks or synchronous condensers, adding new transmission lines, adding or shifting generation, or making other changes in the system. It illustrates the effects on the overall system of any of these changes prior to actually implementing the change. The study consists of the examination of a series of load-flow solutions for different cases.

242 When To Conduct a Load-Flow Study


A load-flow study is necessary when: Significantly changing the plant configuration or simulating a proposed plant design Predicting plant power factor and the effect of adding capacitors Adding cogeneration or large motors

243 Data for a Load-Flow Study


The data needed to perform a load-flow study are the same as that required for the short-circuit study, but with a few additions. The system is presented in one-line form similar to that shown for the short-circuit study (Section 220). The following information is required: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Base voltages of all buses. Initial per-unit voltage at buses. Total watts and vars of all loads. Resistances and reactances of all lines connecting buses. Buses designated as: swing bus; a regulated bus (where voltage magnitude is held constant by generation of reactive power); or a bus with fixed real and reactive power. Transformer tap settings. Vars produced by capacitors.

6. 7.

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244 Interpreting Computer Load-Flow Data


Figure 200-28 is an example of a computer printout for a load-flow study for the one-line diagram shown in Figure 200-29. When the program is run, the computer derives a solution by several iterations of calculations that converge towards a solution. When the specified degree of accuracy is reached, the solution is output. In the printout in Figure 200-28, the real and reactive power are generated by Bus 1, the swing bus. P is the real power in MW, and Q is the reactive power in Mvar. The current I flowing from Bus 1 is given in per-unit amperes. The swing bus phase angle is zero since it is the reference bus, and the voltage is 1.0 per-unit volts.
Fig. 200-28 Example of a Computer Load-Flow Study P-MW * Bus 1 To Bus 2 Generate * Bus 10 * Const Load To Bus 4 .3500 -.3499 .2500 -.2500 .0044 .0044 .974 -1.394 * (Swing) 2.1540 2.1540 1.0939 1.0939 .0242 .0242 Q-MVAR I-P.U. V-P.U. 1.000 ANGLE-DEG .000

Computer data also include the power flow (in real and reactive power), and the current flowing from each bus to adjacent buses. The current flowing in each line is compared to the ampacities of the lines to make sure there is no overloading. It can be seen that further from the swing bus, the voltage drop becomes greater. At Bus 10, the bus voltage is 0.974 per unit, about a 3% drop during normal running load operation. The voltage at Bus 10 lags the voltage at the swing bus by 1.394 degrees. The power factor of the plant can be calculated from the real and reactive power flowing from the swing bus and by constructing the power triangle. The power factor is 0.89, which may have some effect on the utility billing. For more detail about load-flow studies, see the IEEE Brown Book (IEEE Std. 399).

250 Transient-Stability Studies


Computerized transient-stability studies provide a fast, simple, and inexpensive way to simulate transient performance of an electrical system. Stability applies only to electrical systems with two or more synchronous machines tied together electrically (e.g., a large synchronous motor powered by a large AC generator). Another example would be several generation units and several large hydrogen compressors driven by synchronous motors. Stability exists if all of the AC synchronous motors and generators are in synchronism, that is, they are in step with each other. A system which is stable under normal

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Fig. 200-29 One-Line Diagram for the Example Computer Load-Flow Study

steady-state operating conditions may not be stable when it undergoes a transient, such as a switching operation, a separation from the utility, a fault, or a relay action. If the system has transient stability, the machines may oscillate with respect to each other momentarily, but will regain synchronism within a very short period of time. If the system is unstable, a transient may cause a permanent loss of synchronism among the machines. This asynchronous operation can cause high transient mechanical torques and currents with associated mechanical and thermal damage. Most synchronous machines are equipped with pullout protection that shuts down the machines when they pull out of step. Frequent outages are another problem related to instability. Distance relays may interpret the large surges in real and reactive power flow as fault currents and also cause system shutdown related to instability. A transient-stability study is a good way to simulate the response of the power system to predictable transients, such as loss of generators, faults, or utility outages. The study should be made when large synchronous machines are added to a power system. Transient-stability studies should be included in the design phase of cogeneration projects.

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A transient-stability study is a very complex study that includes a significant amount of data in addition to that required for the short-circuit study, relay study, and the load-flow study. It includes system data (as used in the short-circuit study), rotating machine data (such as moments of inertia of the rotors of the electrical and driven mechanical machines), load data (as used in the load-flow study), and disturbance data. The output of the computer programs can include the following information: Rotor angles, torques, and speeds of synchronous machines Real and reactive power flow throughout the system Voltage and phase angles at all buses System frequency Torques and slips of induction machines

System stability is determined by examining the swing curves produced by the computer programs. Swing curves are plots of the rotor angles of synchronous machines vs. time. These plots make it easy to determine if the swing curves come back into step after the initial disturbance, or if they diverge, indicating instability for the particular transient under consideration. A transient-stability study has such a degree of complexity that it is best assigned to someone that specializes in such studies. The Westinghouse Westcat program is a commonly used transient-stability computer program available on timeshare. PCbased programs are also available.

260 Harmonic Analysis Studies


Harmonic analyses evaluate the potential effects of harmonics (usually produced by solid state power conversion equipment) on electrical systems. The study is usually done with a computer and allows solutions to problems to be simulated and tested before they are physically installed. Harmonic voltage and currents are produced primarily by solid state power conversion equipment using rectifiers and thyristors. Examples of equipment producing harmonic voltages and currents include the following: UPS systems DC drives AC drives Computer power supplies Rectifiers

The larger the equipment, the larger the magnitude of the harmonics generated. Harmonics are voltages or currents with a frequency which is some multiple of the fundamental frequency (60 Hz). Fourier analysis shows that any periodic waveform can be represented as the sum of an infinite series of sine and cosine waveforms harmonically related.

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A pure 60 Hz sine wave has no harmonics, only a fundamental component at 60 Hzthe wave itself. Solid state power conversion equipment, such as rectifiers and motor drives, chop the AC current waveform by allowing current to flow during only part of the cycle. The commutation of SCRs causes notching and distortion of the input voltage waveform. As a result, the sine wave becomes distorted. The periodic distorted wave contains harmonics, since it no longer is a pure sine wave. The dominant harmonics are typically the fifth (300 Hz), seventh (420 Hz), and eleventh (660 Hz). These harmonics can cause problems in the plant electrical system. Some examples of problems that can occur are: excessive capacitor fuse operation (due to resonance at harmonic frequencies), communication interference (due to mutual coupling at harmonic frequencies), computer problems, and excessive heating of equipment. A harmonic analysis of the electrical system should be considered in the following situations: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. When applying large capacitor banks for power factor correction. When installing solid-state AC-to-DC power conversion equipment. When there is a history of harmonic-related problems (such as blowing fuses in capacitor banks). In the design stage of an installation using large solid-state power conversion equipment with capacitor banks. When installing large, solid-state power conversion equipment at a plant where the utility has restrictive requirements on harmonics put into the utility line.

A harmonic analysis program examines the effects of the particular harmonic frequencies that are expected to be produced by the solid state conversion equipment and checks to see if they will coincide with any resonance points in the power system. It is similar to a load-flow study except the harmonic analysis considers bus voltages and power flows at many frequencies other than 60 Hz. The input data for computer programs are similar to the load-flow data with additional requirements for data on the semiconductor convertors and capacitor and reactor installations in the system. Harmonic analyses are best done by a specialist.

270 References
The following references are readily available. Those marked with an asterisk (*) are included in this manual or are available in other manuals.

271 Model Specifications (MS)


There are no specifications related to this guideline.

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272 Standard Drawings


There are no standard drawings related to this engineering guideline.

273 Data Sheets (DS), Data Guides (DG) and Engineering Forms (EF)
There are no engineering forms related to this engineering guideline.

274 Other References


1. 2. 3. ANSI/IEEE Standard 141 IEEE Recommended Practice for Electric Power Distribution for Industrial Plants. Beeman, Donald, Industrial Power Systems Handbook (McGraw-Hill, 1955). *Yuen, Moon H., Short Circuit ABC Learn It in an Hour, Use It Anywhere, Memorize No Formula. Paper No. PCI-73-7, presented at the 1973 IEEE PCIC Conference. (See also Paper No. PCI-82-1, presented at the 1982 IEEE PCIC Conference, for a paper which describes using this method with a handheld calculator.) Included as Appendix C. Oscarson, G.L., EM Synchronizer - The ABC of Synchronous Motors (Electric Machinery Mfg. Co., 1954). Stevenson, Jr., W.D., Elements of Power System Analysis (McGraw-Hill, Fourth Edition, 1982). Thode, H.W. and B. Brozek, High Inertia Load Induction Motor Design Considerations (Paper No. PCI-81-5, presented at the 1981 IEEE PCIC Conference). Nichols, W., R. Bried, R.D. Valentine, and J.E. Harder, Advances in Capacitor Starting (Paper No. PCI-81-31, presented at the 1981 IEEE PCIC Conference). Lewis, H.W. and F.A. Woodbury, Large Motors on Limited Capacity Transmission Lines (Paper No. PCI-77-41, presented at the 1977 IEEE PCIC Conference). Nailen, R.L., Large Motor Starting Problems in the Petroleum Industry (Paper No. PCI-68-43, presented at the 1968 IEEE PCIC Conference).

4. 5. 6.

7. 8.

9.

10. St. Pierre, C.R., and Mirabile, J.S., G.E. Timeshare Computer Manual for LFLOWS, (General Electric Company Industrial Power Systems Engineering Operation, 1983). 11. ANSI/IEEE Standard 399, IEEE Recommended Practice for Power System Analysis. 12. ANSI/IEEE Standard 242, IEEE Recommended Practice for Protection and Coordination of Industrial and Commercial Power Systems.

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Abstract
This section discusses the classification of locations for electrical installations. It provides guidance in the selection of electrical equipment for hazardous (classified) locations. Section 1500 of the Fire Protection Manual provides additional information. Area classification should be effected in conformance with these guidelines as they are applicable. Foreign projects should conform to applicable foreign codes and standards as conditions dictate. Contents 310 320 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 340 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 Introduction Classification of Locations for Electrical Installations Types of Equipment for Class I Hazardous (Classified) Locations Maximum Operating Temperatures Equipment Enclosures Hermetically Sealed Devices Intrinsically Safe Systems Nonincendive Equipment Purged Enclosures Electrical Equipment Requirements and Recommendations for Class I Hazardous (Classified) Locations 300-10 Types of Equipment for Class II Hazardous (Classified) Locations Maximum Operating Temperatures Equipment Enclosures Hermetically Sealed Devices Intrinsically Safe Systems Nonincendive Equipment Pressurized Enclosures 300-16 Page 300-3 300-3 300-6

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360 370 380 381 382 383 384

Electrical Equipment Requirements and Recommendations for Class II Hazardous (Classified) Locations 300-18 Area Classification Based on the IEC Zone System for Flammable Gases or Vapors 300-23 References Model Specifications (MS) Standard Drawings Data Sheets (DS), Data Guides (DG), and Engineering Forms (EF) Other References 300-24

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310 Introduction
This section provides guidelines for classifying domestic locations for electrical installations. It also discusses the necessary requirements and provides recommendations for electrical equipment installed in these areas. Reference Section 1500 of the Fire Protection Manual for additional information. Location classification is based on the properties of flammable vapors, liquids, gases, combustible dusts or easily ignitable fibers which may be present and the likelihood that a flammable or combustible concentration will be present. It is necessary to identify hazardous (classified) locations in order to select the proper electrical equipment for these areas. Restrictions are placed on the types of equipment used and their operation and maintenance. Proper equipment must be chosen to ensure safety. Equipment suitable for use in hazardous locations is designed either to prevent accidental ignition of ignitable substances or to prevent damage if there is ignition by confining explosions to electrical enclosures and conduits. Switches, circuit breakers, fuses, motor starters, single phase and DC motors, pushbutton stations, plugs, and receptacles can produce arcs or sparks capable of ignition in normal operation. Other devices, such as lighting fixtures, can produce enough heat to ignite flammable mixtures or combustible dusts. A loose lamp can combine arcing with heat. Many parts of an electrical system, such as wiring (particularly splices in the wiring), transformers, solenoids, and other low-temperature devices without make-or-break contacts can become ignition sources through insulation failure. A flowchart directing the designer to specific NFPA, API, and ISA documents containing procedures for determining area classification and selecting electrical equipment is provided in Figure 300-1. Necessary procedures and requirements are included in the referenced documents. An alternative system of classifying areas, referred to as the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Zone system, has been introduced in the 1996 NEC (NFPA 70) as Article 505 and is described in Section 370 of this manual.

320 Classification of Locations for Electrical Installations


In order to properly select and install electrical equipment in a location which contains, or may contain, flammable gases or vapors, combustible dust, or easily ignitable fibers or flyings, the location must first be classified. The classification process is three-fold: 1. 2. 3. Designate the type (Class) of hazard which may be presentgas, dust, or fiber. Designate the specific Group of the hazardous substance. Determine the probability that the hazardous substance will be present (Division).

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Fig. 300-1

Area Classification Flowchart for Hazardous (Classified) Locations GENERAL REQUIREMENTS AND DEFINITIONS OF TERMS NFPA 70 (NEC) Article 500 or 505 API RP 14F API RP 500 ISA S12.1 Fire Protection Manual STEP 1 Determining Class, Group and Properties of Flammable Vapors, Liquids, Gases and Combustible Dusts NFPA 497M NFPA 30 NFPA 325M NFPA 321 UL 58, 58A, AND 58B Fire Protection Manual STEP 2 Determining Division and Extent of Classified Area Fire Protection Manual API RP 500 (Petroleum Facilities) NFPA 497A (Chemical Plants) NFPA 70, Article 514 and NFPA 30A (Gasoline Dispensing Stations) NFPA 70, Article 515 (Bulk Storage Plants) STEP 3 Selecting and Installing Equipment NFPA 70 Articles 500 and 501 (All Class/Division Installations) and 505 API RP 14F (Producing and Drilling Installations Offshore) API RP 540 (Refineries) NFPA 496 (Purging Methods) ANSI/UL 913 (Intrinsically Safe Systems) ISA RP 12.6 (Intrinsically Safe Systems, Installation)

Note

This flowchart is intended to direct the reader to appropriate standards and publications containing guidelines and procedures for determining area classification and requirements for selecting electrical equipment.

Designating the type of hazard is the first and easiest of the steps. The area is called Class I if the hazardous material is flammable gas or vapor. It is called a Class II area if the hazardous material is combustible dust, and it is designated Class III if easily ignitable fibers or flyings may be present. Examples of Class I locations are oil refineries and natural gas compressor stations. Grain elevators, portions of some chemical and oil shale plants, and coal mines are examples of Class II locations. Cotton gins and textile mills are examples of Class III locations. Designating the Group of a specific material is easily accomplished by referencing either the National Electrical Code or the National Fire Protection Associa-

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tions documents numbered 325M and 497M. Most hydrocarbons are included in Group D. Hydrogen is in Group B, and hydrogen sulfide is in Group C. Acetylene is the only gas in Group A. Combustible dusts are included in Groups E, F, and G according to their electrical properties. Group E includes metal dusts; Group F is comprised primarily of carbon dusts; and Group G primarily of plastic and agricultural dusts. There are no groups for Class III materials. Determining the probability that the hazardous substance will be present is the most difficult of the three steps in classifying an area. Class I and II areas are referred to as Division 1 areas when hazardous material is anticipated during normal operations on a continuous or intermittent basis. Areas are referred to as Division 2 when hazardous material is anticipated only during abnormal operations. Additionally, in Classes I and II, areas are considered Division 1 if a process failure is likely to cause both combustible levels of hazardous material and an electrical fault in a mode which could result in an electrical arc. Class II areas are also considered Division 1 if the hazardous dust involved is metallic or is a Group E or F dust with a resistivity less than 105 ohm-centimeters. Class III areas are specified Division 1 if easily ignitable materials are handled, manufactured or used, and Division 2 if they are stored or handled in a non-manufacturing environment. To promote uniformity in area classification within Chevron, refer to the Fire Protection Manual, Section 1500. To promote uniformity within the industry in area classification for oil and gas facilities, the American Petroleum Institute (API) has developed Recommended Practice 500 for refining facilities, producing and drilling facilities, and pipeline facilities. In a similar manner, NFPA 70, Article 514, provides specific guidance for the classification of gasoline dispensing and service stations. While some individual judgment is required, most people following these guidelines would arrive at very similar area classification drawingsthat is, drawings showing Division 1, Division 2, and unclassified area boundaries within a specific facility. Typical areas at oil and gas facilities are classified Class I (due to gas or vapor, as opposed to dust or fibers), Group D (because most hydrocarbons are included in Group D), and either Division 1 (for areas of high probability of exposure to flammable concentrations of gas), Division 2 (for areas of lower probability), or unclassified (for areas of extremely low probability). Area classification drawings should include information about the gas or vapor involved, to help facilitate the selection of the electrical equipment for installation in the hazardous location. The following information should be included on the drawing: specific type of hazardous vapor or gas auto ignition temperature (AIT) of the gas or vapor (per NFPA 497M) gas or vapors (temperature) Identification Numbers per (NEC Table 500-3(d)) any other information that affects equipment selection

Once area classification drawings have been prepared, the National Electrical Code (and API RP 14F for offshore drilling and producing facilities) provides very explicit rules for the specific types of electrical equipment which are permitted in

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the various classified areas, and the methods by which the equipment must be installed. Therefore, with proper area classification drawings, safe electrical installations can be made in areas which may be exposed to flammable concentrations of gases and vapors, combustible dust, or easily ignitable fibers or flyings. This section is intended to give inexperienced personnel a basic understanding of area classification. Consultation with project engineers, process engineers, and safety engineers may be needed to establish area classifications. If one is classifying an area for the actual design and installation of electrical equipment, the National Electrical Code and other applicable documents should be consulted for additional details. Each individual area (whether room, building, process plant area, indoors, or outdoors) of the facility must be considered separately in determining the area classification. By applying this process, the area classification drawing is created. Sections 330 and 340 of this guideline cover Class I locations. Sections 350 and 360 cover Class II locations. Section 370 covers the IEC Zone classification system. Class III will not be discussed because there are no known Company Class III locations.

330 Types of Equipment for Class I Hazardous (Classified) Locations


Electrical equipment installed in hazardous (classified) locations must be suitable for the area classification Class, Division, and Group. This section defines the various types of electrical equipment suitable for use in Class I hazardous (classified) locations. It is very important to have a clear understanding of the reasons behind the classification of areas and of the different installation methods employed to ensure cost effective installations that do not compromise safety. Electrical installations in hazardous locations are more costly and require special and additional precautions during maintenance operations. When practical, major electrical equipment should be installed either outside hazardous (classified) locations or in less hazardous locations (i.e., Division 2 versus Division 1). In some applications, it may be more practical or economical to utilize purging and pressurization techniques.

331 Maximum Operating Temperatures


The NEC requires that the exposed surfaces of all approved equipment used in hazardous locations operate below the ignition temperature of the specific flammable gas or vapor which may be present. Heat producing equipment must be marked to show the class, group, and operating temperature or temperature range, referenced to a 40C (104F) ambient. The temperature range, if provided, is indicated by identification numbers in accordance with NEC Table 500-3(d). This temperature identification number is often referred to as the T-rating. Unless equipment is T-rated, its maximum temperature must not exceed 80% of the ignition temperature of the gas or vapor involved (expressed in degrees Centigrade). Equipment identified with a T-rating (by a nationally recog-

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nized testing laboratory) can be applied up to the auto ignition temperature (AIT) of the gas or vapor involved equal to the T-rating. Identifying only the group to which the flammable substance belongs is not sufficient to establish maximum surface operating temperatures of equipment. Since there is no consistent relationship between the ignition temperature and the other explosive properties of a substance, equipment selection must be based on Class and Group as well as on operating temperature. See NEC Article 500-3 and NFPA 497M for additional information.

332 Equipment Enclosures


Explosionproof enclosures are capable of withstanding an internal explosion and preventing its propagation to the external atmosphere. Explosionproof enclosures suitable for use in Class I (Division 1 and 2) locations are designated NEMA (National Electrical Manufactures Association) Type 7. Explosionproof enclosures breathe when the ambient temperature changes and, therefore, may accumulate both moisture, and hazardous gases within. If an internal explosion occurs, the enclosure must withstand a very rapid buildup of pressure which is relieved by the escape of the expanding gases. These gases must be cooled before they reach the surrounding atmosphere. Three methods are widely used to achieve this cooling: Ungasketed, precision ground flanges or joints machined to specific widths and narrow tolerances Threaded joints in which at least five full threads are engaged Precision serrated joints (commonly found in explosionproof unions)

Adequate strength is a requirement for this type of enclosure. In most designs for Class I, Divisions 1 and 2, a safety factor of 4 is used (i.e., the enclosure must withstand a hydrostatic test four times the maximum pressure normally produced by an explosion within the enclosure). In addition, the surface temperature of the enclosure must not be higher than 80% of the ignition temperature (expressed in degrees C) of the gas or vapor involved, unless the equipment has been T-rated by a recognized testing laboratory. NEMA Type 8 enclosures are also suitable for Class I locations. These enclosures are arranged so that all arcing contacts on connections are immersed in oil. Arcing is confined under the oil so that it will not ignite an explosive mixture of the specified gases in internal spaces above the oil or in the atmosphere surrounding the enclosure. Since they prevent (versus contain) explosions, NEMA Type 8 enclosures are not explosionproof. The surface temperature of these enclosures must not be higher than 80% of the ignition temperature (in degrees C) of the gas or vapor involved, unless T-rated by a nationally recognized testing laboratory (NRTL). In order to comply with NEC Article 500-3(b), even if NEMA designations are used, explosionproof enclosures containing equipment and built as a complete

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assembly (e.g., motor starters) must be labeled with the appropriate Class and Group designations and either the operating temperature or the temperature range. Particular attention must be paid to the Group(s) listed. For a complete description of NEMA enclosures and their requirements, refer to NEMA Standards Publication 250. Refer also to API RP 14F and API RP 540 for guidelines on the application of enclosures in offshore and refinery locations, respectively.

333 Hermetically Sealed Devices


Hermetically sealed devices are designed to prevent flammable gases from coming in contact with sources of ignition, such as arcing contacts or high-temperature components. These devices are suitable for use in Division 2 and unclassified areas. The materials used to accomplish hermetic sealing must be resistant to mechanical abuse and durable enough to withstand normal aging, exposure to chemicals and hydrocarbons, and the effects of severe weather. The bond between the different materials employed must be permanent, mechanically strong, and capable of withstanding the surrounding environment. Hermetically sealed enclosures must be sealed through glass-to-metal or metal-to-metal fusion at all joints and terminals. Enclosures whose seals are formed by O-rings, epoxy, molded elastomer, or silicone compounds are not necessarily considered hermetically sealed; nor is the potting of components necessarily considered hermetic sealing. In Division 2 applications, significant savings can be realized by using hermetically sealed devices since non-explosionproof enclosures are then allowed. The use of hermetically sealed devices also enables the designer to use NEMA 4X and other enclosures which provide better environmental protection for the enclosed equipment (as well as the inherent environmental protection for the hermetically sealed contacts.) This feature is particularly desirable in corrosive atmospheres or outdoor installations.

334 Intrinsically Safe Systems


Intrinsically safe systems are incapable of releasing sufficient electrical or thermal energy under normal or abnormal equipment operating conditions to cause ignition of a specific ignitable atmospheric mixture in its most easily ignitable concentration. Abnormal equipment conditions include accidental damage to or failure of any part of the equipment, wiring, insulation, or other components, and exposure to overvoltage. Normal conditions include periods of adjustment and maintenance. The most common applications are in instrumentation and communication systems. Intrinsically safe systems are suitable for use in any hazardous (classified) location for which they are approved. Article 504 of the NEC governs the requirements for the installation of intrinsically safe systems. NEC Articles 500 through 517 do not require intrinsically safe systems. However, such systems may require that specific equipment items, such as controllers, be located in an unclassified area. Where equipment has been rated intrinsically safe by a recognized testing laboratory, it may be employed with various end devices to form an intrinsically safe system. No

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end device is of itself intrinsically safe, but is intrinsically safe only when employed in a properly designed intrinsically safe system. Proper design of an intrinsically safe system requires adherence to strict rules, detailed mathematical analysis, and in most cases, laboratory testing. Standards UL 913 and ISA RP 12.6, and NEC Article 504 should be followed closely when designing and installing intrinsically safe systems. See Section 1400, of the Instrumentation and Control Manual. The two most important advantages of intrinsically safe equipment are: 1. Safety. Intrinsically safe equipment does not require explosionproof enclosures. Thus, missing bolts and covers, enclosures open during maintenance and testing operations, and corroded conduit systems will not impair the safety of the systems. The low voltages and currents involved may reduce the hazard of electrical shock. Economy and Convenience. Wiring for intrinsically safe systems need only meet the requirements of Article 504 of NEC. Thus, expensive, bulky, explosion-proof enclosures are not required. Intrinsically safe apparatus and wiring may be installed using any of the wiring methods suitable for unclassified locations. Maintenance and calibration operations can be performed in classified areas without de-energizing the equipment or shutting down process equipment.

2.

Two disadvantages of intrinsically safe systems are: 1. High Contact Resistance. Low power signals are more easily affected by high contact resistance. This disadvantage can be minimized by using hermetically sealed contacts or devices with wiping contacts. Circuit Separation. Wiring for intrinsically safe systems must be installed separately from higher power circuits. This could increase the installed system cost, depending on the wiring methods used.

2.

Intrinsically safe equipment must always be maintained as an intrinsically safe system, with maintenance personnel specifically trained with that proper maintenance in view.

335 Nonincendive Equipment


Nonincendive equipment is not capable of igniting a flammable mixture under normal circumstances, but ignition is not necessarily prevented under abnormal circumstances. Such equipment is suitable for use only in Division 2 and unclassified locations. Nonincendive equipment is similar in design to other equipment suitable for Division 2 locations. However, in nonincendive equipment, sliding or makeand-break contacts need not be explosionproof, oil immersed, or hermetically sealed. Portions of a nonincendive system may operate at energy levels potentially capable of causing ignition. Therefore, wiring methods must conform to area classification requirements. Nonincendive equipment normally is limited to instrumentation and communication systems. When employing nonincendive systems, extreme care should be exercised.

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336 Purged Enclosures


Purging (frequently referred to as pressurizing) is a method of installing electrical equipment in a Class I area without using explosionproof enclosures. NFPA 496 provides information for the design of purged enclosures and purging methods to reduce the classification of the area within an enclosure: From Division 1 to unclassified (Type X purging) From Division 1 to Division 2 (Type Y purging) From Division 2 to unclassified (Type Z purging)

NFPA 496 discusses the different requirements for the purging of small enclosures, power equipment enclosures, and large volume enclosures (such as control rooms). On an offshore platform, the use of humid salt air for purging will cause corrosion damage to equipment; thus, use of inert gas or dehydrated clean air must be considered. Any source of air for purging must be from an unclassified location.

340 Electrical Equipment Requirements and Recommendations for Class I Hazardous (Classified) Locations
This section discusses the requirements for electrical equipment located in Class I areas and provides recommendations for various applications. Generally, environmental and corrosive considerations are outside the scope of this section. NEC Article 501 provides requirements for wiring and equipment in Class I locations. API RP 14F provides requirements and recommendations for wiring and equipment located on fixed offshore production platforms. Manufacturers literature, such as Crouse Hinds Company Code Digest and Appleton Electric Company Code Review also provide excellent descriptions of Class I requirements and photographs of typical installations. The word approved as used in this section is defined as acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction. Most authorities will require equipment to be tested and approved by a nationally recognized testing laboratory (NRTL), not just built to appropriate standards.

Transformers
In Division 1 areas, transformers containing flammable liquids must be installed in vaults. If they do not contain flammable liquids, they must either be installed in vaults or be approved for Division 1 locations. In Division 2 locations, dry-type transformers are normally more economical for 600 volts or less and for 150 kVA or smaller sizes. (Totally enclosed, non-ventilated transformers are recommended for harsh outside environments.) Liquid-filled transformers usually require external metering and protective devices which must be suitable for the area. Also, liquid-filled units may require costly curbing and drains in environmentally sensitive areas.

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See NEC Article 501-2 for Class I locations. Refer to NEC Article 450 for additional transformer requirements, particularly concerning vaults.

Arcing and High Temperature Devices


Switches, motor starters, single phase and DC motors, relays, fuses, and circuit breakers are typical arcing devices. High temperature devices are devices that can operate at a temperature exceeding 80% of the ignition temperature (expressed in degrees C) of the specific gas or vapor involved. Space heaters, grounding resistors, and lamps should be considered high temperature devices unless they are T-rated by an NRTL. In Class I, Division 1 areas, arcing and high temperature devices must be installed in enclosures which are either approved explosionproof or purged in accordance with NFPA 496. In Class I, Division 2 areas, arcing contacts must be installed in explosionproof enclosures, immersed in oil, hermetically sealed, or be nonincendive. High temperature devices in Class I, Division 2 locations must be installed in explosionproof enclosures. Fuses in Class I, Division 1 locations must be installed in explosionproof enclosures. In Class I, Division 2 locations, certain types of fuses can be installed in general purpose enclosures: silver-sand, nonindicating current limiting fuses hermetically sealed fuses fuses used for overcurrent protection (not switching) of circuits or feeders supplying fixed lamps

All other fuses installed in Class I, Division 2 locations must be installed in explosionproof enclosures. Hermetically sealed reed switches, suitable for Division 2 locations, are commonly available for level switches and other sensing devices. Typically they are singlepole, single-throw, and are limited to 100 VA. Also, hermetically sealed mercury switches are suitable for Division 2 locations and can be obtained as single-pole, double-throw. Solid state switches, without contacts, are suitable for general purpose enclosures for Division 2 locations, if the surface temperature of the mechanism does not exceed 80% of the AIT (in C) of the gas or vapor involved. Pressure switches in Division 1 and 2 areas should be of two barrier construction or must be installed with a special type of sealing fittings (not yet commercially available) that satisfy the requirements of NEC Article 501-5(f)(3) when sensing ignitable fluids. Utility switches, for example, light switches and start-stop stations, are limited to a maximum of 480 volts. Factory-sealed units are suitable for Division 1 and Division 2 areas without external sealing fittings. However, in offshore areas where certain cables are allowed in Division 1 areas, they must be sealed where cable (other than type MI) is used.

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Frequently, it is desirable (for environmental protection) to install hermetically sealed control stations (e.g., hand-off-automatic, and start-stop devices) in NEMA 4X or 3R enclosures. These installations are suitable for Division 2 areas. Refer to NEC Article 501-3 and API 14F (for offshore platforms) for additional details.

Wiring Methods
The following wiring methods are allowed in Class I, Division 1 locations: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Threaded rigid metal conduit Intermediate metal conduit Type MI (mineral-insulated metal-sheath) cable Explosionproof flexible connections Rigid nonmetallic conduit, installed below grade, and encased in concrete per the requirements of Article 501-4(a), Exception No. 1, of the 1996 NEC Type MC cable, listed for use in Class I, Division 1 locations with a gas/vaportight continuously corrugated aluminum sheath, an overall jacket of suitable polymeric, separate grounding conductors, and other provisions of Article 5014(a), Exception No. 2, of the 1996 NEC

IMC and Type MI cable are not recommended for offshore installations. See API RP 14F, Section 4.4 for additional application guidelines. In Class I, Division 2 locations, the NEC allows all of the wiring methods for Division 1 locations, except rigid nonmetallic conduit. Additional wiring methods allowed in Division 2 locations include the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Enclosed gasketed busways Enclosed gasketed wireways Type PLTC (power-limited tray cable) cable in accordance with NEC Article 725 Type MC, MI, TC, and other specific cables, with approved fittings Type ITC (instrumentation tray cable) cable in accordance with NEC Article 727

Flexible cord rated for extra hard service with an equipment grounding conductor, flexible metal and liquid tight conduit (with an external or internal bonding jumper) and certain armored cables are also allowed in Division 2 areas for special applications requiring flexibility. Lengths should be kept as short as possible and cannot exceed 6 feet unless an approved internal bonding system is provided. See NEC Articles 501-16(b), 250-91(b) and 250-79(c) and (f) for additional requirements relative to flexible connections.

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Type TC (Tray Cable) and Type MC (Metal Clad) cables are suitable for use in Class I, Division 2 locations. The extruded polymeric cable jacket (PVC, CPE, CSPE, etc.) is considered to be a gas/vapor tight continuous sheath, and the cable is permitted to pass from a Division 2 location to an unclassified location without a seal. The NEC does qualify this no seal requirement at the Division 2 and unclassified boundary by stating that the sheath must be unbroken. Cables installed in trays per the cable manufacturers recommendation should not suffer jacket damage due to installation. If the jacket is damaged or if an in-line splice is made in a Class I, Division 2 location, the splice should be made with a heat shrink tubing to maintain the integrity of the unbroken sheath. NEC Article 501-5 contains the requirements for sealing cables and conduits in Division 1 and 2 areas. See API 14F Section 4.8(a) for a description of the purposes for sealing. For sealing requirements on offshore installations see API 14F Section 4.8(b). It is recommended that underground conduits, in soil that may be hydrocarbon laden, be sealed where they enter and/or exit the ground. All threaded connections (including enclosures and conduits) should be lubricated with an electrically conductive and antiseize compound which will survive in the environment and is approved for flame path use.

Motors and Generators


The proper selection of motors and generators is imperative to ensure safety and minimize initial and subsequent maintenance costs. Motors and generators should be selected to provide optimum protection from the environment and satisfy the area classification. Four types of rotating electric machinery are suitable for Class I, Division 1 areas: (1) explosionproof approved for Class I, Division 1, (2) totally enclosed, supplied with positive-pressure ventilation, (3) totally enclosed, inert gas filled, and (4) liquid submerged. Auxiliary equipment, such as space heaters, must also be approved for the location in which it is installed. Refer to NEC Article 501-8 for complete requirements on motors, generators, and other rotating electric machinery used in Class I locations. If installation in Division 1 locations is unavoidable, explosionproof machines approved for Class I, Division 1 are preferred. For large motors and generators, it may be more economical to select totally enclosed units supplied with positive pressure ventilation as described in NEC Article 501-8(a). In Division 2 areas, non-explosionproof motors and generators having no arcing or high temperature devices are permitted. This generally applies to three-phase induction motors and brushless generators. Some enclosures typically specified are: open drip proof (ODP), weather protected I (WPI) and II (WPII), totally enclosed fan cooled (TEFC), totally enclosed pipe ventilated (TEPV), and totally enclosed water/air cooled (TEWAC). In Division 2 areas, motors, generators, and other rotating electrical machinery that employs sliding contacts, switching devices or resistance devices, must be approved

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for Class I, Division 1 locations, unless those devices are enclosed in Class I enclosures. These devices may be installed in machines with enclosures of TEPV design with the source of air and vent in nonhazardous locations.The exposed surface temperature of motors, generators, other rotating equipment, space heaters and similar ancillary devices must not exceed 80% of the ignition temperature (in degrees C) of the gas or vapor involved when operated at rated voltage. Maximum surface temperature shall be permanently marked on a visible nameplate mounted on the motor. Because all equipment must meet the area classification requirements (Class, Division, and Group), selection of a specific type of motor or generator is dependent on economical, environmental, and corrosion considerations. For motor auxiliary, arcing or high temperature devices, it may be more economical to use purged enclosures for these devices in accordance with NFPA 496. Motor surge arresters of the gapless non-arcing types such as sealed type, metal oxide varistor (MOV) and surge capacitors may be installed in general purpose enclosures for these devices in Division 2 locations. Surge arresters of types other than described above shall be installed in enclosures approved for Class 1, Division 1 locations, as described in NEC Article 501-17. See the Driver Manual for additional information on motors and generators.

Lighting Fixtures
In Division 1 areas, lighting fixtures must be explosionproof and marked to indicate the maximum wattage of allowed lamps. They must be protected against physical damage by suitable guard or by location. Pendant fixtures must be suspended by conduit stems and provided with set screws or other effective means to prevent loosening. Stems over 12 inches in length must be laterally braced within 12 inches of the fixture. In Division 2 areas, portable lamps must be explosionproof. Other fixtures must be either explosionproof or labeled as suitable for Division 2 and for the particular Group involved. They must be protected from physical damage by a suitable guard or by location. The requirements above for Division 1 fixtures concerning stems also apply. Remote mounted ballasts may be mounted at a lower level, facilitating maintenance and extending ballast life if the ballasts would otherwise be mounted in a high temperature area. Section 1230 of this manual contains a detailed procedure for choosing suitable lighting fixtures. Refer to NEC Article 501-9 for further details on Class I locations.

Receptacles and Attachment Plugs


Receptacles and attachment plugs must be approved for Class I locations. This equipment must provide for connection of a flexible cord, grounding conductor.

Ignition Systems
Low tension (voltage) systems must be utilized on all offshore locations and at onshore locations classified Class I, Division 1 or 2. Stationary internal combustion engines with breaker point distributor-type ignition systems should not be used in hazardous (classified) locations unless they are modified in accordance with the

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section on internal combustion engines in the Fire Protection Manual. Solid-state ignition systems should be provided as original equipment and as replacements when economically justified. This modification does not eliminate internal combustion engines as a possible ignition source but substantially reduces the possibility of an ignition occurring. In Class I locations, protective boots or covers should be provided for all high voltage (tension) connections. Standard equipment high voltage (tension) wiring should be replaced with high temperature silicon rubber ignition wire to reduce arcing to ground through insulation leaks which are common in lower quality wire. Resistance wire with a carbon impregnated linen core should not be used; the conductor is easily broken by bending the wire, making it susceptible to arcing. The use of shielded ignition wire is allowed but not required. All ignition systems must be designed and maintained to minimize a release of energy sufficient to cause ignition of an external combustible mixture or substance. All wiring should be kept as short as possible, clean, and clear of hot or rubbing objects.

Communication Equipment
Stationary radio equipment must not be located or used in any Class I area unless it has a label stating that it is suitable for the area (typically, utilizing intrinsically safe circuits). Many portable hand-held radios used throughout the Company are listed (usually by Factory Mutual) as intrinsically safe or nonincendive. If there are any questions concerning a particular model, consult the Telecommunications Division of Chevron Information Technology Company. Telephone equipment (including outside ringers) installed in Class I areas must be explosionproof or otherwise suitable for the area.

Flashlights
Ordinary commercial two- and three-cell flashlights present a minimal risk of igniting natural gas and most petroleum vapors. However, under ideal conditions, even these ordinary flashlights can ignite flammable gases and vapors. (See UL783, Electrical Flashlights and Lanterns for Hazardous Locations, Class I, Groups C and D, for additional information.) Therefore, it is recommended that all flashlights be approved by a recognized testing laboratory as suitable for Class I, Group D hazardous (classified) locations when they are to be used either (1) on an offshore producing or drilling facility or (2) in Class I hazardous (classified) areas (Division 1 or Division 2) at other facilities. All locations should be reviewed for Class I areas which are other than Group D (e.g., Group B for hydrogen), and if such areas exist, the flashlights used should be suitable for the appropriate classification (group).

Cameras
Most modern cameras (still, video, and movie) utilize batteries for light sensors and may utilize batteries for artificial illumination (flash or continuous) and automatic film advance. Unless cameras have been properly evaluated, it must be assumed that they are a source of ignition (particularly those with flashes or motor drives).

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Cameras should not be utilized in hazardous (classified) areas unless it has been verified that either (1) the camera is not capable of ignition or (2) that the area is (and remains) gas/vapor free. The former method generally requires testing by a recognized testing laboratory; the latter method generally requires the utilization of a portable combustible gas detector by a qualified operator. As a practical procedure, cameras without either a flash (strobe or flash bulb) or a motor drive may be utilized in open, well ventilated areas which are at least 10 feet from oil and gas processing equipment gas-operated pumps, and similar devices. These may be used after ascertaining from the person-in-charge that no unusual operations (such as venting) are in progress or anticipated. Cameras must not be used in enclosed areas such as buildings which contain producing or drilling equipment, or flammable chemical or gas handling equipment, without first taking the precautions outlined above.

Miscellaneous Equipment
Air conditioning units used in unclassified areas often have equipment exposed to external Class I, Division 2 areas. In such installations, all openings between the internal and external environments must be sealed. Specifically, vents should be sealed closed and sealant should be placed around the perimeter of the wall penetration. Storage batteries should not be installed in Class I, Division 1 areas. Storage batteries in Class I, Division 2 areas must have explosionproof or hermetically sealed disconnect switches that allow removal of the electrical load before removing battery leads or performing maintenance on battery-powered equipment.

350 Types of Equipment for Class II Hazardous (Classified) Locations


Electrical equipment installed in hazardous (classified) locations must be suitable for the area classification (Class, Division, and Group). This section defines the various types of electrical equipment suitable for use in Class II hazardous (classified) locations. Refer to Section 330 for additional comments.

351 Maximum Operating Temperatures


Refer to Section 331 for a general discussion of maximum operating temperatures. Class I and Class II areas are covered by the same basic maximum temperature requirements. Class II temperature limits are given in NEC Article 500-3(f).

352 Equipment Enclosures


Dust-ignitionproof enclosures are capable of excluding ignitible quantities of dusts or amounts that might affect performance or rating. When installed and protected in accordance with the NEC they will not permit arcs, sparks or heat within the enclosure to cause ignition of a specified dust on or in the vicinity of the enclosure. Dust-ignitionproof enclosures suitable for use in Class II (Division 1 and 2) locations are designated NEMA (National Manufacturers Association) Type 9.

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Explosionproof enclosures are not required and are not acceptable for Class II areas unless they are additionally approved for such areas. Dust tight enclosures are made with gaskets or other means to exclude dust. They have no openings or knockouts. Conduit entries into dust tight enclosures must be through tapped threads with a minimum of three threads engaged or by a gasketed, bonded conduit hub. The door or cover must be dust tight obtained with either a securely fastened gasket or closeness of fit of the mating flanges. The door or cover must be captive to the enclosure. Threaded-hub fittings must be dust tight through welding or gasketing. Dust tight enclosures are suitable for Class II, Division 2 locations. They cannot be used in Class II, Division 1 locations. NEMA 3, 3S, 4, 4X, 6, 6P, 12, 12P, and 13 enclosures can be made dust tight. The surface temperature of the enclosure must not be higher than 80% of the ignition temperature (in degrees C) of the dust involved, unless the equipment has been T-rated by a nationally recognized testing laboratory (NRTL). In order to comply with NEC Article 500-3(b), even if NEMA designations are used, dust-ignitionproof and dust tight enclosures containing equipment and built as a complete assembly (e.g., motor starters) must be labeled with the appropriate Class and Group designations and either the operating temperature or the temperature range. Particular attention must be paid to the Groups(s) listed. For a complete description of NEMA enclosures and their requirements, refer to NEMA Standards Publication 250.

353 Hermetically Sealed Devices


Hermetically sealed devices are designed to prevent combustible dusts from coming in contact with sources of ignition, such as arcing contacts or high-temperature components. These devices are suitable for use in Division 1, Division 2 and unclassified areas if they do not exceed 80% of the ignition temperature of the specific dust and they do not exceed the temperatures given in NEC table 500-3(f). The materials used to accomplish hermetic sealing must be resistant to mechanical abuse and durable enough to withstand normal aging, exposure to chemicals and dusts, and the effects of severe weather. In Class II applications, significant savings can be realized by using hermetically sealed devices since non-dust-ignitionproof enclosures are then allowed. The use of hermetically sealed devices also enables the designer to use NEMA 4X and other enclosures which provide better environmental protection for the enclosed equipment (as well as the inherent environmental protection for the hermetically sealed contacts). This feature is particularly desirable in corrosive atmospheres or outdoor installations.

354 Intrinsically Safe Systems


Intrinsically safe systems are described in Section 334. They are suitable for use in any hazardous (classified) location for which they are approved.

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355 Nonincendive Equipment


Nonincendive equipment is not capable of igniting a specific explosible mixture of dust or an accumulation of combustible dust that will propagate or cause a fire under normal circumstances, but ignition is not necessarily prevented under abnormal circumstances. Such equipment is suitable for use only in Division 2 and unclassified locations. Nonincendive equipment is similar in design to other equipment suitable for Division 2 locations. However, in nonincendive equipment, sliding or make-and-break contacts need not be dust-ignitionproof, dust tight, or hermetically sealed. Portions of a nonincendive system may operate at energy levels potentially capable of causing ignition. Therefore, wiring methods must conform to area classification requirements. Nonincendive equipment normally is limited to instrumentation and communication systems. When employing nonincendive systems, extreme care should be exercised.

356 Pressurized Enclosures


Pressurizing is a method of installing electrical equipment in a Class II area without using dust-ignitionproof or dust tight enclosures. NFPA 496 provides information for the design of pressurized enclosures and pressurizing methods to reduce the classification of the area within an enclosure to unclassified. NFPA 496 discusses the different requirements for the pressurizing of small enclosures, power equipment enclosures, and large volume enclosures (such as control rooms). Any source of air for pressurizing must be from an unclassified location.

360 Electrical Equipment Requirements and Recommendations for Class II Hazardous (Classified) Locations
This section discusses the requirements for electrical equipment located in Class II areas and provides recommendations for various applications. Generally, environmental and corrosive considerations are outside the scope of this section. NEC Article 502 provides requirements for wiring and equipment in Class II locations. The word approved as used in this section is defined as acceptable to the authority having jurisdiction. Most authorities will require equipment to be tested and approved by a nationally recognized testing laboratory (NRTL), not just built to appropriate standards.

Transformers
In Division 1 areas, transformers containing flammable liquids must be installed in vaults. If they do not contain flammable liquids, they must either be installed in vaults or be approved as a complete assembly for Class II locations. No transformer shall be installed in a location where metal dust may be present.

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In Division 2 locations, dry type transformers shall be installed in a vault or have their windings and terminal connections totally enclosed and not operate over 600 volts. Transformers containing flammable liquids must be installed in vaults. Transformers containing askarel and rated above 25 kVA shall be provided with pressurerelief vents, be able to absorb gasses generated by arcing, and have an air space not less than 6 inches between the case and combustible material. Also, liquid-filled units may require costly curbing and drains in environmentally sensitive areas. See NEC Article 502-2 for Class II locations. Refer to NEC Article 450 for additional transformer requirements, particularly concerning vaults.

Arcing and High Temperature Devices


Switches, motor starters, single phase and DC motors, relays, fuses, and circuit breakers are typical arcing devices. High temperature devices are devices that can operate at a temperature exceeding 80% of the ignition temperature (expressed in degrees C) of the specific dust involved. Space heaters, grounding resistors, and lamps should be considered high temperature devices unless they are T-rated by an NRTL. In Class II, Division 1 areas where metal dusts may be present, arcing and high temperature devices must be installed in enclosures specifically approved for Class II, Division locations. In Class II, Division 1 areas, arcing and high temperature devices must be installed in enclosures which are either approved dust-ignitionproof and approved for Class II locations as a complete assembly or pressurized in accordance with NFPA 496. In Class II, Division 2 areas, arcing contacts must be installed in dust tight or dustignitionproof enclosures. High temperature devices in Division 2 locations must be installed in dust-ignitionproof enclosures. Fuses in Class II, Division 1 areas must be installed in dust-ignitionproof enclosures and approved as a complete assembly for Class II locations. In Class II, Division 2 locations, they must be installed in dust tight or dust-ignitionproof enclosures. Frequently, it is desirable (for environmental protection) to install hermetically sealed control stations (e.g., hand-off-automatic and start-stop devices) in NEMA 4X or 3R enclosures. These installations are suitable for Division 2 areas if the control station does not exceed 80% of the ignition temperature (in degrees C) of the dust involved. Refer to NEC Article 502-6 for additional details.

Wiring Methods
The following wiring methods are allowed in Class II, Division 1 locations: 1. 2. 3. Threaded rigid metal conduit Intermediate metal conduit Type MI (mineral-insulated metal-sheath) cable

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4. 5.

Dust tight flexible connections Type MC cable, listed for use in Division 1 locations, with a gas/vapor-tight continuously corrugated aluminum sheath, an overall jacket of suitable polymeric, separate grounding conductors, and other provisions of Article 502-4(a), Exception No. 1, of the 1996 NEC

In Division 2 areas, the NEC allows the Division 1 wiring methods, plus the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. Dust tight wireways Type PLTC (power-limited tray cable) cable in accordance with NEC Article 725 Type MC and TC cable, with approved fittings Type ITC (instrumentation tray cable) cable in accordance with NEC Article 727

Flexible cord rated for extra-hard service with an equipment grounding conductor and liquid-tight flexible metal and non-metal conduit (with an external or internal bonding jumper) are also allowed in Class II areas for special applications requiring flexibility. Lengths should be kept as short as possible and cannot exceed 6 feet unless an approved internal bonding system is provided. See NEC Articles 50216(b), 250-91(b) and 250-79(c) and (f) for additional requirements relative to flexible connections. NEC Article 502-5 contains the requirements for sealing cables and conduits in Division 1 and 2 locations. Seal fittings shall not be required to be explosionproof, and electrical sealing putty is an acceptable method of sealing. All threaded connections (including enclosures and conduits) should be lubricated with an electrically conductive and enthuses compound which will survive in the environment.

Motors and Generators


The proper selection of motors and generators is imperative to ensure safety and minimize initial and subsequent maintenance costs. Motors and generators should be selected to provide optimum protection from the environment and satisfy the area classification. Two types of rotating electric machinery are suitable for Class II, Division 1 areas: (1) dust-ignitionproof approved for Class II, Division 1, and (2) totally enclosed, pipe ventilated. Auxiliary equipment, such as space heaters, must also be approved for the location in which it is installed. Refer to NEC Article 502-8 for complete requirements on motors, generators, and other rotating electric machinery used in Class II locations. If installation in Division 1 locations is unavoidable, dust-ignitionproof machines approved for Class II, Division 1 are preferred. For large motors and generators, it

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may be more economical to select totally enclosed pipe ventilated units as described in NEC Article 502-8(a). In Division 2 areas, motors and generators shall be totally enclosed fan cooled (TEFC), totally enclosed pipe ventilated (TEPV), totally enclosed non-ventilated (TENV), or dust-ignitionproof. If totally enclosed pipe ventilated units are installed in Class II locations, the ventilating piping must comply with NEC Article 502-9.

Lighting Fixtures
In Division 1 areas, lighting fixtures must be dust-ignitionproof and marked to indicate the maximum wattage of allowed lamps. In areas where metal dusts may be present, lighting fixtures must be approved for the specific location. They must be protected against physical damage by a suitable guard or by location. Pendant fixtures must be suspended by conduit stems or chains with approved fittings and provided with set screws or other effective means to prevent loosening. Rigid stems over 12 inches in length must be laterally braced within 12 inches of the fixture. In Division 2 areas, portable lamps must be dust-ignitionproof. Other fixtures must be either dust-ignitionproof or labeled as suitable for Division 2 and for the particular Group involved. They must be protected from physical damage by a suitable guard or by location. The requirements above for Division 1 fixtures concerning stems also apply. Remote mounted ballasts may be mounted at a lower level, facilitating maintenance and extending ballast life if the ballasts would otherwise be mounted in a high temperature area. Section 1230 of this manual contains a detailed procedure for choosing suitable lighting fixtures. Refer to NEC Article 502-11 for further details on lighting fixtures in Class II locations.

Receptacles and Attachment Plugs


Receptacles and attachment plugs must be approved for Class II locations. This equipment must provide for connection of a flexible cord, grounding conductor.

Ignition Systems
Stationary internal combustion engines with breaker point distributor-type ignition systems should not be used in hazardous (classified) locations unless they are modified in accordance with the section on internal combustion engines in the Fire Protection Manual. Solid-state ignition systems should be provided as original equipment and as replacements when economically justified. This modification does not eliminate internal combustion engines as a possible ignition source, but substantially reduces the possibility of an ignition occurring. In Class II locations, protective boots or covers should be provided for all high voltage (tension) connections. Standard equipment high voltage (tension) wiring should be replaced with high temperature silicon rubber ignition wire to reduce arcing to ground through insulation leaks which are common in lower quality wire.

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Resistance wire with a carbon impregnated linen core should not be used; the conductor is easily broken by bending the wire, making it susceptible to arcing. The use of shielded ignition wire is allowed but not required. All ignition systems must be designed and maintained to minimize a release of energy sufficient to cause ignition of an external combustible mixture or substance. All wiring should be kept as short as possible, clean, and clear of hot or rubbing objects.

Communication Equipment
Stationary radio equipment must not be located or used in any Class II area unless it has a label stating that it is suitable for the area (typically, utilizing intrinsically safe circuits). Many portable hand-held radios used throughout the Company are listed (usually by Factory Mutual) as intrinsically safe or nonincendive. If there are any questions concerning a particular model, consult the Telecommunications Division of Chevron Information Technology Company. Telephone equipment (including outside ringers) installed in Class II areas must be dust-ignitionproof or otherwise suitable for the area.

Cameras
Most modern cameras (still, video, and movie) utilize batteries for light sensors and may utilize batteries for artificial illumination (flash or continuous) and automatic film advance. Unless cameras have been properly evaluated, it must be assumed that they are a source of ignition (particularly those with flashes or motor drives). Cameras should not be utilized in hazardous (classified) areas unless it has been verified that either (1) the camera is not capable of ignition or (2) that the area does not have a substantial amount of airborne dust. The former method generally requires testing by a recognized testing laboratory; the latter method generally requires visible inspection by a qualified operator. As a practical procedure, cameras without either a flash (strobe or flash bulb) or a motor drive may be utilized in open, well ventilated areas which are at least 10 feet from dust processing equipment. These may be used after ascertaining from the person-incharge that no unusual operations are in progress or anticipated. Cameras must not be used in enclosed areas such as buildings which contain dust handling equipment, without first taking the precautions outlined above.

Miscellaneous Equipment
Air conditioning units used in unclassified areas often have equipment exposed to external Class II, Division 2 areas. In such installations, all openings between the internal and external environments must be sealed. Specifically, vents should be sealed closed and sealant should be placed around the perimeter of the wall penetration. Storage batteries should not be installed in Class II locations unless provided with suitable enclosures.

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370 Area Classification Based on the IEC Zone System for Flammable Gases or Vapors
Article 505 of the 1996 NEC has introduced the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) classification system in the United States. This system has been applied outside of the US for decades. It is not a replacement for the Division classification system, but may be used as an alternative under the supervision of a qualified Registered Professional Engineer. The practical application of the Zone system cannot be used until Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratories (NRTL) have standards to approve equipment for use in Zone 0, 1 and 2 locations. These standards are currently under development by a number of ISA committees. Also, the American Petroleum Industry (API) is in the process of developing a recommended practice, similar to RP500, for the Zone classification system. Figure 300-2 describes the Zone classification system. Zones 0 and 1 combined, are approximately equivalent to Division 1. Zone 2 is approximately equivalent to Division 2. Equipment listed for Division 1 locations can be installed in Zone 1 locations and equipment listed for Division 2 in Zone 2 locations, but not vice versa. That is, Zone 1 listed equipment cannot be installed in Division 1 locations (which also includes Zone 0); nor can Zone 2 listed equipment be installed in Division 2 locations unless the equipment is NRTL-listed for the specific application. Figure 300-3 gives a cross reference between the NEC and IEC area classification systems. An IEC concept not yet available for application with an NEC equivalent is the IEC increased safety (EX e) category. Equipment such as lighting, motors, and electrical heat tracing utilizing the EX e protection technique can be applied in Zone 1 locations and will offer a significant cost advantage over explosionproof apparatus, after suitable NRTL test standards are complete. Increased safety equipment essentially limits surface temperatures and provides protection against sparking within apparatus, and requires specifically approved and secure terminations. Generally, the NEC permits all wiring methods allowed in Division 1 to be used in Zone 1 locations, and permits all wiring methods allowed in Division 2 to be used in Zone 2 locations. Only intrinsically safe systems are allowed in a Zone 0 locations. Full applicability of the Zone system awaits the publication of suitable test standards, but these test standards should be fully available by the time that the 1999 NEC is issued.

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Fig. 300-2

Zone Classification System Zone Description A location: 1. in which ignitible concentrations of flammable gases or vapors are present continuously; or 2. in which ignitible concentrations of flammable gases or vapors are present for long periods of time.

Class I, Zone 0

Class I, Zone 1

A location: 1. in which ignitible concentrations of flammable gases or vapors are likely to existunder normal operating conditions; or 2. in which ignitible concentrations of flammable gases or vapors may exist frequently because of repair or maintenance operations or because of leakage; or 3. equipment is operated or processes are carried on, of such a nature that equipment breakdown or faulty operations could result in the release of ignitible concentrations of flammable gases or vapors and also cause simultaneous failure of electrical equipment in a mode to cause the electrical equipment to become a source of ignition; or 4. that is adjacent to a Class I, Zone 0 location from which ignitible concentrations of vapors could be communicated, unless communication is prevented by adequate positive-pressure ventilation from a source of clean air and effective safeguards against ventilation failure are provided.

Class I, Zone 2

A location in which: 1. ignitible concentrations of flammable gases or vapors are not likely to occur in normal operation and if they do occur will exist only for a short period; or 2. in which volatile flammable liquids, flammable gases, or flammable vapors are handled, processed, or used, but in which the liquids, gases, or vapors normally are confined within closed containers or closed systems from which they can escape only as a result of accidental rupture or breakdown of the containers or system, or as the result of the abnormal operation of the equipment with which the liquids or gases are handled, processed, or used; or 3. in which ignitible concentrations of flammable gases or vapors normally are prevented by positive mechanical ventilation, but which may become hazardous as the result of failure or abnormal operation of the ventilation equipment; or 4. that is adjacent to a Class I, Zone 1 location, from which ignitible concentrations of flammable gases or vapors could be communicated, unless communication is prevented by adequate positive-pressure ventilation from a source of clean air, and effective safeguards against ventilation failure are provided.

380 References
The following references are readily available. Those marked with an asterisk (*) are included in this manual or are available in other manuals.

381 Model Specifications (MS)


There are no model specifications in this guideline.

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Fig. 300-3

Cross Reference Between NEC and IEC for Classified Locations of Gases and Vapors Classification Topic NEC Class I Group A Group B Group C Group D Division 1 Division 2 Intrinsically Safe Division 1 and Division 2 IEC Group II IIC IIB plus Hydrogen IIB IIA Zone 0 & Zone 1 Zone 2 Intrinsically Safe Ex Type ia, Zone 0, 1, 2 Ex Type ib, Zone 2 Flameproof Ex Type d Zone 1,2 Pressurization Ex Type p, Zone 1,2 Ex Type h, Zone 1 Ex Type n, Zone 2

Locations

Divisions (Zones) Type of Protection

Explosionproof NEMA Type 7 Division 1,2 Purged Division 1, 2 Hermetically sealed Division 2 Nonincendive Division 2 Identification Number (NEC) T1 450C T2 300C T3 200C T4 135C T5 100C T6 85C

T1 450C T2 300C T3 200C T4 135C T5 100C T6 85C

382 Standard Drawings


GF-P99987 Typical Area Classification for Selection of Electrical EquipmentProcess Plant, Tank Field and T.T.L.R.

383 Data Sheets (DS), Data Guides (DG), and Engineering Forms (EF)
ELC-EF-652 Conduit Stub-up Arrangement

384 Other References


Various organizations have developed numerous codes, guides and standards that are widely accepted by industry and governmental bodies. Codes, guides and standards useful in classification of locations for electrical installations and selecting equipment for these locations are listed below as references only. These are not

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considered to be a part of this guideline except as they are specifically referenced within the text.

American Petroleum Institute (API)


RP 2G Recommended Practice for Production Facilities on Offshore Structures RP 14C Recommended Practice for Analysis, Design, Installation, and Testing of Basic Surface Safety Systems for Offshore Production Platforms *RP 14F Design and Installation of Electrical Systems for Offshore Production Platforms *RP 500 Recommended Practice for Classification of Locations for Electrical Installations at Petroleum Facilities RP 540 Recommended Practice for Electrical Installations in Petroleum Processing Plants

International Standards
The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Publication 79-7 and Complete Series The European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC) Publication CEN 110.83

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)


*ANSI/NFPA 30 Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code ANSI/NFPA 30A Automotive and Marine Service Station Code ANSI/NFPA 58 Standard for the Storage and Handling of Liquified Petroleum Gases ANSI/NFPA 69 Explosion Prevention Systems ANSI/NFPA 70 National Electrical Code ANSI/NFPA 321 Basic Classification of Flammable and Combustible Liquids ANSI/NFPA 325M Fire Hazard Properties of Flammable Liquids, Gases & Volatile Solids ANSI/NFPA 491M Hazardous Chemical Reactions *ANSI/NFPA 496 Standard for Purged and Pressurized Enclosures for Electrical Equipment *ANSI/NFPA 497A Classification of Class I Hazardous (Classified) Locations for Electrical Installations in Chemical Process Areas *ANSI/NFPA 497M Manual for Classification of Gases, Vapors, and Dusts for Electrical Equipment in Hazardous (Classified) Locations NFPA Fire Protection Handbook

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NFPA Electrical Installations in Hazardous Locations, Peter J. Schram and Mark W. Easley

Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. (UL)


UL 58 Bulletin of Research No. 58, An Investigation of Fifteen Flammable Gases or Vapors With Respect to Explosionproof Electrical Equipment UL 58A Bulletin of Research No. 58A, An Investigation of Additional Flammable Gases or Vapors With Respect to Explosionproof Electrical Equipment UL 58B Bulletin of Research No. 58B, An Investigation of Additional Flammable Gases or Vapors with Respect to Explosionproof Electrical Equipment ANSI/UL 595 Marine-type Electric Lighting Fixtures ANSI/UL 674 Electric Motors and Generators for Use in Hazardous Locations, Class I, Groups C and D, Class II, Groups E, F and G ANSI/UL 698 Industrial Control Equipment for Use in Hazardous (Classified) Locations ANSI/UL 844 Electrical Lighting Fixtures for Use in Hazardous (Classified) Locations ANSI/UL 913 Intrinsically Safe Apparatus and Associated Apparatus for Use in Class I, II, and III, Division 1, Hazardous Locations UL 1604 Electrical Equipment for Use in Hazardous Locations, Classes I and II, Division 2, and Class III, Divisions 1 and 2

Factory Mutual Research Corporation (FM)


Approval Standard Class No. 3611 Electrical Equipment for Use in Class I, Division 2, Class II, Division 2, and Class III, Divisions 1 and 2 Hazardous Locations Handbook of Industrial Loss Prevention

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)


ANSI/IEEE 45 IEEE Recommended Practice for Electric Installations on Shipboard ANSI/IEEE 303 IEEE Recommended Practice for Auxiliary Devices for Motors in Class I, Groups A, B, C and D, Division 2 Locations

National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA)


NEMA 250 Enclosures for Electrical Equipment (1000 volts maximum)

Instrument Society of America (ISA)


ISA RP 12.1 Electrical Instruments in Hazardous Atmospheres ANSI/ISA RP 12.6 Installation of Intrinsically Safe Systems for Class I Hazardous (Classified) Locations

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ISA S 12.10 Area Classification in Hazardous (Classified) Dust Locations ISA S 12.12 Electrical Equipment for Use in Class I, Division 2 Hazardous (Classified) Locations ISA S 12.13, Part I, Performance Requirements, Combustible Gas Detectors ANSI/ISA RP 12.13, Part II, Installation, Operation, and Maintenance of Combustible Gas Detection Instruments

Chevron Corporation Practices and Standards


Chevron U.S.A. Inc., Eastern RegionExploration, Land & Production, Electrical Construction Guidelines for Offshore, Marshland, & Inland Locations Fire Protection Manual

Government Codes, Rules, and Regulations


Code of Federal Regulations, Title 29, Labor, Chapter XVII, OSHA, Part 1910, OSHA Standard Subpart H, Hazardous Materials, Paragraph 1910.106 Code of Federal Regulations, Title 29, Labor, Chapter XVII, OSHA, Part 1910, OSHA Standards, Subpart S, Electrical Code of Federal Regulation, Title 30, Part 250, Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations in the Outer Continental Shelf (Minerals Management Service) Code of Federation Regulations, Title 46, Shipping, Chapter I, Coast Guard, Department of Transportation, Subchapter J, Subpart 111.105 Hazardous Locations United States Department of Interior, Bureau of Mines, Flammable Characteristics of Combustible Gases and Vapors, Bulletin 627 American Bureau of Shipping, Rules for Building and Classing Mobile Offshore Drilling Units

Miscellaneous References
Appleton NEC Code Review (Appleton Electric Company) Code Digest (Crouse Hinds Company)

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400 Motor Control Centers


Abstract
This section assists the engineer with selecting 600 volt, 2400 volt, and 5 kV motor control centers (MCCs). It also discusses the relationship of motors and starters, control methods, ratings, enclosures, selection and customizing. Contents 410 411 412 420 421 422 423 424 430 431 432 433 440 441 442 443 444 445 450 451 452 Introduction Motor StartersBasics Motor Control CentersAn Overview Motor Starters (Controllers) Combination Starter (Low Voltage) Manual Starter Motor Starter (Medium Voltage) Adjustable Speed Controllers Control Circuit Contactors Control Wiring Methods Control Power Sources Starting Methods for Motors Full-Voltage Starting Reduced-Voltage Starting Reduced-Inrush Starting Adjustable Speed Drives Capacitor Starting Motor Protection Low Voltage Motor Protection Medium Voltage Motor Protection 400-15 400-10 400-6 400-4 Page 400-3

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453 454 460 461 462 463 464 470 480 481 482 490 491 492 493 494

Overvoltages Surge Arrestors NEMA Ratings Starter Ratings Low Voltage MCC NEMA Classes and Types Bus Bracing Medium Voltage MCC Enclosure Types Selecting Equipment Types and Characteristics Design Specifics Checklist References Model Specifications (MS) Standard Drawings Data Sheets (DS), Data Guides (DG), and Engineering Forms (EF) Other References 400-22 400-20 400-21 400-18

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410 Introduction
This section is a guide for the selection of motor control centers (MCCs). Common types of controllers are discussed.

411 Motor StartersBasics


A motor starter (controller) normally contains the following equipment: A means of disconnecting the controller from the power supply and protecting against short-circuit damage (either circuit breakers, switches, fuses or a combination of these) A means of connecting the power supply to the motor (a contactor) A means of protecting the wiring system and motor from overload or abnormal conditions (overloads)

412 Motor Control CentersAn Overview


A motor control center (MCC) groups multiple motor controllers into one enclosure and combines motor control equipment with electrical power feeders. The control equipment includes starters, contactors, circuit breakers, fuses, switches, relays, metering and auxiliary devices. See Figures 400-1 and 400-2. Low voltage MCCs are available for systems up to 600 volts and are primarily used to control 460-volt motors. Medium voltage MCCs are available for systems up to 7200 volts. Two types of medium voltage MCCs are available. One type is rated for 4800 volts and is used to control 2300-volt and 4000-volt motors. The other type is rated for 7200 volts; however, it is more common to use electrically operated circuit breakers to control motors above 4800 volts. Electrically operated circuit breakers may also be used to control 460-volt motors 200 hp and larger. See Section 500, Switchgear, for information about switchgear used as motor starters. To specify motor controllers, the following Company documents are available: Data Sheet ELC-DS-366 and Data Sheet Guide for 480-volt MCCs Explosionproof 480-volt motor control (switch) racks, Data Sheet ELC-DS-597 and Data Sheet Guide MCCs for 2300 volt and 4000 volt motors: use Specification ELC-MS-3977, Data Sheet ELC-DS-3977 and Data Sheet Guide Adjustable frequency drives: use Specification ELC-MS-4371, Data Sheet ELC-DS-4371 and Data Sheet Guide

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Fig. 400-1

Low Voltage Motor Control Center Three Vertical Sections

420 Motor Starters (Controllers)


A motor starter (controller) is an electric device that provides the basic functions of starting and stopping a motor. It can be used for speed reduction, braking, reversing, speed variation, and protection. Four types of motor starters are discussed below.

421 Combination Starter (Low Voltage)


Combination starters are the most common starters used in low voltage MCCs. A combination starter combines a contactor, short circuit protection, and a disconnect in one enclosure. It has several advantages over separately mounted starters and disconnects. It requires less space, less time to install and connect, and provides greater safety through mechanical interlocks. The standard low voltage combination motor starter includes the following devices:

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Fig. 400-2

Medium Voltage Motor Control Center

Magnetic-only circuit breaker (Motor Circuit Protector) having only an instantaneous (no-delay) characteristic Contactor (an electrically operated relay) Overload relay (see Section 600) Control-power transformer which supplies control power for starter control circuit (usually 120-volt AC)

422 Manual Starter


Manual starters normally are not used, but can be used with motors up to approximately 10 hp; however, they are most commonly used with fractional-horsepower equipment. A manual starter has a contact mechanism (hand operated) and overload protection. Basically, it is an on-off switch with an inherent (direct-acting) overloadprotection device. It is applied directly across full-line voltage. Standard manual starters cannot provide under-voltage protection. That is, if power fails the contacts

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remain closed; when power returns, the motor will immediately restart. This can be an advantage when the equipment is required to restart after power outage. For some applications, automatic restarting can be hazardous to personnel and/or to equipment.

423 Motor Starter (Medium Voltage)


Medium voltage motor starters employ (a) a no-load break switch and current limiting fuses instead of a circuit breaker for isolation and short circuit protection; (b) a stationary or draw-out type air or vacuum contactor; and (c) overload devices. Motor protection is discussed in Section 452. Medium voltage starters are available in one, two, or three-high enclosures (see Figure 400-2). Stacking two-high is recommended to provide lower cost MCCs while maintaining ease of maintenance. Stacking three-high is not recommended because it makes maintenance difficult.

424 Adjustable Speed Controllers


Adjustable frequency drives are used to provide speed control for AC motors and may be used for soft starts to minimize voltage drop. In adjustable speed controllers, solid state components produce a variable frequency AC output to provide speed variations. This method of control is used with equipment which has large turndowns between startup and final operating conditions, with solids handling systems, or with fluid flow control applications. These applications should be referred to an experienced electrical engineer or to the Materials and Equipment Engineering Unit of CRTC for assistance. Specification ELC-MS-4371 and Data Sheet ELC-DS-4371 can be used to specify these controllers. Section 1500 of the Electrical Manual provides guidelines for applying adjustable speed drives. Adjustable speed can also be provided by varying the voltage to DC motors. DC motors with adjustable speed controllers are used for high starting torque applications. No Specification or Data Sheets are provided. This application should also be referred to an experienced electrical engineer or the Materials and Equipment Engineering Unit of CRTC for assistance.

430 Control Circuit


431 Contactors
The magnetic contactor is the primary device in all motor starters. It is the component in a controller that actually closes and opens the circuit between the energy source and the motor. A contactor combined with a thermal overload unit is called a magnetic starter. The contactor is controlled by a relatively small flow of current through the coil of an electromagnet. Electrical power contacts large enough to handle motor current are mounted on the armature. When proper voltage is applied to the coil, the power

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contacts close. The contacts, wired in series with the power circuit, provide power to the motor. When voltage is removed from the coil, the power contacts open. A contactor must be capable of closing on, and carrying high inrush currents without undergoing undue degradation from either the currents or the applied voltage. NEMA standards establish maximum operating conditions of six-times full load motor current (FLA) for AC motors, four times for DC motor reduced voltage starters, and 10 times for DC across-the-line full voltage starters. NEMA standard ICS 2 lists eleven sizes (00, 0, and 1 through 9) of low voltage (600 volt maximum) contactors for use in across-the-line full voltage controllers (see Figure 400-3). These NEMA sizes correspond to motor horsepower. The Company does not recommend using sizes smaller than NEMA size 1. A size 1 will control small motors for a small increase in equipment cost and reduce the amount of spare parts required. Contactors larger than NEMA size 5 are not recommended. Instead vacuum contactors or air breakers should be used.
Fig. 400-3 NEMA ICS Standard Continuous Ratings for Low Voltage Starters NEMA. Used with permission. 3-PHASE HORSEPOWER AT VOLTAGE LISTED BELOW Size of Controller 00 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Continuouscurrent Rating, A 9 18 27 45 90 135 270 540 810 1,215 2,250 110 Volts 0.75 2 3 208/230 Volts 1.5 3 7.5 15 30 50 100 200 300 450 800 460/575 Volts 2 5 10 25 50 100 200 400 600 900 1,600 Service-limit Current Rating, A 11 21 32 52 104 156 311 621 932 1,400 2,590

Auxiliary Contacts
Starters usually come equipped with auxiliary contacts which are available normally open or normally closed and mechanically interlocked with the main power contacts of the starter. Auxiliary a contacts close when the power contacts close; b contacts open when the power contacts close. These auxiliary contacts are used for control, display, alarms, and interlocking purposes. They should be specified when the starter is ordered.

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Thermal Overload
The portion of the wiring that includes the coil of the starter (or contactor) and overload contacts, is called the control circuit. It opens when excessive (overload) current is sensed by the thermal units in the power circuit. Operation of the thermal units causes the overload contacts in the control circuit to open, removing voltage from the coil. This in turn causes the power contacts to open, interrupting current to the motor.

Control Circuit Devices


Control-circuit devices (e.g., pushbuttons, level switches, limit switches, relay contacts, and PLC contacts) can be wired into the control circuit.

432 Control Wiring Methods


Several control methods are shown on Engineering Form ELC-EF-592. The basic methods of motor control are discussed below.

Three-Wire Control (Start-Stop Station)


Start-Stop pushbutton stations require the use of three wires between the control station and the starter. The Start button is connected parallel with the seal-in contact. In the event of a power failure, the starter will drop out and remain de-energized until the Start button is depressed. See Figure 400-4.
Fig. 400-4 Three-Wire Control With Control-Power Transformer (CPT) (From Switchgear and Control Handbook by R. Smeaton, 1987. Used by permission from McGraw Hill, Inc.)

Two-Wire Control
Two-wire control is generally used for pilot devices such as thermostats, pressure switches, level switches or selector switches. As the term implies, these devices require the use of two wires between the control unit and the starter. The device is connected in series with the contactor coil of the starter. This arrangement is generally referred to as maintained contact (i.e., the equipment will restart following a power outage.)

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The opening or closing of two wire pilot devices directly de-energizes or energizes the starter. Run-Off-Auto or Hand-Off-Auto switches are modified versions of the two-wire control. Two-wire control is not recommended for applications where automatic restarting (after a power outage) of equipment can be hazardous to personnel and/or detrimental to equipment. Examples of applications where automatic restart could be considered undesirable are drill presses and conveyors. This type of control is used for critical pumps, refrigeration compressors or cooling fans, which can be safely restarted to maintain system integrity.

433 Control Power Sources


Control-Power Transformer (CPT)
Integral CPTs (CPT in each starter enclosure) are frequently used to provide low voltage control power where the system voltage is higher than the desired control circuit voltage (usually 120 volts). This method is most commonly used because it eliminates foreign voltage at the motor or motor starter when the starter breaker is opened for maintenance. Also, only the affected motor shuts down when there is a CPT failure since each motor has its own CPT. The disadvantage of this method is that space heaters powered from the CPT will not be energized when the starter breaker is opened. The CPT should be fused to protect the control circuit and the starter against damage from short circuits in the control devices. See Figure 400-4.

Common Control
When the control and power circuits are powered from a single common source, it is called common control. The control voltage is the same as the power voltage. This method may be used up to 480 volts, but it is not recommended above 120 volts. See Figure 400-5.
Fig. 400-5 Common Control (Not Recommended) (From Switchgear and Control Handbook by R. Smeaton, 1987. Used by permission from McGraw Hill, Inc.)

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Separate Control
A method of avoiding high voltages in the control circuit is to power the control circuit from a remote low voltage source. This method, though less expensive than the integral control power transformer scheme, is not recommended for safety reasons. The source of power usually is not disconnected when the starter breaker is opened unless a circuit breaker auxiliary contact (normally open) is used. See Figure 400-6.
Fig. 400-6 Separate Control (From Switchgear and Control Handbook by R. Smeaton, 1987. Used by permission from McGraw Hill, Inc.)

440 Starting Methods for Motors


A comparison of starting currents and torques produced by various types of reduced voltage starters is shown in Figures 400-7 and 400-8.

441 Full-Voltage Starting


Most AC motors are started by connecting them directly across the supply lines. This is referred to as full voltage or across the line starting. However, both a power system capable of supplying full voltage and inrush current as well as a starter capable of carrying the inrush current are required to prevent unacceptable voltage dips in the system.

442 Reduced-Voltage Starting


Occasionally, the size or characteristics of a motor or the power system are such that the initial inrush of starting current from full across-the-line voltage is so large that it would cause an unacceptable voltage drop in the supply voltage. This can affect other equipment supplied by the same utilization system. See Section 200, System Studies and Protection, for a discussion of voltage drop during motor starting and how it affects motor torque. Reduced voltage starting or soft-starting is used to start motors without causing unacceptable voltage drop. See Figures 400-7 and 400-8 for the effect on motor torque. In a closed-circuit transition, power to the motor is not interrupted during the starting sequence. In an open-circuit transition, it is. Closed-circuit transition mini-

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Types of Motor Starting (Courtesy Electric Machinery, Synchronizer) Starting Characteristics In Percent Of Rated Starting Values Motor Terminal Voltage Motor Current 100 Line Current 100 Torque Per kVA 100

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Torque 100

FULL VOLTAGE STARTING

Full voltage starting gives the highest starting torque efficiency - that is, the highest torque per starting kVA. Full voltage starting should always be used unless (1) power system disturbance makes reduced current inrush necessary, (2) torque increments are required in starting. Reduced inrush, closed transition starting by connecting the sectionalized, parallel stator windings to the line in two or more steps. This type of starting requires no auxiliary current reducing device and uses simple switching. If the motor can be designed for part-winding starting, resultant starting torque and reduced inrush possibilities may meet the requirement of the load and system at least possible expense. Reduced inrush, closed transition, starting by inserting impedance (reactor) or resistance (resistors) in the circuit during motor starting. Torque per kVA is lower than with auto-transformer starting. For increment starting, more than two resistance steps may be used. Reduced inrush by using an auto-transformer to reduce voltage to the motor. Addition of switches in the autotransformer interconnection provides closed transition in transfer to full voltage. Ratio of starting torque to starting kVA is highest with this type of starting. Reduced inrush by switching the windings on a motor designed for wye-delta connection. Provides closed transition by use of a small resistor inserted during transfer. When wye connected, winding voltage is 58% rated.

100

PART-WINDING STARTING

100 100

70 50(1)

HIGH SPEED 70 LOW SPEED 55

50(1) 50

72 90

REACTOR OR RESISTOR STARTING

80 65 50 80 65 50 100

80 65 50 80 65 50 33

80 65 50 64 42 25 33

64 42 25 64 42 25 33

80 65 50 100 100 100 100

AUTO-TRANSFORMER STARTING (Closed transition)

400 Motor Control Centers

WYE-DELTA STARTING (Closed transition)

(1) These values are for 2-step part-winding starting and are approximate. Actual values will vary with the motor design and application.

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Fig. 400-8

Starting Methods (1 of 2) (Courtesy Electric Machinery, Synchronizer)

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Fig. 400-8

Starting Methods (2 of 2) (Courtesy Electric Machinery, Synchronizer)

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mizes inrush voltage disturbances and is recommended for all applications of reduced-voltage starting.

Methods of Reduced-Voltage Starting Auto-Transformer


The auto-transformer starter is usually provided with two or more taps. Motor current is reduced in direct proportion to the voltage applied at the motor terminals. The line current is reduced in proportion to the square of the motor-terminal voltage because of the auto-transformer action. Thus a high value of torque is produced per unit of starting current. With an auto-transformer, adjustments of torque and inrush current can easily be made in the field by selecting a different voltage tap (e.g., 50%, 65%, or 80%). Auto-transformer starters are the most widely used reduced-voltage starters because of their high efficiency and flexibility. All power taken from the line, except transformer losses, is transmitted to the motor. A disadvantage is that they are generally the most expensive reduced-voltage starting method.

Primary Resistor
The primary resistor method of reduced-voltage motor starting provides series resistors in each phase of the motor primary circuit. Resistance value is reduced in one or more steps until full voltage is applied to the terminals. Inrush current is limited by the resistors. Starting torque is a function of the square of the applied voltage; therefore, if the initial voltage is reduced to 50%, the starting torque of the motor will be 25% of its full-voltage starting torque. A compromise must be made between the required starting torque and the inrush current.

Primary Reactor
The primary reactor method of reduced-voltage motor starting is similar to resistor starting, but separate reactors are necessary for each step since a portion of a reactor cannot be short-circuited as with a resistor. Starting characteristics can be adjusted by tap selection.

443 Reduced-Inrush Starting


There are two principal methods of minimizing the initial inrush of starting current to a motor without reducing voltage. These methods require special motor configurations as well as special starters. Part-Winding

The part-winding method is attractive due to its simplicity, and it is generally the least expensive of the techniques for reducing starting currents. It uses only part of the motor winding on starting, and therefore is not suitable for motors which drive equipment demanding high torques during acceleration. Wye-Delta

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In general, wye-delta starters cost less than auto-transformers or primary-resistor starters. However, they are more expensive for some ratings. Starting torque is only one-third of that at rated voltage. The delta wound motor is started with the windings connected in a wye and then switched to run with the windings connected in a delta.

444 Adjustable Speed Drives


Adjustable frequency drives produce a soft start, as well as speed control by starting the motor at low speed and increasing until full running speed is reached. These solid state motor controllers increase voltage to induction motors during starting, thereby reducing inrush currents and also torques. They typically control the volts/hertz ratio. As the motor speed (frequency) increases, the voltage level is increased.

445 Capacitor Starting


Motor starting shunt capacitors are switched on with the motor. They provide reactive (magnetizing) current to the motor during starting, thereby reducing the voltage drop on the power system. The capacitor is switched off when the motor is up to speed.

450 Motor Protection


See Section 600, Protective Devices for more details of motor protection.

451 Low Voltage Motor Protection


Disconnect Rating
The minimum required rating of the breaker or fused disconnect is determined by the MCC short-circuit rating. The short-circuit rating can usually be found on the one-line diagram or in the system study. The following methods and devices for motor protection are recommended.

Short Circuit Protection


Short circuit protection and a means to disconnect the motor from its source are provided by a circuit breaker or a fused disconnect switch.

Molded-Case Circuit Breakers


Molded-case circuit breakers with thermal magnetic trip elements, used for motor starters for many years, are gradually being replaced by motor circuit protectors (see below).

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Motor Circuit Protectors


Motor Circuit Protectors (MCPs) are magnetic trip-only circuit breakers available in size graduations that match starter and motor sizes. They provide protection against fault currents and feature an adjustment for setting the minimum trip value. This feature allows for faster tripping and offers better protection than molded-case circuit breakers. A current-limiting attachment (attached to the load side of the MCP) can be used to provide an interrupting rating up to 100,000 amperes. The current-limiter is coordinated with the MCP so that short circuits will be cleared by the MCP. Only high fault currents will cause the current limiter to function.

Fused Disconnect Switch


A fused disconnect switch provides short circuit protection and a means of disconnect. It is used as an inexpensive method for providing short circuit protection, but has the disadvantage of not being resettable (damaged fuses must be replaced).

Overload Protection
Motor overload protection is provided by thermal overloads which interrupt the control circuit and cause the contactor to open. See Figure 400-4.

452 Medium Voltage Motor Protection


Two methods are used to control medium voltage motors: current-limiting starters and switchgear-type circuit breakers. Although current-limiting fuses provide short circuit protection for current-limiting starters, relays or other protection devices listed below should also be used in both methods. Solid state relay devices for medium voltage motors are available and may be used instead of the individual devices listed below. The type of service and whether or not the motor is spared should be considered when evaluating relay application. The extent of motor protection should be consistent with the protection philosophy of the driven equipment. Winding RTDs should be installed in critical motors and motors subject to threatening situations, such as blocked filters on WPII motors and water shutoff on TEWAC motors. Bearing RTDs should be applied to critical motors consistent with the driven equipment protection. Under 500 HP (suggested breakpoint): Thermal Overloads Ambient Compensated, Bimetallic Instantaneous Ground Fault Relays (50G). These should be used only on low resistance grounded systems, provided fault current is less than contactor interrupting capacity. Relays Recommended for 500 HP and Above (suggested breakpoint): Thermal Overload Relay, Replica Type (49)

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Time Overcurrent (Locked Rotor) (51) Phase-Balance and Single-Phase (46) Lockout, with external reset (86) Instantaneous Ground Fault Relays (50G). These should only be used on low resistance grounded systems provided fault current is less than contactor interrupting capacity. Bearing RTD relay (38) Winding RTD relay (49) Additional Relays Recommended for 1500 HP and Above (suggested breakpoint): Differential Current Relay (87) Additional Relays Recommended for Synchronous Motors: Incomplete Sequence (48) Power Factor (55) for Pullout Protection

453 Overvoltages
For a detailed discussion of overvoltages, see Chapter 4 of IEEE Standard 141 (Red Book.) A number of disturbances can occur in the distribution system supplying power to an MCC and its motors. These include the following: Lightning strikes and operation of lightning arresters Forced-current zero interruptions (such as operation of a current-limiting fuse) Operation of circuit breakers and reclosers Fault conditions Accidental contact with higher voltage systems

Motors are vulnerable to high rate-of-rise surge voltages. In general, the highest stress is across the first few turns of the winding since the voltage of the surge is attenuated as it progresses through the winding. A portion of the surge is reflected along the incoming conductor back toward the source, and the rest is passed through to the motor winding. This effect is most severe when the motor surge impedance is much larger than that of the incoming conductor. This refracted voltage can approach twice the incoming voltage level (already very high in the surge) for motors with high surge impedance. For surge protection, surge capacitors (connected from each phase to ground at the incoming motor cable terminals) are recommended. Leads to the motor should be kept as short as possible.

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Surge capacitors of the proper value will reduce the rate of rise of an incoming wave to a tolerable value. Recommended values are as follows: 1.0 microfarad for low voltage motors (600 volts and below) 0.5 microfarad for 2.3-6.9 kV motors 0.25 microfarad for motors above 6.9 kV

Surge capacitors generally are not used on motors of 460 volts and below, unless they are supplied by uninsulated overhead lines.

454 Surge Arrestors


Machines connected to circuits which are exposed to lightning require surge arrestors to limit the peak of the voltage surge. Station arrestors designed for rotating machines are available in ratings of 3 to 27 kV. Until recently, surge arrestors were constructed with nonlinear resistors made of bonded silicon carbide. However, a new type of arrestor has become the industry standard: the metal-oxide surge arrestor (MOSA). The MOSA draws only a few milliamperes of line current at normal system voltage. During a surge, only the current necessary to limit the overvoltage is conducted. Therefore, there is positive clearing after the surge has passed. Specifics regarding performance of MOSAs are given in Table 19 of IEEE 141 (Red Book).

460 NEMA Ratings


461 Starter Ratings
Figure 400-3 lists NEMA ICS standard continuous ratings for low voltage starters and can be used for preliminary size selection of a motor starter. It provides typical full-load current based on horsepower, speed, and voltage. Final selection of a motor starter should be based on specific motor data. These data are available from the nameplate of the motor or from certified drawings provided by the manufacturer.

462 Low Voltage MCC NEMA Classes and Types


There are two MCC NEMA classes: Class I and Class II. These classes pertain to factory-provided interwiring or interlocking and define where field terminations are made on the MCC. Class II, Type B is recommended for most applications. Details on NEMA classes are presented below.

NEMA Classes
Class I: Class I MCCs consist of a mechanical grouping of combination motor starters, feeders, and/or other units, arranged in an assembly with only power connections furnished. They do not include interwiring or interlocking between units and remotely mounted devices. Nor do they include control-system engineering. Diagrams of only the individual units are supplied. Class I is generally

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specified for independently operated motors requiring no interlocking or other interconnection between units. Class II: Class II MCCs consist of a grouping of combination motor controllers, feeders, and/or other units designed to form a complete control system and are recommended for most applications. They include the necessary electrical interlocking and interwiring between units and interlocking provisions for remotely mounted devices, in addition to the power connections. The MCC manufacturer should provide a suitable diagram showing all controls associated with the MCC. Class II is generally specified when a group of motors requires sequencing, interlocking, or interconnecting.

NEMA Types
Type A: Applicable to Class I only, field terminations are made directly to the unit components. No terminal blocks are supplied on the units for load or control connections. Type B: Applicable to both Class I and II, unit-mounted control terminal blocks are supplied. Unit load terminal blocks are provided for size 3 and smaller starters. Load terminals are not supplied for feeder units. Type B is recommended for most applications. Type C: Applicable to both Class I and II, Type C MCCs are similar to Type B MCCs with the addition of the master-section terminal boards. Wiring between combination controllers, or control assemblies, and the master terminal boards is provided.

463 Bus Bracing


Buses must be braced to withstand the maximum of short-circuit currents available. NEMA standards for bracing are based on ratings of 10 kA, 14 kA, 30 kA, and 42 kA rms symmetrical. Buses rated 65 kA and 100 kA symmetrical are also available. The bracing of the horizontal and vertical buses of the MCC should be coordinated with the rating of the incoming line and the type of short-circuit protection employed in the MCC.

464 Medium Voltage MCC


Medium voltage starters are labeled NEMA Class EI if the contacts are used for interrupting short circuit current, and are labeled NEMA Class EII if fuses are used for interrupting short circuit currents. The size of the contactor has a NEMA designation of H2, H3, H4, or H5, corresponding to specific continuous current ratings and interrupting ratings. For more detail refer to NEMA Publication No. ICS 2. The most commonly used contactors are H3 (rated for 400 A continuous) and H5 (rated for 700 A continuous). Refer to the NEMA ICS 2 or manufacturers data for specific motor sizes and voltage ratings.

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470 Enclosure Types


NEMA Standards 250-295 and ICS 6-1983 describe enclosures according to their environmental capabilities. The recommended enclosure for outdoor use is Type 3R, but, Type 4X and Type 7 are used for certain applications. For most indoor applications, Type 1A (with neoprene gasketing) is recommended. Type 1 (General Purpose) Type 1A (Type 1 with neoprene gasket) Type 1A enclosures are for general-purpose use indoors where they are not exposed to unusual service conditions. Their primary purpose is to prevent accidental contact with the enclosed equipment by personnel. They provide some protection against dust and falling dirt, but are not dust-tight. They also offer limited protection against light splashing and indirect splashing. Types 3 and 3R (Outdoor)

Types 3 and 3R enclosures provide a degree of protection against windblown (for Type 3) and falling (for Type 3R) dust, rain, and sleet, as well as against external ice formation. Type 3S (Outdoor) Type 3S enclosures provide the protection of Type 3 and 3R enclosures, plus operation of external mechanisms when ice laden. Type 4 and 4X (Indoor and Outdoor)

Type 4 and 4X enclosures provide protection against dripping or splashing water and are dust-tight. NEMA Type 4 enclosures can be used either in indoor or outdoor locations. NEMA Type 4X enclosures are corrosion resistant. Type 7 and 9

If it is necessary to locate motor starters in classified areas, refer to Section 300, Hazardous (Classified) Areas. In such instances, starters housed in explosionproof enclosures suitable for the specific area must be used (Type 7 for Class I and Type 9 for Class II). If weather protection is needed in a classified area, a NEMA 7 or 9 UL listed enclosure with NEMA 4 features should be specified. Explosionproof equipment is listed by the Class and Group appropriate for the location in which the ignitable material may be present. See Section 300, Hazardous (Classified) Areas. ELC-DS-597, Motor Control Rack Specification and Arrangement, is useful for specifying explosionproof starters. The two types of explosionproof enclosures are screwed-cover and ground joint bolted-cover. See Section 300, Hazardous (Classified) Areas, for more information.

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480 Selecting Equipment Types and Characteristics


481 Design Specifics
The designer should first develop an MCC one-line diagram using standard symbols and presentation according to Section 100, System Design. The one-line diagram should include the following data: Motor horsepower Starter type Starter size Circuit-breaker type, frame and trip rating, or fused-switch rating and fuse size Voltage, number of phases, number of wires, frequency, bus continuous-current rating, and short-circuit current rating

MCC Layout
The equipment arrangement for an MCC layout is often left for the vendor, but the designer should do the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Specify the location and size of the incoming line compartment. Specify the wireway location after determining whether most circuits enter or leave via the top or bottom. Specify whether available space requires front-only or back-to-back arrangement. Locate units in specific vertical sections. Locate units controlling similar or associated process functions adjacent to one another if possible. Specify that larger units be installed at the bottom of vertical sections (for ease of handling).

482 Checklist
The following checklist should be reviewed before completing the MCC design and issuing the one-line diagram. Is each load supplied by the correct voltage? 460-volt motors will be supplied at 480 volts, and 4000-volt motors will be supplied at 4160 volts. Is the bus continuous rating adequate? Does it allow for anticipated future growth? Is the short-circuit rating adequate? Does it take into account the effects of motor contributions?

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Can each motor be started, stopped, and otherwise controlled as required? (If a reactor has been used to limit short-circuit currents, motor starting calculations will have to be reviewed.) Is each starter sized adequately for continuous operation? Is each motor properly protected? Have sufficient future spaces and spares been provided? Is adequate space provided for control wiring? Is top or bottom entry specified for power and control cables? Is the enclosure proper for the environmental conditions, such as ambient temperature range, relative humidity, elevation above sea level, indoor or outdoor location, corrosive substances, and area classification Have the control devices, relays and control power transformers been specified according to the control diagrams?

490 References
The following references are readily available. Those with an asterisk (*) are included in this manual or are available in other manuals.

491 Model Specifications (MS)


* ELC-MS-3977 * ELC-MS-4371 ELC-MS-5008 Medium Voltage Current-limiting Fused Motor Starters Adjustable Frequency Drives Medium Voltage Adjustable Speed Drives

492 Standard Drawings


This guideline has no Standard Drawings.

493 Data Sheets (DS), Data Guides (DG), and Engineering Forms (EF)
* ELC-DS-366 * ELC-DG-366 * ELC-DS-597 * ELC-DG-597 * ELC-DS-3977 Motor Control Center Specification and Arrangement Data Sheet Guide for Motor Control Center Specification and Arrangement Motor Control Rack Specification and Arrangement Data Sheet Guide for Motor Control Rack Medium Voltage Current-limiting Fused Motor Starters Data Sheet

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* ELC-DG-3977 * ELC-DS-4371 * ELC-DG-4371 * ELC-EF-592

Data Sheet Guide for Medium Voltage Current Limiting Fused Motor Starter Data Sheets Adjustable Frequency Drive Data Sheet Data Sheet Guide for Adjustable Frequency Drive Data Sheet Wiring Diagram for Motor and Contactor Installation

494 Other References


ANSI/IEEE Standard 141, IEEE Recommended Practice for Electric Power Distribution for Industrial Plants. ANSI/IEEE Standard 242, IEEE Recommended Practice for Protection and Coordination of Industrial and Commercial Power Systems. ANSI/IEEE Standard 100, IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms. ANSI/IEEE C37.2, Electrical Power System Device Function Numbers. ANSI/NEMA ICS2, Part 2-322, Standards for Industrial Control Devices, Controllers and Assemblies. ANSI/NEMA ICS2, Part 2-324, AC General-Purpose Medium-Voltage Contactors and Class E Controllers, 50 Hz and 60 Hz. NEMA Standard 250, Enclosures for Electrical Equipment (1000 Volts Maximum). ANSI/NEMA ICS6, Enclosures for Industrial Controls and Systems. API RP 14F, Design and Installation of Electrical Systems for Offshore Production Platforms. ANSI/NFPA, National Electrical Code 70. ANSI/UL 347, High Voltage Industrial Control Equipment. Applied Protective Relaying, Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Relay-Instrument Division.

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Abstract
This section discusses switchgear assemblies and their application in an industrial facility. Specific steps in the design process are identified, including the use of standard forms and major selection factors. This section also aids in selecting switchgear for distribution and application of power up to 15 kV nominal. Circuit breakers, fuses, and relays are discussed in Section 600, Protective Devices. Contents 510 511 512 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 530 531 540 550 560 561 570 571 572 Introduction Scope SwitchgearAn Overview Application Procedure General Considerations Indoor vs. Outdoor Ratings Control Power Accessory Equipment and Space Heaters Type of Assembly Materials Application Steps Incoming and Outgoing Cables Labels, Markings and Listings Materials to be Supplied Glossary of Terms Acronyms References Model Specifications (MS) Standard Drawings 500-12 500-10 500-11 500-11 500-9 500-4 Page 500-3

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Data Sheets (DS), Data Guides (DG), and Engineering Forms (EF) Other References

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510 Introduction
511 Scope
This section of the Electrical Manual presents an overview of switchgear assemblies. When used in conjunction with the documents listed below, this section will assist in the selection, specification, and ordering of switchgear.

Specifications
ELC-MS-3908 ELC-MS-3987 Medium Voltage Metal-Clad Switchgear Low Voltage Draw-out Circuit Breaker Switchgear

Data Sheets
ELC-DS-3908 and ELC-DS-3987

Data Sheet Guides


ELC-DG-3908 and ELC-DG-3987

512 SwitchgearAn Overview


Switchgear (or metal-clad switchgear) is a general term used in connection with power transmission or distribution circuits, and includes a variety of switching and interrupting devices. Switchgear may be used either alone or in combination with control, instrumentation, metering, protective and regulating equipment. Switchgear assemblies consist of one or more pieces of equipment in addition to main bus conductors, interconnecting wiring, accessories, supporting structures, and enclosures. In actual usage, the word switchgear applies to both the items of which a switchgear assembly consists and the assembly itself. The primary switching components are generally circuit breakers, which are the principal devices used in opening and closing (switching) power circuits. A comprehensive description and discussion of circuit breakers can be found in Section 600, Protective Devices. Switchgear is used throughout the electric power system of an industrial facility for incoming line service, and for distributing power to load centers, motors, transformers, motor control centers, panelboards, and other secondary distribution equipment. Major switchgear assemblies for Company facilities are generally located indoors. Outdoor switchgear assemblies can be either walk-in (with an enclosed maintenance aisle) or non-walk-in (aisle-less). The switchgear described in this section are the heavy-duty, industrial-type with withdrawable power circuit breakers. Lighter duty molded-case or insulatedcase circuit breakers are not included, and are typically not recommended for industrial applications.

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520 Application Procedure


521 General Considerations
By using an Application Table such as Figure 500-1, the applications or design engineer can select switchgear of adequate rating for the operating requirements. For example, if 500 MVA Class switchgear is selected (Figure 500-1) for an application at 13.8 kV, its three phase and line-to-line fault rating would be: E 15.0 -------- ( rated short circuit current ) = --------- ( 18 ) KV 13.8 = 19.8 kiloamperes symmetrical
(Eq. 500-1)

19.6 kiloamperes is its current interrupting rating at a time of 5 cycles (0.083 sec) after a fault occurs. The circuit breaker and switchgear assembly rating for momentary, 1/2 cycle (0.0083 second), current is given in the last column of Figure 500-1, or 37 kiloamperes asymmetrical. Tables are also available for selection of current potential and control-power transformers. Ancillary equipment such as space heaters are also included. After determining the functional needs as well as physical layout and environmental conditions, the applications or design engineer then selects the most appropriate standardized switchgear cubicle layouts. Technical application is not the only criterion. Cost must be considered as well as the need for compatibility between existing and new components and equipment.

522 Indoor vs. Outdoor


Indoor locations are preferred for easier maintenance and protection from weather related problems. Plant layout logistics should be considered to optimize feeder and bus duct lengths. For some plant layouts it may be necessary to use an outdoor enclosed switchgear assembly. In outdoor applications, factors such as sun, wind, moisture, area classification, and local ambient temperatures should be considered in determining the suitability and capacity of the switchgear. Outdoor enclosures should be specified to have front aisles (as a minimum) for ease of maintenance and protection from weather. Light-colored nonmetallic paints will minimize the effect of solar energy loading and avoid derating the equipment in outdoor locations. Recommended paint is ANSI 70 light gray enamel or lacquer. ANSI/IEEE C37.24-197 is the primary reference for solar loading in switchgear. Where considerable interwiring is necessary, power houses are often used. (See Figure 500-2.) These are prefabricated units containing switchgear, and/or MCCs, lighting transformers, and other panels. The manufacturer provides the units either completely assembled or in modules; both are ready for external connections.

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Fig. 500-1

Typical Application Table for Circuit Breakers (Courtesy of Cutler-Hammer)

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Fig. 500-2

Power House

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523 Ratings
Switchgear has two current ratings; short-circuit and continuous. The short-circuit current ratings depend on whether the switchgear is low voltage (600 volts or less) or medium voltage (greater than 600 volts). Since low voltage switchgear circuit breakers operate to interrupt a circuit very quickly, usually during the first cycle (0.016 second), the circuit breakers and switchgear assemblies have interrupting ratings and mechanical bus-bracing ratings that correspond with the one-cycle short-circuit current. In contrast, medium voltage switchgear circuit breakers are larger and take longer to interrupt a circuit, usually in the order of 3 to 5 cycles (0.05 to 0.08 seconds). Medium voltage switchgear has a short-circuit rating called its interrupting rating. This is the magnitude of current existing three to five cycles (0.05-0.08 seconds) after the interaction of a fault and is the magnitude of current which the circuit breaker contacts must successfully interrupt. The short-circuit current contributions from motors decay during this interval. Subsequently, the circuit breaker will not be subject to full short-circuit contributions from the motor and/or generator. Medium voltage circuit breakers and switchgear assemblies have a close-and-latch or momentary rating corresponding to the highest current the equipment will experience during the first cycle (0.016 second) of a short circuit. This is the mechanical withstand rating of the switchgear assembly. The continuous current rating of switchgear assemblies and circuit breakers corresponds to the highest current which can be carried without exceeding temperatures that can be harmful to insulating materials and/or equipment. There are voltage ratings and other current ratings associated with switchgear assemblies and current breakers. These are described in ANSI C37.06 for low voltage current breakers, ANSI C37.16 for medium and high voltage current breakers, and ANSI C37.20.1, C37.20.2, and C37.20.3 for switchgear assemblies.

524 Control Power


Successful operation of switchgear is dependent on a reliable source of control power. The two primary uses of control power in switchgear are to provide tripping power and closing power. Because an essential function of switchgear is to provide instantaneous and unfailing protection in emergencies, the source of control power to trip the breaker must always be available. The requirements for power to close are less rigid. We use electrically-operated (a solenoid is used to operate the springoperated mechanism) breakers below 600 volts for the main and tie circuit breakers for a switchgear line up and for all circuit breakers feeding low voltage motors. Commonly, medium voltage circuit breakers are electrically operated for both closing and tripping. Batteries (DC) can be a source of both tripping power and closing power. (However, to optimize battery capacity, an AC source for closing power is recommended.) Battery ampere-hour and inrush requirements have been reduced by the use of stored-energy spring-mechanism closing of power circuit breakers through

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34.5 kV. AC general distribution systems cannot be relied upon for tripping power, because outages are possible. Outages could potentially occur during those times when the switchgear is required to perform its protective functions. The importance of periodic maintenance and testing of the tripping power source cannot be overemphasized. The most elaborate protective relaying system is useless if tripping power is not available to open the circuit breaker when required. Alarming for abnormal operating conditions of the tripping source is recommended. Some major questions to ask when choosing control power are: Is adequate maintenance for a battery system available? Is suitable housing for a battery system available? Is the control power the same as that for existing equipment? Will it allow new and existing equipment to be interchanged?

The following are three practical sources of tripping power: Direct current from a storage battery Direct current from a charged capacitor Alternating current from the secondaries of potential transformers in the protected power circuit. (This application is not recommended.)

DC tripping power is recommended. Furthermore, it is recommended that the tripping power be obtained by rectifying the output from a control-power transformer, to charge a set of batteries, which provide the primary source of tripping power.

525 Accessory Equipment and Space Heaters


Accessory equipment such as instrument transformers, voltmeters, ammeters, watthour meters can be located in almost any compartment of metal-clad or metalenclosed switchgear. Space heaters are supplied as a standard feature in outdoor metal-enclosed switchgear to eliminate condensation on surfaces and insulation. They are also recommended on indoor switchgear to keep the temperature above the dew point inside the enclosure during shutdown conditions. Space heaters should be placed in each breaker or auxiliary compartment as well as in each cable area. Space heaters can be manually or thermostatically controlled. If the heater is manually operated, a switch must be provided to turn off the heater when work is being performed inside the cubicle. If the space heater is thermostatically controlled, a bypass switch is required for manual operation and an operating temperature must also be specified. In most installations, particularly where the ambient temperature becomes warm in the summer, it is better to have thermostatically controlled space heaters. If the climate is always humid or damp, the space heaters should be on all of the time (manual operation). An ammeter should be installed in each main heater circuit so the operator can determine if the space heaters are operating properly.

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To help ensure longevity, space heaters should be sized for low surface temperatures. This can be accomplished by either specifying a low-watt density heater, or sizing the heater to operate at half normal voltage. For heaters operating at half voltage, those rated at four-times the watts actually required in the compartment must be installed.

526 Type of Assembly


Low voltage, metal-enclosed switchgear is available for applications at 600 volts and below. Metal-clad switchgear is available for voltages from 2.4 kV through 15 kV. In both instances, assembly elements are completely enclosed by sheet metal, affording optimum structural integrity and considerable personnel protection. Most bus arrangements, (e.g., as radial, double, circuit breaker and a half, main, transfer, sectionalized, synchronizing, and ring) are available to achieve the desired system reliability and flexibility. Selections should be based on total electrical system requirements, initial cost, installation cost, and required operating procedures.

527 Materials
In the manufacturing of certain parts for switchgear assemblies, several different materials and finishes can be used. Recommendations are as follows. All buses should be copper. Bus bars for 5 kV bus systems should be insulated with thermoplastic sleevings and held in place by high-strength molded polyester glass insulators. 15 kV bus insulation should be high-alumina (high strength) porcelain. Bolted bus connections (plated connections are recommended) should be of silver or tin plate. Exposed handles, screws, and hinges should be of corrosion-resistant material.

530 Application Steps


Engineering the system according to Section 100, System Design, and Section 200, System Studies and Protection of this manual results in a one-line diagram that provides the following: Equipment to be served from the switchgear Maximum load each piece of equipment represents Initial system capacity and provisions for future load growth Maximum short circuit rating of switchgear

This information provides the basis from which to select sizes, styles, ratings, and special features of switchgear devices to distribute power to points of application. In the process it is necessary to:

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Determine the configuration of the circuit breakers and switchgear Determine the ratings of the power switching apparatus Select the main bus rating Select the current transformer ratios and locations Select the potential transformer ratios, connections (wye or open-delta), and locations Select metering, relaying, and control power transformer ratings Select closing and tripping voltage and power Consider special requirements

The appropriate Data Sheets, ELC-DS-3908 and ELC-DS-3987 should be completed using their respective Data Sheet Guides, ELC-DG-3908 and ELC-DG3987. The standard specifications in this section should be used to specify switchgear.

531 Incoming and Outgoing Cables


All cables, (incoming and outgoing) usually enter/exit at the bottom of switchgear. All outdoor switchgear should have cables entering from the bottom because it is easier to provide support at the bottom than at the top and it reduces water entry from condensation and rain. However, specific design considerations may make it advantageous to enter from the top. Special terminations are used for shielded conductors and sufficient space must be provided to make these terminations (stress cores).

540 Labels, Markings and Listings


Local inspectors rely heavily on labels, markings, and listings to identify equipment that complies with applicable standards. The most common label is from Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. (UL). However, Factory Mutual (FM) and Canadian Standards Association (CSA) are usually accepted to most as inspection organizations. Equipment recognized by UL carries either a UL mark or is listed in a UL publication as a recognized component. Switchgear and certain items of control apparatus should have an attached label indicating UL recognition. Items of control apparatus are manufactured to specific standards but may not be listed, marked, or labeled because the manufacturers have chosen not to spend the time and money required to obtain UL approval of these items. These items should not be used unless approval is obtained from the local electrical inspector. Manufacturers who design and build to UL and NEMA standards are usually willing to certify compliance with their interpretation of these standards if such certification will assist in obtaining local approval. In general, it is easy to obtain a UL label for switchgear rated at or below 600 volts. Medium voltage switchgear, however, is an

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engineered item with very few standard configurations and is difficult to have ULlabeled unless done by a third-party examination service.

550 Materials to be Supplied


Specification ELC-EG-3908 requires all engineering data for equipment, as specified and ordered, to be supplied by the manufacturer. Among the items to be supplied are the following: Specific (not typical) structural drawings (elevation drawings) One-line and three-line diagrams Elementary (schematic) diagrams Detailed connection (wiring) diagrams Material lists that includes the quantity, rating, type, and manufacturers catalog number of all equipment in each unit Catalog data for relays, switches, circuit breakers Relay and power-fuse time-current curves and application information Complete spare parts lists. Lists of priced spare parts that the manufacturer recommends be available for startup and the first years operation.

560 Glossary of Terms


Metal-Clad Switchgear: Metal-enclosed switchgear that has specific features enumerated in Section 9.3.4 of ANSI/IEEE Standard 141. Metal-Enclosed Bus: An assembly of rigid electrical buses with associated connections, joints, and insulating supports, all housed within a grounded metal enclosure. Metal-Enclosed Switchgear Assembly: Switchgear enclosed on the top and all sides by sheet metal on a supporting structure. Ventilating openings and inspection windows may be present. Access to the inside is provided by doors or removable panels. Open Switchgear Assembly: An assembly that does not have an enclosure as part of its supporting structure. Power Switchgear Assembly: One or more of the devices mentioned in the definition of switchgear, including conductors, interconnections, accessories, supporting structures, and any enclosures. Switchgear: Switching and interrupting devices alone or in combination with associated control, metering, protective, and regulating equipment.

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561 Acronyms
CSA NEMA NFPA UL Canadian Standards Association National Electrical Manufacturers Association National Fire Protection Association Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.

570 References
The following references are readily available. The ones which are marked with an asterisk (*) are included in this manual or are available in other manuals.

571 Model Specifications (MS)


* ELC-MS-3908 * ELC-MS-3987 Medium Voltage 5 kV and 15 kV Metal-clad Switchgear. Low Voltage (600 V maximum) Drawout Circuit Breaker Switchgear

572 Standard Drawings


There are no standard drawings in this guideline.

573 Data Sheets (DS), Data Guides (DG), and Engineering Forms (EF)
* ELC-DS-3908 * ELC-DG-3908 * ELC-DS-3987 * ELC-DG-3987 Medium Voltage Switchgear Data Sheet Data Sheet Guide for Medium Voltage Switchgear Data Sheet Low Voltage Switchgear Data Sheet Data Sheet Guide for Low Voltage Switchgear Data Sheet

574 Other References


ANSI/IEEE Standard 141, IEEE Recommended Practice for Electric Power Distribution for Industrial Plants. ANSI/IEEE Standard 100, IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms. ANSI/IEEE C37.20.1, Metal-Enclosed Low-Voltage Power Circuit Breakers. ANSI/IEEE C37.20.2, Metal-Clad and Station-Type Cubicle Switchgear (Above 1000 V). ANSI/IEEE C37.20.3, Metal-Enclosed Interrupter Switchgear (Above 1000 V).

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ANSI/IEEE C37.23, Metal-Enclosed Bus and Guide for Calculating Losses in Isolated Phase Bus. ANSI/IEEE C37.24, Guide for Evaluating the Effect of Solar Radiation on Outdoor Metal-Clad Switchgear. Beeman, Industrial Power Systems Handbook. NY: McGraw-Hill, 1955. Fink and Carroll, Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers. NY: McGraw-Hill, 1968.

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600 Protective Devices


Abstract
This section addresses the two major electrical system hazards, overload and short circuit, and the risk posed by each. It discusses system protective devices (most importantly circuit breakers and fuses) and the operation of the principal components of any protective scheme. The section also discusses indirect protective control, specifically relays for large motors. Circuit breakers and fuses are described with typical numerical values. Contents 610 611 612 620 621 622 623 630 631 632 633 634 635 636 640 641 642 643 644 Introduction Protective DevicesAn Overview Characteristics of Protective Devices Circuit Breakers Power Circuit Breaker Molded-Case Circuit Breakers Current Limiting Circuit Breakers Relays and Protective Device Coordination Zones of Protection Instrument Transformers Basic Considerations for Overcurrent Relaying and Coordination Ground Fault Relaying and Coordination Other Common Types of Relay Protection Electrical Component Protection and NEC Requirements Fuses Advantages and Disadvantages of Fuses Design Features Time-Current Curves Miscellaneous Considerations 600-57 600-8 600-5 Page 600-3

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645 650 651 652 653 654

Current-Limiting Fuses References Model Specifications (MS) Standard Drawings Data Sheets (DS), Data Guides (DG) and Engineering Forms (EF) Other References 600-62

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610 Introduction
This section gives an overview of the devices and methods for protecting electrical systems and electrical system components. Three types of protective devices are discussed: circuit breakers, fuses, and relays. Each has its relative merits and weaknesses for system protection. Circuit breakers and fuses physically perform the circuit interruption. Relays sense the electrical parameters and control the circuit breakers and contactors. Basic guidance on using and setting relays is given, as well as a discussion of current and potential transformers.

611 Protective DevicesAn Overview


Two problems can disrupt an electrical system: overloads and short circuits. Protecting the components of an electrical system when either of these problems occurs is the function of protective devices. It is important to coordinate protective devices so that only the device immediately upstream to faulted equipment operates and the remainder of the system continues to supply power to the other loads. Protective devices must be applied only within their ratings.

Overloads
Heat caused by overloads damages components of electrical systems. Protective devices designed to prevent overloads are therefore primarily heat sensitive; that is, they monitor current and time which translates into heat.

Short Circuits
Short circuits, also called faults, are defined as abnormal connections or arcs between two points of different potential. These abnormal connections can be caused by insulation failure, accidental short circuiting caused by misplacement of tools and wiring, or mechanical failure. Protective devices designed to protect against short circuit damage are primarily current sensitive. Three basic types of faults occur in electrical systems: bolted faults, arcing faults, and high impedance faults. Bolted Fault. This fault is so named because it is as solid as if an electrical conductor had been bolted to the points of short circuit. It causes power sources to deliver their maximum short circuit capacity. Fortunately, these faults are extremely rare. Arcing Fault. Arcing, the most common type of fault, is caused by a variety of events, such as insulation failure or careless placement of wire or tools. The wire or tool melts, and a line-to-ground or line-to-line arcing fault remains. An arcing fault can be extremely destructive if not quickly extinguished by a protective device. High Impedance Fault. This type of fault occurs when a high impedance current path exists between phases or between phase and ground. One example is a leakage current through failing insulation between phase windings in a motor. High impedance faults are characterized by low fault current magnitudes, which make their detection by protective devices difficult.

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612 Characteristics of Protective Devices


Circuit protective devices consist of two components: Detecting (sensing) devices which monitor the desired circuit parameters Protecting (interrupting) devices which receive the signal from detecting devices and isolate the circuit.

In circuits above 1000 volts, the detecting devices commonly used are relays, and the protective devices are power circuit breakers. In circuits of lower voltage, both functions can be combined in one device, such as a thermal-magnetic molded-case circuit breaker or an air circuit breaker. Fuses provide both sensing and interrupting functions.

Common Characteristics of Protective Devices


Protective devices have several common characteristics: They all have an inverse time-current characteristic; that is, the higher the current, the faster the device acts to interrupt it. The speed of this operating response is limited by the mechanical and arc-quenching capacity of the device. They all have a minimum value of current necessary for operation called the pickup current. The accuracy (or repeatability) of operation varies among devices. In order of decreasing accuracy, these are as follows: Solid-state trip units. Electromechanical relays. Fuses. Magnetic direct-acting trip devices.

1. 2. 3. 4.

If maintained in accordance with manufacturers specifications, protective devices will perform in the same manner in repeated operations, including fuses, if they are replaced with exactly the same parts. No protective device is perfect. None operates in zero time or prevents unwanted current from flowing. Even a fast-acting fuse takes a finite time to heat up to its melting point, melt, and separate enough to cause current flow to cease. This process takes at least a quarter cycle (4 milliseconds for 60 Hz current). Protective devices must be capable of successfully interrupting the maximum fault current that flows. Where an improperly applied circuit breaker is subjected to higher than rated fault currents, the fault current could weld together the contacts of the breaker and continue to flow until the breaker explodes. Breakers and controlling relays should be adjusted to ensure their fastest possible operation to clear a fault or other abnormal condition without nuisance interruptions for minor transients. Instantaneous tipping of breakers, usually occurs within one cycle (16.7 milliseconds for 60 Hz current).

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Through-Fault Withstand Capacity


All protective devices require a finite time to clear a fault. During this time, all system components in series, from the source(s) to the fault point, are subjected to the fault current and its effects of heat and mechanical stress. The components must be able, therefore, to withstand the thermal and mechanical effects until the fault is cleared. In a fault condition a protective device may never open because the faulted circuit may be removed from the system by another protective device. Before the second device opens, full fault current flows through the first one. Therefore, it is important to know whether the first device can withstand full fault current momentarily and function satisfactorily afterwards.

620 Circuit Breakers


When properly applied within its rating, a circuit breaker is a device designed to open a circuit automatically on a predetermined overcurrent without damage to itself. The two types of circuit breakers are: power circuit breakers, for medium and low voltage applications, and molded-case circuit breakers, for low voltage applications. See Figure 600-1.
Fig. 600-1 Typical Low Voltage Air Circuit Breaker with Magnetic Air Chutes; Breaker Shown in the Open Position

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621 Power Circuit Breaker


Medium voltage (601 volts to 15 kV) power circuit breakers are rugged devices built on several standard sizes of metal frames. Air interrupter types are the most common. The vacuum circuit breaker is another type of power circuit breaker. Its contacts are enclosed in a vacuum container which allows rapid arc extinguishment and short contact travel. Together, they make possible fast interruption and very short clearing timegenerally in one cycle or less after the contacts part. A drawback of the vacuum breaker is the fragile nature of the vacuum container, which must be protected from rough treatment. See Figure 600-2.
Fig. 600-2 Details of 15 kV Horizontal-drawout Vacuum Circuit Breaker (Courtesy of ABB)

Low voltage (600 volts and below) power circuit breakers are open construction assemblies on several standard sizes of metal frames. See Figure 600-1. Parts are designed for easy access for maintenance, repair, and replacement. These breakers are intended for service in switchgear compartments or other enclosures of deadfront construction. Tripping units are field adjustable and are usually interchangeable within the frame sizes. Air circuit breakers are the most common type of low voltage power breakers. Because of their larger size, longer contact travel, and other characteristics, they are slower acting than molded-case circuit breakers.

622 Molded-Case Circuit Breakers


A molded-case circuit breaker is a low voltage (600 volts and below) switching device and an automatic protective device assembled in an integral housing of insulating material. In general, these breakers are capable of clearing a fault more rapidly than power circuit breakers, but more slowly than fuses.

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These breakers generally are not designed to be maintained in the field like low voltage power circuit breakers. Many are sealed to prevent tampering precluding inspection of the contacts. Moreover, replacement parts generally are not available since manufacturers recommend total replacement if a defect appears or the unit begins to overheat. Molded-case breakers, particularly the larger sizes, are not suitable for repetitive fault clearing (more than 1000 to 5000 operations). The two modes of operation for molded-case breakers are: magnetic (only) trip and thermal-magnetic trip. Magnetic (only) trip breakers have trip units sensitive to the magnetic field caused by the current. A pickup setting is adjustable to select the magnitude of fault current that will trip the breaker. Only fault currents are interrupted by this type of breaker; therefore, another protective device is needed to protect equipment against heating caused by overload current. These molded-case circuit breakers, called motor circuit protectors (MCPs), can only be used in combination motor starters. Thermal-magnetic breakers have two major components. One is a thermal-trip unit. If an overload persists long enough to raise the temperature of a heat sensitive element to a predetermined temperature, the breaker opens. The other component is the magnetic pickup described above.

623 Current Limiting Circuit Breakers


Current limiting (CL) circuit breakers (UL 489) provide high interrupting capabilities. They also limit let-through energy (I2t) and current to a value less than the I2t of a half-cycle wave of the available symmetrical prospective current. The frame size of a family of circuit breakers determines the breakers current limitation. For example, a 100-ampere frame CL circuit breaker will have one currentlimiting characteristic for all ratings (20, 30, 40, 70, 100) in that frame. CL circuit breakers do not provide the same current limitation as similarly sized and rated CL fuses. For example, the instantaneous peak let-through current of 100ampere, 600 V circuit breaker is 25,000 amperes. A 100 ampere, 600 V CL fuse will limit the peak let-through to 10,000 amperes. CL circuit breakers are not available in the single-pole 120-V branch-type (e.g. Westinghouse Quicklag or GE Q-Line). If current-limiting characteristics (lowerpeak short-circuit levels and fast-acting operation, less than 1/2 cycle) are desired for branch circuits, CL fuses are the only available protective device. Branch circuits supplying critical loads fed from an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system are protected best by CL fuses. (See Section 124, UPS System Design) If very high levels of fault current are available on feeders, a cost-effective approach is to apply series-connected molded-case circuit breakers, i.e., two molded-case CB electrically in series sharing fault-interrupting duties. Seriesconnected CB must meet the appropriate sections of UL-489 to be listed with Underwriters Laboratory for series connection.

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630 Relays and Protective Device Coordination


This section provides essential information for selecting the appropriate protective devices during design stages of a project (prior to purchasing the equipment). The method for setting these devices so they will operate together in a safe and effective manner is explained, and the different types of relays and their uses are presented. Instrument and potential transformers are also discussed, and the basic tools and mechanics for completing a coordination study using time current curves on log-log paper are presented. Relays are precise, versatile, and dependable for protecting electric circuits and devices. However, they are sensing devices only and must be used in conjunction with a contactor or circuit breaker to actually protect a circuit. See Figure 600-3. A variety of relays is available to protect against electrical abnormalities. A preliminary relay coordination study should be done early in the design stage to ensure that the proper type and range of relays are specified and that they can be coordinated to achieve selective tripping. The actual settings are determined later in the design phase after the short circuit calculations have been made. This information is then applied to protection schemes for individual components, such as buses, feeders, transformers, and motors. Section 635 below gives a description by number of standard electrical power system devices.

631 Zones of Protection


When designing relay protection for industrial plants, the usual procedure is to divide the one-line diagram into zones to be protected. Figure 600-4 shows a typical one-line diagram divided into several zones. Each zone contains a component to be protectedsuch as a bus, a feeder, an incoming line, a transformer, or a motor. Each zone is protected by a primary protection scheme and a backup protection scheme which will function only if the primary protection fails. Each zone is protected by circuit breakers or fuses which will open if there is a fault within the zone. If these primary circuit breakers fail to operate, then the backup circuit breakers will operateisolating the fault. For example, in Figure 600-4, if there is a fault on Bus A in Zone 2, the protective relays will cause breakers 2, 3, and 4 to trip (as necessary) to clear the fault. If, for example, breaker 2 fails to trip, then breaker 1 (the backup protection) will trip and clear the fault. The zones may be protected by various types of relays, such as differential relaying, pilot wire relaying, phase overcurrent relaying, and ground overcurrent relaying. It is common practice to have the zones overlap, as shown in Zones 1 and 2. This is done by locating the current transformers (CTs) so that the fault in the overlapping area is sensed by the relays of both zones.

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Fig. 600-3

One-line Diagram of Current-limiting Fuse and Motor Controller with a Thermal Device. (From Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers, by D. Fink & W. Beatty, 12ed/ 1987. Used by Permission from McGraw Hill, Inc.)

Fig. 600-4

Diagram Depicting Zones of Protection. (Reprinted with permission from IEEE Std. 141-1986, 1986 IEEE. All rights reserved.)

632 Instrument Transformers


Current Transformers
Current transformers (CTs) are used in protective relay circuits to detect currents in the protected circuits, and transform them to proportional currents of smaller magnitudes which can be sensed directly by relays. Current transformers also isolate the relay from the primary circuit voltage. The four main types of CTs are: Wound Bar Window Bushing

Three types of current transformers are illustrated in Figure 600-5. The particular type is normally selected by the manufacturer of the electrical gear with which it is associated.

CT Operation
In electrical drawings, CTs are represented by the symbol shown in Figure 600-6. A primary current, IP, flows through the CT primary. In most cases, this primary current is the one flowing in the circuit to be protected. The cable or bus carrying this current usually passes through the center of a window-type CT and does not

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Fig. 600-5

Current Transformers

contact the wiring of the CT itself. See Figure 600-7 which provides a pictorial representation of the schematic of Figure 600-6. Ground fault protection often uses window-type (zero sequence) current transformers enclosing all the conductors of a three-phase circuit and the neutral. Figure 600-8 shows the symbol for three conductors passing through a windowtype CT. This configuration is used in ground fault protection schemes. Figure 600-9 illustrates this scheme.

CT Symbology
The two small squares in Figure 600-6 are the standard polarity symbols for current transformers. The convention is as follows: instantaneous current entering the square in the primary (represented by IP) results in an instantaneous current out of the square in the secondary (represented by IS). These squares or polarity symbols

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Fig. 600-6

Standard CT Symbology

Fig. 600-7

Current Transformer Ratio

Fig. 600-8

Standard Zero Sequence CT Symbology

Fig. 600-9

Core Balance Ground Fault Scheme with Zero Sequence CT

are marked in a similar manner on the actual current transformer. The polarities are very important when several current transformers are connected together in a protection scheme such as differential relaying. If the polarities are not correct, the protection system will not function properly.

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CT Ratios
CTs transform higher currents to lower currents in accordance with their CT ratio. In Figure 600-6, the ratio is 1200:5. By U.S. industry standards, the CT rated secondary current normally is 5 amperes. CTs are available in standard ratios as shown below: Standard Ratios for Current Transformers 10:5 15:5 25:5 40:5 50:5 75:5 100:5 200:5 300:5 400:5 600:5 800:5 1200:5 1500:5 2000:5 3000:5 4000:5 5000:5 6000:5 12000:5

Current transformers are also available with taps to allow multiple ratios on one CT. A CT ratio must be selected so that at maximum continuous current in the primary circuit, the secondary current will be less than or equal to 5 amperes. For example, a 1200 ampere-feeder breaker might be supplied with a CT having a 1200:5 ratio. If the feeder breaker supplies loads well under 1200 amperes, a smaller ratio might be chosen. When selecting a CT ratio, it is recommended that the maximum anticipated ampere loading not be greater than two-thirds of the CT primary current rating. CTs have ratings other than the CT ratio that must also be considered for proper selection. Usually, the switchgear manufacturer chooses the proper ratings appropriate for the equipment after the desired ratio is specified. Some of the other ratings associated with CTs are: voltage, insulation class, frequency, basic impulse insulation level (BIL), accuracy class, and mechanical and thermal capability. These ratings and the verifying tests are discussed in detail in ANSI C37.13.

CT Saturation
Thus far, only ideal current transformers have been discussed. In actuality, a current transformer is a nonlinear device, subject to saturation of the magnetic core. During faults, the CT may saturate. At saturation, the currents in the primary and secondary are no longer related by the CT ratio and large errors are introduced. The relay burden is the electrical impedance of the relay. The value should be given in the relay literature. When the burden of the relay is too high for the CT, it causes the CT to saturate during fault conditionsproducing errors in relay operation. For a more in-depth explanation of the use of the excitation curve, burdens, and equiva-

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lent circuit, see Applied Protective Relaying, edited by J. L. Blackburn (Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Coral Springs, Florida, 1982). Different accuracy classes of CTs are required for different applications. Accuracy classes are discussed in the IEEE Buff Book and ANSI C57.13.

Safety Precautions
For safety reasons, CTs should never be left open circuited. High voltages can be induced in the secondary; this can cause overheating of the CTs or possibly become a personnel hazard. For this reason, many CTs are fitted with shorting bars or shorting contacts, and CT circuits normally are not fused. CTs should be left shorted until the final connection of the relay is made into the CT circuit. The shorting bars must be removed in the field, or the relays will not work.

Potential Transformers
Potential transformers (PTs), sometimes called voltage transformers, are used to convert the high voltages of primary circuits to proportionally lower voltages suitable as relay and metering input voltages. PTs also provide isolation between the primary and secondary circuits.

PT Ratings
In general, the secondary voltage of potential transformers in the U.S. is 120 volts. Most primary voltages are available (e.g., 13.8 kV, 4.16 kV, and 480 volts). Potential transformers are connected in an open delta configuration as shown in Figure 600-10 or in a wye-wye configuration. The convention is as follows: the instantaneous voltage polarity on the H1 terminal is the same as the instantaneous voltage polarity on the X1 terminal. The polarity symbols H1, H2, X1, and X2 are marked on the transformer.
Fig. 600-10 Open Delta PT Connection

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Like current transformers, potential transformers have several ratings associated with them. These ratings include: insulation class, basic impulse level, ratio, primary and secondary voltage, frequency, usage, thermal loading, and accuracy. These ratings are described in detail in ANSI C57.13. Accuracy classes range from 0.3 to 1.2 percent. Potential transformers also have maximum thermal burdens expressed in volt-amperes. If these burdens are exceeded, the lives of the transformers will be reduced. Unlike current transformers, potential transformers should have their primaries fused to protect the power system from faults in the potential transformer windings. Sometimes they are provided with secondary fuses to protect them against short circuits on their secondaries. Potential transformers are similar to power transformers in most respects and can be open-circuited without high voltage being induced in their secondaries.

633 Basic Considerations for Overcurrent Relaying and Coordination


The most common type of relaying is overcurrent relaying, which is used for both phase fault protection and ground fault protection.

Overcurrent Relay Types


There are two types of overcurrent relaying: instantaneous overcurrent relaying and time overcurrent relaying. Both are usually combined into one relay as shown in Figure 600-11. When the two functions are combined, the relay is designated as a 50/51 device. The 50 is the instantaneous overcurrent relay and the 51 is the time overcurrent relay. Overcurrent relays incorporate targets that indicate when they are tripped. The targets must be reset manually.
Fig. 600-11 Construction of a Typical Induction Disk Overcurrent Relay (Courtesy of the General Electric Company)

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Instantaneous relays, of the hinged armature-type (solenoid-type), trip the associated circuit breaker immediately when the current reaches a preset value. It usually takes the relay 0.5 to 2 cycles to operate plus circuit breaker operating time. Current transformers are normally used to match overcurrent relays to the current levels of the electrical system. The time overcurrent operating coil operates in series with the instantaneous overcurrent unit operating coil, if both are used, and each is set to cover its own portion of the tripping range.

Residually Connected Relays


The typical method of connecting overcurrent relays into a circuit with the current transformers is shown in Figure 600-12. The relay in the single return leg is known as a residually connected, or 51N, overcurrent relay. The current sensed is the ground fault current if one of the primary phases goes to ground. When there are no faults in the system, the relay normally does not sense current. It is set to pick up at a lower current than the other three overcurrent relays.
Fig. 600-12 Typical Connection of Overcurrent Relays and CTs

Zero-sequence Connection
Another method of using overcurrent relays to protect against ground faults is to use a window (zero-sequence) CT as shown in Figure 600-9. This method uses a standard overcurrent relay with a low tap current range. The three phase conductors and the current carrying neutral, if there is one, are passed through the window of the CT. The CT detects any ground fault current which occurs if one of the phases shorts to ground. When shielded cable is used, the shield wiring must not go through the CT in one direction only. The shield wiring must return through the CT (to ground) to prevent cancelling out ground fault currents. See Figure 600-9 for one type of installation method.

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Basic Relay Operation


The basic operating unit of an overcurrent relay consists of a magnetic core operating coil, an induction disk, a damping magnet, and a set of contacts. All of these combine to produce a time versus current operating characteristic. Figure 600-11 shows an induction disk relay. Time overcurrent relays trip after a time delay when the current magnitude is within their preset tripping range. The delay time varies depending on the magnitude of the current. Time overcurrent relays have an inverse time characteristic (i.e., the larger the current, the shorter the time it takes to trip). Overcurrent relays can be obtained with different time versus current characteristics: inverse, very inverse, extremely inverse, long time inverse, medium time inverse, and short time inverse. The differences in these characteristics are shown in Figure 600-13.
Fig. 600-13 Time Characteristics Available for Overcurrent Relays

The characteristics chosen depend on the piece of equipment being protected and the devices being coordinated. It is much easier to coordinate relays in series if they have the same type of characteristic curve shape. The curves will not be prone to cross each other. For example, the extremely inverse characteristic usually is chosen to coordinate with fuses because it is closer in shape to the fuse characteristic. The very inverse characteristic is usually chosen as a starting point for overcurrent protection.

Overcurrent Relay Pickup, Taps, and Time Dials


Taps. Time-overcurrent relays have two adjustments: taps and a time dial as shown in Figure 600-11. Taps are used to determine the level of current at which the relay

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will begin to actuate. The pickup current is the minimum current which will start the induction disk moving (and ultimately close its contacts). For example, if the 2.5 amperes tap on an overcurrent relay is selected, 2.5 amperes is the current which will start to move the induction disk towards contact closure. If the relay is connected to a 300:5 current transformer, then it will take 150 amperes in the primary of the CT to produce 2.5 amperes in the secondary, which is what is sent to the relay coil. The taps are adjustable in steps over a fixed range of current values (e.g., 0.5 to 2 amperes, 1.5 to 6 amperes, or 4 to 16 amperes). Taps are changed by inserting a special screw in the appropriate hole in the face of the relay corresponding to the desired relay pickup current. To determine the actual current in the primary which will cause the relay to pick up, multiply the tap times the CT ratio: Pickup Current = Tap Value CT Ratio For the example above, pickup current equals 150 amperes, which equals 2.5 times 300 divided by 5. Time Dial. The time required for a relay to operate at any particular current value is determined by the time dial setting. The time dial setting determines the distance the induction disk must turn to close the relay contacts. The larger the time dial setting, the longer it takes the relay to trip for any given current. Time dial settings usually have an adjustable range from 0.5 to 10. The tripping range is any current larger than the pickup current. The time required for an overcurrent relay to operate can be determined from its time-current characteristic curve.

Time-current Curves
The time-current characteristic curve for a typical time-overcurrent relay is shown in Figure 600-14. Notice that both vertical and horizontal scales are logarithmic. The vertical axis indicates the time to trip (in seconds). The horizontal axis is the current axis. Current is expressed in multiples of relay pickup current. If the pickup current is 150 amperes as calculated in the previous example, this would be represented as 1 on the horizontal axis; 10 would represent 1500 amperes. The relay curves do not extend all the way to the pickup current because, theoretically, it takes an infinite amount of time to trip at the pickup current. The time to trip can be determined from the time-current curve. For example, at 1500 amperes, 10 times the pickup current, it will take this particular relay 0.3 seconds to trip if the time dial is set to 1, and 1.5 seconds to trip if the time dial setting is 6. By varying the settings of the taps and time dials of an overcurrent relay, the characteristic curve can be moved vertically and horizontally on a time-current relay coordination curve, as illustrated in Figure 600-15. Curve A has a time-dial setting of 0.5 Curve B has the same tap setting as Curve A, but a time dial setting of 10 Curve C has the same time-dial setting as Curve A, but a different tap setting Curve D has different tap and time-dial settings than Curve A

Notice that the x-axis is expressed in amperes in Figure 600-15, not in multiples of pickup current. Current scaling on the x-axis is more convenient because it is not necessary to refer elsewhere for the pickup current.

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Fig. 600-14 Typical Time Current Characteristic Curve

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Fig. 600-15 Diagram Showing How Time vs. Current Characteristic Curve of a Relay can be Shifted by Varying the Tap and Time Dial Settings

The inset diagram in the lower right half of Figure 600-14 is the characteristic of the instantaneous unit. It also has a setting which is separate from the overcurrent unit tap setting. Usually the instantaneous relay adjustment is made by a screw which can be turned to move a plug in or out of the coil to vary the instantaneous pickup. Typically, instantaneous pickup ranges are adjustable between 40 to 160 amperes, 20 to 80 amperes, 10 to 40 amperes, 4 to 16 amperes, or 2 to 8 amperes. The instantaneous setting is calculated in the same way as the overcurrent setting. The tap setting multiplied by the CT ratio yields the primary pickup current. For example, if the instantaneous relay adjustment is set at 100 amperes and the CT ratio is 300:5, then the relay will trip at 100 x 300/5 = 6000 amperes. This value neglects effects due to CT saturation. Time dials do not affect the setting of the instantaneous unit. There is no intentional time delay in an instantaneous unit; it trips very quickly (within approximately 8 milliseconds) upon reaching the pickup current. Once the settings of the taps and time dials are made, relays should be checked (using special testing equipment) in the field to ensure that they are working and properly calibrated.

Information Needed to Perform an Overcurrent Relay Coordination Study


An overcurrent relay coordination study is a time-versus-current study of all devices in series, from the utility source to the utilization device. An overcurrent relay coordination study plots the time-current characteristics of relays and other protective devices (such as fuses and circuit breakers with direct acting solid state trip units) on the same log-log graph of time-versus-current to ensure that they coordinate. Coordination means that the relay or device nearest the fault has sufficient

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time to act in order to clear the fault before the devices closer to the source, which also see the fault current, have time to initiate a trip. With proper coordination, the overcurrent device nearest the fault will clear the fault, shutting down the smallest possible part of the total system. This is known as selective tripping. With proper coordination, unnecessary shutdowns are eliminated. In large electrical systems, eliminating a single unnecessary shutdown can more than pay for the time required to complete a relay study. The actual settings of the protective devices are determined in the course of the coordination study. The following information is needed to perform a coordination study. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. A system one-line diagram (and a meter and relaying drawing if separate from the one-line diagram). Values of short circuit current through the devices considered in the study. Values of three phase bolted fault current and ground fault current. Values of load currents. The manufacturer and model of all relays in the system to be studied, their tap ranges, the ratio of the CTs to which they are connected, the factory relay curves, and instruction manuals for all relays. Existing settings of all relays in the system to be studied. Manufacturer model and fuse size of all fuses in the system and their timecurrent curves for melting and clearing. For large motors and generators, the current withstand limit curves. These curves may include the time-versus-current withstand limit curves for the machines during running overloads or stalled conditions. For cables in the system, the short circuit withstand curve (the insulation damage curve)based on the particular type of insulation and the current ampacity.

6. 7. 8.

9.

10. For transformers in the system, the transformer short time capability curve, the full load current, and inrush current. The short time capability curve is available from ANSI C57.109 or the IEEE Buff Book. 11. For motors, the starting current, the full load current, and the acceleration time. 12. For molded-case circuit breakers, the manufacturer, model, trip setting, and time-current curves. 13. For solid state trip units, the manufacturers curves and instructions on how to set the long time, short time, delay bands, and instantaneous settings.

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When to Conduct a Coordination Study


Conditions requiring a coordination study are as follows: 1. 2. 3. When the available short circuit current from the source is increased. When significant new loads are added to an existing system or when existing equipment is replaced with equipment of a different rating. When a fault in a minor part of an electrical system causes a major shutdown due to tripping of main breakers upstream (rather than selectively tripping local breakers). Following a major electrical plant modification. During the design phase of a new facility.

4. 5.

The Time-Current Coordination Curve


After the information listed above is gathered, it must be transferred to the TimeCurrent Coordination Sheet. This is done on log-log transparent paper (e.g., K&E type 42-5258.) First the voltage and current level for the horizontal scale must be selected. Usually, it is best to select the lowest voltage level of the relays being studied. It is common to show relays at two or three voltage levels on the same sheet, all referenced to the common voltage level on the coordination curve. All curves must be shown with equivalent current at one chosen voltage level. For example, there may be relays on the primary and secondary side of a three-phase transformer, with 13.8 kV on the primary and 4.16 kV on the secondary. A secondary current of 100 amperes will cause a primary current to flow. 4.16 100 --------- = 30.1 A 13.8
(Eq. 600-1)

On the time-current curve the 13.8 kV primary voltage can be shown as either 100 amperes at the 4.16 kV secondary voltage level or 30.1 amperes at 13.8 kV. A voltage level within the system must be chosen and all currents referenced to that voltage level. See Figure 600-16. The x-axis is expressed in amperes of current at the reference voltage. See (1) in Figure 600-17. Often the current axis at the bottom of the curve is scaled. If so, the title should indicate the scaling factor (e.g., Current in Amperes x 1000, if the scaling factor is 1000.)

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Fig. 600-16 Case 1 Relay Coordination Example (Courtesy of the General Electric Company)

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Fig. 600-17 Case 2 Relay Coordination Example (Courtesy of the General Electric Company)

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Other information displayed on the time current curve is as follows: 1. Maximum fault current level the protective devices can be subjected to. The characteristic curves of protective devices are normally not drawn beyond the maximum fault current level. See (2) in Figure 600-17. The time-current characteristics of all relays, fuses and molded-case circuit breakers relating to the system being coordinated. Their CT ratios, tap, time dial, and instantaneous setting values. See (3) in Figure 600-17. The one-line diagram of the system to be coordinated. See (4) in Figure 600-17. Any thermal damage or withstand limit curves for cables, motors, transformers or generators. See (5) in Figure 600-17. Cable ampacities, transformer full load amperes, generator and motor full load amperes. See (6) in Figure 600-17. Transformer inrush points. Motor acceleration time-current curves. See (7) in Figure 600-17.

2.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Fault Levels and the Coordination Curve


Both symmetrical and asymmetrical currents are of interest in relay applications since different relays respond to different fault currents. To determine which relay will operate at a given point in time, the value of fault current to which each relay responds must be known. Fuses, direct acting trip units associated with low voltage circuit breakers, and instantaneous relays respond to asymmetrical short circuit current. The value of this current can be approximated by multiplying the calculated symmetrical first cycle short circuit current by 1.6, although this multiple varies with the impedanceto-resistance ratio (X/R). For an explanation of first cycle short circuit current, see Section 220, of this manual. Induction disk overcurrent relays respond to the symmetrical fault current a few cycles later, after it is reduced in magnitude. This current value is approximated by the interrupting current calculated in the short circuit study at 3 to 5 cycles.

Coordination Time Intervals


Relay curves are extended only to the value of the maximum fault current that affects them. At the fault current value, the vertical time separation between curves of relays in series (which see the same current), determines if selective coordination exists. If the curves have too little vertical separation at the fault current level, the relay that will operate first cannot be predicted, and selective tripping cannot be guaranteed. Figure 600-18 shows the suggested minimum values of time intervals between overcurrent protective devices in series, to insure coordination. If the relays characteristics are of the same general shape, and if these intervals are applied at the maximum fault level, the relays will also coordinate at lower values of current.

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Fig. 600-18 Time Margins for Use with Induction Disc Overcurrent Relays (1 of 2) (From Procedure for an Overcurrent Protective Device, January, 1979. Courtesy of Square D. Company)

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Fig. 600-18 Time Margins for Use with Induction Disc Overcurrent Relays (2 of 2) (From Procedure for an Overcurrent Protective Device, January, 1979. Courtesy of Square D. Company)

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In addition to the information in Figure 600-18, induction disk relay-to-relay coordination time intervals can be reduced from 0.38 seconds to 0.25 seconds at the maximum fault level if the relays are set and calibrated at specific critical operating points in the field. It is recommended that this be done before startup. In some of the examples, 0.25 second intervals are used, based on field calibration being performed. If the relays are not calibrated in the field, 0.38 seconds must be used. When coordinating molded-case circuit breakers with other molded-case circuit breakers or solid-state-direct-acting relays on low voltage circuit breakers with other solid-state-direct-acting relays, the coordination criterion is that there be no overlap. No space is required between the boundaries of the time bands of the two devices; however, they cannot overlap.

Example Showing How to Interpret Relay Coordination Curves


Figure 600-16 and Figure 600-17 provide two examples of typical information shown on time coordination curves including transformers, cables, and motors, and show how to interpret them. These examples are not exhaustive, but serve to make some important points. For more information on protective relaying see the reference section (Section 650).

Case 1Transformer Protection (Figure 600-16)


Figure 600-16 shows the overcurrent relaying of a 5000 kVA delta-delta transformer with a 13.8 kV primary and a 4.16 kV secondary.

One-line Diagram
The one-line diagram of the system being studied is shown to the side of the relay curves. It shows all of the relays whose curves are on the coordination drawing and all CT ratios. All voltage levels are also shown on the one-line diagram, as well as the transformer kVA, impedance, and winding type. The size of the cable is also shown.

Graph Scales
The current scale is identified as currents at 13.8 kV. Any currents on the 4.16 kV side of the transformer must be multiplied by the factor 4.16/13.8 before they can be displayed on the curve.

Fault Current Values


The fault currents at the locations of interest in the one-line diagram are shown at the top of the figure; sometimes they are marked at the bottom for convenience. The fault current values should always be shown on a time overcurrent curve since the coordination time interval requirements must be met at this value of maximum fault current. The relay curves are not extended any further than the maximum fault current to which they can be exposed since the current will never exceed this value. The transformer full load current (209 amperes) is marked at the top of the figure. The requirement of Article 450-3 of NEC is that the primary breaker not be set at a value higher than 600% of rated current. This is the 6 X Trans FL point at the top

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of the diagram, and limits the maximum allowable pickup setting of the primary 50/51 relay.

Cable Protection
The cable also must be protected in accordance with requirements of NEC. For low voltage cables, the relay must protect the cable according to its ampacity; for cables at voltages greater than 600 volts, the breaker must be set to trip below six times the ampacity of the cable (NEC Article 240-100). The transformer and cable overload protection are the lower constraints on the relay protection. The cable heating limit (CHL) curve is in the lower right area of the time current coordination curve. This curve shows how long the cable can withstand short circuit currents of different magnitudes without exceeding the temperature which would cause damage to the insulation. Cables have different CHL curves, depending on the type of insulation and the wire size. These curves are available from sources listed in the references of Section 200, System Studies and Protection (see also the Buff Book). An example of a CHL curve is shown in Figure 600-19.

Transformer Protection
The ANSI transformer short-time-loading-limit curve is plotted on the time-current sheet. This curve is found in ANSI C57.109-1985 and also in the Buff Book. Curves can be applied directly at the values shown in the ANSI curve for transformers with delta-delta or wye-wye windings. For delta-wye transformers, the short-time-loading-limit curve current values must be reduced to 58% of the values shown. This reduction provides protection for a secondary side single phase to neutral fault and would result in shifting the short-time-loading-limit curve to the left. The transformer inrush point must also be indicated on the coordination drawing. This point is usually shown at 12 times the transformer full load current at 0.1 seconds for primary substation and pad type units, and at eight times full load current at 0.1 second for load center type units.

Relay Settings
Figure 600-16 shows that there is a time overcurrent relay and an instantaneous relay associated with the primary circuit breaker. The time overcurrent is set with a tap setting of 10 amperes and a time dial setting of 3. The primary pickup current for this relay is the CT ratio multiplied by the tap setting (300/5 x 10 = 600 amperes). Transformer full load current is 209 amperes. The 600 amperes pickup is less than six times the transformer full load current (1254), the maximum allowed by NEC, Table 450-3. Note that the transformer primary overcurrent relay curve is below and to the left (Figure 600-16) of the transformer short-time-loading curve at the three-phase short circuit (interrupting rating) current value on the secondary side of the transformer. Therefore, the primary overcurrent relay will provide short-circuit protection for secondary short-circuit currents.

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Fig. 600-19 Typical Insulated Cable Short Circuit Heating Limits (Time-Current Curves). (Courtesy of General Electric Company)

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Transformer Primary-side Protection


As added protection, an instantaneous relay was used on the primary. It is set just above the asymmetrical value of the first cycle short circuit current (1.6 x IFCY). This is the current impressed on the primary side if there is a fault on the secondary side of the transformer; therefore, a secondary fault will not trip the primary instantaneous relay. This feature ensures selectivity with the secondary overcurrent relay, which should trip first on a secondary fault. The primary side instantaneous relay is set below the asymmetrical value of the first cycle current for a short circuit on the primary side of the transformer so the instantaneous relay will trip for a primary side fault, but not for a secondary side fault. The instantaneous relay is set below the cable heating limit curve, but above the transformer inrush point (called magnetizing current and labelled MAG).

Transformer Secondary-side Protection


The secondary time overcurrent device, labelled 51 in Figure 600-16, has a pickup below six times the cable ampacity needed to comply with NEC requirements, but above the full load current of the transformer. It also must have a pickup below three times the full load current of the transformer as required by NEC Article 4503. The secondary 51 device curve is below and to the left of the transformer shorttime-loading curve at the maximum three phase secondary fault through breaker B1, so the transformer is protected against faults. It is also 0.25 seconds below the primary overcurrent relay curve to provide coordination at the maximum secondary fault, IINT. Only a 0.25 second coordination interval is required if the relays are field calibrated. If the relays are not field calibrated, 0.38 to 0.40 seconds are required.

Case 2 Motor Protection (Figure 600-17)


Figure 600-17 demonstrates relay coordination for a 3000 hp motor, protected by a circuit breaker with an overcurrent relay and an instantaneous relay. The one-line diagram is in the upper right corner of the coordination drawing, showing the CT ratio (200/5), the cable size, and the relay device numbers. The cable short circuit heating limit curve is plotted for the 1/0 feeder conductors. The cable ampacity, 195 amperes, is plotted at the top of the figure. The asymmetrical fault current at the motor, from the short circuit study, is indicated at the top right of the figure since the instantaneous device responds to this current. The instantaneous device is set below the maximum asymmetrical fault current so that it will respond to the fault current.

Motor Acceleration Curve


The motor accelerating current curve, consisting of three parts, is also plotted. When induction motors are first started, they have a magnetic inrush, similar to that of a transformer (which lasts less than 0.1 seconds)this is the motor starting amperes (MSA). The value of this starting current is approximately 1.6 times the locked rotor amps, usually less than 10 times the full load amps of the motor. The

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instantaneous device is set approximately 10% above this value to ensure it will not trip when the motor starts, yet will still trip for fault currents above this value. The second part of the motor accelerating curve is the locked rotor amperes (LRA)640 amperes in this case. This value is usually in the range of four to six times the full load current of the motor. The value can be obtained from the manufacturer or, for low voltage motors, can be calculated from the locked rotor code, which gives the starting kVA per horsepower. When the motor reaches operating speed, after about 5 seconds, the current levels off to approximately the full load amps of the motor110 amperes in this case. The actual acceleration time can be estimated or calculated as demonstrated in Section 400, where motor starting is discussed. The acceleration time-current curve serves as a lower restraint for the 51 relay timecurrent curve. If the relay curve intersects the motor acceleration time-current curve, the motor will be shut down before it reaches operating speed.

Motor Thermal Limit Curve


Next, the motor thermal limit curve is drawn on the time current sheet. For large motors this curve is obtained from the manufacturer. Sometimes the thermal limits are given in terms of maximum stall times from a hot or cold starting condition. Both conditions are illustrated in Figure 600-17. The curve for the motor overload protection, supplied by the 51 device in this case, passes below and to the left of the motor thermal limit curve. The tap setting of the 51 relay is set at 4, establishing a pickup current of 200/5 x 4 = 160 amperes. The time dial is set at 2; therefore, the relay provides the required protection for the motor and the feeder. Typical pickup current settings for a 51 device used for stall protection of a motor is 150% to 250% of the motor full load amps. Since the cable ampacity is 200 amperes, the cable is adequately protected against overloading. NEC requires that the cable be protected within six times its ampacity.

Setting the Relay


The motor full load amps is 110 amperes, so the pickup setting allows the motor to run. The curve of the 51 relay lies between the motor acceleration curve and the motor thermal limit curve, allowing the motor to start and run, but protecting it against locked rotor conditions. The instantaneous setting at 110% of the motor starting amps, which exceeds the motor starting amps, provides an extra degree of protection against faults and also gives additional cable fault protection.

634 Ground Fault Relaying and Coordination


Another form of overcurrent relaying is ground fault relaying. The majority of all electrical faults involve ground faults. Arcing ground faults can be extremely destructive in electrical systems since they can be of such low current values that standard phase overcurrent devices may not detect them. If these faults are not cleared, the arcing may continue until a fire or serious damage results. This circumstance is particularly applicable to low voltage systems, but it is important to consider ground fault relaying in electrical systems at all voltage levels.

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Typical ground fault protection schemes are not sensitive to load currents; therefore, the ground fault relay pickups can be set much lower than the phase overcurrent relays protecting the same feeder or electrical device. Typical pickup settings for ground fault relaying range from 10% to 100% of the phase overcurrent relay settings, usually closer to the lower end of the range for modern sensitive ground fault relays. Ground fault relays usually do not require as severe coordination time restraints as phase overcurrent relays. Ground faults are not seen by the relays on both sides of delta-wye and wye-delta transformers. They are seen only on the faulted side, so the relays on both sides of the transformer do not have to be time delayed to allow mutual coordination.

Types of Ground Fault Protection


1. Residually Connected Ground Fault Relaying (Device 51N) A residually connected ground fault relaying scheme is shown in Figure 600-12. This scheme normally is used on medium voltage systems. Usually the currents in phases A, B, and C vectorially add to zeroresulting in little or no current through the ground residual relay. However, if one of the phases becomes grounded, the flow of the external ground fault current causes an unbalance in the CT currents, and a current proportional to the ground fault current flows through the residual relaycausing it to trip the circuit breaker. Since the residual relay does not actuate for normal load currents, it can be set to pick up at much lower currents than the phase overcurrent relays fed by the same set of CTs. It should be set low enough to provide sensitive ground fault tripping, but high enough to eliminate spurious tripping and allow coordination with any other downstream ground fault relaying which sees the same fault. The residual scheme is not as sensitive as the core balance or zero sequence (window CT) scheme, and is not often used on low voltage systems. It is used widely on medium voltage systems since ground fault currents usually are higher. 2. Core Balance Ground Fault Relaying (Device 50/51G) Figure 600-9 shows a typical core balance or zero sequence current transformer ground fault relay scheme. This method is very sensitive and is widely used on low voltage systems. During balanced normal load current flow, the magnetic fields of the three phases passing through the window CT vectorially add to zero, producing no secondary current in the CT. Like the residually connected ground fault scheme, the core balance method is insensitive to normal load currents. However, if one of the conductors becomes grounded, a large external current flows outside the window CT, resulting in a flux unbalance within the window CT. This produces a secondary current of sufficient magnitude to trip the ground fault relay. The core balance ground fault relaying device can be used with shielded or non-shielded cables. If it is used with shielded cables, it is important to route

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the shield drain wires back through the window CT as shown in Figure 600-9. This arrangement prevents magnetic flux due to ground fault currents (which return through the shield) from cancelling and therefore remaining undetected. Another problem related to shield wires where multiple grounds are used is caused by currents that circulate through the shields due to different ground potentials. These circulating currents can cause sensitive core balance relays to trip. There are two ways to solve this problem: (1) the ground loop can be eliminated or (2) the relay can be adjusted to be less sensitive so that it will not trip as a result of the circulating currents. 3. Ground Return Figure 600-20 shows a medium voltage delta-wye transformer with a low resistance grounded wye secondary. The CT in the neutral ground resistor circuit path sees only ground fault currents which return to the transformer neutral from a fault on one of the phases. As in the other schemes, this CT would not see load current; therefore, it could be set with a much lower pickup. Figure 600-21 shows a similar arrangement commonly used in high resistance grounded 480 volt systems. Instead of a CT, a meter relay monitors the voltage across the grounding resistor. Under normal conditions, there is little or no voltage across the resistor. However, if one of the phases goes to ground, there will be a ground return current through the resistor. This current will produce a voltage approaching line-to-neutral. The meter relay will detect this voltage and alarm.
Fig. 600-20 Ground Return Relay for a Low Resistance Grounding Scheme on a Transformer Fig. 600-21 Meter Relay Used for High Resistance Grounding Scheme on a Transformer

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4.

Solid State Direct-Acting Ground Fault Relaying in Low Voltage Circuit Breakers Low voltage circuit breakers are available with solid state trip units which have a ground fault protection feature (as well as the standard long time, short time, and instantaneous functions). A typical time-current curve for such a device is shown in Figure 600-22. The pickup levels which can be chosen are much lower than the phase overcurrent long time pickup selections, as can be seen from the available settings for the ground fault function. These solid state devices also have an adjustable ground fault delay band (time delay) to allow coordination with other ground fault devices.

Selection of Settings for Ground Fault Relaying


For best protection against ground faults, ground fault relaying should be applied from source to load. The pickup current for the series ground fault relays can all be set at approximately the same current level (between 10% and 100% of the phase overcurrent pickup level). It is recommended that the pickup level be set as low as possible without causing spurious shutdowns due to inrush currents. The time delays for coordination between series ground fault devices which sense the same faults follow the same rules as the overcurrent device coordination intervals. The ground fault relays which protect load devices (such as motors) can also be obtained with an instantaneous setting.

Ground Fault Relaying Example


Figure 600-23 shows a typical ground fault protection scheme for a transformer, a feeder, and motor branch circuits. The ground fault relays protecting the motor branch circuits are 50GS instantaneous ground fault relays set to trip well below the full load current of the motors. The ground fault relays protecting the transformer and feeder, 51G1 and 51G2, are both fed by the same CT and are coordinated so they provide two levels of ground fault protection above the 50GS protecting the motors. They are both set with the same tap setting (to pick up at about 20 amperes), but the time dials are set differently to provide coordination; 51G1 is set 0.25 seconds above the instantaneous motor ground fault relay to provide coordination. Note that these relays must be field calibrated to use the 0.25 second interval rather than the standard 0.38 second interval. Two relays are used to provide backup protection. The 51G1 relay trips the secondary breaker. If this fails, then the 51G2 relay trips A7, the transformer primary breaker. The settings on both relays are well below the expected load currents of the transformer and motors.

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Fig. 600-22 Typical Time-Current Characteristics of Low-Voltage Breakers (From Procedure for an Overcurrent Protective Device, by Curd & Curtis, January, 1979. Courtesy of Square D. Company)

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Fig. 600-23 Example of Ground Fault Relay Coordination (Courtesy of the General Electric Company)

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635 Other Common Types of Relay Protection


Thermal Overload Protection
Thermal overload relays are used for motor thermal overload protection. 1. Bimetallic Two metals with different coefficients of expansion are bonded together, usually in the form of a stripoccasionally a disc. One end is fixed; the other can move freely. A resistive heater element in series with the motor current is wound around the strip. If the strip is heated sufficiently, it moves over a certain distance and opens, by snap action, a normally closed contact in the coil circuit of the starter for the motor. When the coil circuit is opened, the main contacts of the starter open, and the motor is de-energized. Heaters are chosen from manufacturers tables, based on the normal load current of the motor. 2. Melting-alloy This type of thermal overload protection employs a metal alloy that is called eutectic; it melts at an extremely low temperature for metals. This temperature is between 80C and 150C (176F to 272F). Since this same alloy is used for specialty soldering, this type of overload relay is sometimes called a solder-pot relay. During normal operations a small ratchet is kept under torsional force by a spring. However, the ratchet is kept from turning by the solidified eutectic metal. A heating element melts the eutectic metal if the overload persists long enough. When the metal alloy melts, the ratchet turns on its shaft because of the spring. A lever opens a normally closed relay contact, which in turn opens a normally closed contact in the coil circuit of the motor. This removes power from the motor. The relay can be reset. 3. Ambient-compensated If a motor and its starter are exposed to different ambient temperatures, it may be necessary to use an ambient-compensated thermal relay to achieve proper overload protection. The most common situation is that in which the ambient of the starter is controlled, but that of the motor is not. Only bimetallic relays are available with ambient-compensated features. 4. Current-actuated Overload Relay (Device 49) A current actuated overload relay is sensitive to sustained stator currents in excess of the motors continuous rating, to the high inrush currents that flow during the starting period, and to overcurrents resulting from unbalanced voltage conditions. It will also respond to heat resulting from jogging or frequent starting.

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The relay may or may not be ambient-compensated. Ambient compensation is used to offset the differences in temperature between the motor ambient and the interior of the controller enclosure. The relay is mounted in the controller. This relay is recommended for all motors above 600-volts. 5. Temperature-actuated Overload Relay (Device 49T) A temperature-actuated overload relay detects and responds to actual heating in the motor by means of resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) embedded in the motor windings. The RTDs may have a 10 ohm value, but 120 ohms are recommended as 120 ohm RTDs are more accurate. The value to be used should be established and included in the motor specifications. A temperture-actuated overload relay is sensitive to motor heating due to continuous overloads, frequent starting, jogging, unbalanced voltage conditions, loss or restriction of ventilation, high atmospheric temperatures, and other abnormal conditions. It is recommended for motors rated 1500 hp and larger. 6. Combination Thermal Overload Relay (Device 49/49T) A combination thermal overload relay is a solid state relay. It uses an RTD input to sense motor temperature, provide continuous overload protection, and a current-actuated input that is responsive to the rate of temperature rise of the rotor during the starting period. This relay combines the best features of the current-actuated and temperature-actuated overload relays described above (4 and 5) to provide good overall protection in a single device. Complete motor information (such as full-load current, locked-rotor current, rotor/stator thermal time limit, motor-winding temperature rise, RTD ohms, and CT ratio) must be furnished for proper selection and calibration of the relay. A combination thermal overload relay may be used in lieu of either a current-actuated or a temperature-actuated overload relay, or both.

Fault Protection
1. Instantaneous Overcurrent Relay (Device 50) An instantaneous overcurrent relay is an instantaneous current-sensing unit capable of being adjusted over a wide range of current settings. It should be set to operate at currents above the locked-rotor inrush (including its DC offset) typically 10 times the motor full-load current. The 50 relay can be integrally mounted in the same case as the current-actuated thermal relay (49) or timed-overcurrent-relay (51), or provided in a separate case. When a fused magnetic-contactor starter is used, this relay is not required since the fuse will provide short-circuit protection. An instantaneous overcurrent relay is recommended for all motors above 600 volts. 2. Differential Relay (Device 87) A differential relay provides sensitive high-speed protection against internal motor faults. It is recommended for motors rated 1500 hp and larger. It is also

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recommended for critical motors. The decision to use differential protection is normally based on a comparison between the cost to provide the protection and the cost to repair or replace a motor. Downtime costs are also a factor to be considered. Two basic schemes are used to provide this protection for large motors: conventional and self-balancing. a. Conventional scheme. The conventional scheme utilizes a total of six current transformers and three differential relays. One set of current transformers is located in the motor controller, and the other set is located in the motor terminal box (on the neutral side of the motor winding). This scheme provides protection against phase-to-phase internal winding faults, faults in the primary cable, and ground faults. The relay typically used is either a standard-speed, fixed-percentage, induction-disk relay or a highspeed variable-percentage relay. The latter costs slightly more. (See Figure 600-24a.) Self-balancing differential scheme. This scheme consists of three differential relays energized from three flux-balance current transformers mounted at the motor terminals. Small-ratio current transformers (e.g., 50:5) are recommended to obtain higher sensitivity to lower primary currents.

b.

Because of faster operation, better sensitivity, and lower cost, the self-balancing scheme is usually preferred over the conventional scheme. However, the stiffness of the feeder cables required by large motors may limit its application because of the difficulty of routing the supply and return wires through the junction box. (See Figure 600-24b.)
Fig. 600-24 Differential Schemes

(a) Conventional Differential Protection Scheme, One Phase Shown

(b) Self-Balancing Differential Scheme

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Undervoltage or Loss of Voltage Protection


1. Undervoltage Relay (Device 27) An undervoltage relay should be provided on each bus supplying motors controlled by switchgear or latched contactors. The function of the undervoltage relay is to trip the buses on complete loss of voltage or sustained voltages below tolerable operating limits. This relay will prohibit instant restart of motors upon return of voltage and also limit overheating of the stator windings because of sustained undervoltage. Undervoltage relay protection is not required for low voltage motor starters (less than 60 volts) since the contactor opens on low voltage. However, undervoltage relays may be used to open the contactor if low voltage is of short duration. The undervoltage relay has an inverse time characteristic with adjustable operating settings for both time and voltage. A single relay sensing phase-to-phase voltage is adequate, since voltage variations normally affect all phases. The undervoltage relaying scheme is designed to trip each motor controller (through an auxiliary relay) rather than trip the incoming line breaker. Undervoltage relays are recommended for all medium voltage motors (600 volts and above). For most installations, it is recommended that this device be combined with current balance (46) and phase sequence voltage (47) relays.

Current and Voltage Unbalance Protection


1. Current-Balance Relay (Device 46) In a fused motor starter, an open fuse will allow the motor to operate singlephased. The resulting unbalanced currents in each of the unopened phases will produce serious heating in the motor. A current-balance relay on each motor feeder will properly sense this unbalanced condition and trip the motor. This relay is a three-phase device that will operate when there is a fixed percentage of unbalance between any two phases. Device 46 is recommended for 1500 hp and larger motors. Standard current-operated overload relays (even one per phase) cannot be depended upon for reliable protection against unbalanced conditions. The rate of heating in the rotor due to negative-sequence currents is considerably higher than that for positive-sequence currents. The current in the two unopened phases has a large component of negative-sequence currents, approximately equal to the positive-sequence currents. These currents can cause rotor damage before the overload relay operates. Although the overload may eventually initiate tripping, the motor can be substantially damaged before it can be removed from the bus. 2. Voltage Balance Relay (Device 60) This device detects unbalanced voltages and provides a trip signal which can be used for protection of motors against single phasing. Another use of this relay is to monitor fuses of potential transformers and other relays connected to the potential transformers, thus preventing unnecessary trip-

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ping in the event of a blown fuse. Alarms to indicate blown fuses can also be provided. 3. Blown-Fuse Trip The blown fuse trip is not recommended for motors greater than 1500 hp; it is not reliable. The lower cost of the blown-fuse trip device is its only advantage over the current-balance relay. The blown-fuse trip consists of a trip bar that will trip and close a switch contact in the event of a blown fuse, thus sending a signal to the contactor to open the other two phases. This feature can be purchased as an option on medium voltage fused starters.

Phase Sequence Protection


1. Phase Sequence Voltage Relay (Device 47) A phase sequence relay is used to detect a reversed phase rotation. The relay can protect against starting a motor with a reverse-phase sequence. A reversephase sequence causes a motor to run in the opposite direction, which can cause equipment damage. A phase sequence voltage relay may be used on a bus to protect a group of motors.

Special Protection Schemes


1. Incomplete Starting Sequence (Device 48) This scheme provides additional protection to the motor and its associated starting equipment in the case of failure to complete the predetermined starting sequence. It is used in reduced-inrush starting schemes, wound-rotor motor starting schemes, and unloaded-start synchronous motor starting schemes. A time delay relay is used to sense a failure of equipment to reach normal running conditions within a specified starting time. An auxiliary contact on the motor starter is used to engage the timer. The timer is preset to have a slightly longer time interval than is required for normal starting. The tripping contact of the timer is blocked by an auxiliary contact that operates last to complete the starting sequence. This scheme is recommended for medium voltage (2300 volts to 13.2 kV) synchronous motors. 2. Repetitive-Start Protection All large motors have a limitation on the number of starts allowed within a given time period (e.g., three per hour). A time-delay relay may be used to block successive restarts until a preset time interval has elapsed. This protection will ensure that the maximum allowable number of starts in a given period is not exceeded. 3. Directional Overcurrent Relay (Device 67) This relay is similar to a standard overcurrent relay (Device 51) except that it provides sensitive tripping for fault currents in one direction and ignores load and fault currents in the other direction. A typical use of this relay is on incoming power from a source. In this case, the relay would only detect power flowing from the plant to the source, a situation which would occur for a fault

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located near the source. It would not detect load current flowing to the load; therefore, it could be set lower than a normal bi-directional overcurrent relay. 4. Lockout Relay (Device 86) A lockout relay sends a signal to trip the breaker it is associated with. This relay is used in conjunction with other protective relays in switchgear and motor control centers. It has no protective features and serves as a contact multiplier or allows the use of higher currents through its contacts than the relay contacts can withstand. In a typical application, relay contacts are wired to the trip circuit of a lockout relay. When the relay contacts close, the lockout relay trips, thus tripping the circuit breaker or starter. The lockout relay must be manually reset before the circuit breaker or starter can be reclosed. The lockout relay is often connected so that it can be tripped by multiple relays. 5. Directional Power Relay (Device 32) This device is sensitive to power flow in one direction and ignores power flow in the other. A typical application is used for utility lines serving a plant which also has local generating capability. If it is needed only to import power from the utility, the directional power relay can be set to alarm or trip on power flow from the plant generators to the utility. Another use of the directional power relay is as an anti-motoring device for generators. It should be set to detect power entering the generator terminals from other parallel generators, indicating a paralleling problem or a loss of the prime mover. 6. Fault Pressure Relay (Device 63) This device is mounted directly on a transformer and has a pressure tap to the inside of the transformer tank. If there is an internal fault in the transformer, it will produce gases which will increase the internal pressure. The fault pressure relay will detect the sudden increase in internal pressure and close a set of contacts. These contacts are usually wired to send a trip signal to the transformers primary circuit breaker. 7. Overvoltage Relay (Device 59) This relay is adjustable to trip on increasing voltage at a specified value. It is used for protection of sensitive components against sustained overvoltage. Another common use of this relay is in ground fault protection circuits, such as those utilizing a high resistance grounding resistor. This relay would be used to monitor the voltage across the ground resistor and to close a set of alarm contacts if the voltage reaches a specified value. 8. Loss of Excitation Relay (Device 40) This relay is used to protect against loss of field for both synchronous motors and synchronous generators. In the simpler cases for small motors, it monitors

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field current and provides a trip signal on loss of this current. On larger motors and generators, it monitors the relative angle between voltage and current. It also provides a trip signal when the angle indicates a loss of field. 9. Synchronizing Relays (Device 25) Synchronizing relays are used to control breaker closure when connecting two power sources which must be synchronized. A typical application of this type of relay would be to supervise or initiate the breaker closure of generators connected to the same bus. A synchronizing relay monitors the difference between the terminal voltage, frequency, and phase angle of the oncoming generator and the bus to which it is to be connected. When these differences are within the specified range, the relay supplies a contact closure which serves as a permissive for manual breaker closure, or initiates the breaker closure automatically, thus connecting the generator to the bus. 10. Distance Relay (Device 21) Distance relays are fault detection devices that are mainly used on transmission lines. They provide a trip signal if the fault is within a specified distance from the relay location. The distance relay monitors the phase relationship between the current and voltage on the transmission line. From this relationship, the distance to the fault can be determined. If the fault is within the specified distance zone of the relay, a trip signal is initiated. This distance is altered by adjusting the values allowed for R and X for which the relay will trip.

636 Electrical Component Protection and NEC Requirements


Bus Protection
Since switchgear buses are vital parts of the electrical system, they need protection that will rapidly clear ground faults or phase faults on the bus. On low voltage buses this function usually is handled by the multi-function solid-state direct-acting trips on the incoming and outgoing circuits. These units can provide both overcurrent protection and ground fault protection. On medium voltage buses, differential protection is often used to provide instantaneous bus fault protection (see Differential Relay, Device 87). This protection offers an advantage since the differential relays do not have to be time delayed to coordinate with overcurrent relaying at different voltage levels in the electrical system. The principle behind differential relaying is that the sum of the currents entering the bus must equal the sum of the currents leaving the bus. If a fault occurs on the bus, this upsets the balance and all the breakers on the bus are immediately tripped to clear the fault. This scheme works well with sectionalized buses connected by tie breakers. Both sections of the bus can be protected by individual bus differential relays, so a fault on one side of the bus will isolate only that side, allowing continuity of load on the other side. Bus differential relays are not sensi-

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tive to faults outside the bus zone. Figure 600-25 shows a typical bus differential scheme.
Fig. 600-25 Typical Bus Differential Relay Scheme

Buses protected by bus differential schemes have backup protection provided by overcurrent relays on the incoming line to the bus.

Feeder Protection
The most commonly applied protection of feeders is time overcurrent relaying. Other less common schemes are pilot wire differential relaying and directional overcurrent relaying. 1. Low Voltage Feeders In general, low voltage feeder conductors are required to be protected against overcurrent according to their ampacities per NEC Article 240-3 and the tables of Article 310. Low voltage feeders are usually protected by fuses or circuit breakers which give this protection. Additionally, separate ground fault protection may be provided. It is important to note that an instantaneous trip feature should not be provided on feeders which supply motor control centers with molded case circuit breakers. The instantaneous overcurrent trip on the feeder breaker will not coordinate with the molded-case circuit breakers in the MCC and may result in an outage of the entire MCC when there is a fault on a motor or other device. A suitable short-time delay trip feature should be used instead of an instantaneous trip feature on the feeder to an MCC.

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2.

Medium Voltage Feeders NEC Article 240-100 requires that feeders above 600 volts be protected against short circuit by a fuse set at a maximum of three times the ampacity of the feeder, or by a circuit breaker set at a maximum of six times the ampacity of the feeder.

3.

Typical Overcurrent Schemes Figure 600-26 shows a typical overcurrent scheme suitable for low voltage feeders. The instantaneous Device 50 should not be used if there are downstream devices requiring coordination at the same voltage level. Also shown on this figure is a ground fault relay 50/51 GS. A residually connected 50/51N relay is often used in lieu of the 50/51 GS.

Fig. 600-26 Typical Feeder Protection Scheme

In addition to overcurrent protection, the short circuit heating limit of the cable must be considered for protecting feeders. If the feeder is protected by a time delay relay, it will allow the short circuit current to persist for a short time. This time period must be compared to the short circuit heating limit curve for the cable. Figure 600-19 (located at the end of this section) shows typical short circuit heating limit curves. The curves depend on the wire size and the insulation of the cable. When plotted on the same time-current coordination curve, the overcurrent relay curve should lie below and to the left of the short circuit heating limit curve. A directional overcurrent scheme is applied when it is desirable to have relays detect overcurrent conditions in one direction only. This situation might occur on an incoming line where current only should be flowing to the plant. A reverse in current direction would indicate a fault or abnormal condition.

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4.

Pilot Wire Relays Pilot wire relays use a form of differential relaying that provides high speed fault protection for feeders. The system compares line currents at both ends of the line and trips if there is a significant difference. The pilot wire scheme requires additional small conductors to be installed the length of the line and special circuitry to make it unnecessary to route the actual CT current from one end of the line to the other. The advantages of pilot wire relaying are high speed and sensitivity, which minimize the possibility of feeder damage due to overheating during a fault.

Transformer Protection
Transformers should be protected against internal faults, external faults, and overload conditions. Transformers connected to overhead lines should also be protected by surge arresters to prevent insulation failure due to lightning overvoltage impulses. For more information, see Section 800, Transformers. NEC Article 450-3 prescribes the required minimum overcurrent protection requirements for transformers both above and below 600 volts.

Short Time Withstand Capability


Transformers must also be protected according to their short time withstand capability. These withstand curves are found in the IEEE Red Book, Buff Book, and in ANSI C57.109. When applying the transformer short time withstand curves for the purpose of relay coordination, the effect of external secondary faults on delta-delta and delta-wye transformers must be considered. Phase-to-neutral and phase-tophase faults on the secondary side of a delta-wye transformer will not have the same per-unit current value on the primary side. This difference is due to the deltawye connection, and may prevent the primary relay from responding quickly enough to prevent transformer damage. As a result, for delta-wye transformers, the ANSI short time withstand curve must be shifted to the left on the time-current curve by 58% so that the primary protective device will provide protection against a secondary line-to-neutral fault in accordance with the short time withstand rating, as illustrated in Figure 600-27.

Transformer Inrush
When protecting a transformer with overcurrent protection devices, it is necessary that their settings be high enough to allow the transformer inrush current that occurs on energizing the transformer. This inrush current is usually considered to be eight to 12 times the transformer full load current for 0.1 second duration. This point is usually shown on the time-current coordination curve. The inrush point should fall below and to the left of the curve of the transformer primary protective device. See Figure 600-16 for an example showing transformer magnetic inrush on a timecurrent coordination curve.

Primary/Secondary Devices
If a transformer is protected by both primary and secondary overcurrent protective devices, it is desirable that they coordinate, particularly if the primary device is a

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Fig. 600-27 Effect of External Secondary Faults on Transformer Protection and Coordination Requirements (From Procedure for an Overcurrent Protective Device, by Curd & Curtis, January 1979. Courtesy of Square D. Company.)

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fuse. If a fault occurs on a bus fed by the secondary of a transformer, it is preferable for the secondary breaker to trip rather than for the primary fuse to blow. If the fuses blow, replacements may not be available and more work is required to replace fuses on the high voltage side of the transformer than to reset the secondary breaker. An instantaneous overcurrent relay may be used in combination with a time overcurrent relay on the transformer primary protection and still provide coordination with the transformer secondary overcurrent device, if the primary instantaneous relay is set above the maximum secondary asymmetrical fault value but below the primary maximum asymmetrical fault value. This is demonstrated in the Case 1 example of relay coordination illustrated in Figure 600-16.

Internal Faults
There are several means of protecting against internal transformer faults. A fault pressure relay (Device 63), mounted on the transformer, detects a sudden pressure increase inside the transformer due to an internal fault and trips the primary circuit breaker. Device 63 is usually specified on large oil-filled transformers (1000 kVA). Upstream primary overcurrent and ground fault protective relays will also provide a degree of protection against internal transformer faults, but may be too slow for some low-level internal faults. One of the best methods of protecting large transformers against internal faults is to use transformer differential relaying (Device 87T). This system includes the transformer and a surrounding zone which may also include some of the transformer feeder cable. The transformer differential relaying compares the primary transformer current with the equivalent secondary current. To accomplish this, the CTs on the primary and secondary of the transformer have different ratios to match the transformer turns ratio. If there is an internal fault, it is quickly detected and cleared. The relay action is instantaneous, thereby minimizing damage to the transformer and reducing costly repairs. It does not have to be coordinated with other relays. Depending on the extent of the zone covered by the differential relaying, it may provide some degree of external fault protection. When using transformer differential relaying on transformers of 2 MVA or larger at 15 kV and above, differential relays with a harmonic restraint feature should be used to prevent the transformer from tripping on energizing because of the harmonics of the inrush current.

Overload Protection
Transformer overload protection is usually provided by an overcurrent device in the secondary main breaker or by a secondary fuse of the transformer. On large transformers, an embedded winding thermocouple or oil temperature thermometer (Device 49) can be used to alarm or shut down when insulation temperature limits are exceeded.

Examples
Figure 600-28 shows the typical protection for a small transformer. Figure 600-29 shows typical protection for a transformer with medium voltage windings. Figure 600-30 is a coordination curve showing the primary and secondary protec-

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tion of a transformer. Notice that the primary overcurrent relay curve lies below and to the left of the transformer short time withstand curve and coordinates with the secondary main breaker. Notice too that the transformer inrush point is plotted and lies below and to the left of the primary overcurrent relay.
Fig. 600-28 Recommended Minimum Protection for Transformers 2500 kVA and Below, Medium and Low-Voltage Windings Fig. 600-29 Recommended Minimum Protection for Transformers 750 kVA and Above, MediumVoltage Windings

Since the transformer is a delta-wye, the short time withstand curve has been shifted to the left to 58% of its unshifted value to protect against line-to-neutral faults. Unshifted curves can be obtained from the IEEE Red Book. Since a secondary line-to-line fault of 0.86 per unit results in a primary current of 1.0 per unit, a 16% current margin has been left between primary and secondary relay curves (to insure selectivity). The instantaneous function of the primary relay has been set above the maximum asymmetrical secondary fault current to allow selectivity with the secondary breaker for secondary faults. The instantaneous relay will respond only to faults on the primary. It is set high enough not to respond to secondary faults. The pickups of the two relays are set to meet the requirements of NEC Article 450-3.

Motor Protection
NEC Article 430 provides extensive, detailed information about the requirements for motor protection and installation. In general, motors should be protected against the following hazards: 1. Electrical Faults in windings and associated circuits

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Fig. 600-30 Example of Transformer Protection Coordination Curve

2.

Excessive overloads Reduction or loss of supply voltage Phase reversal Phase current unbalance Loss of phase Loss of excitation or synchronism for synchronous motors Excessive ambient temperatures High cyclic duty operation Lightning and voltage surges

Mechanical Bearing and lubrication failures Loss of ventilation Excessive vibration

It is not always possible, or even desirable, to provide protection against each of these hazards (especially for small motors where the cost of protection may approach the replacement cost of the motor). The cost of motor protection must be weighed against the probability of a failure occurring, the cost of motor repair or replacement, and the cost of motor downtime. Most three phase motors less than 250 hp which are fed by low voltage (less than 600 volts) are protected by thermal overload relays included in the combination

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starter. These relays have heaters in series with the motor conductors. Their sizing is based on the full load current of the motor. When the temperature of the heaters rises due to excessive motor current, this causes a bimetallic switch in the overload relay to change state, tripping the motor. Sometimes melting-alloy overload relays are used instead of the bimetallic type (see Section 635 above). NEC Article 430-32 requires that the overload relays be set to trip at, or less than, the following multiples of full load current. Motor Category Motors with Service Factor 1.15 Motors with temperature rise 40C All other motors Maximum Trip Current 125% 125% 115%

Ambient-compensated overload relays can be provided in motor starters to avoid deviations in the trip setting when the motors and starters are not at the same ambient temperatures. Starter manufacturers have standard tables to help select appropriate overload heaters and circuit breakers or motor circuit protectors supplied with the starters. A motor circuit protector is a circuit breaker with an adjustable instantaneous magnetic trip. See ELC-DS-597, Motor Control Center Specification Data Sheet, for the sizes of motor circuit protectors or manufacturers literature. The motor circuit protector provides fault protection for the motor (less than 250 hp) 1. Solid State Multi-function Relay Large motors and motors at voltages exceeding 600 volts require more extensive protection. Figure 600-31 is a guideline for desirable protection functions for motors based on size and voltage. Many of these functions may be combined in solid-state multi-function relays which are specifically applicable to motor protection. These relays are extremely versatile and may have 15 or more functions to protect the motor. These multi-function relays are available for use for motors in conjunction with fused medium voltage starters. Above 1500 hp it is recommended that discrete relays be used for each function (instead of a single multi-function relay). If one of the discrete relays fails, other discrete relays provide backup protection. With discrete relays, all protection is not lost, as might be the case with a multi-function relay failure. Motor starters for motors above 1500 hp usually use circuit breakers rather than fuses. 2. Vibration Instrumentation On motors of 1000 hp and larger, vibration instrumentation is normally required. The instrumentation (consisting of either bearing-housing mounted velocity probes, accelerometers, or non-contacting shaft vibration probes) monitors motor vibration and provides a signal to shut down the motor if the vibration exceeds specified limits. These devices are recommended since they indicate impending mechanical problems and help to prevent major damage to motors by detecting problems that can be corrected in the early stages.

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Fig. 600-31 Application Table for Motor Protective Devices (Used with permission from Plant Engineering Magazine, 3-7-74.)

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Figures 600-32 through 600-35 show typical relaying schemes for protecting motors of different sizes and voltages. These figures include recommendations for specific considerations for motor protection.
Fig. 600-32 Recommended Minimum Protection for Induction Motors below 1500 hp

Fig. 600-33 Recommended Minimum Protection for Induction Motors 1500 hp and Above

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Fig. 600-34 Recommended Minimum Protection for Brushless Synchronous Motors, Medium-Voltage, below 1500 hp

Fig. 600-35 Recommended Minimum Protection for Brushless Synchronous Motors 1500 hp and Above

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The following sections briefly discuss some of the protective devices and schemes for motors. Thermal Protection. Thermal protection (Device 49) is one of the most important protective functions for a motor. The temperature of the insulation of a motor determines the life of the motor; this device warns of high temperature. In small motors, the thermal overload relay provides this function. In larger motors, resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) embedded in the stator windings provide a more direct indication of insulation temperature. In many cases, on large motors, the RTDs are backed up by a special time overcurrent relay which is set so that its characteristic is below and to the left of the motor thermal limit curve supplied by the manufacturer. See Figure 600-17 for an example. Locked Rotor Protection. Closely related to thermal protection, locked rotor protection is often provided by the same relays as overload protection. When a motor starts, it draws locked rotor current. This current significantly increases the temperature of the motor winding. As the motor accelerates, the current deceases to normal. If the motor binds mechanically and does not accelerate, it will continue to draw locked rotor current with a high probability of sustaining damage unless it is tripped off the line. Overload relays provide locked rotor protection on small motors. On larger motors, manufacturers specify a maximum time which the motor can withstand locked rotor current or provide a thermal limit curve with the same information in graphic form. Special time overcurrent relays provide locked rotor protection for large motors. The characteristic curves for these relays lie below and to the left of the thermal limit curve, yet allow the motor time to accelerate and run without being tripped off the line. Fault Protection. On small low voltage motors (less than 250 hp) fault protection (Device 50/51) is usually provided by motor circuit protectors or fuses. Ground fault protection (Device 50G or 50GS) is usually provided by the circuit breaker for solidly grounded systems or by the ground detection system for high resistance grounded systems. On larger motors (up to about 1500 hp) fault protection may be provided by fused medium voltage starters. These fused starters usually have CTs connected to a ground sensor circuit which trips the starter on a ground fault. The fuses provide the phase fault protection. It is important to specify the anti-single phasing feature on fused starters to prevent continued operation on single phase power (when one of the three fuses blows). On larger motors, the fault protection (Device 50/51) is usually provided by individual phase overcurrent relays and instantaneous overcurrent relays which control circuit breakers. Normally it is recommended that a 50G ground sensor relay be provided on large motors for ground fault protection, only on low resistance grounded systems. Loss of Field Protection. Synchronous motors and generators require loss of field protection, but induction motors do not. A synchronous motor starts as an induction motor using an auxiliary squirrel cage known as the Amortisseur winding. When the motor is up to speed, the rotor field is energized and the rotor is pulled into synchronism. The Amortisseur winding is no longer used once the motor reaches synchronous speed. If the field is lost while under load, the motor slows down and again tries to run on the Amortisseur winding. The Amortisseur winding will be damaged, unless tripped off the line by a protective device, since the Amortisseur

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winding is not built for continuous full load operation. This condition usually is detected by a power factor relay (Device 55). When running normally, the synchronous motor has a high power factor (usually 0.8 leading to 1.0). On loss of field, the power factor drops, sometimes as low as 0.5 to 0.6 lagging. The power factor relay detects this drop and trips the motor. The relay is usually blocked during motor acceleration and enabled after the motor has reached synchronous speed. The power factor relay also serves to detect if the motor slips out of synchronism due to system transients and will trip it off the line should the problem persist. Another method of detecting loss of field is to monitor field current and trip on loss of field current. The power factor relay is the preferred method. Undervoltage Protection. Undervoltage can cause high currents to flow in motors. The undervoltage relay (Device 27) serves to disconnect the motor from the power source on low voltage or loss of voltage. It sends a trip signal to the circuit breaker. Motors served by magnetic starters normally will drop off the line on loss of voltage. Overvoltage Protection. Switching surges and lightning can cause voltage surges which may endanger motor insulation. Surge arrestors should be used on motors subject to the effects of lightning on overhead lines or switching surges. Incomplete Sequence Protection. Motors with reduced voltage starting and synchronous motors have multi-step starting sequences which should be completed within a certain amount of time. If the motor does not accelerate to speed and the starter does not complete its sequence within the normal amount of time, the incomplete sequence relay (Device 48) shuts the motor down. Motor Differential Protection. This protection is very rapid and is effective at detecting internal faults and ground faults. Like the other forms of differential protection, this relay (Device 87) compares the current entering each winding of the motor with the current leaving the other end of the winding. If they are different, it trips the motor off the line. Current Balance Protection. Device 46 compares the three phase currents and trips the motor off the line if the difference reaches a specified setpoint. Unbalanced currents in motors can cause severe overheating for small amounts of voltage unbalance. This relay also detects loss of phase voltage (due to a blown fuse or an opened winding). Figure 600-17 depicts a typical time overcurrent curve showing motor fault protection and overload protection. Generator Protection. Generator protection is beyond the scope of this discussion. See ANSI/IEEE 242 and Applied Protective Relaying for more information on generator protection.

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640 Fuses
There are two major types of fuses: current-limiting and noncurrent-limiting. The IEEE Buff Book is a good source of information. Some fuses respond to fault currents more rapidly than the fastest-acting circuit breakers. Good design practice sometimes dictates a mix of circuit breakers and fuses.

641 Advantages and Disadvantages of Fuses


The advantages and disadvantages of fuses over circuit breakers are discussed below.

Advantages
Fuses are mechanically simple, with no moving parts. Thus, they are maintenance-free and do not require periodic checking. Fuses generally require less space than circuit breakers. Initially fuses are less expensive. Fuses combine sensing and interrupting elements in one unit. Current-limiting fuses can act quickly enough to limit let-through short-circuit energy and thereby prevent or limit damage to protected equipment and lines. A blown fuse provides more incentive for an electrician to correct the cause of a failure than does a tripped circuit breaker. (The tendency with a breaker is simply to reclose it in the hope that the problem has gone away.)

Disadvantages
Fuses are single-phase devices. A single one may blow, removing power in an unbalanced manner. Unless special provisions have been made, a three-phase motor could run single-phased long enough to overheat and be damaged. Fuses must be replaced after they have blown. Replacing fuses is more hazardous to personnel than resetting a circuit breaker. Stocks of replacement fuses must be maintained. A fuse might carry several times its rated amperage for an extended period but never blow because the low-level fault eventually is corrected by some other device. Blown fuses generally must be replaced by an electrician. This problem is avoided with circuit breakers.

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642 Design Features


Low voltage (600 volt) fuses are designated by classes: G, H, J, K, L, and others. For each classification, UL standards specify the following design features and definitions. Current rating. The value of current that can flow through the fuse indefinitely. Voltage rating. The voltage at which the fuse is intended to be used; i.e., the designated voltage of a circuit in which the fuse can be used safely. Frequency rating. The designated frequency of the operating voltage of a circuit in which the fuse can be used. Interrupting rating. The maximum value of current that the fuse is capable of safely interrupting. Maximum peak let-through current. The instantaneous peak value of current through the fuse during the time that it is opening a circuit. Maximum clearing thermal energy. The amount of thermal energy developed throughout the entire short-circuit path during the total clearing time, comprised of melting and arcing times, and forming the clearing characteristic of the fuse.

643 Time-Current Curves


Manufacturers produce time-current curves (TCCs) for fuses. These are curves with time plotted on the y-axis and current on the x-axis. There are two curves for each fuseone for minimum melting time and one for total clearing time. The area between the curves is usually cross-hatched, giving the appearance of a band. TCCs are required to coordinate circuit protective devices. See Figure 600-36.

644 Miscellaneous Considerations


When fuses are used in equipment at elevations above 3000 feet, both their continuous-current ratings and their interrupting ratings must be reduced by a correction factor obtainable from Table 1 in ANSI/IEEE C37.40. This correction is necessary because the dielectric strength of air decreases with increases in elevation. Another consideration when coordinating fuses is that the minimum-melting curves are determined by the manufacturer under the conditions of no initial load current. Manufacturers provide curves necessary to modify the TCCs to account for thermal preloading and high ambient locations of fuses.

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Fig. 600-36 Typical Current-Limiting Fuse Characteristics, Two Different Types Shown (From Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers, by D. Fink & W. Beatty, 12 ed/1987. Used by Permission of McGraw Hill, Inc.)

645 Current-Limiting Fuses


Current-limiting (CL) fuses, by definition, open and clear (total clearing) the flow of short-circuit current (SCC) in less than 1/2 cycle (0.008 seconds) if the SCC is in the CL range of the fuse. The interrupted current is considerably less than that which would flow if the fuse were replaced by a non-CL device. See Figure 600-37. One minor drawback to using current-limiting fuses is that the current is interrupted so rapidly that a voltage surge (considerably larger than the system voltage) may be generated. The engineer designing a system must ensure that the basic impulse insulation level (BIL), or impulse withstand rating, of all circuit elements is high enough to withstand this arc-voltage surge (which might be twice the system voltage). The most common type of current-limiting fuse is the silver/sand fuse, which has a silver element in a sand medium (see Figure 600-38). The silver element is currentresponsive. The sand cools and absorbs the vaporized silver when the fuse blows. Heat produced by long-duration overloads damages fuses which are not selfprotecting. Heat anneals or otherwise affects the metal element that is the heart of the fuse and can derange its characteristics of operation and renders the fuse erratic

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Fig. 600-37 The Current Limiting Action of Current-limiting Fuses (From Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers, by D. Fink & W. Beatty, 12 ed/1987. Used by permission of McGraw Hill, Inc.)

Fig. 600-38 Typical Current-limiting (Silver-Sand) Fuse (Copyright by, and reprinted with permission of A. B. Chance Company) (Courtesy of A. B. Chance Co.)

and unreliable as a system protective device. A self-protecting fuse is not damaged by moderate overloading. It is prudent however to replace all three fuses in a threephase system if one fuse blows. Some manufacturers use patented techniques to manufacture fuses that they claim to be fatigue-proof (i.e., self-protective). The silver elements are bent or spiralled to enable them to absorb the contractions and expansions created by the alternate heating and cooling associated with severe duty cycling. It is important to understand that references made to the interrupting rating of a current-limiting fuse refer to the full available fault current that could flow, and not to the first portion of current that actually does flow (let through by the fuse). More-

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over, current-limiting fuses are not capable of protecting against low levels of fault current. Interrupting extremely high levels of fault current is the real forte of CL fuses. No device approaches a CL fuses capacity to extinguish very high fault currents in less than 1/2 cycle of the faults initiation.

Medium Voltage CL Fuses


Because of the highly specialized action of CL fuses, two variations of the pure CL fuse has been developed for medium voltage circuits. The first type is the original pure fuse, now called an R-rated fuse (ANSI C37.46), or a backup fuse because it offers backup protection against large faults. Less important faults are handled by other protective devices in series with the backup fuse. ANSI R-rated CL fuses are excellent for motor service since they are able to carry high starting currents during prolonged acceleration without blowing or deteriorating. Normally they are not assigned actual current ratings, but information is provided about typical melting time, total arc clearing time, and CL characteristics. Generally, the R rating multiplied by 100 approximates the ampere level that will cause the fuse to melt in about 20 seconds. The minimum fault current these fuses can respond to is the continuous current rating. Lesser currents must be interrupted by some other overload protection device. A second type, developed to handle low-level and high-level fault currents, is the general-purpose E-rated CL fuse. This fuse is designed to interrupt faults reliably at 200% to 264% of the fuses continuous current rating.

Low Voltage CL Fuses - 600 V and Less


Underwriters Laboratory (UL) recognizes and permits the labeling of only class G, J, L, R, CC, and T fuses as current limiting. A particular UL classification does not indicate unique performance or time-current characteristic; however, dimensional characteristics are unique for a particular class of fuse. By the nature of their fast action, CL fuses are capable of not only limiting the damage normally resulting from a short circuit but also maintaining system voltage to voltage-sensitive equipment. Normally, when a fault persists for 2-4 cycles, the system voltage collapses. This fast clearing of faulted branch circuits is especially important for critical loads served by Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) systems. Systems designed properly with sufficient fault duty to operate the CL fuse in its current-limiting range, can ride through a shorted branch circuit without jeopardizing the entire system. (See Section 124 System Design). For UPS-fed 120-V branch circuits, UL Class T (300 V and 600 V) and Class J (600 V) fuses are recommended. Transformers and branch-circuit wire size and circuit lengths must be selected carefully to ensure that a minimum of 200 amperes of fault duty is available at the load (end device). At 200 amperes, a 20-ampere Class J or T CL fuse is at the low end of its current-limit range and clears a fault completely in less than 1/2 cycle.

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Smaller rated fuses become current limiting at progressively lower fault levels. For example a 10 ampere Class J or T CL fuse is current limiting at about 100 amperes compared to 200 amperes for a 200 ampere Class J or T fuse.

650 References
The following references are readily available. Those with an asterisk (*) are included in this manual or are available in other manuals.

651 Model Specifications (MS)


There are no specifications related to this guideline.

652 Standard Drawings


There are no standard drawings related to this engineering guideline.

653 Data Sheets (DS), Data Guides (DG) and Engineering Forms (EF)
There are no engineering forms related to this engineering guideline.

654 Other References


ANSI/IEEE C37.40, Service Conditions and Definitions for High Voltage Fuses, Distribution Enclosed Single-Pole Air Switches, Fuse Disconnecting Switches, and Accessories ANSI/IEEE C37.2, Electrical Power System Device Function Numbers ANSI/IEEE Standard 141, IEEE Recommended Practice for Electric Power Distribution for Industrial Plants ANSI/IEEE Standard 242, IEEE Recommended Practice for Protection and Coordination of Industrial Power Systems *API RP 14F, Design and Installation of Electrical Systems for Offshore Production Platforms ANSI/IEEE Standard 100, IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms Beeman, Donald, ed., Industrial Power Systems Handbook (McGraw-Hill: NY, 1977). Fink, Donald G., and Wayne Beaty, eds., Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers (McGraw-Hill: NY, 1987). Blackburn, J.L., ed., Applied Protective Relaying, Westinghouse Electric Corporation (Coral Springs, Fla., 1982).

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Smeaton, Robert W., ed., Switchgear and Control Handbook (McGraw-Hill: NY, 1977).

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700 Switches
Abstract
This section describes and compares five types of switches used in power circuits: disconnect switches, load interrupter switches, safety switches, automatic transfer switches, and oil fused cutouts. The switches are compared on the basis of their interrupting capabilities. Fusing is discussed for all of the above except for the disconnect switch. Contents 710 711 712 720 730 731 732 733 734 735 736 740 750 760 770 771 772 773 774 Introduction Scope SwitchesAn Overview Disconnect Switch Load Interrupter Switch Air Load Interrupter Switches Metal-Enclosed Load Interrupter Switches Oil Interrupter Switch Air Interrupter Switch vs. Oil Interrupter Switch Interrupting Power to Transformers Fused Load Interrupter Switch Low Voltage Safety Switches Automatic Transfer Switches Oil Fused Cutouts References Model Specification (MS) Standard Drawings Data Sheets (DS), Data Guides (DG) and Engineering Forms (EF) Other References 700-9 700-11 700-13 700-13 700-4 700-4 Page 700-2

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710 Introduction
711 Scope
This section provides an overview of the five basic types of switches used in power circuits: Disconnect switch Load interrupter switch Safety switch Automatic transfer switch Fused oil cutout

712 SwitchesAn Overview


A switch is a device which opens and closes a circuit. When a switch is closed, it will conduct electricity and when it is opened, it will not conduct electricity. Switches are often referred to as single-pole or multi-pole devices. Multi-pole usually means two or three poles. A pole is that portion of a switch associated with a separate conducting path. In a multi-pole device, the poles are coupled in such a manner that they mechanically operate together. A multi-pole device is often referred to as a gang or group-operated device. Switches are often referred to as single throw or double throw devices. These are qualifying terms indicating the number of open and closed positions of a switching device. A single throw device has one open and one closed position only. A double throw device can change the circuit connections by utilizing either one of its two closed positions. The switches discussed below are used primarily on distribution feeder circuits. A disconnect switch (see Figure 700-1) is often used to isolate a circuit or equipment from a source of power. Disconnect switches usually are operated when circuits are de-energized or when the interrupted currents are low. Load interrupter switches (see Figure 700-2) are three-pole devices associated with unit substations supplied from the primary distribution feeder. The most common function of load interrupter switches is to provide isolation of the unit substation from its incoming feeder. A quick-make, quick-break switch is one in which the operating speed of the switch mechanism is independent of the speed of the handle movement. The switch has springs that cause the contacts to move very quickly once operation of the switch is initiated. Not all switches discussed in this section are quick-make, quick-break.

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Fig. 700-1

Disconnect Switches (Courtesy of S & C Electric Company)

Fig. 700-2

Load Interrupter Switch (Courtesy of S & C Electric Company)

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720 Disconnect Switch


Disconnect switches are used to isolate equipment or a section of line from a feeder, a feeder from a substation, or a substation from a transmission line. This electrical isolation makes the area safe for repairs, tests, inspections or modification after the circuit has been grounded. This switch is sometimes designed to interrupt the small capacitive charging current of cables or transmission lines and the magnetizing current of transformers. It is not designed to interrupt load current. Interlocking is generally provided to prevent operation when the switch is carrying load current. A disconnect switch is designed to carry normal load current continuously and abnormal or short circuit current for a specified short interval. A disconnect switch must not be opened under load; the load must be disconnected by some other means such as a circuit breaker. If a disconnect switch is opened under load, an arc could be drawn between the blade and the stationary contact, or even between the blade and other conductors or ground. The hot arc produced could damage the switch and injure personnel. A number of disconnect switch types are available. Each is designed to perform its circuit isolation function in a specific fashion. Generally, when reference is made to a disconnect switch, a no-load disconnect switch is implied. A no-load disconnect switch is an air-break, hand-operated switch. It is not designed to interrupt current. Its function is simply to disconnect equipment after all loads have been disconnected by other means. One type of disconnect switch is shown in Figure 700-1. Disconnect switches typically are not quick-make, quick-break. To purchase disconnect switches, it is recommended that manufacturers standards be utilized.

730 Load Interrupter Switch


The load interrupter switch (see Figures 700-2 and 700-3) is a switch (fused and unfused) which combines the operations of interrupting the load current and disconnecting the circuit. Load interrupter switches can be air or oil-immersed and are usually manually operated. These switches have blades and stationary contacts. Air interrupter switches are equipped with arcing horns (pieces of material in which the arc forms when a circuit carrying current is opened). Air load interrupter switches have primary (blade) and arcing (secondary) contacts. The main blade opens first, disconnecting the circuit. The secondary contact of the interrupter switch then lengthens and cools the arc until it extinguishes. In other load interrupter switches, there are only main blades and arc chutes. In oil-immersed load interrupter switches, the oil cools and extinguishes the elongated arc. Load interrupter switches are most often used for services above 600 volts and are usually associated with substations supplied from the primary distribution system. They are available in ratings up to 4000 amperes interrupting capacity at 600 volts and 1200 amperes at 5 kV and 15 kV. Load interrupter switches are quick-make, quick-break. They have close and latch current ratings which specify the maximum fault current into which they can close. The close and latch current is the current

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700 Switches

Fig. 700-3

Fused Load Interrupter Switch (Courtesy of S & C Electric Company)

flowing when a switch successfully latches. These switches also have short-time current ratings for both momentary (one cycle) and 3-second conditions.

731 Air Load Interrupter Switches


An air load interrupter switch is designed to open and close one or more poles with contacts that separate in air. There are three basic types of air interrupter switches: the single air interrupter switch, the duplex selector switch, and the selector switch. The single air interrupter switch has open and closed positions and is usually three-phase. The interrupter has a stored-energy (spring) device and can be equipped to operate manually or electrically. A stored-energy-operated device uses springs to open or close the switch, making the speed of opening and closing independent of the speed of the operating handle. A switch with a stored-energy mechanism must be properly adjusted so that when the switch is closed it will have complete contact. With a stored-energy device, the spring is charged as the handle is moved to the open position. This assures a delay after the switch is closed and prevents the switch from being opened before a protective device has operated. Operating mechanisms have indicating targets to show the position of the switch blades and to show the condition of the charging springs (charged or discharged). There is also a window on the front panel for visual inspection of the switch blades. A duplex selector switch consists of two three-pole, single-throw, air interrupter switches. The two switches may permit four different positions (line 1, line 2, lines 1 and 2, or open). See Figure 700-4. The two switches can be key-interlocked to prevent being closed at the same time. Both switches can be designed for manual or electrical operation and are stored-

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Fig. 700-4

Typical One-Line of a Three-Pole Duplex Selector Switch

energy-open and stored-energy-closed. Indicating targets show whether the switch blades are open or closed. A window permits inspection of the switch blades. The duplex selector switch is frequently used when two separate power sources feed one load. A selector switch consists of one three-pole, single-throw, two-position (open and closed) air interrupter switch and one three-pole (line 1, open, line 2) disconnect switch, both of which are mounted in a single enclosure. See Figure 700-5. The interrupter switch is stored-energy open and stored-energy closed and can be electrically or manually operated. The disconnecting switch handle has indicating targets (line 1, line 2 and open) to show the position of the switch blades. The interrupter switch is connected in series with the disconnecting switch. The handle of the disconnecting switch usually is interlocked with the interrupter switch to prevent operation of the disconnect switch when the interrupter switch is closed.
Fig. 700-5 Typical One-Line of a Three-Pole Selector Switch

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700 Switches

732 Metal-Enclosed Load Interrupter Switches


If metal-enclosed load interrupter switches are being considered, contact an electrical engineer who is familiar with their application (i.e., The Electrical Group in Engineering Technology Department) for a list of suitable manufacturers. The selection requires critical review to ensure that a reliable design is being purchased. To purchase 5 kV and 15 kV switches, it is recommended that Data Sheet Guide ELCDG-3944, Data Sheet ELC-DS-3944, and Model Specification ELC-MS-3944 be used. Metal-enclosed load interrupter switches are available with interrupting ratings of 600 or 1200 amperes for system voltage ratings of 2.4 through 34.5 kV. This switch is completely enclosed with sheet metal except for ventilating openings and inspection windows. Metal-enclosed load interrupter switches typically are installed ahead of a transformer as a primary disconnect means. See Figure 700-6.
Fig. 700-6 Metal-enclosed Load Interrupter Switch

To ensure proper performance, metal-enclosed interrupter switches should provide the following features: Minimal periodic maintenance requirements Adequate interrupting capability for load currents, transformer magnetizing currents, and line and cable charging currents Interruption of currents without external arc or flame Visible isolating air gap after interruption Capability, where required, of manually or automatically closing on faults up to the interrupting rating of the associated fuses

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Controlled sequence, so that interrupting unit contacts do not open except within the arc extinguishing chamber of the interrupting unit Full load interrupting rating equal to continuous current rating of the device Doors of the enclosure interlocked to prevent accidental opening while the interrupter switch is energized. This also prevents energizing while the door is opened (unless there is a protective barrier). Any barrier must also be interlocked to prevent opening if the load interrupter switch is closed or closing

Metal-enclosed interrupter switches are provided with a handle used to charge the quick-make, quick-break mechanism. Most handles are provided with holes for padlocking in either the open or closed position. The switch should have an indicating device to show the position (open or closed).

733 Oil Interrupter Switch


Oil interrupter switch specifications are not provided in this manual. Oil interrupter switches have contacts which open and close under oil. The switch contacts are immersed in oil and the entire apparatus is enclosed in a steel container. The oil insulates the poles and helps extinguish the arc formed when the switch contacts are opened. After several hundred operations, the oil should be replaced or filtered to remove carbon products formed by arcing.

734 Air Interrupter Switch vs. Oil Interrupter Switch


The advantages of the air interrupter switch over the oil interrupter switch are as follows: The air interrupter switch has a visible air break so there is no question that the circuit is disconnected Air, the insulating medium, does not require maintenance; oil could leak out of the enclosure of an oil interrupter switch Air switch contacts are easily accessible for testing (e.g., phasing) The air interrupter switch does not use oil which can carbonize and allow some current to flow when the switch is open

The disadvantages of the air interrupter switch compared to the oil interrupter switch are as follows: Air switches are not as resistant to corrosive environments as oil switches. This is particularly important for off-shore platforms Air switches are larger than oil switches. This factor can be a problem when floor space is at a minimum Air switches cannot be used in Class I, Division 1 or 2 hazardous (classified) areas unless enclosed in NEMA 7 enclosures

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735 Interrupting Power to Transformers


In many cases the primary switching devices on transformers are air- or oil-filled load interrupter switches. These interrupter switches must not carry full-load currents more than the continuous rating of the switch. Short term currents in excess of the continuous current rating of the switch may be caused by events, such as temporary or prolonged overload, motor-starting, or faults in the system, that can subject the switch to currents in excess of its interrupting rating. It is recommended that all loads be removed before primary load interrupter switches are opened. Keyinterlocking prevents operation of the switch unless the transformer secondary breaker is opened. This requires the operator to lock the transformer secondary breaker open before the switch can be operated.

736 Fused Load Interrupter Switch


Load interrupter switches are often fused and are referred to as fused load interrupter switches or fused load-break switches. These switches are used to both disconnect and protect circuits. Fused load interrupter switches consist of an interrupter switch and fuses mounted on a common base, usually in a metal enclosure. Although generally less expensive than circuit breakers, they have protection and system application limitations. Circuit breakers are usually recommended. The configuration shown in Figure 700-7 shows a typical fused load interrupter switch.
Fig. 700-7 Typical Fused Load Interrupter Switch (Courtesy of S & C Electric Company)

740 Low Voltage Safety Switches


Safety switches (see Figure 700-8) are used for voltages up to 600 volts and are always enclosed. These switches have quick-make, quick-break features, and can be fused or unfused. The safety switch is operated with an outside handle. The handle

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is interlocked so that the enclosure cannot be opened unless the switch is in the open position (or the defeater is operated.)
Fig. 700-8 Typical Safety Switch

If a motor is protected with a safety switch, the safety switch should be capable of interrupting the maximum starting current of the motor (the locked rotor current). The continuous current rating of the safety switch must be at least 115% of the fullload current rating of the motor. Some safety switches use current-limiting fuses. Switches are labeled to indicate the proper switch and fuse combination that meet the specified current rating. Safety switches should be tested per UL 98 Enclosed Switches. Bolted-pressure safety switches have a toggle mechanism for applying bolted pressure to both the hinge and the jaw contacts. Two different types of bolted-pressure

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switches are available, the manually operated bolted pressure switch and the electric-trip bolted pressure switch. Both types of bolted pressure switches consist of movable blades and stationary contacts. The stationary contacts have arcing contacts which cause the arc to be extinguished rapidly. The operating mechanism (that part of the mechanism that actuates all the main-circuit contacts of the switching device) consists of a spring that is compressed by the operating handle and released at the end of the operating stroke to provide quick-make and quickbreak operations. The bolted-pressure switch can be applied to 100% of its rating. The electrical-trip bolted pressure switch uses a stored-energy latch mechanism and a solenoid trip release to provide automatic electrical opening for low voltage main and feeder circuits rated at 600 amperes and above. These switches can be used with ground fault protection equipment and have contact interrupting ratings of 12 times the continuous current rating. When used with current-limiting fuses, this switch can be used on some circuits with available symmetrical fault currents of 200,000 amperes. These switches are most commonly used in commercial buildings.

750 Automatic Transfer Switches


Automatic transfer switches are typically used to connect an alternate power source or standby power generation system to the distribution system. When the power fails, the transfer mechanism automatically transfers the load to the alternate source or system. See Figure 700-9 for a typical sequence.
Fig. 700-9 Typical Sequence for Automatic Switching on a Two Feeder System

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The automatic transfer switch can be programmed to automatically reconnect the load to the preferred feeder when it has been restored. This switch is furnished with relays, controls, and critical operating components, such as timers, test switches, and indicating lights. Automatic transfer switches usually are double-throw without overcurrent protection. These switches are available in ratings of 30 to 4000 amperes. Switches rated over 100 amperes are mechanically held and are electrically operated from the power source to which the load is to be transferred. Automatic transfer switches must satisfy the following requirements: Close against inrush currents without contact welding Carry full rated current continuously without over- heating Withstand available short-circuit currents without contact separation for at least 0.2 seconds Properly interrupt circuits without flashover between the two power sources

Some automatic transfer switches include in-phase monitors for transfer between sources. If the sources are in phase, there will be no flashover. It is important to coordinate the automatic transfer switch and the overcurrent protection. When high fault currents occur, electromagnetic forces are created in the contacts of circuit breakers. These electromagnetic forces help circuit breakers to open quickly and minimize clearing time of faults. Automatic transfer switches, designed to withstand high fault currents, utilize the electromagnetic forces in the reverse manner keeping the transfer switch contacts closed until the fault has been cleared. If the contacts of the automatic transfer switch should open during a fault, the high fault current could cause arcing and welding of the contacts. For more information on specifying an automatic transfer switch with proper ratings, accessories and features, see Section 4.3 of the IEEE Orange Book (IEEE Standard 446). The three types of automatic transfer switches are non-preferential, fixed-preferential, and selective-preferential. The non-preferential type automatically re-transfers the load to the original source only when the alternate source, to which it has been connected, fails. The fixed-preferential type is a device in which the original source always serves as the preferred source and the other source serves as the emergency source. This switch will re-transfer the load to the preferred source when it is reenergized after a loss of voltage. The selective-preferential type is a device in which either source may be designated as the preferred or emergency source and can be pre-selected. The switch will re-transfer the load to the preferred source upon reenergization. For both the fixed-preferential and the selective-preferential type, the re-transfer of the load to the preferred source from the emergency source upon re-energization may be of the make-before-break type or the break-before-make type. These two switches differ in that the make-before-break transfer switch transfers from one circuit to another without interrupting the current, while the break-before-make transfer switch interrupts the current flow before transferring to the other source. Many automatic transfer schemes can be used. To accommodate the variety of transfer control schemes required, a number of manufacturers provide standard

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automatic control devices for integration with metal-enclosed load interrupter switches. Automatic transfer switches can be purchased to provide the following: Either source preferred Manual or automatic transfer Make-before-break or break-before-make transfer Time delay on transfer Manual or automatic re-transfer Lockout on bus faults

To develop specifications for automatic transfer switches for emergency power systems, refer to Standard Drawing GF-P99972. For applications, consult manufacturer directly.

760 Oil Fused Cutouts


Oil fused cutouts can be used to disconnect and protect circuits. Oil fused cutouts must not be used to energize circuits because they are not rated to close into a fault. Instead, an upstream circuit breaker must be used to energize the circuit. A fused oil cutout switch is a combination of a load interrupter switch and fuses. The fuse in the fused oil cutout usually is of the non-current-limiting type. The switch is used for circuits rated up to 15 kV. The interrupter (which is the cutout) and the fuses are immersed in oil. They have low short circuit ratings and no close-and-latch rating. Oil-fused cutouts may be used to energize circuits if (a) they have a fault closing rating and (b) they fully comply with NEC 710-21(d). Oil-fused cutouts differ from the other switches discussed in this section; when manually operated the speed of the switch is dependent on the speed with which the operator moves the handle. When an overcurrent occurs, the excessive current melts the fuse, creating an arc below the oil level. See: Eastern Region Exploration, Land and Production, Electrical Construction Guidelines for Offshore, Marshland and Inland Locations for an example of special packaging for 5 kV oil-fused cutouts suitable for corrosive environments.

770 References
The following references are readily available. Those marked with an asterisk (*) are included in this manual or are available in other manuals.

771 Model Specification (MS)


*ELC-MS-3944 Load Interrupter Switches

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772 Standard Drawings


*GF-P99972 480 Volt Stand-by Power System One-Line Diagram

773 Data Sheets (DS), Data Guides (DG) and Engineering Forms (EF)
*ELC-DS-3944 *ELC-DG-3944 Load Interrupter Switch Data Sheet Data Sheet Guide for Load Interrupter Switch Data Sheet

774 Other References


ANSI/IEEE, Standard 446 - IEEE Recommended Practice for Emergency and Standby Power System for Industrial and Commercial Applications ANSI/IEEE, Standard 141 - IEEE Recommended Practice for Electric Power Distribution for Industrial Plants ANSI/IEEE C37.30 - Definitions and Requirements for High-Voltage Air Switches, Insulators, and Bus Supports IEEE C37.32 - Schedules of Preferred Ratings, Manufacturing Specifications, and Application Guide for High-Voltage Air Switches, Bus Supports, and Switch Accessories ANSI, C37.33 - Rated Control Voltages and Their Ranges for High-Voltage Air Switches ANSI/IEEE, C37.34 - Test Code for High-Voltage Air Switches IEEE, C37.35 - Guide for the Application, Installation, Operation and Maintenance of High-Voltage Air Disconnecting and Load Interrupter Switches ANSI/IEEE, C37.37 - Loading Guide for AC High-Voltage Air Switches (In Excess of 1000 Volts) ANSI/IEEE, C37.48 - Guide for Application, Operation, and Maintenance of Distribution Cutouts and Fuse Links, Secondary Fuses, Distribution Enclosed Single-Pole Air Switches, Power Fuses, Fuse Disconnecting Switches, and Accessories ANSI/IEEE, C37.71 - Standard for Three-Phase, Manually Operated Subsurface Load Interrupting Switches for Alternating Current Systems ANSI/IEEE, 100 - IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronic Terms Beeman, Donald. Industrial Power System Handbook (McGraw-Hill, 1955). Smeaton, R. W. Switchgear and Control (McGraw-Hill, 1987). Kurtz and Shoemaker. The Linemans and Cablemans Handbook (McGraw-Hill, 1986).

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800 Transformers
Abstract
This section provides technical and practical guidance for specifying distribution, power, lighting, and control transformers. The transformer size must first be determined using the guidelines in Section 100, System Design. Transformers for relaying (current transformers, potential transformers) are covered in Section 600, Protective Devices, which also describes the various transformer types and their specific roles in the power system. This section also lists and briefly discusses the documents containing the latest applicable standards and code requirements. It also describes rating considerations (including operating conditions), design characteristics for specific job applications, accessories needed for safe operation, and quality assurance tests. Contents 810 811 812 813 814 820 821 822 830 831 832 840 841 842 843 844 Introduction Scope Overview Standards and Codes Transformer Types Insulation for Transformers Liquid Insulation Dry Insulation Classes of Self-Cooled Transformers Auxiliary Cooling Typical Cooling Ratings Ratings kVA Ratings Primary and Secondary Voltage Ratings Temperature Rise Altitude 800-9 800-8 800-6 Page 800-4

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845 846 847 850 851 852 860 861 862 863 864 865 866 870 871 872 873 874 875 876 877 878 879 880 881 882 883 884 885 890 891 892

Basic Impulse Level (BIL) Impedance Secondary Circuit Voltage Winding Connections 800-13

Angular Displacement (Nominal) between Voltages of Windings for ThreePhase Transformers Series Multiple Windings Design Characteristics and Their Application (Construction) Voltage Taps Paralleling Transformers Location Painting Termination Tertiary Windings Accessories Liquid Level Gage Fluid Thermometer, Dial Type Pressure Vacuum Gage Pressure Relief Diaphragm in Cover Sampling Device Pressure Regulator Provisions for Future Cooling Fans Sudden Pressure Relays Neutral Current Transformer Grounding Resistors and Bushing Current Transformers Grounding Resistors Bushing Current Transformers Surge Capacitors/Lightning Arrestors Shop Testing EconomicsEvaluation Factor References Model Specifications (MS) Standard Drawings 800-22 800-21 800-15 800-14

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893 894 895

Data Sheets (DS), Data Guides (DG), and Engineering Forms (EF) Appendices Other References

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810 Introduction
811 Scope
This section focuses on the basic information required for selecting, specifying, and ordering transformers. It should be used along with the Data Sheet Guide when completing the Transformer Data Sheet, ELC-DS-401.

812 Overview
Transformers are primarily used to reduce (or increase) voltage to a level where it can be used to power equipment. Transformers are also used to isolate loads from power sources and to accomplish a variety of special functions. These functions include phase shifting, regulating, and networking. Transformers obey the following relationship: the ratio of the primary voltage to the secondary voltage equals the ratio of the number of primary turns to the number of secondary turns. This ratio also equals the ratio of secondary current to primary current.

813 Standards and Codes


Transformers are designed, fabricated, and tested in accordance with ANSI, NEMA, and IEEE standards. Dry-type distribution transformers through 1000 kVA three-phase, and through 167 kVA single-phase, 600 volts and below, are designed in accordance with Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. (reference documents UL-506, 891, and 1561.) NFPA-70 (National Electrical Code), API RP 14F, and applicable governmental regulations should be reviewed prior to selecting transformers. Transformers should be labeled by a recognized testing laboratory (usually Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.) in the United States. Foreign-made transformers are built to specific national or IEC standards.

814 Transformer Types


Six types of transformers are described below: distribution, power, control power, buck-and-boost, auto-transformer, and constant voltage. Instrument transformers are discussed in Section 600, Protective Devices. Captive transformers, power transformers that supply power to a single motor load, are discussed fully in Section 100, System Design. Grounding transformers are discussed in Section 900, Grounding Systems.

Distribution
Distribution transformers cover power ranges of 3 to 500 kVA. They are either liquid-immersed or dry. They can be mounted on a pole, pad, wall, or floor. They

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can be installed aboveground or underground (in a transformer vault) and can be installed indoors or outdoors.

Power
Power transformers cover power ranges above 500 kVA. They can be dry-type but more often are liquid-immersed (oil-filled). Oil-filled transformers are recommended for most outdoor installations.

Control Power
Control power transformers generally supply power to instruments, relays, and startup and shutdown circuits, however, they are sometimes used for cubicle and motor space heating and for substation lighting. They usually are rated up to 15 kVA and are of encapsulated core and cell constructionproviding a totally enclosed, non-ventilated system.

Buck-and-Boost Transformer
Buck-and-boost transformers are power transformers that can decrease or increase the voltage level. They are designed for small voltage increments and only for low voltage systems (600 volts and below). For example, voltage at motor terminals can be corrected by using a buck-and-boost transformer instead of resizing the line. Some electrical equipment requires that line voltage be at or near its nameplate rating for efficient operation. Buck-and-boost transformers provide a convenient and cost-effective way to match the line voltage to the equipment nameplate rating. Buck-and-boost transformers are not suitable for solving a fluctuating voltage problem. They are only suitable for compensating for high or low voltage when the available line voltage is constant. Buck-and-boost transformers are connected as auto-transformers and can be used for single and three-phase circuits. They can be installed indoors or outdoors.

Auto-Transformer
Auto-transformers can be either distribution or power transformers. They typically are used to step voltage up or down slightly (5%). For example, they can be used to reduce a 13.8 kV bus to a 12.47 kV bus. The auto-transformers primary and secondary circuits share a single coil (two coils connected in series). Because the primary and secondary circuits share part of a coil, the transformer does not provide electrical isolation between the load circuits and the primary circuits. However, the auto-transformer does have certain advantages over a two-winding transformer: lower cost, greater efficiency, better regulation, smaller physical size and weight, and a smaller exciting current. These advantages are the result of the following: unlike a normal transformer where all the power must flow across the electrical isolation from the primary to the secondary by means of a magnetic field, an auto-transformer requires only a fraction of the power to flow across the electrical isolation by means of an electric field. The remainder flows directly from the primary to the secondary by means of the shared coil with no electrical isolation.

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See Figure 800-1 for a better understanding of the principle and function of autotransformers.
Fig. 800-1 Auto-Transformer Connection

Constant Voltage Transformer


Sensitive electronic equipment may be subjected to line transients, surges, spikes, and sustained low voltage. These voltage variations can have damaging effects on sensitive equipment over the long term due to stresses on the power supply components. A constant voltage transformer can be used to minimize these voltage fluctuations. The transformer operates in its saturation region so that a small voltage fluctuation on the primary side will not be transferred to the secondary side. This transformer is frequently called a voltage regulator.

820 Insulation for Transformers


Transformers are insulated by either a liquid or a dry media.

821 Liquid Insulation


Liquid-immersed transformers include 1) oil insulated, 2) non-flammable liquid insulated (Inerteen or PCB laden Askarel), and 3) low-flammable liquid insulated.

Oil Insulated
The oil-insulated unit is the least expensive of liquid-insulated transformers and is suitable for mounting outdoors or, when enclosed in a vault, indoors. Mineral oil is recommended for most oil-insulated transformers because of its high dielectric strength, durability and high flash point.

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Non-Flammable Liquid Insulated


The manufacture of non-flammable (PCB) liquid-insulated transformers in the United States ceased in 1977 as a result of laws and regulations concerning the environmental and health effects of PCBs. When replacing or repairing existing transformers, be aware that PCB-filled transformers are still in use at many Company facilities. The law does not allow the repair (removal of the core) of a transformer with greater than 500 PPM concentration of PCB. For this reason, and to lower PCB exposure, it is recommended that Company facilities replace or detoxify PCBcontaminated transformers. Processes are available to chemically treat a transformer in order to reduce the level of PCBs. The benefit is that repair to the core of the transformer can be performed if necessary without further inspection for PCB purposes. Detoxification allows treatment of the unit as a non-PCB transformer. All PCB transformers must be labeled, inspected, handled and disposed of in accordance with strict safety and environmental regulations. See ANSI/IEEE C57.102 for further information on handling PCBs. Also see EPA regulation TSCA, Electric Rule of 1982 and Fires Rule of 1985.

Low-Flammable Liquid Insulated


For indoor installations, the discontinued use of askarel-filled transformers has promoted the use of less flammable liquid-insulated transformers (formerly referred to as high fire point liquids). These include silicones, polyalphaolefins, and high molecular weight hydrocarbons that have a flash point of at least 300C. In general, these less flammable insulation materials are more expensive than mineral oil. Two agencies, Factory Mutual Research Corp. and Underwriters Laboratories Inc., list less flammable liquids for transformers.

822 Dry Insulation


Dry-insulated transformers do not employ a liquid as a cooling or insulating medium. The dry-type transformer is designed to have the core and coils surrounded by an atmosphere (which may be air), that is free to circulate from the outside to the inside of the transformer enclosure. An alternative to circulating outside air freely through the dry-type transformer is to provide a sealed enclosure in which an insulating gas or vapor is contained. In either case, the surrounding medium acts both as a heat transfer medium and as a medium suitable for either indoor or outdoor installation, as specified. The primary disadvantage of the dry-type transformer is that the basic insulation level (BIL) is lower than for liquid-immersed transformers. This disadvantage may be compensated for, if necessary, by installing surge capacitors and lightning arrestors. Most 30 kVA and larger dry-type distribution transformers manufactured today are designed with a NEMA Class 220C insulation system. For many offshore applications, non-ventilated dry-type transformers are specified. The shell is constructed of a 10-gage, type 316 stainless steel enclosure rated

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NEMA 4X. The insulation system is a vacuum impregnated, Class H rated silicone varnish. The temperature rise of the completed transformer is specified not to exceed 80C, in accordance with NEMA and ANSI test standards (See Appendix D, Minimum Requirements for Dry-Type Transformers).

830 Classes of Self-Cooled Transformers


ANSI standard C57.12 lists two classes of self-cooled transformers: Liquid-immersed, self-cooled: Class OA. A liquid-type transformer in which the insulating oil circulates by natural convection within a tank having smooth sides, corrugated sides, integral tubular sides, or detachable radiators. The transformer requires from 24 to 36 inches of clearance on all sides for adequate air circulation. Dry-type Self-cooled: Class AA. A dry-type transformer which is cooled by the natural circulation of air.

831 Auxiliary Cooling


One way to protect a transformer from overloads is to increase the transformers capacity with the use of auxiliary cooling. The most commonly used transformers with auxiliary cooling and their classifications follow: Liquid-immersed, self-cooled/forced-air-cooled: Class OA/FA. A forced-aircooled transformer, FA, is basically an OA unit with fans and requires approximately twice the space needed by an OA transformer. The transformer may be purchased with fans installed or with the option of adding fans later (OA/FFA). Typically, fans are thermostatically controlled. Liquid-immersed, self-cooled/forced-air-cooled/forced-air-cooled: Class OA/FA/FA. An increased level of fan cooling is provided for increased air flow. Liquid-immersed, self-cooled/forced-air-cooled/forced-liquid-cooled: Class OA/FA/FOA. An OA/FA unit is provided with a second stage of cooling by means of an oil pump. The FOA rating is intended for use only when both the oil pumps and fans are operating. Liquid-immersed, self-cooled/forced-air-forced-liquid cooled/forced-airforced liquid cooled: Class OA/FOA/FOA. In this class there are two stages of fan/pump combinations to enhance cooling. Dry-type, self-cooled/forced-air-cooled: Class AFA. A dry-type transformer which has both a self-cooled rating with cooling obtained by the natural circulation of air and a forced-air-cooled rating with cooling obtained by the forced circulation of air.

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832 Typical Cooling Ratings


Typical rating increases for forced-air and forced-liquid transformers are listed in Figure 800-2. For example, an oil-filled 2500 kVA transformer with forced air (OA/FA) gives an additional 25% increase in kVA over the self-cooled oil-filled transformer (OA) which equals a total of 3125 kVA. If the transformer is also rated 55C/65C, there is an additional 12% increase. That is, the FA rating for the 2500 kVA transformer is 125% of 112% (140%) of 2500 kVA which equals 3500 kVA.
Fig. 800-2 Cooling Ratings for Forced Air/Forced Liquid Percent Rating Increase with Auxiliary Cooling (Over Self-Cooled Rating) 3-Phase(1) 501-2499 2500-11999 12000 & above 12000 & above 12000 & above 12000 & above 501 & above 1st Stage 15% 25% 33 1/3% 33 1/3% 33 1/3% 33 1/3% 33 1/3% 2nd Stage 66 2/3% 66 2/3% 66 2/3%

Self-Cooled 55C Rating (kVA) Class OA/FA OA/FA OA/FA OA/FA/FA OA/FA/FOA OA/FOA/FOA AA/FA 1-Phase(1) 501-2499 2500-9999 10000 & above 10000 & above 10000 & above 10000 & above 501 & above

(1) Add 12% to all self-cooled ratings for 55/65C rated transformers

840 Ratings
There are various rating categories for transformers. The following ratings allow the transformer to perform efficiently and safely under specified conditions.

841 kVA Ratings


See Section 100, System Design, for standard transformer ratings and transformer sizing information. A transformer can be overloaded intermittently within limits without physically damaging the transformer or significantly reducing its life expectancy. See ANSI C57.91 for information on how to calculate the amount and the duration of overload that a transformer can withstand without experiencing a loss of life expectancy. This standard also discusses how to increase the life expectancy of a transformer. For instance, liquid-filled transformers can withstand overloads of short duration because of the thermal properties of oil. The duration of the overload may be shorter than the time it takes the oil to heat past its rated temperature rise. See Section 843 below, for information on temperature rise.

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842 Primary and Secondary Voltage Ratings


Standard nominal and maximum system voltages are included in manufacturers literature in compliance with ANSI C84.1. The voltage ratings specified are at no load and are based on the turns ratio of the transformer. The voltage rating required for transformers is determined primarily by the system voltage available and the utilization voltage required. For the purpose of transformer selection, the primary and secondary voltages are set by the system design. See Section 100, System Design for standard voltage ratings.

843 Temperature Rise


A transformer should achieve a normal life at rated kVA if the specified temperature rise is not exceeded and the ambient temperature does not peak above 40C, or average more than 30C during a 24-hour period. The temperature rise rating indicates how many degrees above the ambient temperature of 40C (maximum) or above the average of 30C during a 24-hour period the winding can tolerate while supplying 100% rated load without loss of life. The standard average winding temperature rise (by resistance test) for the modern liquid-filled power transformer is 65C with a hot-spot temperature rise of 80C. Liquid-filled transformers may be specified with a 55C/65C rise to permit 100% loading with a 55C rise, and 112% loading at the 65C rise. The dual rating transformer is recommended for most applications because a 5% increase in transformer cost provides an additional 12% in loading capacity. Standard dry-type transformers are divided into three groups for temperature rise specification purposes. 1. Class 150C limiting temperature insulation system (for temperature rise by resistance through 80C) with component insulating materials including mica, asbestos glass fiber, and similar inorganic material. Class 185C limiting temperature insulation system (for temperature rises by resistance through 115C) with component insulating materials including mica, asbestos, glass fiber, and other materials with thermal life at 185C. Class 220C limiting temperature insulation system (for temperature rises by resistance through 150C) with component insulating materials including silicone elastomer, mica, glass fiber, asbestos, and other materials with thermal life at 220C.

2.

3.

Aging (deterioration) of insulation is a function of both time and temperature. Since temperature distribution is not uniform, components operating at the highest temperatures will experience the greatest deterioration. Therefore, the hot spot temperature is very important for determining transformer aging. The temperature rise for dry-type transformers does not necessarily have to be the same rating as the insulation class temperature. One can specify a high insulation class temperature rating and a low temperature rise to obtain extra life for a transformer.

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Ambient temperature influences the normal life expectancy of transformers. For quick approximation, the rated load of an oil-insulated self-cooled (OA) transformer should be reduced by 1.5% for each degree C it operates above the average ambient temperature of 30C. Average ambient temperatures should be determined over 24-hour periods with the maximum temperatures not more than 10C greater than the average temperature. ANSI recommends that a 5C margin be added to the actual average ambient temperature before derating or increase rating factors are applied. The rated load for forced-air-cooled (OA/FA, OA/FA/FA) and forcedliquid-cooled (FOA, FOW and OA/FOA/FOA) transformers should be reduced by 1% per degree C if the transformer operates above the average ambient temperature of 30C. Conversely, the rated load for a self-cooled transformer can be increased by 1% per degree C if it operates below the average ambient of 30C. The rated load of the forced-oil-cooled transformer can be increased by 0.75% per degree C if it operates below the average ambient temperature of 30C. The rated load for a dry-type, ventilated, self-cooled transformer can be increased or decreased by 0.6% for each degree C it operates above or below 30C, respectively. The percent increase or decrease for the sealed, self-cooled transformer is 0.4% per degree C. ANSI C57.92 is the guide for loading mineral-oil-immersed power transformers. ANSI C57.96 covers loading of dry-type distribution transformers. See ANSI C57.12 for more information on temperature rise.

844 Altitude
Effects of Insulation and Temperature at High Altitude
Insulation and temperature rise ratings of transformers are valid up to an altitude of 3300 feet. Transformers depend upon air for dissipation of heat losses, and because the air becomes less dense at higher altitudes, transformers installed at 3300 feet and higher must be derated. For a specified kVA rating and altitude, the manufacturer will derate the transformer per ANSI C57.12 and provide a derated transformer that meets the kVA requirements.

845 Basic Impulse Level (BIL)


Basic impulse levels of insulation are reference levels (expressed in impulse crest voltage) that insulation in electrical apparatus must safely withstand during a transient condition. The BIL is dependent on voltage class. A transformer primary will have a different BIL rating than the secondary unless both voltages are in the same voltage class. Higher than standard BIL ratings are available but are more expensive. Dry-type transformers usually have lower BIL ratings than liquid-filled transformers. However, dry-type transformers have BIL ratings that are the same as or greater than the BIL ratings of liquid-filled transformers if arrestors are installed on the dry-type transformers. Standard BIL values for various nominal system voltages are listed in Figure 800-3.

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Fig. 800-3

Standard BIL Values TRANSFORMER BASIC IMPULSE INSULATION LEVELS USUALLY ASSOCIATED WITH NOMINAL SYSTEM VOLTAGE Basic Impulse Insulation Level (KV) Liquid Insulated

Nominal System Primary Voltage (KVrms) 0.12 0.60 2.40 4.16 4.80 6.90 7.20 12.00 12.47 13.20 13.80 14.40 16.5 22.9 26.4 34.4. 43.8 46.0 66.0 67.0 69.0 115.0 138.0 161.0 230.0

Power 45 60 75 75 95 95 110 110 110 110 110 150 150 200 200 250 250 350 350 350 450 550 650 750

Distribution 30 45 60 60 75 75 95 95 95 95 95 150 150 200 200 250 250 350 350 350

Dry Type 10 20 30 30 30 30 60 60 60 60 95 95 110 125 150

846 Impedance
Impedance is usually expressed as a percentage value and is determined by the internal characteristics of the transformer (i.e., core loss, resistance, and reactance of windings). Because of cost, the usual practice is to accept manufacturers standards. However, it may be desirable to install transformers with greater than standard

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impedance to limit the short-circuit duty on secondary switchgear, or to select a transformer with lower than standard impedance to aid motor starting by reducing the voltage drop. Attention should be given to equipment voltage requirements when heavily loading a transformer. The impedance of the transformer causes secondary voltage to decrease as the load increases. This voltage drop, combined with the drop due to cable resistance, could impair the performance of, and reduce the production from the utilization equipment. The larger the impedance value of the transformer, the greater the voltage drop during heavy loading. For information on voltage drop see Section 134, Feeder and Branch Circuit Systems. To understand the effects of impedance on short-circuit duty, see Section 200, System Studies and Protection, and the appendix on the MVA method. Refer to Section 100, System Design, for typical manufacturers impedance values.

847 Secondary Circuit Voltage


The secondary voltage is determined by load characteristics, equipment availability and plant preference.

850 Winding Connections


The typical winding connections for three-phase transformers are the wye-wye, delta-delta, wye-delta, and delta-wye. Consult Section 100, System Design, for a comprehensive discussion about the selection of different connections.

851 Angular Displacement (Nominal) between Voltages of Windings for Three-Phase Transformers
Angular displacement is defined as the angle between the high side phase voltage and the low side phase voltage. For the delta-delta and wye-wye transformers, there is no angular displacement. However, the delta-wye or wye-delta transformer has a 30 degree angular displacement. Angular displacement is of concern when connecting transformers in parallel. See Section 862, Paralleling Transformers. Angular displacement is also important when selecting current transformer connections for differential relaying on transformers (See Section 200, System Studies and Protection, for an explanation of differential relaying). If the transformer is connected delta-wye, the current transformers for differential relaying must be connected wye-delta (primary CTs connected wye and secondary CTs connected delta). This arrangement provides the differential relay with in-phase current from the primary and secondary sides and prevents nuisance tripping on external faults.

852 Series Multiple Windings


Series multiple windings consist of two similar (multiple) coils in each winding that can be connected in series or parallel. Transformers with series-multiple windings are designated with an X or / between the voltage ratings, such as primary

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voltage of 240 X 480 or 120/240. If the series multiple winding is designated by an X, the winding can only be connected in series or parallel (not both). With the / designation, a mid-point is available in addition to the series or parallel connection. For example, a 120 X 240 winding can be connected for either 120 (parallel) or 240 (series), but a 120/240 winding can be connected for 120 (parallel), 240 (series), or 240 with a 120-volt midpoint.

860 Design Characteristics and Their Application (Construction)


861 Voltage Taps
Voltage taps on a transformer provide adjustment of the number of turns in the windings. These taps are typically provided on the high voltage side of the transformer. This feature provides flexibility in compensating for low voltage and increases in the secondary due to changes in loading requirements or in the primary voltage. Voltage taps are either of the manually adjustable no-load type or the automatically adjustable under-load type. For most applications, manually adjustable no-load voltage taps are adequate. These taps can be changed only while the transformer is de-energized. It is recommended to specify two, 2-1/2% steps above and two, 2-1/2% steps below. As an example, if the secondary voltage is 2-1/2% low, the use of the first 2-1/2% below tap will maintain the rated secondary voltage. If required, tap settings that allow up to 10-to15% voltage correction in one direction (above or below) are available. No-load tap changers are used very infrequently where an over or under voltage must be corrected. With double-ended substations (a lineup of switchgear fed from two transformers), it is usually acceptable to remove a transformer from service long enough to change the manually adjustable no-load voltage taps. If tap changing under load is required, an automatic load tap changer should be specified. This type of tap changer should be specified only for unusual applications when voltage control is critical and must be corrected often. The automatic load tap changer automatically provides additional voltage adjustment in incremental steps with continuous monitoring of the secondary voltage. Automatic tap changers are significantly more expensive than manually adjustable no-load tap changers.

862 Paralleling Transformers


The four requirements for paralleling transformers are as follows: 1) the phase relationships between the high voltage and the low voltage must be the same; 2) the line-to-line voltage variation must not exceed 10%; 3) the phase-to-neutral voltages must have the same ratios; and 4) the percent impedance of the transformers should be within 10% of each other (i.e., within 0.8% for an 8% impedance transformer). The purpose of the fourth requirement is to minimize circulating current and to ensure that the load is shared equally by each transformer.

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863 Location
It is recommended that transformers and associated equipment be installed in unclassified (nonhazardous) locations whenever possible. If a transformer must be installed in a Class I area, the transformer and its accessories must be suitable for the classification of the area and be so labeled by a recognized testing laboratory, usually Underwriters Laboratories. See Section 300, Hazardous (Classified) Areas, for specific information on installing transformers in hazardous (classified) locations.

864 Painting
Manufacturers standard paint should be allowed unless there are unusual conditions (primarily environmental) or a local preference. Use of non-standard paint adds to the cost.

865 Termination
It is recommended that the transformer manufacturer supply the connectors and termination (e.g., cable lugs) to match their terminals to the electrical system. This assures that the transformers will be properly connected with the appropriate hardware.

866 Tertiary Windings


Three-phase transformers may have tertiary (third) windings to provide voltage for auxiliary power purposes. As an example, static capacitors (synchronous condensers) for purposes of power factor correction or voltage regulation, may be connected to the tertiary windings. The tertiary windings are sometimes connected in delta configuration to provide a circuit for the third harmonics of the exciting current.

870 Accessories
The type and extent of protection and monitoring accessories for a transformer are determined by factors such as the cost and importance of the unit versus the cost of the protection scheme. The following accessories (several of which are illustrated in Figures 800-4 through 800-10) either protect the transformer or are needed for routine inspection and maintenance.

871 Liquid Level Gage


The liquid level gage (see Figure 800-4) is used to indicate the level of insulating oil in a tank with respect to a predetermined level (usually indicated at the 25C mark.) The liquid level gage can be specified with contacts to alarm on a low liquid level. An excessively low level of liquid could lead to internal overheating and flashovers.

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Fig. 800-4

Liquid Level Gage (Courtesy of Qualitrol)

872 Fluid Thermometer, Dial Type


A dial-type fluid thermometer (see Figure 800-5), common to most liquid-filled transformers, measures the temperature of the insulating liquid at the top of the transformer tank. This device also indicates the peak liquid temperature with a resettable pointer. The thermometer is only partially effective as a protective device because the thermal coefficient of the liquid is quite different from that of the windings. The thermal time constant of the liquid is much longer than that of the windings and hence the liquid temperature is more sluggish in its response to changes in loading losses than the windings. Furthermore, the thermometer reading is related to transformer loading only as long as the loading affects the temperature rise above ambient. Thus, the temperature reading will vary between being too conservative and too pessimistic, depending upon the rate of change of the load and the ambient conditions.
Fig. 800-5 Dial Type Thermometer (Courtesy of Qualitrol)

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Thermometers are usually specified with alarm contacts for providing remote warnings of abnormally high liquid temperatures. Thermometers with alarm contacts should be considered for all liquid-filled transformers. If provisions for future forced-air cooling are specified, winding temperature indicators with alarm contacts should be equipped with one to three adjustable contacts that operate at preset temperatures. For example, fans are usually turned on if the liquid temperature reaches 60C. When the temperature reaches 90C, a contact is actuated to alarm or to disconnect the transformer. That is, the fans are turned on at approximately 90% load, whereas the alarm is given at about 130% rated load. These approximate figures vary with design and the actual ambient temperature. The percent loadings will be somewhat lower at temperatures above ambient, and higher at ambient temperatures below 30C. When applied to a 65C rated transformer, the switch will operate at loading values of approximately 75% and 115%.

873 Pressure Vacuum Gage


This gage (see Figure 800-6) indicates the pressure of the gas inside the tank space. It is used on transformers with sealed tanks. The pressure inside the sealed tank is normally related to the thermal expansion of the insulating liquid and varies with different loading conditions and ambient temperatures. This device can be equipped with alarms to detect excessive vacuum or positive pressure that could deform or rupture the tank. The need for pressure limit alarms is less critical when the transformer is equipped with a pressure relief device. The pressure vacuum gage typically has a scale range of 10 psi and provides a means of continually monitoring the sealed system.
Fig. 800-6 Pressure Vacuum Gage (Courtesy of ABB)

874 Pressure Relief Diaphragm in Cover


This cover-mounted pressure relief device (see Figure 800-7), not to be confused with the sudden pressure relay described below, operates to relieve dangerous pressure buildups from 1) high peak load, 2) long-time overloads, and 3) arc-producing faults. After the pressure has been released, the device resumes its former seating to assure a weather-tight seal, but its operation indicator must be manually reset. This device requires minimal maintenance. It is primarily used to protect the tank that houses the liquid. It can be equipped with alarm contacts in conjunction with a self-

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sealing relay and can be connected so that a remote warning device can be activated, advising the operator of excessive pressure. Any operation of this relief device that was not preceded by overloading will indicate possible trouble in the windings. A pressure relief device is recommended for transformers rated 500 kVA and above.
Fig. 800-7 Pressure Relief Diaphragm Courtesy of ABB: Transmission and Distribution

875 Sampling Device


Sampling devices should be specified for oil insulated transformers. These devices allow access to the oil so that the oil can be checked for dielectric strength, moisture, and sludge buildup. Sampling devices are usually located on the side of the tank or as a part of the drain valve.

876 Pressure Regulator


This accessory (see Figure 800-8) automatically maintains a positive-pressure nitrogen atmosphere above the oil. Nitrogen, supplied in cylinders, is admitted through the regulator to maintain positive pressure in the gas space above the oil to prevent the accumulation of water (from outside air) in the oil.

877 Provisions for Future Cooling Fans


Transformers normally are not specified with fans at initial installation, but often should be specified with provisions for future forced air cooling. Manufacturers can

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provide the necessary hardware and equipment for future fan connection. This option ensures that minimal shutdown time will be required when installing the fans at a later date.

878 Sudden Pressure Relays


A sudden pressure relay (see Figure 800-9) is a pressure-sensitive relay used to initiate isolation from the electrical system (limiting damage to the transformer) if pressure in the tank rises abruptly. This device is mounted with its main pressuresensing element in direct contact with the gas cushion in the tank of a liquid-filled transformer. When a fault occurs, a sudden increase in gas produces an abrupt
Fig. 800-8 Pressure Regulation w/N2 Blanketing

increase in pressure that actuates the contacts, and energizes the relay. The relay then trips the transformer off-line. This device detects internal shorted turns, faults to ground, and winding-to-winding faults. Since the operation of this device is closely related to actual faults in the winding, one should consider all risks involved in re-energizing a transformer that has been tripped off-line by a sudden pressure relay. The relay is designed to be insensitive to gradual changes in pressure due to changing load and ambient conditions. Sudden pressure relays are generally recommended for transformer sizes of 5000 kVA and above.

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Fig. 800-9

Sudden Pressure Relay Courtesy of ABB: Transmission and Distribution

879 Neutral Current Transformer


A bushing current transformer (see Figure 800-10) installed on the neutral bushing is required on a grounded transformer that has a ground fault relay. This feature provides the required signal to operate the protective relay.
Fig. 800-10 Bushing Current Transformer Courtesy of ABB: Transmission and Distribution

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880 Grounding Resistors and Bushing Current Transformers


881 Grounding Resistors
Grounding resistors are used to limit the amount of fault current on the load circuit (See Section 900, Grounding Systems, for further information). It may be desirable for the switchgear manufacturer to provide the resistor since the ground fault detection system, if specified, is usually located in the switchgear.

882 Bushing Current Transformers


Bushing current transformers (see Figure 800-10) installed on low-voltage and/or high-voltage bushings, are required if signals are needed for metering or operating protective relays. Typically, current transformers supplying signals to metering or protective relays on the load side of the transformer are supplied with the switchgear.

883 Surge Capacitors/Lightning Arrestors


Lightning protection is achieved by the process of intercepting lightning-produced surges and diverting them to ground or altering their associated waveshapes. Surge arrestors intercept the surge and divert it to the ground, whereas surge capacitors alter the shape of the steep incoming wavefront. Lightning is considered to be the most severe source of surge voltages. The appropriate degree of surge protection depends on the degree of exposure to lightning, the size and importance of the transformer, and the type and cost of the arrestors. Lightning arrestors limit the overvoltage by providing a conducting path of relatively low impedance to ground. This low impedance to ground must not exist before the overvoltage appears, and it must disappear immediately after the voltage has returned to normal. Arrestors have a single gap, or several gaps in series, which will withstand the normal operating voltage but flash-over and become conductive at higher voltages. The three classes of arrestors are: station, intermediate, and distribution which are listed in order of decreasing cost, protection, and quality of manufacture. Station class arrestors are applied to both large (7.5 MVA and larger) and critical transformers. Intermediate class arrestors are applied to transformers between 225 kVA and 7.5 MA, and distribution class arrestors are applied to small dry-type and oil-filled distribution transformers. If transformers are connected to bare overhead lines, they should be protected by surge arrestors. Ordinarily, if a liquid-insulated transformer is supplied by enclosed conductors from the secondaries of transformers with adequate primary protection, surge arrestors are not needed. To provide the best protection for the transformer, the surge arrestor should be mounted directly on, or as close as possible, to the transformer terminals. It is recommended that surge arrestors be installed on the primary of all substation transformers fed by uninsulated overhead lines.

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Surge capacitors provide additional protection against overvoltages (surges). Transformer windings can experience a very non-uniform distribution of a fast-front surge in the transformer. The capacitors bend the front of the surge so that the initial force from the surge is distributed over more turns. Surge capacitor protection is also effective against voltage transients generated from circuit conditions (e.g., high frequency current interruption, prestriking, restriking, current limiting fuse operations, thyristor-switching, or ferroresonance). Surge capacitors, like surge arrestors, should be connected on, or as close as possible, to the transformer terminals.

884 Shop Testing


Tests required for verification of quality control before shipping transformers are covered in the Data Sheet Guide for Data Sheet ELC-DS-401. Tests required for installation and commissioning of transformers are covered in Section 1400, Electrical Checkout, Commissioning, and Maintenance.

885 EconomicsEvaluation Factor


When economically evaluating transformers, both the initial cost of the equipment and the cost of energy losses over the lifespan of the transformer must be considered. The sum of these two costs is the lifecycle cost. If a choice must be made among several transformers that all meet the technical requirements, the one with the lowest life cycle cost should be selected. (See ELC-DS-401 for formulas.)

890 References
The following references are readily available. Those marked with an asterisk (*) are included in this manual or are available in other manuals.

891 Model Specifications (MS)


There are no model specifications in this guideline.

892 Standard Drawings


There are no Standard Drawings in this guideline.

893 Data Sheets (DS), Data Guides (DG), and Engineering Forms (EF)
*ELC-DS-401 *ELC-DG-401 Transformer Data Sheet Transformer Data Sheet Guide

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894 Appendices
*Appendix D Minimum Requirements for Dry-Type Transformers (Eastern Region)

895 Other References


IEEE C57, Distribution, Power and Regulating Transformers. ANSI/NEMA ST-20 Dry-Type Transformers for General Applications. *API RP 14F Design and Installation of Electrical Systems for Offshore Production Platforms.

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900 Grounding Systems


Abstract
This section provides guidelines and procedures for selecting grounding methods for generation and distribution systems. Advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed and specific recommendations are provided. Procedures for system, equipment, lightning, and static grounding at Company installations in the United States are included. How and where to ground electrical systems and what equipment to use are discussed. Methods of preventing static charge buildup and protection against the effects of lightning are covered. Engineering and physical principles, and mandatory and recommended practices are included also. Design parameters for the various grounding systems for onshore and offshore applications are provided as well as a list of references. Standard drawings of grounding details for equipment and instrumentation are included. Contents 910 911 912 913 914 920 921 922 923 924 925 926 930 931 Introduction GroundingAn Overview Design Parameters Checklist Selecting the System Grounding Point System Grounding Background Solidly Grounded Neutral Low-Resistance Grounded Neutral High-Resistance Grounded Neutral Low-Reactance Grounded Neutral Grounding Transformers System Grounding Recommendations Equipment Grounding Methods Onshore Equipment Grounding 900-14 900-5 Page 900-3

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932 933 934 935 936 940 941 942 950 960 961 962 970 971 972 973 974

Offshore Equipment Grounding Common Equipment Grounding Applications Control Room Instrument and Computer Equipment Grounding Shipboard Equipment Grounding Installations Ground Resistance Measurement Lightning Protection Grounding Structures Electrical Equipment Static Electricity Grounding Sizing Components Low-Resistance Grounding High-Resistance Grounding References Model Specifications (MS) Standard Drawings Data Sheets (DS), Data Guides (DG) and Engineering Forms (EF) Other References 900-26 900-23 900-23 900-20

Note All figures reprinted from NFPA are reprinted with permission from NFPA 780, Standard for the Installation of Lightning Protection Systems, Chapter 6, Copyright 1995, National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, Mass. 02269. This reprinted material is not the complete and official position of NFPA on the referenced subject which is represented only by the standard in its entirety.

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910 Introduction
This section provides guidelines for selecting and designing grounding systems. Issues discussed include the rationale for different system grounding methods as well as specific recommendations for both on- and offshore applications. System grounding, equipment grounding, lightning protection grounding, and static electricity grounding are also discussed. This section should be used as described below: Those who have never designed a grounding system should review this entire section as well as the appropriate sections of the National Electrical Code (NEC) and the National Electrical Safety Code (NESC). IEEE Standard 142 (the Green Book) is also a good reference. Those who need a review of the design of a grounding system for a particular application should review the section(s) pertaining to the specific application and, where appropriate, the model specifications and standard drawings. Those experienced in the design of grounding systems will find the checklist useful. This section also provides a source for applicable standards and references.

911 GroundingAn Overview


Items are grounded to protect personnel and equipment. The term grounding covers four separate functions: 1. 2. 3. 4. System grounding, in which the neutral of a Y connected transformer or generator is grounded. Equipment grounding, in which all metallic non-current carrying parts (which could become energized) are grounded. Lightning protection grounding, in which tall vessels, structures, etc., are grounded; and surge arresters are used to protect equipment. Static electricity grounding, in which tanks, lines, and piping (e.g., on truck and tank car loading stations) are grounded.

912 Design Parameters


The following design parameters must be established before a grounding system can be designed: Voltages: utility supply or generation, distribution, and utilization Environmental or site conditions: corrosive conditions, area classification, and soil resistivity Mean annual number of days with thunderstorms for the specific job site (available from Isoceraunic Maps in NFPA 780 or IEEE Std 142)

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Grounding design may be started after the following design items have been established: Preliminary system one-line diagram Power source characteristics: maximum ground-fault current available Load characteristics: critical processes and equipment that must remain on line during power system ground faults

The design generally requires documentation on: Specific equipment to be grounded Facility layout (e.g., area and room layouts, plot plans) Mechanical and electrical equipment details Structural plans

913 Checklist
The following checklist should be reviewed before completing the grounding design: Are steel structures (including pipe racks and buildings) connected to ground through at least two grounding conductors? Are all requirements of NEC Article 250 and NESC Section 9 satisfied? Has the criticality of process loads been evaluated? (possibly requiring the use of high-resistance grounding for critical loads) Are all system neutrals grounded at the origin of each voltage level? Are the neutrals of all loads ungrounded? Are all ground buses in switchgear and motor control centers grounded at both ends? Are the enclosures or frames of all items of equipment, such as motors rated 2300 volts and above, generators, switchgear, MCCs, and power transformers, installed with at least two equipment grounding conductors? Are all noncurrent-carrying metal raceways, conduits, cable armors, cabinets, junction boxes, electrical enclosures, vessels, and skids properly grounded? Is all electrical equipment located in hazardous (classified) areas provided with proper equipment grounding connections in accordance with NEC Article 500? Are all conduit connections either made up wrench-tight or bonded?

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914 Selecting the System Grounding Point


Two basic rules dictate the selection of the system neutral grounding points in an electrical distribution system. Briefly, these are: 1. Ground at the source of each voltage transformation level; that is, at the transformer or generator. Transformers or generator neutrals must be grounded at each voltage level to achieve the advantages of neutral grounding. Sometimes a specially designed grounding transformer is used to establish a system neutral. Never ground a system neutral at the load.

2.

920 System Grounding Background


The following discussion is not intended to be a comprehensive description of system grounding. See IEEE 142 for detailed information.

Overvoltage
Overvoltage conditions can cause deterioration of the insulation on electrical cables, motor windings, and other electrical equipment. Overvoltage conditions are a serious concern on ungrounded systems due to system transients caused by arcing ground faults and capacitive-inductive resonance in the power system. These situations are avoided when systems are grounded properly. There are four recommended system grounding methods: solid, low-resistance, high-resistance, and low reactance. However, it may be appropriate to install an ungrounded system (e.g., a single motor fed by three single-phase distribution transformers). The selection of the most efficient, safe, and economic system is the responsibility of the design engineer.

921 Solidly Grounded Neutral


The power system is solidly grounded when the neutral of the source is connected directly to ground without intentionally inserting any impedance in the path. This is illustrated in Figure 900-1.

Fault Current Magnitude


When a low-impedance ground fault (commonly called a bolted fault) occurs on a solidly grounded system, very high ground fault currents will flow. These currents are typically 10 to 20 times the full-load current of the source transformer(s) and 5 to 10 times the full-load current of the generator(s). When arcing line-to-ground faults occur on 480 volt solidly grounded systems, the current magnitude is significantly less than the maximum bolted ground fault level since the arc resistance is relatively high. The fault, once established, is maintained as an arc through the ionized gases between the phase conductor and ground. The voltage required to sustain an arc is approximately 140 volts. As a result, the current magnitude of an arcing ground fault is approximately 40% of the bolted fault value on 480 volt systems. This must be considered when selecting the pickup values for

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Fig. 900-1

Solidly Grounded Neutral

ground fault protective relays. See Section 600, Protective Devices, for recommended settings. Since the voltage to sustain an arc is approximately 140 volts, an arcing ground fault is self-extinguishing on 208Y/120 volt systems (the line-to-ground voltage is 120 volts).

Fault Detection
To detect ground fault currents, sensitive ground fault protective devices must be used. These devices may be applied in several different ways as illustrated in Figure 900-2: Ground return path. An overcurrent relay is located in the transformer or generator neutral connection to ground. Zero sequence method (core balance). A window-type (donut type) current transformer is used to monitor all current-carrying conductors. Residual ground method. An overcurrent relay is located in common return conductor of the phase current transformer secondaries. Ground sensor integral with circuit breakers. Ground fault protection is available packaged with phase overcurrent devices of the circuit breaker for systems 600 volts and below using any of the three fault sensing methods listed above.

These devices only operate on ground-fault currents and are insensitive to normal load or phase-fault currents. Their operating current level for ground faults can be as low as a few amperes to detect a low level arcing ground fault. The choice of a particular method will depend on the sensitivity required and the circuit-interrupting devices selected. See Section 600, Protective Devices, for additional information.

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Fig. 900-2

Ground Fault Protective Devices

Line-to-neutral Loads
The solidly grounded neutral system, as illustrated in Figure 900-1, is the only system to which line-to-neutral loads can be connected since the neutral is always at ground potential. Thus, low voltage systems may be used for both three-phase loads and single-phase line-to-neutral loads on both 480Y/277 volt and 208Y/120 volt three-phase, four wire systems.

Overvoltage
Solidly grounded systems offer the opportunity for using lower voltage-rated (lineto-neutral voltage) surge arresters. Resistance grounded systems require higher lineto-line voltage-rated arresters. See IEEE Std 142, Chapter 1, for additional details.

Cost Factors
The initial cost of solidly grounding the neutral is minimal on wye connected transformers. Cost is higher for delta-connected transformers because a grounding transformer is required to establish a neutral point (see Section 925 below). If sensitive ground-fault protection is required, this feature also adds to the cost. Evaluation of downtime costs must consider the effects of suddenly disconnecting a

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portion of the electrical system when a ground fault occurs. These costs may be high for continuous processes or critical services.

922 Low-Resistance Grounded Neutral


A low-resistance grounded neutral system has a low-resistance device (either a resistor or a single-phase grounding transformer with a resistor) inserted in the neutral connection to ground, as illustrated in Figure 900-3.
Fig. 900-3 Low-Resistance Grounded Neutral System

Fault Current Magnitude


Ground resistors are sized to limit the current magnitude during a line-to-ground fault. The current should be limited to a value that will minimize burning damage at the point of fault, yet allow sufficient current to flow for operation of the ground fault relays. Burning damage is proportional to the energy, I2t, where I is the fault current in amperes and t is time in seconds. It is evident that damage is minimized if both current and time duration are kept to a minimum during a line-to-ground fault. For this reason, medium voltage systems with large motors are commonly grounded in this manner. A ground-fault current not exceeding 400 amperes is recommended. However, current may be increased or decreased to meet the requirements of a specific application. For example, a system with four parallel sources may suggest a limit of 200 amperes each, resulting in a total ground fault current of (4 x 200) 800 amperes at the fault. Typically, the ground-fault current magnitude is limited by the resistor to between 50 and 1000 amperes.

Fault Detection
With the ground fault current limited by resistance, sensitive ground fault relays are required since the phase relays normally will not detect a ground fault. Sensitive zero-sequence relays, shown in Figure 900-2, are recommended on feeder circuits.

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The ground return path method (Figure 900-2) may be used for transformers or generators. Residual ground relays may be used where they provide adequate sensitivitytypically 10% of the maximum ground-fault current.

Overvoltage
With the values of resistance normally used, the maximum line-to-ground voltages (including transients) during a line-to-ground fault are held to a minimum. Surge arresters must be rated for line-to-line voltage (versus line-to-ground).

Cost Factors
The initial cost to provide low-resistance grounding of the system neutral includes the grounding resistor, the grounding transformer (if no wye-connection is available), and the ground-fault relaying equipment. Costs to repair the faulted equipment may be much lower. For example, to repair a motor insulation failure may require only a coil replacement, whereas a similar failure on a solidly grounded system may require extensive repairs, or even a complete motor replacement. Since the faulted equipment is disconnected suddenly, downtime costs must be evaluated on the same basis as solidly grounded systems. The ground resistor on a low-resistance grounded system is normally rated for 10 second duty. To prevent resistor damage for some fault conditions (such as a ground fault between the transformer secondary terminals and the downstream switching device) either a primary disconnect device (circuit breaker or a load-disconnect switch with a shunt trip) or a transfer trip to a transformers supply circuit breaker is required.

923 High-Resistance Grounded Neutral


The high-resistance grounded neutral system (Figure 900-4) has a high-resistance device inserted in the neutral connection to ground to limit the current for line-toground faults. The resistance device must be rated to carry continuously the maximum current which can flow (line-to-ground voltage divided by the resistance). The basic objectives of this grounding method are: To preclude automatic tripping of faulted circuits for the initial ground fault To alarm the faulted condition To limit transient overvoltages characteristic of ungrounded systems

High-resistance grounding is not recommended for most unattended locations.

Cost Factors
The initial cost to provide a high-resistance grounded system includes the grounding equipment, and fault-locating equipment. High-resistance grounded neutral systems are applied in process industries and in other situations where control of transient overvoltages is desired, but where immediate interruption of power on occurrence of the first ground fault would cause significant economic loss.

Fault Current Magnitude


The magnitude of the line-to-ground fault current at any point in a system is determined by the value of the grounding resistor and the system charging current.

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Fig. 900-4

High-Resistance Grounded Neutral System

System charging currents result from the capacitance of insulated conductors in close proximity to grounded components, and from lumped capacitance (e.g., surge capacitors on motors and generators). System charging currents are defined by the capacitive reactance to ground (Xco) as shown in Figure 900-4. The current in the resistor (IR) should be equal to or greater than the total system charging current in order to limit transient overvoltages to a maximum of 250% of rated line-toneutral voltage (See Section 962). The resistor is sized to limit fault current to the lowest possible level but still effectively limit system overvoltage. Increasing the allowable ground-fault current improves overvoltage control at the expense of increasing damage at the point of fault; decreasing the allowable ground-fault current reduces point-of-fault damage at the expense of greater overvoltage risk. Line-to-ground fault current should be limited to 10 amperes (preferably 5 amperes) to control the burning at a fault. The system can operate normally until the fault is located and an orderly shutdown initiated. If fault currents greater than 10 amperes are permitted, sustained arcing may occur. This arcing will progressively damage the insulation or produce excessive ionized gases, particularly undesirable in a confined space. Systems with charging currents exceeding 10 amperes should be of the low-resistance grounded type.

Fault Detection
The first ground fault will not automatically trip a faulted circuit. A second line-toground fault on another phase may create a line-to-line-to-ground fault. This will cause circuit breaker tripping if the first fault still exists. A ground detector should be provided to detect and alarm the presence of a line-to-ground fault. Locating the fault can be time consuming and require repeated feeder shutdowns. However, fault locating equipment and methods are available to avoid feeder shutdown and to

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make finding the ground fault easier. Ground-fault locating equipment places a traceable signal onto the grounded phase conductor; this aids in the rapid location of ground faults. A pulsing current can be created with a contactor, such as shown by Figure 900-5, which shunts a part of the ground resistor to increase the ground fault by a factor of 1.5 to 2 (or more). The contactor, which is switched about every half second, produces a varying fault current that can be traced easily with a clamp-on ammeter. This system enables the fault to be located without de-energizing any circuits.
Fig. 900-5 Fault Detection by Means of a Contactor

High-resistance grounding equipment can be purchased as a complete package from several manufacturers. These units are available for delta or wye systems. For a complete description of this type of fault detecting and locating equipment refer to manufacturers literature. General Electric Co., Model GEK-83750, DS9181 HighResistance Grounding Equipment, is one such unit available.

Overvoltage
The high-resistance grounded neutral system controls overvoltage conditions possible in the power system. These transient overvoltages are limited to 250% of the rated line-to-neutral voltages. During the time a ground fault exists on the power system, system components are exposed to rated line-to-line voltages. Surge arresters and insulated cables must be appropriately rated.

924 Low-Reactance Grounded Neutral


Low-reactance grounding of neutrals is not commonly used. Sometimes it is applied to generators to limit line-to-ground fault current to a level within generator mechanical capabilities. See the IEEE Green Book for more information.

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925 Grounding Transformers


Sometimes a neutral grounding point at the source is not readily available (e.g., a delta-connected transformer secondary). In these situations, a neutral can be established by using either a three-phase zig-zag grounding transformer or a three-phase (or three single-phase transformers) connected wye-delta. The operation of these grounding transformers is very similar. They both provide a low-impedance path for ground currents and a high-impedance path under normal operating conditions. Therefore, during normal conditions, only a small magnetizing current flows in the transformer windings. Refer to Chapter 6 of D. Beemans Industrial Power Systems Handbook for the theory of grounding transformers.

926 System Grounding Recommendations


The system grounding method for each system voltage class should be selected from the choices listed below. The choice should be based on one or more of the characteristics of the specific grounding method that meet the specific job requirements.

Solidly Grounded Neutral


Appropriate system voltage ratings for solidly grounded neutrals are 600, 480, and 240 volts three-phase, three-wire, and 480Y/277 and 208Y/120 volts three-phase, four-wire. Solidly grounded neutrals are recommended when: The system is a three-phase, four-wire system with loads (such as lighting) connected line-to-neutral. NEC requires the use of solidly grounded neutrals on 480Y/277 volt and 208Y/120 volt systems when line-to-neutral loads are supplied. The system voltage to ground must be held to 150 volts maximum (to meet the requirements of National Electrical Code, Article 250.) High-voltage systems 15 kV and above

Solidly grounded neutrals are not recommended when: The system serves continuous process loads where automatic tripping of ground faults by protective devices is not permissible. The system is rated 2.4 kV and above where rotating machines are connected directly at that voltage level.

High-Resistance Grounded Neutral


Appropriate system voltage ratings for high-resistance grounded neutrals are 480 volt three-phase, three-wire, and 2400 volt through 4160 volt three-phase, threewire. High-resistance grounded neutrals are recommended when:

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The system is serving continuous process loads where an unexpected shutdown of any electrically driven component will result in shutdown of the entire process. Shutdown would result in a serious loss of product or production time. The safety of personnel or process equipment is threatened by unexpected shutdown.

When a high-resistance grounding method is selected, timely location and removal of the first ground fault is essential. The traceable signal feature is recommended to assist in the fault location procedures. If a second line-to-ground fault occurs before the first fault is located, feeder shutdowns may result (if the line-to-ground faults involve different phases). Transformers with 2400 and 4160 volt ratings should be provided with high-resistance grounding if it is essential to prevent unplanned shutdown or if a single rotating machine is served by a captive transformer. A study must be performed to determine the system charging current and the effects on surge arrester selection. Consideration should be given to possible future changes in the system, including the installation of surge capacitors and other equipment and modifications that would affect the total system charging current. Recommended practice is to use high-resistance grounded neutrals to limit groundfault currents to approximately 5 amperes (10 amperes maximum). It is recommended also as a means of detecting and alarming ground faults.

Low-Resistance Grounded Neutral


Appropriate system voltage ratings for low-resistance grounded neutrals are 2400 through 14,400 volts three-phase, three-wire. Low-resistance grounded neutrals are recommended when: Motors 2300 volts or above are served. This method limits the damage to insulation and the stator iron if a motor winding faults to ground. The system serves noncontinuous process loads, or those with spares, when automatic tripping on a ground fault will not have an adverse effect on the process. Generators rated 2400 volts and above are used.

Transformers with 2400 to 14,400 volt wye-connected windings should be equipped with resistors sized to limit ground-fault currents to 400 amperes. Protective relaying should trip faulted feeders if a ground fault occurs. See Section 600, Protective Devices, for details on relay systems. Recommended practice is to use low-resistance neutral grounding on 2400 through 14,400 volt systems to limit ground-fault currents to 400 amperes. Low-resistance neutral grounding is also recommended when the capacitive charging current is greater than 10 amperes.

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930 Equipment Grounding Methods


Equipment Ground Background
Equipment grounding requires the connection to ground of all metallic noncurrent carrying parts of the wiring system and equipment. This includes metal raceways, conduits, cable armor, cabinets, junction boxes, switch boxes, transformer cases, frames of motors, enclosures of switchgear and motor control centers, metal structures and buildings, and the frames and skids of packaged equipment containing electrical devices. The primary purpose of equipment grounding is to limit the difference in potential between personnel and metallic objects that might accidentally become energized in the event of a short circuit or ground fault within the equipment or wiring system. A second purpose is to provide a low-impedance return path for a ground fault so that protective devices will operate properly. High impedances within the equipment grounding system, due either to poor connections or inadequately sized conductors, may cause arcing or heating sufficient to ignite combustible materials or flammable gases or vapors. Grounding electrode conductors for separately derived systems and service entrances should be copper and must be sized in accordance with NEC Table 25094. See Figure 900-6. Equipment grounding conductors should also be copper and sized in accordance with NEC Table 250-95. See Figure 900-7. Note that the size of the equipment grounding conductor is based on the setting of the overcurrent device (which may be a low-pickup ground relay). The smallest recommended conductor size is 6 AWG.
Fig. 900-6 Minimum Sizes for Copper Grounding Electrode Conductors Reprinted with permission from NFPA 70-1999, National Electric Code, copyright 1998. Courtesy of the National Fire Protection Association. Minimum Size Grounding Electrode Conductor (AWG) 6 4 2 1/0 2/0 3/0

Service (Feeder) Conductor Size (AWG) 1/0 or smaller 2/0 3/0 Over 3/0 350 MCM Over 350 MCM 600 MCM Over 600 MCM 1100 MCM Over 1100 MCM

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Fig. 900-7

Minimum Sizes for Copper Equipment Grounding Conductors Reprinted with permission from NFPA 70-1999, National Electric Code, copyright 1998. Courtesy of the National Fire Protection Association.

Rating or Setting of Automatic Overcurrent Device in Circuit Ahead of Equipment, Conduit, etc., Not exceeding (Amperes) 15 20 30 40 60 100 200 300 400 500 600 800 1000 1200 1600 2000 2500 3000 4000 5000 6000

Minimum Size (AWG) 14 12 10 10 10 8 6 4 3 2 1 0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 MCM 350 MCM 400 MCM 500 MCM 700 MCM 800 MCM

931 Onshore Equipment Grounding


The grounding system for a large or complex plant may involve an extensive multiloop network of equipment enclosures, structures, and buildings, ground grids or ground loops (sometimes referred to as a ground network) interconnected by cables to provide an overall plant grounding system. In some cases, the grounding system may be relatively simple, such as a single connection to a buried pipeline or ground rod. A ground loop or ground grid, consisting of buried cables with driven ground rods connected to the ground loops is normally installed around each substation, process unit, or building. All ground loops must be connected together. A typical installation would use #4/0 AWG bare copper wire for ground loops. The minimum size which can be used is #2/0 AWG, and the maximum recommended size is 500 MCM. Large loops may have intermediate connections between opposite sides to reduce the distance from the loop to individual grounded items. Specific requirements for grounding systems are given in NEC Article 250. Detailed information is included in IEEE Std 142. Design and construction notes and details are indicated on Company Standard Drawings GD-P99734 and GF-P99735.

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932 Offshore Equipment Grounding


One conductor in all single-phase power distribution cables should be utilized as an equipment grounding conductor, and the conductor should be identified with a green marking on all terminations throughout the system (e.g., a sleeve wire marker labeled GROUND or green electrical tape). Three-phase feeders supplying singlephase loads (directly or through sub-panels) should contain this equipment grounding conductor. This equipment grounding conductor should be utilized in addition to any other grounding means. The equipment grounding conductor, unlike the neutral conductor, may be grounded at multiple points. All devices in the system, including receptacles, lighting fixtures, etc., should be grounded with equipment grounding conductors. Individual boxes, fittings, or enclosures used to enclose wire splices or as pull boxes do not necessarily have to be grounded with a ground wire. The box itself can be bonded, welded, or bolted to the structure or a suitably grounded structural member, in such a manner that a good and lasting electrical bond is formed. Threaded rigid conduit interconnections made up wrench tight or properly bonded are considered proper ground paths.

933 Common Equipment Grounding Applications


The most common applications of equipment grounding include the following: Structures. Steel building frameworks, pipe racks, stacks, tall vessels, tanks, and similar installations should be grounded at a minimum of two points per structure with substantial connections to the grounding system grid, using #2/0 AWG minimum bare copper wire. Motors and Generators. Motor and generator enclosures should be connected to the grounding system. This connection is usually a separate grounding conductor from each machine enclosure to the ground grid. Large motors (over 600 volts) should have two connections to the plant ground loop, using #2/0 AWG minimum copper wire. However, this connection should be considered supplementary to the equipment grounding conductor because its purpose is to equalize potentials in the immediate vicinity of the machine. The equipment grounding conductor must be a mechanically and electrically continuous conductor routed with the phase conductors of the machine. This may be a conductor run with phase conductors inside a conduit or cable, a continuously threaded rigid conduit system, the metallic sheath of certain cables, or a cable tray system. See ELC-EG-1675. Separate equipment grounding conductors are recommended for system voltages of 2300 volts and above, especially for lowresistance or solidly grounded systems. The ground connection must provide a low impedance circuit from the machine enclosure to the electric system ground. Metallic-Sheathed and Metallic-Shielded Power Cables. Metallic sheaths and metallic shield of power cables should be continuous over the entire length and should be grounded at each end. If cables are spliced, continuity of the metallic sheath or shield at the splice is required. When metallic armor is used

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over metallic sheath, the sheath and the armor should be bonded together and connected to the ground system at each end of the cable and at splices. The metallic sheath or armor type AC or MC cables can also be used as an equipment grounding conductor if its current-carrying capacity is verified by a nationally recognized testing laboratory (e.g., UL). Enclosures and Raceways. NEC requires that exposed metallic noncurrentcarrying enclosures of electrical devices be grounded. These include conduit, wireways and other similar wiring raceways. Where the continuity of the enclosure is assured by its construction, a ground connection at its termination points is adequate. If continuity is not assured by construction, adequate connections of all sections to the ground grid or bonding jumpers between all sections is required. Bus Boxes. Bus boxes should be equipped with a separate ground bus to terminate all grounding conductors. This ground bus must be bonded to the enclosure and also to the structure (or suitable grounded structural member). The ground bus must be physically and electrically separate from the neutral bus. The neutral bus, if necessary, must be electrically insulated from ground at this point. Enclosures for Electrical Equipment. Switchgear, motor control centers, and similar electrical equipment should include a ground bus. The ground bus must be bolted or otherwise connected directly to the equipment frame. This arrangement ensures that when the ground bus is connected to the ground loop, the equipment enclosure is also grounded. When the equipment consists of a lineup of two or more sections, two grounding connections to the ground grid, one on each end of the ground bus, are recommended. It is also recommended that power transformers be furnished with two grounding pads, one on each side, for making connections to the ground grid. The ground connections from major electrical equipment to the ground grid should be made using #2/0 AWG minimum copper wire. Lighting Panels. A separate ground block must be installed inside standard lighting panels to terminate all ground wires. This ground block must be bonded to the frame of the panel and also to the structure. The ground block must be physically and electrically separate from the neutral block. The neutral block is electrically insulated from ground at this point. The neutral block of a lighting panel is grounded on one point onlyat the source or at the main panel. All sub-panel neutral blocks are not grounded within the subpanel. Explosionproof Lighting Panels. Explosionproof lighting panels which do not have physical mounting space to include a separate ground block require special measures. Two methods which may be utilized are: a. Install an explosionproof junction box on the side of the lighting panel. This box is to be connected to the lighting panel with rigid conduit made up wrench tight. Install a ground block within this box and bond the block to the junction box. A #6 AWG bare solid copper wire or a #6 AWG green

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insulated stranded copper wire is to be installed from the ground block to a suitable lug that is bonded to the structure deck or a structural member. The individual ground conductors that enter the lighting panel terminal box are to be continuous and are to be terminated on the ground block. b. Install a #6 AWG bare solid copper wire or a #6 AWG green insulated stranded copper wire in the terminal block section of the lighting panel and connect all ground wires to this wire with split-bolt connectors. This wire is to be terminated on the lighting panel frame. The other end is to be terminated with a suitable lug that is bonded to the structure deck or a structural member.

Fences. Metal fences and gates enclosing electrical equipment or substations must be connected to the grounding system grid. See Standard Drawing GFP99735 for details. This requirement is to protect personnel from electric shock hazard during a fault. The following factors should be considered: resistance of the station grounding system to ground, distance of the fence from grounding electrodes, and voltage gradients in the soil (to keep the touch and step voltage to a minimum). These factors are mostly encountered in large, high voltage substations designed by power utilities. For additional information, see IEEE Std 142 and IEEE Std 80. Ground-Resistance Measurement. Often it is necessary to measure the resistance of the grounding system to earth to determine if the value is within design limits. Methods of measuring ground network resistance are discussed in Section 936. Corrosion Problems. Copper is recommended for ground networks because of its resistance to corrosion and its high conductivity. Because of the galvanic couple between copper and steel, an extensive copper grounding system may accelerate corrosion of steel piping and other buried steel connected to the system. Where this condition exists, galvanized steel ground rods and insulated copper conductors should be used, but care must be taken to ensure that the ground electrodes do not corrode, which reduces their effectiveness. Cathodic protection of the ground electrodes and buried steel, using sacrificial anodes or impressed current, will alleviate this problem.

934 Control Room Instrument and Computer Equipment Grounding


Grounding of control room instrumentation and process computers should be in accordance with ICM-MS-3651 and Standard Drawing GF-J1236. This drawing includes information on grounding the following: Cable shields Computer, programmable logic controller (PLC) and UPS enclosures Control panels Intrinsic safety barriers Thermocouples, RTDs, and other field devices Instrument and computer power supply enclosures

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Instrument equipment racks and related steelwork

Each of the low-frequency grounds should be made by independent ground connections, insulated from each other and connected together at a single connection point to the plant grounding grid. See ANSI/IEEE Std 142 for more information. High-frequency grounding techniques and transient voltage surge suppression are covered in Company Specification ICM-MS-3651 and ANSI/IEEE Std 1100.

935 Shipboard Equipment Grounding Installations


U.S. flag vessels must conform to U.S. Coast Guard regulations (see Code of Federal Regulations, Title 46, Subchapter J). Since a ships hull is readily available as a grounding point, permanent power distribution circuits do not require a grounding conductor. If armored cable is used, the armor should be grounded. All equipment should be solidly grounded to the hull with separate conductors and as required by regulations. All power distribution systems on tankers should operate with ungrounded neutrals, and ground detectors should be installed to indicate faults. Other types of ships may use power distribution systems with grounded neutrals.

936 Ground Resistance Measurement


For new installations of grounding electrodes, it is recommended that tests be made of earth resistivity. Theoretically, it is possible to calculate the resistance to earth of any system of grounding electrodes. However, soil resistivity is dependent on soil material, moisture content, and temperature. The typical range of soil resistivity is between 500 and 50,000 ohm-centimeters. Seasonal changes cause soil resistivity at a given location to vary. See ANSI/IEEE 142, Chapter 4, for more information. Formulas for calculating the resistance to earth of grounding electrodes are complicated and of little value. Many such formulas have been developed and may be useful as general guides, but the resistance of any given installation can be determined only by test. Several methods of testing have been devised, varying in degree of accuracy. It is important that the measurement of grounding connection resistance be made at both the time of installation and at periodic intervals thereafter to determine the adequacy and permanence of the grounding connection. Precise measurements are not required because it is only necessary to know the order of magnitude of resistance1, 10, 100, or 1000 ohms. These values indicate whether grounding is satisfactory for the particular installation or if improvement is necessary. The common method of measuring the resistance of a grounding connection uses two auxiliary electrodes (i.e., two in addition to the one being tested). The resistance may be measured using a voltmeter and ammeter, a Wheatstone bridge with a slide-wire potentiometer, or self-contained instruments giving direct readings. Portable ground-testing instruments provide the most convenient and satisfactory

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means for measuring the resistance of grounding connections. The megohmmeter used for measuring the insulation resistance of motors is not suitable for measuring grounding resistance because it will not measure low values of resistance. Three methods of measuring and testing grounding connections are the Three-Point Method, the Ratio Method, and the Fall-of-Potential Method. For a full description of these methods, see ANSI/IEEE Std 81.

940 Lightning Protection Grounding


941 Structures
The objectives of lightning protection are to avoid catastrophic equipment damage and to prevent personal injury. The energy of a lightning stroke can readily ignite flammable vapors or damage equipment. Lightning protection systems use air terminals (rods, masts, or overhead ground wires) to intercept lightning strokes and divert the lightning-produced current to ground through low impedance circuits. The zone of protection for an air terminal or overhead ground wires is shown in Figure 900-8. All structures completely within the zone of protection may be considered protected from direct lightning strokes. For further guidance, see NFPA 780 and API RP-2003. The major factors to be considered when deciding if lightning protection devices are required are: Frequency and severity of thunderstorms. See the map of lightning frequency in the U.S.A. in NFPA 780. Personnel hazards Inherent self-protection of equipment Value of the item or nature of the product that might be damaged by lightningproduced fire or explosion Possible operating loss caused by plant or equipment shutdowns

Most steel structures, offshore platforms, process columns, vessels, storage tanks, and vessels of a petroleum processing plant will not be appreciably damaged by direct lightning strokes because of the thickness of the steel used for these structures. However, it is necessary to ground the taller structures adequately to prevent possible damage to reinforced concrete foundations and to provide a zone of protection for electrical equipment in the immediate area. Bonding jumpers should be installed around all bolted tower sections. The jumpers may be bolted or thermally welded. The latter is preferred. API RP 2003 and NFPA 780 describe recommended practices for protecting structures against lightning. At onshore plants, all equipment and structures exposed to direct lightning strokes should be grounded in accordance with the Standard for the Installation of Lightning Protection Systems, NFPA No. 780. As a minimum, all structures 100 feet tall

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Fig. 900-8

Zone of Protection for an Air Terminal (a) or Overhead Ground Wire (b) (Used with permission from NFPA 780, Standard for the Installation of Lightning Protection Systems, Copyright 1995, National Fire Protection Association)

or taller, or the tallest structure in the plant area if under 100 feet, and all stacks should be grounded. If any equipment or structures extend beyond the zone of protection, additional structures should be grounded. Ground rods and ground loops, in addition to those required for power system grounds, should be provided for lightning protection grounding. All ground loops should be connected together. Steel storage tanks should be grounded every 100 feet along their perimeter, according to NFPA 780. The roofs of floating roof tanks should be bonded to sidewalls for ground continuity in accordance with API RP 2003. No auxiliary ground need be provided for pressure vessels, piping, or similar equipment because these are inherently grounded.

942 Electrical Equipment


To protect electrical equipment from damage, electric power distribution systems should have lightning or surge protection. Overhead lines can be shielded from lightning by the installation of overhead ground (static shield) wires to provide a triangle of protection for the phase conductors. Similarly, substations and outdoor switching equipment can be shielded by terminals or overhead static shield wires. These shielding devices must be connected to an adequate grounding system to be effective. Aerial cable normally will be protected by its messenger cable if the messenger is adequately grounded at frequent intervals. If the cable has a metallic

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sheath or armor, the sheath or armor should be bonded to the messenger cable at each grounding point. Feeders consisting of cables in metallic conduit are essentially self-protecting, but conduits and metal sheaths should be properly grounded and bonded to the equipment at each end. Where electrical equipment is connected to an electrical power distribution system exposed to direct lightning strokes or to voltage surges caused by lightning, it should be protected by suitable surge arresters. Arresters have the ability to inhibit current at rated power system frequency and voltage but to pass very high current at surge voltage levels. During the diversion of the surge, system voltages are controlled within the design capability of connected electrical equipment. The application of surge arresters for various equipment is addressed in IEEE Std 141 and Std 242. Arresters should be installed as close as possible to the equipment to be protected, and the arrester ground wire must be as short as possible and connected to the machine or transformer enclosure. The ground wire should have few if any bends and should have no sharp bends. See NEC Article 280 for additional information. Surge arresters are recommended for the following locations: At both high- and low-voltage terminals of distribution and power transformers if these terminals are connected to overhead lines that may be exposed to a direct lightning stroke At the junction of transformer feeder cables and exposed overhead lines for cable-fed transformers. Depending on the cable length and the arrester rating, surge arresters may be required at the transformer terminals as well; see Section 6.7.3 of IEEE Std 141-1993 On exposed overhead lines, at each point where a connection to insulated cable is made At the terminals of motors fed from an exposed overhead line or supplied by a transformer fed from an exposed overhead line On the secondary side of a transformer fed from an exposed overhead line (for the protection of a group of motors connected to the secondary bus) Where electrical conductors enter a structure protected against lightning in accordance with NFPA 780

Surge capacitors are used to reduce the rate-of-rise of voltage surges caused by lightning and switching surges. They protect AC rotating machines and other equipment having low turn-to-turn insulation strength. They are usually applied in conjunction with surge arresters and are connected line-to-ground. Capacitor voltage rating must equal or exceed system line-to-line voltage, and the capacitors must be designed for surge-protection applications. The connection wiring between capacitor and phase conductors, and between the capacitors and ground, must be as short as possible.

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950 Static Electricity Grounding


Static electricity is caused by the accumulation of electrical charges on materials and objects. The flow of electricity during static electricity generation and accumulation is smallin the range of microamperes. Usually static charges do not accumulate if the total resistance to ground is one megohm or less. When charges do accumulate, potential differences of thousands of volts may be produced. A primary manifestation of static electricity is the discharge or sparking of accumulated charges. Of particular concern is the static charge resulting from contact and separation that occurs when flammable fluids flow. Bonding and grounding of tank trucks, tank cars, container filling apparatus, etc., should be in accordance with API RP 2003 and NFPA 77. The size of the bonding conductor can be based only on mechanical strength as current flow is in microamperes. Static grounds are connected directly to the grounding system. Bonding and grounding conductors should be copper (usually bare copper is recommended for both economy and ease of identification).

960 Sizing Components


961 Low-Resistance Grounding
For a low-resistance grounded system of 2.4 through 14.4 kV, the determination of the ohmic value of the grounding resistor, and hence the magnitude of ground fault current, is based on the following: Providing sufficient current for fast, selective performance of the system protective relaying scheme Limiting ground-fault current to a value that causes minimal damage to equipment at the point of a fault

Sizing of Resistor
The value of the resistor can be approximated with the formula given below (when the ground-fault current is small compared to the three-phase fault current for a fault at the same location). This is usually the case for the ground fault currents limited by the resistor to several hundred amperes. EL N R N = -------------IL G
(Eq. 900-1)

where: RN = Resistance of the neutral grounding resistor, in ohms EL-N = Line-to-neutral voltage of source, in volts IL-G = Line-to-ground current, in amperes

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If the grounding resistor is purchased concurrently with the transformer or switchgear, only the current rating of the resistor (usually 400 amperes maximum) and the time rating (usually 10 seconds) need to be specified. The 10 second rating permits the ground-fault relay and the circuit-switching device time to operate before the resistor is damaged.

962 High-Resistance Grounding


Sizing of Resistor
The basic requirement of sizing a resistor used in a high-resistance grounding scheme is to select a resistor that provides a ground fault current equal to or greater than three times the system capacitive charging current of one phase. The resistor current, IR, due to system capacitance can be defined as follows: IR = 3 Ico where: I co = System charging current of one phase Thus, the minimum size of the grounding resistor is determined from the sum of capacitive charging currents of all equipment components in the system. This can be represented by the following formula: 3 Ico (surge capacitors) + 3 ICo (cables) + 3 Ico (motors and generators) For 3 Ico (surge capacitors), see Figure 900-9 For 3 Ico (cables), see Figure 900-10 For 3 Ico (motors and generators), see Figure 900-11 Note Transformer capacitive charging currents are not included as they normally are negligible. If the grounding resistor is purchased with a motor control center, the current rating of the resistor (usually 5 amperes) and the time rating, usually continuous rating should be specified.
Fig. 900-9 Line-to-Ground Fault Charging Currents (3 Ico) for Surge Capacitors Voltage, kV 0.48 2.4 4.16 6.9 13.8 C, ufd. 1.0 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.25 3 Ico, ma 313 784 1357 2253 2253

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Capacitive Charging Current


The only accurate method of determining charging current for a given system is by direct measurement. Since measurement is not possible during the design phase, normal practice is to estimate the charging current, as above, and provide an adjustable (tapped) resistor that allows several settings either side of the estimated value for field adjustment. From the data in Figures 900-9, 900-10, and 900-11, an approximation of the total system charging current can be made and the size of the ground resistor can be selected. Typically, charging currents for 480 volt systems are less than 1 ampere; maximum of approximately 5 amperes. Systems of higher voltage should be limited to 10 amperes. When the detailed design of a system is in progress, more refined calculations for motor and cable charging currents should be made. Motor and cable manufacturers normally will be able to supply accurate values of capacitance-to-ground per phase. Chapter 6 of Westinghouse Electrical Transmission and Distribution Reference Book is a good source for electric machine capacitance values (as a function of machine speed, type, size, and voltage rating). Capacitive charging current can be calculated from the per-phase capacitance-toground value using the following equations: 3V LL I c = 3 I co = ----------------X co
(Eq. 900-2)

10 6 X co = --------------2fC o
(Eq. 900-3)

where: IC = System charging current during a ground fault, in amperes Ico = System charging current of each phase during normal system conditions (no ground fault) [I co], in amperes VLL = System line-to-line voltage, in volts Xco = Per-phase capacitive reactance, in ohms [Xco] f = Frequency, in hertz Co = Per-phase capacitance-to-ground, in microfarads (10-6 farads) Surge Capacitor Charging Current The charging current for surge capacitors is significant for the values of capacitance normally used, as shown in Figure 900-9. The surge capacitors may easily be the largest single contributor to the total capacitive charging current.

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Cable Charging Current Insulated power cables can contribute a significant percentage of the total system charging current, second only to surge capacitors. Determination of charging current is based on cable size, length, insulation material, and thickness. The values of ground fault charging current for insulated power cables as shown in Figure 900-10 are based on the insulation dielectric constant of PVC for 600 volt cables and the dielectric constant of EPR, XLPE or Butyl for 600 through 15,000 volt cables. Multiplying factors are also provided to calculate the charging current of cables with dielectric constants different from those listed.

Motor and Generator Charging Current Typical charging currents for motors and generators are as shown in Figure 900-11. The minimum charging current value is typical of high-speed machines (1800 rpm), and the maximum value is typical of lower speed machines (600 rpm) for the range of ratings normally selected at each voltage level.

Transformer Charging Current The transformers most commonly used in industrial systems are of core and coil construction; that is, the low- and high-voltage windings are concentrically placed around a rectangular cross section core. This design results in a very small value of distributed capacitance between the windings and ground. Thus the ground fault charging current usually is negligible in systems rated 15 kV and below.

970 References
The following references are readily available. Those marked with an asterisk (*) are included in this manual or are available in other manuals.

971 Model Specifications (MS)


*ICM-MS-3651 *ELC-MS-1675 Installation Requirements for Digital Instruments and Process Computers Installation of Electrical Facilities

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Fig. 900-10 Line-to-Ground Fault Charging Currents (3 Ico) for Cables LINE-TO-GROUND FAULT CHARGING CURRENT (3 ICO) FOR SOLID-DIELECTRIC INSULATED CABLES (PER THREE-PHASE CIRCUIT) Shielded Cable Size (AWG) 6 4 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 250 MCM 350 MCM 500 MCM 750 MCM 1000 MCM 2.4 kV 99 114 133 146 158 172 186 205 219 251 291 346 392 4.16 kV 171 198 231 253 274 299 323 356 380 435 505 600 679 3 Ico, ma/1000 ft 6.9 kV 284 329 383 419 455 496 536 590 631 721 838 996 1126 13.8 kV 577 631 676 739 793 865 919 1045 1207 1424 1604

Unshielded cable in metallic conduit (typical): 480 V 2.4 kV 4.16 kV 13 ma/1000 ft 63 ma/1000 ft 109 ma/1000 ft

Unshielded cable in metallic cable tray (typical): 480 V 2.4 kV 4.16 kV


Notes:

9 ma/1000 ft 47 ma/1000 ft 81 ma/1000 ft

1. Multiply charging current by 1.2 for paper-insulated cable. 2. The charging currents given above are for cables with a dielectric constant of 3.3. For other dielectric constants, multiply the above by the actual dielectric constant and then divide by 3.3. 3. Neglect charging current for bare, open-wire lines; current is negligible for lengths normally used in industrial distribution systems.

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Fig. 900-11 Line-to-Ground Fault Charging Currents (3 Ico) for Motors and Generators Voltage, kV Motors, ma/1000 hp Min. 0.48 2.4 4.16 6.9 13.8
Notes:

Generators, ma/MVA Min. 10 12 18 25 36 Max. 20 16 25 35 50

Max. 10 40 70 115 230

5 20 35 60 115

1. The minimum charging current value for motors is typical of high speed motors (1800 rpm) and the maximum value is typical of lower speed meters (600 rpm) for the range of horsepower ratings normally selected at each voltage level. 2. Charging current values for generators rated 2,400 volts and above are for 1800 rpm air cooled machines in the range of 10-60 MVA.

972 Standard Drawings


*GD-P99734 *GF-P99735 *GF-J1236 Grounding Details Grounding Electrodes Grounding Details Equipment Connections Typical Ground System for Digital Instruments and Process Computers

973 Data Sheets (DS), Data Guides (DG) and Engineering Forms (EF)
There are no data sheets, data guides or engineering forms for this guideline.

974 Other References


ANSI/IEEE Standards
ANSI/IEEE Standard 32, IEEE Standard Requirements, Terminology, and Test Procedure for Neutral Grounding Devices ANSI/IEEE Standard 45, IEEE Recommended Practice for Electric Installations on Shipboard ANSI/IEEE Standard 80, IEEE Guide For Safety in Substation Grounding ANSI/IEEE Standard 81, IEEE Guide for Measuring Earth Resistivity, Ground Impedance, and Earth Surface Potentials of a Ground System ANSI/IEEE Standard 141, IEEE Recommended Practice for Electric Power Distribution for Industrial Plants ANSI/IEEE Standard 142, IEEE Recommended Practice for Grounding of Industrial & Commercial Power Systems

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ANSI/IEEE Standard 242, IEEE Recommended Practice for Protection and Coordination of Industrial and Commercial Power Systems ANSI/IEEE Standard 446, IEEE Recommended Practice for Emergency and Standby Power Systems for Industrial and Commerical Applications ANSI/IEEE Standard 1100, IEEE Recommended Practice for Powering and Grounding Sensitive Electronic Equipment

Government Regulations
Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) Code of Federal Regulations, Title 29, Subpart S, 1910 Code of Federal Regulations, Title 46, Shipping, Office of the Federal Register

ANSI/NFPA Standards and Codes


ANSI/NFPA 70, National Electrical Code ANSI/NFPA 70E, Standard for Electrical Safety Requirements for Employee Workplaces ANSI/NFPA 77, Static Electricity ANSI/NFPA 780, Standard for the Installation of Lightning Protection Systems NFPA Fire Protection Handbook ANSI C2 National Electrical Safety Code

American Petroleum Institute Practices (API)


RP 14F RP 540 RP 2003 Design and Installation of Electrical Systems for Offshore Production Platforms Recommended Practice for Electrical Installations in Petroleum Processing Plants Protection Against Ignitions Arising Out of Static, Lightning and Stray Currents

Miscellaneous References
Industrial Power Systems Handbook, Beeman, Donald, McGraw-Hill, 1st Edition 1955, Chapter 6: Neutral Grounding; 7: Equipment Grounding; and pages 426 through 433: Shock Hazards Electrical Transmission & Distribution Reference Book, Westinghouse Electric Corp., 1964, Chapter 2: Symmetrical Components; 6: Machine Characteristics; 16: Lightning Phenomena; and 19: Neutral Grounding

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Abstract
Section 1000 covers general design and installation practices for electrical facilities, with reference to ELC-MS-1675, Installation of Electrical Facilities, as the general specification. The section also provides specific guidance for the design and installation of conduit systems, cable tray systems, and direct burial cable. An appendix is included in this manual which provides extensive information on the calculation of pulling tensions and installing and terminating cables. Guidance is given on the installation of switchgear, motor control centers, transformers, uninterruptible power supplies, and battery systems. Contents 1010 Introduction 1020 Conduit System Design and Installation 1021 Rigid Metal Conduit Systems 1022 PVC Conduit Systems 1023 Conduit Route 1024 Conduit Arrangement and Spacing 1025 Use of Seals and Drains 1026 Aboveground Conduit Support 1027 Underground Conduit Banks 1028 Conduit Bends and Pull Boxes 1030 Installing Electrical Conductors in Conduit Systems 1040 Installation of Cable Tray Systems 1041 Determination of the Cable Tray Route 1042 Cable Tray Arrangement 1043 Grounding and Bonding of Metallic Tray 1044 Supports for Cable Tray 1000-9 1000-9 Page 1000-3 1000-3

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1045 Installation of Cable in Cable Tray Systems 1050 Conductor Terminations 1051 Purpose 1052 Control of Electrical Stress With Terminations 1053 Terminator Requirements 1060 Direct Buried Cables 1070 Installation of Electrical Equipment 1071 Phasing and Phase Rotation 1072 Installation of Switchgear and Motor Control Centers 1073 Installation of Transformers 1074 Installation of UPS Systems 1075 Installation of UPS Batteries 1080 References 1081 Model Specifications (MS) 1082 Standard Drawings 1083 Data Sheets (DS), Data Guides (DG), and Engineering Forms (EF) 1084 Appendices 1085 Other References 1000-20 1000-15 1000-15 1000-13

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1010 Introduction
This section provides useful information pertinent to the design and installation of electrical facilities in addition to the information in ELC-MS-1675, Installation of Electrical Facilities. ELC-MS-1675 is usually given to electrical contractors as the general electrical specification. It should be modified to accompany the specific contract documents for construction. Several standard forms and drawings (listed at the end of ELC-MS-1675) which are related to the installation of electrical facilities are included in this manual. When installing electrical equipment it is important to adhere to the requirements of the National Electrical Code (NEC) in most areas of the United States. In OCS areas offshore, API RP 14F is applicable and deviates from the NEC in a few places. In addition, Underwriters Laboratories (UL) and Factory Mutual (FM) have requirements for listed equipment which must be adhered to when the equipment is installed. It is becoming increasingly important that all electrical components be listed by UL, FM, or another nationally recognized testing laboratory (NRTL) in order to be accepted by the inspectors of the agency having jurisdiction. Problems sometimes arise when installing custom-designed equipment not covered by a specific standard (which, therefore, cant be listed). In this case, the best course of action is to use listed (usually UL) components in the equipment. Check with local inspectors in advance of purchase to determine their applicable requirements. For ships, installation is governed by classification societies and national authorities, such as the American Bureau of Shipping and the United States Coast Guard. Foreign regulations are often based on publications written by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). Standard specifications, drawings, and forms related to this section are listed in Section 1080. One of these specifications, ELC-MS-4377, is a standard electrical item list (P-item list) which describes bulk electrical materials by manufacturer and model. This specification should accompany drawings which specify electrical items by referring to the P-item number (rather than a detailed material list). Some locations have their own standard electrical material list. For those areas which do not have a list, the recently revised version is included and can be modified to meet local preferences.

1020 Conduit System Design and Installation


This section discusses the most common types of conduit systems in use. Conduit bank design, the types of supports, installation, and layouts of both aboveground and underground systems are discussed. Section 100, System Design, should be consulted before choosing the type of conduit system and before sizing conduit systems. ELC-EF-70, Conduit and Wire Schedule, is used for listing each conduit in an electrical installation and the number, type and destination of wire pulled in each conduit. It is created during the design phase of a project and used during the construction phase when installing wire. It also serves as a wire pulling schedule.

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On large projects, it may be desirable to generate these schedules with a computer. The form is included as a model for developing computer forms or for direct use. The following sections cover several important features of both above and belowground conduit installations.

1021 Rigid Metal Conduit Systems


For refinery and chemical plants, the most frequently used system for providing power from the source to the load is wire in rigid metal conduit. The most common conduits are galvanized steel, PVC-coated galvanized steel, and aluminum (usually copper free). PVC-coated galvanized steel and aluminum conduit have superior corrosion resistance and are appropriate for more corrosive environments, however, they are more expensive than standard galvanized conduit. Intermediate metal conduit (IMC) is not recommended for hazardous (classified) areas or areas not environmentally controlled. The minerals Management Service does not allow the use of IMC in hazardous (classified) areas offshore.

1022 PVC Conduit Systems


The use of PVC conduit systems in underground concrete encased duct banks is increasing. The advantages of PVC for underground applications are; low initial cost, ease of installation, ability to be manually bent into wide-radius sweeping turns (rather than small radius bends), low coefficient of friction (for pulling), and corrosion resistance. PVC does not have the same strength as rigid steel, but strength is added by the concrete reinforcement which protects the conduit. Usually, PVC conduit systems should be designed with a transition to rigid steel conduit before the PVC conduit stubs up above grade (to provide mechanical strength at grade level). One disadvantage of PVC conduit systems is that the conduit cannot serve as the ground return path for equipment grounding and a separate ground wire must be installed in the PVC conduit. Another disadvantage of PVC conduit systems is the loss of the shielding effect obtained from steel conduit which results in the increased possibility of induced noise. Also, PVC conduit cannot be used in classified areas.

1023 Conduit Route


In general, the best route to use is the most direct route which avoids high fire risk areas. In both above- and belowground systems, careful consideration should be given to avoiding interferences (e.g., piping and hidden underground structures). In facilities with poor documentation, it is sometimes worthwhile to do exploratory excavation along the proposed routes prior to excavating for the installation of new underground conduits. This will minimize unknown interference problems and reduce installation costs.

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Abovegrade conduit routes often parallel piping in trenches or on overhead pipe racks. When installing conduit in this manner, position the conduit to minimize any interference during subsequent pipe removal or installation. For both underground and abovegrade installations, install conduits away from sources of heat such as furnaces, steam lines and heat exchangers. Underground conduit should never be routed close to parallel steam lines. Steam line crossings should be made at right angles whenever possible. High temperatures can cause cables inside conduits to fail prematurely.

1024 Conduit Arrangement and Spacing


When multiple conduits are organized into a group aboveground, or a duct bank belowground, there are specific conduit spacing requirements which are based on the voltage and current of the enclosed conductors. These spacing requirements (found in ELC-MS-1675) are designed to prevent induced voltage which might cause improper system operation in low level control and monitoring circuits. Adequate space should be left between abovegrade conduits to allow installers to thread on fittings which are larger in diameter than the conduit and to allow removal of the covers from fittings. Sufficient space should be left around conduit seals to allow access for pouring. Conduit spacing has an effect on the heating of conductors within duct banks. If there are multiple power circuits in a duct bank, a derating factor must be applied to the ampacity of the insulated conductors in the conduits in the bank. The National Electrical Code provides some guidance in computing the derating factors. However, computer programs are available which take into account load factor, soil thermal resistivity, ambient temperature, and the configuration of the adjacent conduits in order to determine safe ampacities. AMPCALC, a computer program which calculates cable ampacities in duct banks, is available from Calcware in Houston, Texas. Their phone number is (713) 9737032. The program is based on the Neher-McGrath method and can handle over 100 conduits with different sized conductors and currents in a duct bank.

1025 Use of Seals and Drains


Conduit seals are required in conduits when an area classification change occurs. The seals can be placed on either side of the area classification change, but no fitting is allowed between the seal and the point at which the conduit leaves the Division 1 or Division 2 boundary. Refer to Section 300 for additional seal requirements. On a large project it is common practice to wait until the project is electrically complete before pouring the seals. All seals are then poured at one time. Once seals are poured, it is recommended that they be painted red or otherwise marked to indicate that the sealing compound has been poured.

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Seals in vertical conduit runs should be provided with drains. Drains must also be installed in the low points of conduit runs where water might accumulate. For outdoor, aboveground installations, drain seals should be installed where conduits enter enclosures from the top. This prevents water from entering enclosures through conduit. It is preferable to design systems so that conduits enter enclosures from the side or bottom to avoid water entry.

1026 Aboveground Conduit Support


Aboveground conduit usually is supported by steel channel (e.g., Unistrut). NEC Article 346, gives the maximum spacing between supports, based on conduit size. Conduit support should be checked carefully during the construction phase. Conduit should not be able to be moved easily with hand pressure. Conduit in overhead conduit systems should be checked carefully to ensure conduits are secured to the supports. When supporting conduit from structural members in high vibration areas, clampon beam clamps should be used judiciously since they tend to loosen with vibration. It is important to observe the metallurgy of the supports and the conduit to avoid galvanic corrosion. For example, corrosion will result if aluminum conduit is secured directly to steel. Special isolation pads are available to eliminate this problem. Supporting conduits from adjacent conduits is not allowed in most cases (Reference NEC 300-11). Conduit should be supported from structural members at proper intervals. Often additional rigidity of a conduit group can be obtained if adjacent conduits are tied together at intermediate points, however, this can not take the place of structural support. Conduits must not be supported from process piping. It is permissible to support them from pipe support structures if proper clearances are observed.

1027 Underground Conduit Banks


Routing of underground conduit banks must be decided early in the project since underground banks usually are installed before abovegrade plant construction is done. Careful consideration must be given to the number and size of the underground conduits since it is difficult (and very costly) to modify or expand the system once the concrete is poured. If there are several conduits in a concrete duct bank, the spacing and position of the conduits must be maintained during the pouring of the concrete. This usually is accomplished with plastic spacers or by tying the conduit to the surrounding reinforcing bar (rebar) cage with wire ties. Figure 1000-1 illustrates a typical underground conduit bank. For larger banks (particularly those with non-metallic conduit), a rebar cage is required to provide strength for the duct bank (particularly if there will be heavy vehicular traffic over the bank). A civil engineer should be consulted for the design of large banks to

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ensure the proper sizing and arrangement of the rebar and the proper compressive strength of the concrete. Figure 1000-1 shows pile supports under a concrete-encased conduit bank. Piles are often required in poor soil areas where the conduit may settle or sink. A civil engineer should be consulted concerning the necessity and details of any required pile support systems.
Fig. 1000-1 Typical Underground Conduit System

An often overlooked consideration in underground conduit systems is drainage. Conduits should be sloped toward a low point so that water will drain from the conduit. Often, the drainage will flow into a pull box equipped with a drywell which allows the water to percolate into the soil. Sometimes large pull boxes or basements into which water from conduits will drain, are equipped with sump pumps. It is good practice to mark the top few inches of concrete-encased duct banks with red iron oxide mixed with concrete. This provides a warning for future excavators that they are digging up an electrical installation. Although the initial cost is greater, repairing systems damaged by excavators can be very expensive (in addition to down-time and personnel safety factors). It is recommended that permanent, underground duct bank markers be visibly embedded at grade level along the path of the duct bank.

1028 Conduit Bends and Pull Boxes


The recommended maximum number of bends in a conduit run, either aboveground, or belowground, is specified in ELC-MS-1675. Figure 1000-2 summarizes

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these requirements, as well as the allowable bending radii for different types of conductors.
Fig. 1000-2 Maximum Pulling Distances, Degrees of Bend and Minimum Bending Radius for Specific Conductor Types in Conduit Conductor Type Maximum Pulling Distance Maximum Degrees of Bend for Runs 300 Foot or Less Maximum Degrees of Bend for 400 Foot Run Minimum Bending Radius Maximum Single Bend 600V 300 ft. 5 kV Shielded 400 ft. 5 kV Unshielded 400 ft. 15 kV 400 ft.

315 Deg.

180 Deg.

180 Deg.

180 Deg.

180 Deg.

180 Deg.

180 Deg.

180 Deg.

6 x OD

30 in.

8 x OD

30 in.

90 Deg.

90 Deg.

90 Deg.

90 Deg.

Note that conduit bodies (such as LB condulets) which are suitable for 600 volt wire usually are not suitable for medium voltage cable because they do not meet the bending radii requirements for larger diameter cables. To change directions in a medium voltage conduit run and to meet the bending radius requirement of the medium voltage cable, usually a conduit bend of the proper radius or a large pull box which allows the proper bending radius is required. Where cable is pulled out of and back into an enclosure, the distance between the exit and entrance points must be at least four-times the minimum bending radii of the cable. LB- and C-type fittings usually do not meet this requirement (and would constitute an NEC violation if used). To limit the number of bends in underground conduit, pull boxes are used. It is usually more cost effective to use a precast pull box of a standard design than to have one custom poured in place. Precast pull boxes are available in sizes ranging from 12 inches x 18 inches x 12 inches to 10 feet x 12 feet x 4 feet. All that usually is required for installing a precast pull box is excavating the hole and installing the box prior to installing the duct bank which connects to the box. Covers of pull or junction boxes used for over 600 volt cable must be permanently marked Danger High Voltage Keep Out in 1/2" minimum letters.

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1030 Installing Electrical Conductors in Conduit Systems


Introduction
Most land-based electrical installations use insulated conductors pulled in rigid metal conduit although the use of cables in cable tray is increasing. During the installation of conductors in conduit, it is important that proper procedures for pulling are followed and that maximum pulling tension and jam ratios are not exceeded. This is of particular importance when installing medium voltage insulated conductors. A reproduction of Installation Practices for Cable Raceway Systems by the Okonite Company is included as Appendix E. It provides excellent guidelines for determining the maximum allowable tension and sidewall pressure limitations for a given pull, as well as information on the proper equipment to use and precautions to take.

1040 Installation of Cable Tray Systems


Section 100, System Design, discusses how to choose among the different types of cable tray and provides an example of how to calculate the allowable wire fill necessary to meet NEC requirements. The use of cable tray and cables is often a less expensive alternative to conduit systems. Cables can be added to the tray easily and economically. When circuits are routed from one area to another as a group, a cable tray system can often be installed for less than wire and conduit. Cable tray is used extensively on offshore platforms. The installation requirements for cable tray systems are found in the NEC Article 318. Figure 1000-3 illustrates a typical ladder-type cable tray system. Cable tray is available in different materials. These materials include: galvanized steel, stainless steel, aluminum, and fiberglass. The choice of material should be based on the degree of strength and corrosion resistance which is required. A major disadvantage of a cable tray system compared to an underground conduit, is that cable in tray is more susceptible to fire and mechanical damage.

1041 Determination of the Cable Tray Route


The main considerations in designing cable tray routes are the same as any cable routingkeeping the route as short as possible while avoiding high fire-risk areas and keeping the tray away from hot equipment. Cable tray routing should be determined at the same time as the piping routing, since the tray is usually fairly large in cross section and could interfere with piping or be damaged during pipe installation if the routings are not carefully planned. Also, supports can be dual purpose supporting pipe and cable tray (which minimizes overall costs).

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Fig. 1000-3 Typical Aboveground Cable Tray System

1042 Cable Tray Arrangement


Trays may be either stacked or placed side by side. Generally, cable tray systems are stacked with different voltage levels, signal levels and intrinsically safe circuits separated (in different trays). It is important to avoid mixing low-level signals (such as thermocouple leads) and high-level power cables in the same tray. Information regarding separation requirements between signal levels can be found in ELC-MS1675, Installation of Electrical Facilities. Cables installed in cable tray must be suitable for use in cable tray systems. NEC Article 318-3 lists the cables suitable for installation in tray. Most wire which is normally installed in conduit is not suitable for use in tray. For example, individual conductors of AWG 12 THW are not suitable for use in tray. NEC Article 318 requires that single conductors be larger than 1/0 if used in tray, and they must be of a type suitable for use in tray. Smaller conductors may be used if they are in a suitable multi-conductor cable. Cable cannot be stacked indiscriminately in cable tray. Specific rules concerning layering cables in the same tray are given in NEC Article 318. For example, multiconductor cables which are 4/0 or larger must be in a single layer (with no other cables on top of them). Multi-conductor cables with conductors smaller than 4/0 may be layered if the maximum cross sectional area fill is not exceeded. Large, single conductors, above 1/0, are usually installed in a single layer. Violations of Article 318 can result in the overheating of circuits.

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1043 Grounding and Bonding of Metallic Tray


Metallic tray must form a complete system that is electrically and mechanically continuous and grounded as required by Section 318-7(a) of the NEC. When installed in this manner, metallic tray is allowed to serve as the equipment grounding conductor (to carry fault current back to the service transformer or generator ground). Metallic tray may be used as a part of a continuous ground path between the service point and end devices served by cables in the tray.

1044 Supports for Cable Tray


The most common methods of supporting cable tray include the following: direct mounting on fixed objects (e.g., pipe racks), suspension below a horizontal surface (e.g., ceiling, beam or deck), often by threaded rods supporting horizontal members on which the tray is fastened, and supporting the tray by welded steel channel or angle supports which are welded or bolted to other rigid structures (such as decks, pipe supports, and building walls). Typical support methods are shown in Figures 1000-4 and 1000-5.
Fig. 1000-4 Cable Tray Supported on Pipe Racks

To prevent exceeding the maximum allowable deflection, refer to the cable tray manufacturers literature for recommended weight loading of the tray. Tray supports must be installed at close enough intervals to prevent exceeding specified maximum deflections (both vertical and horizontal).

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Fig. 1000-5 Typical Cable Tray Anchoring

1045 Installation of Cable in Cable Tray Systems


Care should be taken when installing cables in cable tray to prevent nicking or scraping the cables. Additional recommendations for cable tray installations are as follows: Do not bend cables beyond the minimum allowed bending radii Do not allow cables to droop over sharp edges of the cable tray After installation, protect cables from damage during construction. Do not allow welding above uncovered cable tray or lifting of equipment above the cable tray Do not allow pipe or tubing to be installed in, or supported by cable tray. See NEC 300-11 Use U/V resistant cable-ties to hold cables in place Always place all three phases of a three-phase circuit in the same tray to avoid induction heating Ensure that each cable is installed in the appropriate tray

(That is, trays of the same power level.) Low voltage cables (below 600 volts) cannot be mixed with higher voltage cables and low signal level cables should not be mixed with power conductors. Maintain the separations between signal levels listed in ELC-MS-1675 to prevent signal interference.

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1050 Conductor Terminations


1051 Purpose
Figure 1000-6 illustrates the preferred compression-type of two-hole lug conductor termination for large (1/0 AWG and larger), non-shielded and shielded power conductors. Crimp-type (compression-type) lugs require special crimp dies specific to each lug size or range. They are preferred in both low and medium voltage applications since they do not loosen over time like some bolted connections. Terminations should provide the following basic electrical and mechanical functions: Low resistance electrical connection of conductors to electrical equipment Physical support and protection of the end of the conductor insulation, shielding, overall jacket and armor Effective control of electrical stresses for medium voltage applications (by position of both internal and external insulation) Grounding of shields

Fig. 1000-6 Two-hole Lug Cable Termination

1052 Control of Electrical Stress With Terminations


Figure 1000-7 illustrates various types of medium voltage shielded cable terminations used for indoor and outdoor terminations. The additional insulation level and shape serves as a means of electrical stress relief. If a termination at these higher voltages did not provide electrical stress relief, the combination of longitudinal and radial electrical stresses would focus at the shield end and eventually would cause

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insulation failure. The most common method for reducing the electrical stress is to gradually increase the insulation to form a cone. The shield is then carried up the cone surface and terminated behind the largest part of the cone. The energy stored between the shield and the conductor is dissipated over an increasing volume of insulation (the cone), reducing the potential for electrical discharge. Discharge corona can form ozone which can cause the insulation to fail.
Fig. 1000-7 Typical Medium Voltage Terminations

1053 Terminator Requirements


Cable terminators must provide adequate current carrying capacity. Also, they must be of the same material as the conductor or be approved specifically for the combination of materials, and must provide the required insulation level. Most terminators should be of the two-hole lug-type as shown in Figure 1000-6. This type of terminator provides good resistance to loosening when subjected to vibration. The size of the terminator should be considered when sizing junction boxes of medium voltage motors and termination compartments in switchgear. Exposed lugs may be taped, but (for most applications) the additional tape is a conservative measure and not required if the lug mounting point meets the required spacing from grounded surfaces and other phases (for the voltage level of the system). Care should be taken not to overheat shrinkable termination kits during application. Cable faults can result from overheating heat-shrink products. Heat-shrinkable stress relief termination kits (such as Raychem) are recommended for both indoor and outdoor medium voltage installations. Skirts are added to outdoor terminators

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to increase tracking resistance. Some prefer the use of porcelain terminators (which are more expensive and physically larger than the heat shrinkable variety).

1060 Direct Buried Cables


Cables can be buried directly when the potential for cable damage is minimal, provided the cable is a type approved for direct burial applications. NEC Article 300-5, provides specific requirements for the direct burial of cables. These requirements include minimum coverage, grounding, splices and taps, protection from damage, and backfill. The locations of direct burial cables should be clearly labeled so that construction equipment does not damage the cable. One recommended method for labeling the cable location is to use metallic tape (such as that used for labeling buried plastic lines). The cable can then be found by using a metal detector. Direct burial cables rated over 2000 volts nominal should be shielded and provided with an external ground path. The minimum depth for direct burial of cables is 24 inches, but, for safety and reliability, depths of up to five feet are recommended. Cables should be buried with a sand backfill immediately surrounding them. Proper spacing between cables is important for separation of signal levels and for heat dissipation. When using direct burial cable, a route should be selected that offers the least potential for future damage. Cables should be located to minimize crossing process pipes and other obstructions. Once buried, cables are difficult to repair.

1070 Installation of Electrical Equipment


1071 Phasing and Phase Rotation
In electrical system installations it is important to maintain the identity of the three phases throughout the system, from source to load. The three phases are commonly referred to as the A phase, the B phase, and the C phase. This is very important when tying systems together, when parallelling systems, and when predicting motor rotation. The three phases feeding the facility must be identified. Once the phases are identified at the power source, it is necessary to determine which conductor is phase A, B, and C at every bus in the system. This identification is usually accomplished by color. Phase A is identified by the color black, phase B with red, and phase C with blue. When connecting the conductors from the utility or generator to the first switchgear bus, the phases must be connected to the corresponding buses. In the U.S., the convention for connection of the three phases to the bus is to connect phase A, B, and C from top to bottom, left to right, or front to back when facing the front of the switchgear. It is recommend that outgoing feeder cables be taped with black, red, and blue tape at the switchgear and at all termination points. The proper phase is connected to the designated bus for that phase (according to the convention) at each downstream switchgear, MCC, transformer, and other electrical equipment. Therefore, the

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phasing is indicated throughout the system. This can eliminate problems with motor rotation and the operation of other electrical equipment. In some cases, it is important to know the phase sequence of the system. The phase sequence determines which phase-to-neutral voltage peaks first, second, and third. The most common phase sequence is A, B, C. It is necessary to know the phase sequence of the power source to predict the direction of motor rotation, to allow proper connection of semiconductor power convertors (such as UPS systems and variable speed drives), and to parallel systems. If the phase sequence is not known, obtaining correct motor rotation of three phase motors is not a serious problem. In order to change the rotation of the motor, all that is necessary is to interchange any two of the power lead termination points.

1072 Installation of Switchgear and Motor Control Centers


Switchgear and motor control centers usually arrive in two or more vertical sections. If these sections are to be stored, they should be moved inside and the space heaters energized to prevent condensation. The foundation for switchgear and MCC units must be level. The most common design for onshore installations uses steel sills embedded in concrete. The switchgear may be bolted or welded to this channel or bolted directly to the concrete (normally using expansion-type anchors). In severe earthquake zones, different anchoring designs are required to allow flexing of the anchor (instead of breaking) during earthquakes. Before finalizing the location of (and securing) switchgear or MCC units, the distances to nearby equipment should be checked and compared to the requirements of NEC Articles 110-16 and 110-34. These articles specify the required working space around electrical equipment based on voltage to ground. It may be possible to adjust the position of the equipment to meet NEC requirements if it does not meet them as initially positioned. After switchgear has been interconnected, it is very difficult and expensive to move. If conduits stub up below the switchgear or MCC, early checks should confirm that conduits stub up below the vertical section in which the cable is to be terminated. When all sections are set in place, the shipping splits must be fastened together in accordance with the manufacturers instructions. Often, wooden blocks or styrofoam packing (found inside relays) must be removed. The buses between adjacent sections, including ground buses, must be connected together. Ascertain that all bus bolts are torqued to the values specified by the manufacturer. When a bolt has been properly torqued, it should be marked to indicate that it has been checked. See Section 1400 for a bolt torque checklist. The proper torquing of bus bolts is extremely important to eliminate high resistance connections which could result in overheating and eventual failure. For insulated bus systems, it is necessary to tape or otherwise insulate all fieldconnected bus splits. Sometimes manufacturers supply boots which can be applied in the field.

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Once adjacent bus sections have been connected, the control wiring must be connected using switchgear-grade wire. The point-to-point connections between the shipping splits shown in the vendors drawings must be followed. Often, vendors install shorting bars on the current transformer terminal strips which require field interconnection wiring. These shorting bars are installed to prevent CT secondary overvoltages from occurring if the switchgear is energized without making the field interconnection wiring. Once the interconnection wiring to these strips is completed, the shorting bars must be removed to allow the CT circuits (for relaying or metering) to function properly. The next step after the interconnection of control wiring is to terminate the power wiring. In medium voltage systems using shielded cable which passes through window CTs, it is important to bring the ground shield back through the CT before terminating it. There is an illustration of this method in Section 600. The use of termination kits for stress relief of medium voltage cable is discussed in this section. After all terminations have been made, the entire system should be tested. It is usually desirable to have a manufacturers representative test the operation of relays and switchgear breakers. Others can perform the basic electrical testing (e.g., megohmmeter testing of the bus and cable). Section 1400 discusses the tests which should be performed prior to commissioning switchgear and MCCs.

1073 Installation of Transformers


Dry-type transformers should be stored in an environmentally protected location if not installed and energized soon after delivery. If oil-filled power transformers are to be stored for considerable lengths of time prior to energization, the internal pressure should be monitored. It is desirable to maintain positive internal pressure to prevent the entrance of moisture. A pressure-regulated nitrogen cylinder may be used to increase the internal pressure to 2-3 psi above atmospheric pressure. The pressure should be monitored on a monthly basis to detect leaks. In most cases, oil-filled transformers arrive on site filled with oil and ready to install. If the oil must be installed on site, it is best to have a manufacturers representative perform the filling operation. This must be performed carefully with special equipment to avoid the possibility of moisture entering the transformer. If transformers are moved to the site by a crane or cherry picker, spreader bars should be used to prevent damage to the lifting lugs. Care should be exercised to prevent damage to the cooling fins, which are the most delicate part. Onshore transformers are often mounted on concrete pads. It is important that the pads are level. One common method of anchoring transformers to pads is to embed steel channel in concrete and either weld, or bolt the transformer base to the channel. The manufacturers mounting instructions should be followed. In earthquake-prone areas, it is important to have flexibility in the anchoring system as discussed in Section 1072. Transformers should be installed where there is adequate ventilation. They generate heat and should not be installed where heat can build and cause failure of electrical

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components. Debris should not be placed on operating transformers since it can interfere with heat removal and possibly become a fire hazard. Transformer enclosures should be grounded. If the secondary neutral is grounded, it is recommended that the conductor connected to the neutral be connected to the enclosure as well as ground (ground rod, metal deck, or grounding electrode system). Case grounding is important for personnel safety, and ground connections should be ensured. Once transformers are mounted, primary and secondary connections must be terminated. On large transformers, the connecting cables can be quite heavy. The weight of cables should not be borne by the transformer terminals (e.g., porcelain insulators). This can be avoided by installing cable strain relief clamps or ties when primary and secondary junction boxes are used. It is recommended that sufficient cable lengths be left on each of the three conductors inside the junction box to facilitate phase swapping. The primary and secondary terminal lugs should be torqued to the proper values when the cables are connected. When closing junction boxes, ensure that all bolts are installed to prevent the entrance of water. Prior to energizing an oil transformer, a dielectric breakdown test should be performed on the transformer oil to ensure that it has the proper insulation quality. This can be performed with a field test instrument, but usually is best handled by a specialized laboratory. A final check should be made with a megohmmeter on all transformers prior to initial energization. See Section 1400 for further details on testing and commissioning transformers. The correct voltage taps should be selected on any tap changers prior to initial energization. Tap changers should be padlocked after the correct settings are verified.

1074 Installation of UPS Systems


UPS systems usually are provided with sheet metal cabinets similar to those used for switchgear and MCCs. They should be mounted on a level surface with sufficient space around the enclosure for adequate ventilation. It may be necessary to mount large UPS systems in air conditioned rooms to aid in heat dissipation. Most UPS systems produce noise when they are energized. They should be installed where this noise will not be an annoyance. When installing UPS systems, the cabinets should be checked carefully for packing notes, spare fuses, wiring harnesses which have been disconnected, breakers which have been turned on (or off), and instructions from the manufacturer. Most UPS systems have internal ventilation fans which may run continuously or periodically (controlled by a thermostat). These fans draw air from the outside of the enclosure and pass it through the enclosure. It is important that filters be installed prior to energizing the equipment to prevent dust buildup on hot internal surfaces. Dissipation of heat in UPS systems is of prime importance for long life of solid state components. Careful attention should be paid to the function of all ventilation systems associated with heat removal.

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Sometimes the UPS system cannot be energized until the associated battery has been commissioned. It often is desirable to have a manufacturers representative on site for startup. The manufacturers operating manual should be read carefully before attempting to start up a UPS system. Careful attention should be given to UPS system grounding requirements; the incoming line, the cabinet, the DC output, the battery bus, and the AC output. Each of these systems/components has its own grounding requirements which must be followed explicitly. Wiring inside UPS systems often carries high currents, and specified torques should be ensured on all terminations. Even small control wire terminations should be checked for proper tightness prior to energization. The cabinets should be kept closed after energization. Heat sinks are often at line voltage (not grounded). This is an important safety consideration when working inside energized cabinets. When the UPS is initially energized, float and equalize voltage settings of the battery charger should be carefully set to the manufacturers specifications. This is important for proper battery operation. After energization, UPS functions should be tested in accordance with the manufacturers recommendations. Battery charging, static switching to the bypass source, synchronization detection between the UPS output and the bypass source, and indications on the UPS panel should be checked for proper operation.

1075 Installation of UPS Batteries


Batteries may arrive either dry or filled with electrolyte. If they arrive dry, it is important to fill the batteries with electrolyte and place them on charge fairly quickly. If the batteries need to be stored for a month or more, consult the manufacturers manual for maximum storage time and other conditions. The time of receipt, time in storage, and time of initial charge should be recorded. Filling batteries with electrolyte (sulfuric acid for lead calcium batteries and potassium hydroxide for NiCd batteries) can be dangerous unless proper safety precautions are taken. Suitable goggles, gloves, boots and aprons should be worn; eyewash water and neutralization substances should be available during the filling operation. Consult a safety engineer for further information regarding detailed procedures which should be followed. The battery rack should be assembled prior to filling the batteries. The batteries are then placed in the racks and the cells interconnected. The battery cables are then connected to the charger, and the batteries are placed on charge after they are filled. Specification ELC-MS-4744, Electrical System Checkout and Commissioning, discusses battery commissioning in detail. It is important to set the float and equalize voltages to the manufacturers recommended values. These voltages prevent excessive gassing and maintain full charge.

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See Section 1300 for additional information on batteries (and particularly the effects of temperature extremes). Battery rooms should be well ventilated to prevent buildup of explosive mixtures of hydrogen. Logs should be maintained recording the specific gravity and cell voltage of the battery cells on a monthly basis. This will allow a comparison of the values to determine if there are problems with any of the cells.

1080 References
The following references are readily available. The ones which are marked with an asterisk (*) are included in this manual or are available in other manuals.

1081 Model Specifications (MS)


* ELC-MS-1675 * ELC-MS-4377 Installation of Electrical Facilities Standard Electrical Items (P-Items)

1082 Standard Drawings


* GD-P87601 * GF-P99544 * GB-P99711 * GD-P99716 Standard Signs and Markers for Underground Cables Standard Mountings for Outdoor Welding Outlets with Circuit Breakers Standard Name Plate Bracket for XP Push Button Station Standard Conduit Connections at Motors Overhead and Underground Conduit Construction for Installing in Class I, Division 1 and Division 2 Areas Standard Grounding Details, Grounding Electrodes Standard Grounding Details, Equipment Connections Standard Steel Support Details for RG5 and Aluminum Conduit

* GD-P99734 * GF-P99735 * GF-P99935

1083 Data Sheets (DS), Data Guides (DG), and Engineering Forms (EF)
ELC-EF-70 Conduit and Wire Schedule

1084 Appendices
* Appendix E Installation Practices for Cable Raceway Systems

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1085 Other References


* API RP 540 * API RP 14F ANSI/IEEE 45 McPartland, J. F. Appleton Recommended Practice for Electrical Installations in Petroleum Processing Plants. Design and Installation of Electrical Systems for Offshore Production Platforms. IEEE Recommended Practice for Electric Installations on Shipboard. National Electric Code Handbook (19th Edition). New York: McGraw Hill, 1987 Appleton NEC 1987 Code Review. Chicago, Illinois 1987

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Abstract
This section provides guidance in the selection of wire and cable for power, lighting, control, instrumentation, and communication circuits. The construction details of the conductors, insulation, shielding, jackets, and armor for the various wire and cable types are described. Areas of concern in wire and cable system design are discussed and typical cables commonly specified are described and illustrated. This section, along with Section 100, System Design provides guidance in the selection of wire and cable to provide reliable, safe, and economical service. The determination of cable ampacities and voltage drop is discussed in Section 100, System Design. Contents 1110 Introduction 1111 Checklist 1112 Components of Wire and Cable 1113 Areas of Concern in Specifying Wire and Cable 1120 Construction of Wire and Cable 1121 Conductors 1122 Insulation 1123 Outer Jackets 1124 Armors 1125 Shielding 1130 Special Wire and Cable 1131 Instrument and Telemetering Cables 1132 Power and Control Tray Cable (Type TC) 1133 Power Limited Tray Cable (Type PLTC) 1134 High Temperature Cable, Flame Retardant Cable and Fire Cable 1135 Thermocouple Extension Cable 1136 Computer Cable 1100-32 1100-21 Page 1100-3

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1137 Fiber Optic Cable 1138 Shipboard Cables, Submarine Cables, and Submersible Pump Cables 1140 Typical Wire and Cable Specified 1141 Medium Voltage Power Conductors 1142 Low Voltage Power and Lighting Conductors 1143 Low Voltage Control Cable 1144 Instrumentation, Control, and Alarm Cable 1145 Thermocouple Extension Cable 1146 Flame Retardant Cable 1147 High Temperature Cable 1148 Fire Hazard Area Cable 1150 Glossary 1151 Definitions 1152 Abbreviations and Acronyms 1160 References 1161 Model Specifications (MS) 1162 Standard Drawings 1163 Data Sheets (DS), Data Guides (DG) and Engineering Forms (EF) 1164 Other References 1100-44 1100-41 1100-39

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1110 Introduction
This section of the Electrical Manual provides guidelines for the selection of wire and cable. The guidelines apply to installations in the United States. For foreign projects, the applicable foreign codes and standards must be consulted. The issues discussed in this section include, wire and cable construction details, important selection considerations, special wire and cable, and wire and cable typically specified by the Company. When using this section, the following alternate approaches are suggested, depending upon the readers familiarity with the topic: If the reader has minimum experience selecting wire and cable, it is recommended that the entire section be reviewed, as well as Section 100, System Design, and Section 200, System Studies and Protection If a review is needed on the selection of wire and cable for a special application, review the section on Special Wire and Cable and the appropriate Company specification, as applicable If the reader is experienced in the selection of wire and cable, the checklist may be useful This section of the manual also provides a source for applicable standards and references

1111 Checklist
The following checklist should be reviewed before completing the selection of wire and cable: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Is the cable construction suitable for the intended service? Is the voltage rating adequate? Is the number of conductors in accordance with design requirements? Does the NEC (API RP 14F for offshore locations) allow the cable type to be used in the proposed installation method? Is the insulation level suitable for the grounding system and ground fault clearing time? Is the insulation type suitable for the intended service and consistent with Company recommendations? Is the conductor adequately sized for mechanical strength, short-circuit conditions, load current (including any derating, particularly for ambient temperature), voltage drop due to load current, and voltage drop due to inrush current?

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1112 Components of Wire and Cable


Conductor
The conductor, usually copper, provides a low impedance path for the flow of electric current. Some important considerations are size (current carrying capacity), flexibility (soft or annealed and stranding) and cost. Solid Conductor. A solid conductor is a single conductor of solid circular construction. Solid conductors come in a wide range of sizes. Due to the lack of flexibility solid conductors are more common in sizes below No. 0 AWG for aerial line applications, and below No. 8 AWG in insulated conductor applications. Stranded Conductor. A stranded conductor is composed of a multiple wires grouped together to form a single conductor. Stranded conductors are typically used where improved flexibility is desired for handling and installation. Concentric Stranding. Stranded conductors are usually arranged in concentric layers around a central core. Figure 1100-1, detail A, shows different concentric stranded conductors with a progressively larger number of wires. Typically each concentric layer is spun in opposite directions, and may be referred to as having a reverse lay progression. Depending upon the application and need for conductor flexibility concentric stranded conductors are available in a variety of ASTM Classes: A, AA, B, C and D. Bunched Stranding. A bunched conductor consists of a group of wires all twisted together in the same direction without regard to physical location, to form a single conductor. Like concentric stranded conductors, bunched conductors are available in a variety of ASTM Classes: I, J, K, L, M, O, P and Q. Rope-Lay Stranding. A rope-lay stranded conductor is a concentric stranded conductor where the strands (sub-strands) that makeup the various layers are themselves stranded. Each sub-strand may in-turn be configured in a concentric or bunched manner. Rope-lay stranded conductors are available in a variety of ASTM Classes: G, H, I, K, and M. Figure 1100-1, detail B, shows an assortment of ropelay strand configurations. Figures 1100-1 and 1100-2 illustrate various conductor configurations.

Insulation
The insulation provides isolation of the conductor from other conductors and from ground. The thickness of the insulation (usually specified in mils) is determined by the voltage rating of the cable. Important considerations for determining the type of insulation include, flexibility, chemical and flame resistance, system grounding method, type of installation, and cost. Commonly used insulating materials are EPR (ethylene propylene rubber), XLPE (cross-linked polyethylene), PVC (polyvinyl chloride) and PE (polyethylene).

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Fig. 1100-1 Conductor Stranding Courtesy of Okonite Wire and Cable

Jacket; Individual, Overall; Outer Armor


Jacket and armor serve as protection for the electrical insulation components and the conductors during installation and while in service. In particular, they may provide mechanical protection during installation, provide hard service protection, act as a barrier to oil, water and chemicals, and afford resistance to fire, sunlight, and the effects of weather. They may also provide resistance to ozone, fungus, bacteria, insects, and rodents. In addition, they may distribute electrical stresses and charges and increase electrical safety. Materials such as polyvinylchloride (PVC), polyethylene, chlorosulfonated polyethylene (CSP, Hypalon), polychloroprene (PCP, Neoprene) or nylon jackets may be applied over individual conductors or as an overall jacket on a multi-conductor cable. Armor is often applied over the cable assembly core and, sometimes, over the overall jacket. The armor may consist of interlocked steel, corrugated metal sheath, braided wire or lead sheath. An overall extruded jacket (PVC or CSP) may be applied over the armor where corrosion and moisture are of concern.

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Fig. 1100-2 Cable Conductors Courtesy of ABB Transmission and Distribution

(a) Standard concentric stranded (c) Non-compact sector (e) Annular stranded (rope core) (g) Rope stranded

(b) Compact round (d) Compact sector (f) Segmental (h) Hollow core

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Figure 1100-3, 1100-4, 1100-5, 1100-6, and 1100-7 illustrate typical jacketed and armored cable.
Fig. 1100-3 Commonly Used Shielded and Nonshielded Power Cable Courtesy of Okonite Wire and Cable

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Fig. 1100-4 Typical Instrument Cable Construction Courtesy of Houston Wire and Cable

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Fig. 1100-5 Typical PLTC Cable Construction Courtesy of Houston Wire and Cable

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Fig. 1100-6 Typical Telemetering Cable Construction Courtesy of Houston Wire and Cable

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Fig. 1100-7 Typical Thermocouple Cable Construction Courtesy of Houston Wire and Cable

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Shield (Power Cable)


Shielding of electric power cable confines the potential field of the cable to the insulation of the conductor. It is accomplished by means of a nonmetallic conductor shield and a combination nonmetallic and metallic insulation shield. A nonmetallic strand shield is normally used on all conductors which are rated over 2000 volts. The strand shield may be a semiconducting tape or an extruded semiconducting material applied over the conductor (extruded is preferred). Its purposes are to eliminate air spaces between the conductor and the insulation and to provide a uniform circular surface, which eliminates voltage stress concentration at the individual conductor strands. Voids or stress concentrations at the conductor could result in corona and, in time, dielectric failure. The strand shield material must be compatible with both the conductor and the insulation material. The insulation shield is made up of a nonmetallic extruded semiconducting layer and a nonmagnetic metallic layer. The insulation shield has the following functions: To confine the potential field within the cable To obtain symmetrical radial distribution of voltage stress within the dielectric To limit radio interference To reduce shock hazards

The nonmetallic insulation shield is normally applied over the insulation on all conductors rated over 2000 volts that have a metallic shield. This semiconducting tape or extruded semiconducting layer (extruded is preferred), is designed to eliminate voltage stress concentrations between the insulation and the metallic shield, particularly at the edges of the metallic shielding tape. Metallic shields take one of the following forms: Nonmagnetic tapes, usually copper Concentric wires, usually copper A combination of tapes and wires

Section 1125, Shielding discusses metallic shields for power cable in detail.

Shield (Control and Instrument Cable)


When an installation is prone to electromagnetic interference (EMI), particularly radio frequency interference (RFI), and cross-talk from either internal or external sources, some form of cable shielding will be required. EMI, caused by external magnetic fields radiated by power circuits, can be reduced by twisting the wires of each circuit. Installing these cables in steel conduit will provide additional shielding. RFI, caused by external electric fields radiated by a voltage source, can be reduced by providing an overall shield (over all the conductors) if the shield is effectively grounded.

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Cross-talk, caused by the superimposing of signals carried on one wire pair to another wire pair, can be reduced by providing individual shields on each wire pair and twisting each wire pair. The individual shields must be effectively grounded. An overall shield (or an individual pair or triad shield) usually consists of Aluminum-Mylar tape (normally with a tin-plated copper drain wire) providing 100% effective shielding coverage. Figures 1100-4, 1100-5, 1100-6, and 1100-7 illustrate individual and overall shields.

1113 Areas of Concern in Specifying Wire and Cable


Conductor Material and Minimum Size
Conductor material can be copper or aluminum; however, Company practice is to use copper conductors. Copper conductors are required by the Minerals Management Service (MMS) in offshore outer continental shelf (OCS) areas. Conductors should be stranded to provide flexibility (except AWG 12 and 14 conductors used for power and lighting; thermocouple extension wire; and communication wire). All insulated copper wire is to be annealed in accordance with ASTM B3 and have Class B stranding in accordance with ASTM B8. Bare copper wire is to be softdrawn in accordance with ASTM B3, with Class B stranding in accordance with ASTM B8. Overhead bare copper wire may be medium-hard-drawn for added rigidity. Medium voltage cable conductors can be either concentric-stranded in accordance with ASTM B8 or compact-round-stranded in accordance with ASTM B496. The Company recommended minimum conductor size for mechanical strength is as follows: Power and lighting (600 V max) Single conductor control (120 V) Single pair or triad for instrument Multi-conductor cable for instrument/control 5 kV - 1/C nonshielded power cable 5 kV - 1/C shielded power cable 15 kV - 1/C shielded power cable Ground loop cable Cable from ground loop to MCC,switchgear, transformers, tall stacks/vessels, substation fence and pipeway columns. Cable from ground loop to large motors, cable trays and enclosures. 12 AWG 14 AWG 16 AWG 18 AWG 8 AWG (Min. size available) 8 AWG (Min. size available) 2 AWG (Min. size available) 2/0 AWG 2/0 AWG

4 AWG

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Minimum Conductor Size for Short-Circuit Duty


Under short-circuit conditions, the temperature of the conductor rises rapidly. Then, due to thermal characteristics of the insulation, sheath and surrounding materials, it cools slowly after the short-circuit condition is removed. Failure to check the conductor size for short-circuit heating could result in permanent damage to the cable insulation due to disintegration of insulation material. The disintegrating insulation may give off smoke and combustible vapors. These vapors may ignite if sufficiently heated. Also, the cable insulation or sheath may be expanded to produce voids, leading to subsequent failure. This is especially serious in 5 kV and higher voltage cables. Minimum conductor sizes for various short-circuit currents and clearing times are shown in Table 79 of IEEE Std 141. The ICEA initial and final conductor temperatures (see ICEA P-32- 382) are shown for the various insulations. Table 76 of IEEE Std 141 gives conductor temperatures (maximum operating, maximum overload, and maximum short-circuit current) for various insulated cables. Vendor curves based on ICEA are also available for checking cable fault duty. Refer to Section 100, System Design for wire and cable sizing.

Maximum Emergency Overload Temperature


Normal loading limits of insulated wire and cable are based on many years of practical experience and represent a rate of deterioration that results in the most economical and useful life of cable systems. The rate of deterioration is expected to result in a useful life of 20 to 30 years. The life of cable insulation is approximately halved and the average rate of thermally-caused service failures approximately doubles for each 5C to 15C increase in average daily cable temperature. Additionally, it is generally not cost effective to use a cable above its rated ampacity for extended periods, owing to its increased resistance since losses increase in proportion to the square of the current. It is generally more economical, when losses are considered, to install larger cables. As a practical guide, ICEA has established maximum emergency overload temperatures for various types of insulation. Operation at these emergency overload temperatures should not exceed 100 hours per year, and such 100-hour overload periods should not exceed 5 during the life of the cable. Table 78 of IEEE Std 141 provides uprating factors for short-time overloads for various types of insulated cables. The uprating factor, when multiplied by the nominal current rating for the cable in a particular installation, will give the emergency or overload current rating for the particular insulation type. Note, however, that unless marked with higher temperature limits, the terminals of devices rated 100 amperes or less are limited to operating temperatures of 60C. Likewise, unless otherwise marked, devices rated in excess of 100 amperes are limited to 75C. Refer to Section 100, System Design for wire and cable sizing.

Ampacity
Conductor current-carrying capacity (ampacity) is defined as the current a conductor can safely carry continuously without damage to the conductor, insulation, and coverings.

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Installation Conditions. Restricting the heat dissipation by installing the conductors in conduit, cable sheaths, duct, trays or other raceways lessens the currentcarrying capacity. The ampacities of wire and cable for different installation conditions, under the jurisdiction of the NEC, are tabulated in NFPA-70, (NEC) Tables 310-16 through 310-19 for 0-2000 volt applications and Tables 310-69 through 310-84 for solid dielectric insulated conductors rated 2001 through 35,000 volts. These tables are derived from IEEE S-135, ICEA Power Cable Ampacities, which replaces the old ICEA P-46-426 (1962) two-volume edition, and can be used to determine ampacities of cable installations not covered by the NEC. Other ICEA publications describing methods of calculation and tabulation of ampacities are ICEA S-1981/NEMA WC3-1986, ICEA S-61-402/NEMA WC5-1986, ICEA S-65-375/NEMA WC4-1983, ICEA S-66-524/NEMA WC7-1986 and ICEA S-68-516/NEMA WC81986. Many cable vendors publish ampacities of various types of cable using methods of calculation generally conforming to ICEA P-54-440/NEMA WC511979. One example of a vendors detailed treatment of ampacity is in the Okonite Company Bulletin 781 for 5kV and 15kV cable in underground duct, direct burial, conduit, cable tray and air. The ampacities of commercial shipboard cables for offshore platforms are given in IEEE Std 45. For guidance in sizing cables for offshore DC motor applications in drilling rig service, consult the International Association of Drilling Contractors (IADC) Interim Guidelines for Industrial System DC Cable for Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (IADC-DCCS-1). Heat generated by the current through the conductor, retained by confining the conductors in a raceway, and introduced by above-normal ambient temperature, is the major factor affecting conductor current-carrying capacity. Other factors limiting the amount of current a conductor can safely handle are as follows: Conductor size. The larger the cross-sectional area, the greater the currentcarrying capacity. Insulation. The maximum temperature rating of the insulation material should never be exceeded on a continuous basis. Ambient temperature. The higher the ambient temperature, the less current is required to reach the maximum temperature rating of the insulation. Number of conductors. Heat dissipation is lessened as the number of individually insulated conductors (bundled together or installed in conduit) is increased. Underground installation. Heat transfer from the cable or conduit is much lower in concrete and soil than in air. Soil type, soil temperature and proximity of other conduits and cables must be considered.

Temperature Derating Factor. NEC Tables 310-16 through 310-19 give ampacities based on ambient temperatures of 30C and 40C. At ambient temperatures above or below these, an ampacity correction (derating) factor must be used. These derating factors are shown at the bottom of each of the NEC tables already cited (except as indicated in NEC Article 318 for cable trays). The derating factor multi-

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plied by the ampacity of a particular conductor at ambient results in a reduced conductor ampacity. If more than three conductors are installed in a raceway or cable, the ampacities must be reduced in accordance with Note 8 following Table 310-19 of the NEC. Medium voltage, solid dielectric cable ampacities given in NEC Tables 310-69 through 310-76 are based on ambient temperatures of 40C. Tables 310-77 through 310-84 are based on ambient earth temperatures of 20C for underground use. For temperatures other than these ambients, the derating of ampacities must be calculated in accordance with the formula indicated in Note 1 following Table 310-84 of the NEC and as defined in IEEE S-135 (ICEA P-46-426). To determine the proper wire size for a particular load refer to Section 100 of this manual.

Insulation
Basic insulating materials are either organic or inorganic. Most insulations are classified as organic. Mineral-insulated (MI) cable employs the one generally available inorganic insulation (MgO). The following insulations are in common use: Thermosetting compounds, solid dielectric Thermoplastic compounds, solid dielectric

Less common insulations include: Paper-laminated tapes Varnished cloth, laminated tapes Mineral insulation, solid dielectric

Most of the basic materials listed in Figure 1100-8 are modified by compounding or mixing with other materials to produce desirable and necessary properties for manufacturing, handling, and end use. The thermosetting (rubber-like) materials are mixed with curing agents, accelerators, fillers, and anti-oxidants in varying proportions; cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) is included in this class. Generally, smaller amounts of materials (in the form of fillers, anti-oxidants, stabilizers, plasticizers, and pigments) are added to the thermoplastics.
Fig. 1100-8 Properties of Commonly Used Insulating Materials Common Name Thermosetting Crosslinked polyethylene EPR Butyl SBR Oil base Polyethylene Ethylene propylene rubber (copolymer and terpolymer) Isobutylene isoprene Styrene butadiene rubber Complex rubber-like compound Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent Good Good Good Chemical Composition Electrical Physical

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Fig. 1100-8 Properties of Commonly Used Insulating Materials Common Name Silicone TFE(1) Natural rubber Neoprene Class CP rubber(2) Thermoplastic Polyethylene Polyvinyl chloride Nylon
(1) For example, Teflon or Halon (2) For example, Hypalon

Chemical Composition Methyl chlorosilane Tetrafluoroethylene Isoprene Chloroprene Chlorosulfonated polyethylene

Electrical Good Excellent Excellent Fair Good

Physical Good Good Good Good Good

Polyethylene Polyvinyl chloride Polyamide

Excellent Good Fair

Good Good Excellent

Insulation Comparison. Aging factors (namely heat, moisture, and ozone) are among the most destructive to organic-based insulations. The following comparisons can be made to gage the properties of different insulations: 1. Relative Heat Resistance. Figure 1100-9 indicates the effect of temperature on the hardness of insulating materials. Of particular interest is the rapid change in the hardness of polyethylene and cross-linked polyethylene insulations above 100C.

Fig. 1100-9 Typical Values for Hardness vs. Temperature

2.

Heat Aging. Elongation of an insulation (or jacket) when subjected to aging in a circulating air oven is an acceptable measure of heat resistance. The air oven test at 121C called for in some specifications is severe, but provides a relatively quick method of grading materials for possible use at high conductor temperatures or in hot-spot areas. Oven aging at 150C is many times more severe than the 121C test and is used to compare materials with superior heat resistance. Temperature ratings of common insulations are shown in Table 76 of IEEE Std 141 and in tables of NEC Article 310-13.

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3.

Ozone and Corona Resistance. Exposure to accelerated conditions, such as high concentrations of ozone, aids in measuring a materials ultimate ozone resistance. In one such test, standardized by the Insulated Cable Engineers Association, butyl is exposed to 0.03% ozone for 3 hours at room temperature. Other tests for ozone include, air oven tests followed by exposure to ozone and exposure to ozone at higher temperatures. Insulations exhibiting superior ozone resistance under accelerated conditions are silicone, polyethylene, XLPE, EPR, and PVC. These materials are essentially inert in the presence of ozone (but not of corona discharge). Corona discharge produces destructive thermal effects and forms ozone and other ionized gases. Although corona resistance is a property associated with cables over 600 volts, in a properly designed and manufactured cable, damaging corona is expected to be absent at operating voltage. Ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) exhibits less susceptibility to such discharge activity than PE and XLPE.

4.

Moisture Resistance. Insulations such as XLPE, high density polyethylene, and EPR exhibit excellent resistance to moisture (as measured by standard industry tests of ICEA). The electrical stability of these insulations in water (as measured by capacitance and power factor) is very good. However, if the degradation phenomenon known as treeing is present, it will be accelerated by contact with water. This phenomenon occurs in solid dielectric PE and is more prevalent in PE and XLPE than in EPR. Insulations in General Use. Insulations in general use for 2 kV and above, are shown in Table 76 of IEEE Std 141. Solid dielectrics of both plastic and thermosetting types are in common use. Laminated constructions such as paper and varnished cambric cables are declining in popularity because of higher installed cost and the difficulty in making reliable terminations. NEC Table 310-13 lists various types of insulated wire according to their type, maximum operating temperature, application and insulation thickness.

5.

Cable Design
The selection of power cable for specific applications is based on the following properties: Electrical. Conductor size, type and thickness of insulation, resistance, specific inductive capacitance (dielectric constant), and power factor Thermal. Compatibility with ambient and overload temperatures, thermal expansion, and thermal resistance Mechanical. Toughness and flexibility of jacketing or armoring; resistance to impact, crushing, abrasion, and moisture Chemical. Stability of materials when exposed to oils, flame, ozone, sunlight, acids, and alkalies

To conform with the NEC, state and local codes which are under the jurisdiction of a local electrical inspection authority, cables usually require evidence of approval

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for the intended service by a nationally recognized testing laboratory such as Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL). Some cable types are discussed in the following paragraphs. Low Voltage Cables. Low voltage power cables are rated at 600 volts, and are used on system voltages of 120, 208, 240, 277, 480, and 600 volts. Low voltage cable generally consists of conductors with a single extrusion of insulation of a specified thickness. However, in some applications, where additional physical protection is required, a jacket may be included over the insulation. The selection of 600 volt power cable is usually based less on electrical requirements than on physical requirements such as resistance to external forces (e.g., crush, impact, and abrasion). Good electrical properties are required for wet locations. 600 volt XLPE compounds are usually filled (carbon black or mineral) to further enhance the toughness of conventional polyethylene. The combination of crosslinking the polyethylene molecules through vulcanization plus fillers produces superior mechanical properties. Vulcanization eliminates polyethylenes main weakness: a relatively low 105C melting point. For mechanical protection, rubberlike insulations such as EPR are often provided with outer jackets, usually of polyvinyl chloride, neoprene, or CSP rubber (such as Hypalon). However, the newer EPR insulations have improved physical properties and do not require an outer jacket for mechanical protection. A list of the more commonly used 600 volt cables follows. Polyvinyl chloride-insulated, without jacket: Type THW, for 75C maximum operating temperature in wet or dry locations and Type THHW for 75C in wet locations or 90C in dry locations Polyvinyl chloride-insulated, nylon-jacketed: Type THWN, for 75C maximum operating temperature in wet or dry locations and Type THHN for 90C in dry and damp locations only. (This cable is usually dual-rated THWN/THHN) XLPE-insulated, without jacket: Type XHHW, for 75C maximum operating temperature in wet locations and 90C maximum in dry and damp locations and XHHW-2 for 90C in dry and wet locations EPR-insulated, with or without jacket: Type RHW for 75C maximum operating temperature in wet or dry locations and Type RHH for 90C maximum in dry and damp locations

Medium Voltage Cables. Medium voltage, Type MV power cables have solid extruded dielectric insulation and are rated from 2001 volts to 35,000 volts. Single conductors and multiple conductor cables are available with nominal voltage ratings of 5, 8, 15, 25, and 35 kV. Medium voltage cables generally consist of the conductor, extruded semiconducting strand shield, extruded insulation, extruded semiconducting insulation shield, metallic shield and an overall jacket.

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EPR and XLPE are the most commonly used insulating compounds for Type MV cables; however, polyethylene and butyl rubber are also used. The maximum operating temperatures are 90C for EPR and XLPE, 85C for butyl rubber, and 75C for polyethylene. Type MV cables may be installed in raceways in wet or dry locations. They must be specifically approved for cable tray installation, direct burial, exposure to sunlight, and messenger-supported cable. Multi-conductor MV cables that also comply with the requirements for metal-clad (Type MC) cables are labeled Type MV and Type MC and may be installed in conduit, in cable trays or by direct burial.

Voltage Drop
A working knowledge of voltage drop calculations is required not only to meet NEC requirements, but also to ensure that the voltage applied to utilization equipment is maintained within proper limits. Due to the phasor relationships between voltage and current, as well as resistance and reactance, voltage drop calculations require a working knowledge of trigonometry to make exact computations. Fortunately, most voltage drop calculations are based on assumed limiting conditions, and approximate formulas are adequate. Refer to Section 100, System Design, for details of voltage drop calculations.

Wire and Cable Costs


Economics are an important factor in the selection of wire and cable. Figure 1100-10 illustrates the relative cost comparison for various types of cable. Actual prices will vary according to market conditions.

Wire and Cable in Classified Areas


For selection of wire and cable and installation methods to be used in hazardous (classified) areas, refer to Section 300, Hazardous (Classified) Areas.

Wire and Cable Grounding


For proper grounding of cable shields and metallic sheaths/armor refer to Section 900, Grounding Systems.

Installation
For a discussion on wire and cable installation refer to Section 1000, Installation of Electrical Facilities. For additional guidance on installation, cable connectors, terminations, splicing devices, and techniques, refer to IEEE Std 141, Chapter 11. See API RP 14F, Section 4, for offshore installations.

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1120 Construction of Wire and Cable


1121 Conductors
Insulated conductors for electrical power transmission are composed of either copper or aluminum. Copper is used in almost all wire and cable because of its high conductivity. Copper has the highest electrical conductivity of all commercial metals except silver, therefore, smaller conductor diameters are possible. It is manufactured in a wide range of tensile strengths, affording adequate strength and the necessary flexibility. Copper is required for all conductors installed in offshore OCS areas. Aluminum has a lower conductivity than copper and requires a larger conductor. It is, however, lighter in weight, resulting in lower weight loading for given ampacity. Some prime considerations in the selection of conductors are flexibility, size, shape, and cost.

Coatings
If a copper conductor is to be rubber-insulated, a protective coating of pure tin, or an alloy of tin and lead, is applied over the copper to prevent the sulphur in the rubber from attacking the copper. Otherwise, a separator of paper or cotton serving must be used. Untinned or bare copper conductors are generally used with such insulations as varnished cambric, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, and asbestos.

Flexibility
Flexibility is achieved by annealing and stranding conductors. Annealing is a process in which copper wire is exposed in an inert atmosphere, or vacuum, to temperatures up to 600F. Annealing increases the ultimate elongation of the wire by about 2500% and its electrical conductivity by about 3%. Copper wires and cables are usually manufactured in one of three tempers: hard-drawn, medium-hard, or soft-annealed. Hard-drawn wire has the highest tensile strength and the lowest elongation; soft-annealed provides the greatest elongation and the lowest tensile strength; medium-hard wire is the intermediate between these two. There is little difference in the conductivity of wires of different tensile strengths.

Stranding
Stranding provides added flexibility. Insulated conductors sized 10 AWG and larger are stranded (unless otherwise specified); sizes 12 AWG and smaller (with the exception of flexible cords and fixture wire) are usually solid. Instrument wire, except for thermocouple extension wire, is usually stranded. Several varieties of stranding are achieved by varying the number, size, and arrangement of the individual wires comprising the conductor, thus permitting the desired

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Fig. 1100-10 Relative Costs of Cable

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degree of flexibility. The various forms of conductor construction in order of increasing flexibility are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. Solid Concentric-stranded Bunched-stranded Rope-lay-stranded

Figure 1100-11 provides stranding and application information for ASTM conductors.

ASTM Classes of Stranding


Only ASTM solid and class B stranding are normally used in Company practice. ASTM class letters set guidelines for cable flexibility.

Conductor Construction
Different types of conductor construction are illustrated in Figure 1100-2; however, of the four constructions shown, only annular strand is normally used in Company practice.
Fig. 1100-11 Application of ASTM Stranding Classes Construction Concentric Lay Class AA A B C D Use Bare Overhead Flexible bare: Slow burning and/or weather resistant (WP) cables Insulated conductors (Types RHW, TW, RR, VC, etc.) Special (Some RR, Machine Tool Wire) Very Specialhigh flexibility

Rope-Lay with Concentric Members

G H

Portable cables Portable cables on take-up reels Types (W & G)

Rope-Lay with Bunched Members

I K M

Apparatus Cable and Motor Leads Portable Cables (SJO, SO) Welding Cable

Bunch Stranded

I,J,K L,M,O P.Q

For sizes 7 AWG - 20 AWG For sizes 9 AWG - 20 AWG For sizes 16 AWG - 20 AWG

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Wire Gages
The American Wire Gage (AWG) is used almost exclusively in the United States for electric wire sizes 4/0 and smaller. The AWG is retrogressive; that is, a larger number denotes a smaller wire. For sizes larger than 4/0, the wires are designated by MCM (thousand circular mils). The following approximations can be made using American Wire Gage measurements: An increase of 3 gage numbers (e.g., from No. 10 to 7) doubles the crosssectional area and weight, and, consequently, halves the DC resistance An increase of 6 gage numbers (e.g., from No. 10 to 4) doubles the diameter An increase of 10 gage numbers (e.g., from No. 10 to 1/0) increases the area and weight by 10 and reduces the DC resistance by a factor of 10 AWG 10 wire has a diameter of approximately 0.10 inch, a cross-sectional area of approximately 10,000 CM, and (for standard annealed copper at 20C) a resistance of approximately 1.0 ohm per 1000 feet The weight of AWG 2 copper wire is approximately 200 pounds per 1000 feet Figure 1100-12 gives the dimensions and weights for AWG wire sizes. The weights and dimensions are given for solid conductor copper wire. Weights are based on a copper density of 8.89 grams per cubic centimeter. Solid wire weights should be increased by two percent to obtain the weights for stranded wire

1122 Insulation
No single type of insulation has been developed to meet all requirements. Instead many types are used, with each best suited to the service for which it is designed. The type of insulation used for electrical wire must be carefully considered in selecting cable for a specific application. Selection depends upon voltage rating, load, operating conditions, and price. Voltage limitation is the prime consideration in selecting the appropriate insulation. All insulations are designed and constructed to withstand a stated voltage without damage under given conditions. No wire or cable will operate for its expected life at voltages higher than those for which it was designed. Using a greater insulation thickness extends the life but cannot satisfy all requirements of a higher voltage stress; an insulating medium with the necessary characteristics inherent in its general properties must be used. Another important consideration is the insulating materials ability to withstand destructive natural and chemical elements and still provide the electrical and mechanical protection for which it is designed. Space limitation is sometimes an additional factor influencing the choice of insulation.

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Fig. 1100-12 Comparison of Wire Gages

The various types of insulation presently used may be divided into three major classes: rubber compounds, plastic compounds, and varnished cambric. Figures 1100-8, 1100-9, 1100-13, and 1100-14 provide information on the properties and uses of various insulating materials. Rubber and plastic materials have good electrical properties, relatively low weight, and good mechanical properties. Rubber insulations are more elastic than plastic insulations. However, plastic insulations are mechanically stronger than rubber insulations at normal temperatures. Most rubber materials are cross-linked. Except for polyethylene, plastic materials are usually not cross-linked.

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Cross-linked rubber and plastic materials do not melt when heated and are called thermosetting materials. Rubber and plastic materials that are not cross-linked are called thermoplastic materials. When thermoplastic materials are heated, they soften and eventually melt. At low temperatures thermoplastic materials stiffen and, if the temperature is sufficiently low, become brittle. Therefore, mechanical properties of thermoplastic materials are more dependent on temperature than are thermosetting materials. NEC-1987 Table 310-13, lists various types of insulations according to their trade name, type letter, maximum operating temperature, application, insulation type, conductor size range, insulation thickness, and outer covering. Brief descriptions of several types of insulation follow.
Fig. 1100-13 Size Range and Corresponding Voltages ICEA Size Rubber 18 & over 14 & over 8 & over 6 & over 2 & over 1 & over 14-1000 8-1000 6-1000 2-1000 1-1000 0-1000 4-1000 8-1000 6-1000 2-1000 1-1000 0-1000 18 & over 14-1000 8-1000 6-1000 2-1000 1-1000 0-1000 Voltage 0-600 601-2000 2001-5000 5001-8000 8001-15,000 15,001-28,000 0-2000 2001-5000 5001-8000 8001-15,000 15,001-28,000 28,001-35,000 0-2000 2001-5000 5001-8000 8001-15,000 15,001-28,000 28,001-35,000 0-600 0-2000 2001-5000 5001-8000 8001-15,000 15,000-28,000 28,001-35,000

Cross-linked Polyethylene, (XPLE)

Ethylene Propylene Rubber, (EPR)

Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Polyethylene (PE)

Rubber Compounds
Ethylene Propylene Rubber (EPR). EPR, referred to by the NEC as type RHH/RHW, is a synthetic rubber material. The compounds are rated for 90C dry locations (RHH) and 75C wet and dry locations (RHW). It is flexible and will

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Fig. 1100-14 Typical Values of Properties of Insulation Materials

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retain its flexibility at low temperatures. EPR differs from many other rubber materials because it is resistant to ozone. EPR is also resistant to most acids, bases, and other chemicals, but not to mineral oils. Its weather resistance is also good. EPR has excellent electrical properties and can be used for 600 volt, 5 kV and 15 kV power wiring systems. Silicone Rubber. Silicone rubber is a synthetic rubber compound with excellent temperature resistance properties. It is designed for long life and continuous operation at temperatures ranging from -60C to 150C without losing its high flexibility. It is also ozone and corona resistant, minimizes moisture absorption, and remains stable in wet or moist locations. It has a high dielectric strength. Although it is flame-retardant, it will burn. However, when it burns it forms a nonconducting ash which, when held in place by an outer braid, continues to serve as an insulator. This type of insulation is used for power (600 volt maximum), control, and instrument circuits in critical fire hazard areas.

Plastic Compounds
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC). PVC thermoplastic is available in several compounds to meet specific temperature conditions of THW, THWN, THHW, and THHN applications. The compounds are rated for 75C for wet and dry locations (THW and THWN), 90C for dry locations (THHN) and 75C for wet and 90C for dry locations (THHW). PVC insulation is resistant to oils, acids, sunlight, ozone, flame, and moisture and possesses excellent electrical properties. It is used on power, lighting, and control wiring (600 volt maximum), but it is not suitable for DC applications above 40 volts in wet locations. API RP 14F recommends EPR, XLPE or thermosetting insulation for DC services above 40 volts DC in wet locations to reduce the possibility of electro-osmosis or electrical endosmosis, which deteriorate the insulation. Polyethylene (PE). Polyethylene is a heat-and light-stabilized thermoplastic. It is recommended up to a maximum operating temperature of 75C. It has low dielectric loss characteristics and is highly resistant to moisture, ozone, most chemicals, oil, and flame. PE insulation is thinner and can eliminate the need for an outer covering, thus saving space. PE insulation is used on instrument and control cables (300 volt or 600 volt maximum). It is no longer available at the 5 kV and 15 kV levels, having been replaced by EPR and XLPE. Superior dielectric characteristics make low density (high molecular weight) polyethylene a much better insulating material than high density polyethylene. However, high density polyethylene makes an excellent, tough jacket material. Cross-linked Polyethylene (XLPE-NEC type XHHW). XLPE is made by crosslinking polyethylene. This insulation is available for 600 volt, 5 kV or 15 kV power systems but its use for new 5 kV or 15 kV systems is not recommended because of numerous incidents of premature failure. Cross-linked polyethylene compounds are rated 75C for wet and 90C for dry locations (XHHW) and 90C for wet or dry locations (XHHW-2). XLPE is a relatively stiff material at normal temperatures, but

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it will not stiffen further at temperatures as low as 0C. XLPE is resistant to acids, bases, and several chemicals but should not be used in contact with mineral oils. Varnished cambric. Varnished cambric (NEC Type VC) VC insulation consists of a cotton or linen tape treated with varnish or resin and linseed oil and applied helically around the conductors, with a suitable compound applied between the layers. It is highly resistant to heat, operating at temperatures up to 85C. It is moisture, oil, and grease resistant, has high dielectric strength and low loss, and is highly flexible. Maximum operating voltage is 28,000 volts for grounded neutral systems. Where space is limited, the thinner walls of varnished cambric insulation afford a cable of smaller outer diameter. This type of insulation wire is no longer used by the Company. It has been replaced by EPR- or XLPE-insulated wire.

1123 Outer Jackets


Outer jackets used on electrical cables and wires may be divided into two categories: Rubber Jackets Plastic Jackets

Rubber Jackets
Neoprene. Neoprene jackets are used on power cables in mining applications, on portable cable, and on welding cable. Polychloroprene (PCP). Polychloroprene sheaths are tough and resistant to abrasion, oil, fire, ozone, weather, rot fungus, bacteria, and corona. The normal useful operating temperature range is 75C to -40C, but heat resistant grades with ratings up to 90C are available. Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene (CSP). CSP (trade name, Hypalon) is a synthetic rubber material with properties similar to chloroprene rubber. This type of jacket is used on 600 volt, 5 kV, and 15 kV power cables and instrument cables where additional abrasion resistance, fire retardation, or chemical resistance is desired.

Plastic Jackets
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Polyvinyl chloride thermoplastic is a synthetic resin which provides resistance to oils, acids, alkalies, sunlight, heat, weather, and abrasion. It is relatively low in cost. The temperature range is approximately -50C to 105C, depending on the particular compound chosen. It is widely used for jackets of power, control, signal, aerial, street lighting, and direct burial cables. It is also widely used in shipboard cables, which demand a highly resistant and protective jacket. PVC compounds should be black for outdoor use, since black resists deterioration by ultraviolet rays. This improves weather resistance. PVC is not recommended for jackets on cables to be used in underwater service. Nylon. Nylon is used as an extruded covering to protect individual insulations. It is applied in thin films to improve the primary insulations resistance to abrasion, oil, gasoline and solvent. It is springy, but a thick application causes loss of flexibility.

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Its temperature range is -20C to 105C. Nylon coverings are used primarily for cables in gasoline stations, shipboard control cables, and on THHN and THWN wire. For properties of various types of outer jacket materials refer to Figure 1100-15.

1124 Armors
Corrugated Metal Sheath. Longitudinally welded and continuously extruded corrugated sheaths (usually aluminum) offer mechanical protection superior to and at a lower weight than interlocked armor. Aluminum or copper sheaths may be used as the equipment grounding conductor for many cables, either alone or in parallel with a grounding conductor within the cable; proper cable connectors must be used and the sheath must be capable of carrying sufficient current as specified by the NEC and to provide accurate relaying without damaging the cable . Corrugated sheaths are recommended for pliability and increased radial strength. This sheath offers maximum protection from moisture and liquid or gaseous contaminants. An overall extruded nonmetallic jacket must be used over the metal sheath for direct burial, embedment in concrete, or in areas with environments that are corrosive to the metal sheath.
Fig. 1100-15 Properties of Cable Jacket Materials Material Neoprene Class CP rubber(1) Polyethylene low density high density cross linked Polyvinyl chloride Polyurethane Nylon
Note

Abrasion Resistance Good Good

Flexibility Good Good

Low Temperature Good Fair

Heat Resistance Good Excellent

Fire Resistance Good Good

Fair Excellent Good Fair Excellent Excellent

Poor Poor Poor Good Good Fair

Poor Poor Poor Fair Good Good

Fair Good Excellent Good Good Good

Poor Poor Poor Fair Poor Fair

Chemical resistance and barrier properties depend on the particular chemicals involved. The question should be referred to the cable manufacturer.

(1) For example, Hypalon

Lead Sheath. A lead sheath is used in cables for underground installation to protect a varnished cambric or rubber insulation from moisture. An extruded jacket may be applied over the lead for corrosive protection or protection from gouging and soil electrolysis. Because of the decline in use of varnished cambric insulation, lead sheaths are rarely used today.

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Braided Wire Armor. Braided, basket weave metal armor is constructed of fine metal wires of galvanized steel, aluminum, or bronze. This type of armor is used extensively on shipboard cables to provide lightweight mechanical protection in accordance with IEEE Std 45. Interlocked Armor. Bronze, galvanized steel, or aluminum rounded and interlocked tapes protect cables from damage (during and after installation) and are applied directly over the outer jacket. Interlocked armor provides mechanical protection against compression and impact. A jacket can be added over the armor for moisture and corrosion resistance. Interlocked armor is not recommended for Company installations. It is being replaced by the corrugated metal sheath.

1125 Shielding
Power Cable Shielding
Refer to Figure 1100-3 for a typical shielded MV cable. A shielded electric power cable uses conducting or semiconducting layers, closely fitted or bonded to the inner and outer surfaces of the insulation, to confine the electric field of the cable to the insulation surrounding the conductor. In other words, the outer shield confines the electric field to the space between the conductor and the shield. The inner (strand shield) stress relief layer is at or near the conductor potential. The outer (insulation) shield is designed to carry the charging currents. The conductivity of the shield is determined by its cross-sectional area and its resistivity (in conjunction with the semiconducting layer). The metallic shield must be effectively grounded as described in Section 900, Grounding Systems. By their close bonding to the insulation surface, the stress control layers at the inner and outer insulation surfaces present a smooth surface to reduce the stress concentrations and minimize void formation. Ionization of the air in such voids can progressively damage certain insulating materials, eventually to the point of failure. The purposes of an insulation shield are as follows: Reduces shock hazard (when properly grounded) Confines the electric field within the cable Equalizes voltage stress within the insulation, minimizing surface discharges Protects cable from induced potentials Limits electromagnetic interference (EMI/RFI)

In a shielded cable, the equipotential surfaces are concentric cylinders between the conductor and the shield. The voltage distribution follows a simple logarithmic variation, and the electrostatic field is confined entirely within the insulation. The lines of force and stress are uniform and radial and cross the equipotential surfaces at right angles, eliminating any tangential or longitudinal stresses within the insulation or on its surface. The equipotential surfaces for the unshielded system are cylindrical, but not concentric with the conductor, and cross the cable surface at many different potentials. For unshielded cable operating on 4160-volt systems, the tangential creepage stress to

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ground at points along the cable may be several times that recommended for creepage distance at terminations in dry locations. Surface tracking, burning, and destructive discharges to ground could occur; however, properly designed nonshielded cables (as described in the NEC) limit the surface energies.

Control and Instrument Cable Shielding


Control and instrument cable shielding usually consists of a layer of conducting material completely covering the core of cable conductors. This conducting material can be nonmetallic or metallic. If nonmetallic, it should be supplemented by a metallic conductor of sufficient conductivity to provide effective shielding. A cable shield over an individual pair, or an overall shield, has several functions, including the following: To reduce shock hazard To protect the cable from extraneous, induced potential To limit electromagnetic interference (EMI), particularly radio interference (RFI) To confine the electric field generated by the conductors

For control and instrument cable shielding, induced potentials and EMI (particularly RFI) are of particular interest because cables are frequently operated in areas of high disturbance by high voltage power conductors. If the surges, caused by changes in the operating state of these high voltage conductors, are permitted to induce a voltage on the control cable conductors, control errors (and even severe damage to apparatus supplied by the cable) may result. The most common shielding method for control and instrument cables consists of an Aluminum-Mylar tape applied helically over the cable core. This type of shield provides 100% coverage and can be applied in the same manner as a helical tape on a power cable. A drain wire in intimate contact with the shield throughout the length of the cable (used for grounding the shield) should be provided. The individual pair shields and the overall shield of each instrument cable must be grounded in accordance with Company Specification ICM-MS-3651 and Standard Drawing GF-J-1118.

1130 Special Wire and Cable


It is recommended that all cables be listed by a nationally recognized testing laboratory (NRTL) such as Underwriters Laboratories (UL).

1131 Instrument and Telemetering Cables


Instrument Cable
Although similar to other cables used to interconnect electronic devices, instrumentation cables are specifically designed for ease of installation, for transmitting

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signals and energy with minimal interference, for maximum durability, and to comply with recognized industry standards. Electrical interference is minimized by twisting conductors in a tight lay configuration to counter the effects of electromagnetic interference (EMI). In multi-pair cables, a staggered lay is employed to reduce cross talk. Where critical signal inputs could be affected by EMI, particularly radio frequencyinterference (RFI), an Aluminum-Mylar tape shield over each pair is the recommended remedy. See Section 1125 for further details. Instrument cables are designed to minimize mechanical failures. Jacketing, insulation, conductors, and shielding are all selected to resist damage from water absorption, chemical and oil contamination, bending, pulling, crushing, cutting, abrasion, and temperature extremes. Multi-conductor instrumentation cables are manufactured in a wide range of sizes, shielding techniques, and insulation material to meet the technical requirements of different types of equipment and installations. Cables used for communications, instrumentation, control, and data transmission are all included in this category. Most of these cables are designed to protect a desired signalreducing hum, noise, and cross talk. Effective shielding designs and insulating techniques maintain signal integrity over a wide diversity of conditions and environment. Figure 1100-4 shows typical instrument cable construction. For shielding techniques, refer to Section 1125. Instrument cable is available in single pair, single triad, multi-pair or multi-triad cable construction and must comply with NEC Article 725. Reference Specification, ELC-MS-3551. Instrument cable can be installed in cable tray, in metallic or nonmetallic conduit (above or belowground), or as aerial cable supported by a messenger wire. Cable used for fire protective signaling systems must comply with NEC Article 760. For instrument cables installed in cable tray, refer to Section 1133, Power Limited Tray Cable (Type PLTC).

Telemetering Cable
This cable is used in telemetry, remote control, pilot relay operations, and communication circuits where superior electrical characteristics (shielding from electromagnetic and electrostatic interference) are required. This type of cable is particularly suited for applications where the cable will normally transmit low level DC or communication signals, but where there is also a need for emergency transmission of 110 volt AC signals as well. The cables are shielded to protect against electrical interference from external sources. These cables are available with either PVC or PE outer jackets. The PVC-jacketed cables are more flexible and are flame-retardant; however, the PE-jacketed cables have superior resistance to cracking when flexed at low temperatures. Figure 1100-6 shows various types of telemetering cable construction.

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1132 Power and Control Tray Cable (Type TC)


Power and control tray cable (Type TC) is a factory assembly of two or more insulated conductors (with or without associated bare or covered grounding conductors) under a nonmetallic sheath, approved for installation in cable trays and raceways or where supported by a messenger wire. The insulated conductors of Type TC tray cable are available in sizes 18 AWG through 1000 MCM copper and sizes 12 AWG through 1000 MCM aluminum. The outer sheath is a nonmetallic material that is flame-retardant and resistant to oil, sunlight (if specified) and moisture. A metallic sheath is not permitted either under or over the nonmetallic sheath. When installed in wet locations, Type TC cable must be resistant to moisture and corrosive agents. Use of Type TC tray cable is permitted (1) for power, lighting, control, signal, and communication circuits; (2) in cable trays, in raceways, or supported by a messenger wire; (3) in cable trays in hazardous (classified) locations under specific conditions outlined in Articles 318, 501, and 502 of the NEC. Type TC tray cable must not be installed (1) where exposed to physical damage; (2) as open cable on brackets or cleats; (3) where directly exposed to rays of the sun, unless identified as sunlight-resistant; or (4) by direct burial, unless identified for such use. The cables are marked TYPE TC. The allowable ampacity of the conductors is defined in NEC Articles 400-5 and 318-11.

1133 Power Limited Tray Cable (Type PLTC)


Type PLTC nonmetallic-sheathed, power-limited tray cable is a factory assembly of two or more insulated conductors under a nonmetallic jacket. The insulated conductors are available in sizes 22 AWG through 16 AWG. The conductor material is copper (solid or stranded). Insulation on the conductors is suitable for 300 volts. The cable core is either (1) two or more parallel conductors, (2) one or more group assemblies of twisted or parallel conductors, or (3) a combination thereof. A metallic shield or a metallized foil shield with drain wire(s) is permitted either over the cable core, over groups of conductors, or both. The outer jacket material is nonmetallic and flame-retardant, and resistant to oil, sunlight, and moisture. Type PLTC cable is designed for use in Class 2 or 3 circuits (in accordance with NEC Article 725) as instrumentation, process control and computer cable transmitting low level signals. The cable is marked TYPE PLTC and can be installed in cable trays or raceways, supported by messenger wires, or directly buried (if the cable is listed for this use). The cable can also be installed in cable trays in hazardous (classified) locations under specific conditions specified by Articles 318, 501, and 502 of the NEC. Figure 1100-5 illustrates the construction details of typical power limited tray cables.

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1134 High Temperature Cable, Flame Retardant Cable and Fire Cable
High Temperature Cable
Asbestos insulations (NEC Type A or AA) are used for high temperature applications, particularly in dry locations, up to 200C. Silicon rubber has good chemical-, moisture-, and oil-resistant properties. It is best known for its resistance to heat and can be used for conductor temperatures as high as 125C. Teflon-insulated (FEP) wire can be used for conductor temperatures up to 200C. Teflon-insulated (as well as silicone rubber insulated) wire is recommended where high heat and contact with oil, water, or chemicals are expected. Both FEP and silicone-rubber-insulated wires are more expensive than ordinary insulations. Pyrometer wiring is available with many types of insulation. For general processing plant use, PVC insulation with a PVC jacket is recommended for applications below 105F. For higher temperatures, silicone, mica, Teflon, fiberglass, or combinations thereof are recommended.

Flame Retardant Cable


Insulated conductors and cables that will be installed in a cable tray and all cables used offshore must pass a flammability test. The flame test is used to ensure that in the event of a fire in or around the cable, the conductors or cables will not transmit the fire to another area. All single conductors and multi-conductor cables must pass the UL vertical tray flame test, which is identical to IEEE 383, to be approved for cable tray use. Insulated conductors and cables that pass this flame test are identified by the following legends, which are imprinted on the outer surface of a single conductor or on the jacket of a cable. Type PLTC, for 300 volt power-limited tray cable Type TC, for 600 volt power and control tray cable For CT Use or For Use in Cable Trays, for single conductors, Type MV cables, Type MC, or any other specific cable constructions that have passed the vertical tray flame test

Type MC cables without an outer covering do not require flame testing because the metallic sheath prevents propagation. Type MC cables with a nonmetallic outer covering are tested and will carry the above legend if the jacket is flame retardant. Consult API RP 14F, Section 4.4d(5) for flammability tests required for cables used in OCS areas offshore.

Fire Cable
SI fire cable is designed for use with critical motors (mainly MOVs) and controls that must be operable during a fire. These cables can operate at over 2000F without failing. The cable is constructed with nickel conductors, silicon dioxide insulation,

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and an outer stainless steel sheath. Consult API RP 14F, Section 9.7b(1) for requirements of cables used for fire pumps in OCS areas offshore.

1135 Thermocouple Extension Cable


Thermocouple extension cable consists of single-pair or multi-pair twisted, shielded, solid conductor, 300-volt rated cable. Reference ELC-MS-3552 for further information. Figure 1100-7 shows a typical construction. Thermocouple extension cable conductors must match the specific type of thermocouple (see ANSI/MC 96.1, Temperature Measurement Thermocouples): one iron and one constantine conductor for use with ANSI/ISA type J thermocouple probe, one chromel and one alumel conductor for higher temperature ANSI/ISA type K thermocouple probes. Other conductor materials are available for very high temperature applications. Various types of insulation are used: PVC, silicone rubber mica tapes, glass braid, and Teflon tapes. Teflon should be used in fire hazard areas. Where individual or overall shielding is required, an Aluminum-Mylar tape shield can be used to provide 100% coverage for excellent shielding effectiveness. A copper drain wire in intimate contact with the shield throughout the length of the cable is provided for grounding the shield. Various types of jackets (PVC, CSP or PE), are used over individual pair and over multi-pair cable. The jacket required depends on the installationfor example, 90C PVC for normal use, 105 PVC for fire hazard areas, or Hypalon for PLTC-type cable.

1136 Computer Cable


Where high-speed transmission is required, as in computer and other data processing systems, the interconnecting cable must have the following specific characteristics: Low mutual capacitance to allow for longer transmission distances Low attenuation losses to prevent distortion of pulses caused by reduced peak voltage and rise time Low propagation delay to allow high propagation velocity, thereby maintaining peak voltage and signal shape Proper characteristic impedance to prevent mismatch with that of the system receiver, thereby avoiding electrical reflection that can distort signal strength and decrease quality

Vendor catalogs should contain data on the preceding parameters. The basic construction features of a few computer cables are as follows: Coaxial cable. One 22 AWG copper conductor, either solid or stranded, bare or tinned; foam polyethylene insulation; bare or tinned copper braid shield; overall PVC jacket; impedance as required; rated for 30 volts and 60C Twin axial cable. Same as coaxial cable except with two twisted conductors

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Synchronous EIA interface cable. Fourteen conductors, tinned copper; foam polyethylene insulation; individual and overall Aluminum-Mylar tape shields; overall PVC jacket; rated for 30 volts and 60C IEEE 488 interface cable. Six twisted pairs and 11 single 26 AWG conductors; PVC insulation;overall tinned copper braid; overall PVC jacket; rated for 300 volts and 80C

Vendors catalogs must be consulted to define the specific requirements because of the specialized nature of this type of cable.

1137 Fiber Optic Cable


Fiber optic cable has been developed to replace the usual copper wire cable in many communication and instrument cable applications. It offers numerous advantages for the transmission of signals and data with complete freedom from EMI. The cables are rugged enough for many applications and installation conditions. They can be installed in conduit, cable tray, underground duct, by direct burial or as aerial cable with messenger wire support. Fiber optic cables offer long distance transmission without the use of repeaters. They provide wide bandwidth, light weight, and high-density signal channels. Fiber optic cables can be used for a variety of applicationsincluding communications, data transmission, instrumentation, and process control. The individual optical fiber is the signal transmission medium and is very similar in function to an individual optical wave guide. The fiber has an all-dielectric structure consisting of a central circular transparent core that propagates the optical radiation and an outer cladding layer that completes the guiding structure. For low-loss transmission, the fiber is typically polymer-clad silica (PCS) with a core of silica glass and cladding of glass or polymer material. To achieve high signal bandwidth, the core region has a varying or graded refractive index. The four major fiber parameters used in selecting the proper cable for an application are bandwidth, attenuation, numerical aperture (NA), and core diameter. These parameters should be defined in vendors catalogs.

1138 Shipboard Cables, Submarine Cables, and Submersible Pump Cables


Shipboard Cable
Commercial shipboard cable as specified in IEEE Std 45 is permitted by API RP 14F, Section 4.4, to be installed in classified locations on offshore platforms. This cable is not recognized by the NEC for onshore installations. Cable construction, in general, consists of copper stranded conductors; PVC, EPR, XLPE or silicone rubber insulation with maximum temperatures of 75, 90, 90, and 100C, respectively, conductor shielding as required, and PVC or CSP jacket. A basket weave armor of bronze or aluminum is applied over the outer jacket. An overall PVC or CSP jacket can be added, and is required for offshore classified area applications. Refer to IEEE Std 45, Section 18 for additional construction details.

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In general, application of commercial shipboard cable is as follows: 600 volt maximum power and lighting: PVC, EPR, or XLPE insulation 2 kV and 5 kV power: EPR or XLPE insulation, shielded as required 600 volt control cable: PVC, EPR, or XLPE insulation Instrument cable: PVC insulation

Refer to Section 19 of IEEE Std 45 and Section 4.4 of API RP 14F for more application details. For cable installation details refer to Section 20 of IEEE Std 45, Section 4 of API RP 14F, and Section 1000, Installation of Electrical Facilities.

Submarine Cable
Submarine cables are used to supply power from shore to offshore platforms and from offshore platform to offshore platform. Voltage levels of 5 kV and 15 kV are common; higher voltage systems are occasionally used. Obviously, construction must be highly resistant to undersea environments. Typical construction is as follows: three-stranded copper conductors (and, normally, an equal number of groups of communications pairs); extruded semiconducting strand screen; 133% EPR or XLPE insulation; extruded semiconducting insulation screen; and copper tape shield over individual conductors; cabled together with jute or polypropylene fillers; an asphalt-impregnated jute or PE bedding layer; galvanized steel wire armor, and an overall jacket which is resistant to underwater environments. For more details and application information refer to the vendors catalogs or contact vendors. Sample specifications for 5 kV and 15 kV submarine cable are included in Chevron U.S.A., Eastern Region-EL&Ps Electrical Construction Guidelines for Offshore Marshland and Inland Locations.

Submersible Pump Cable


Submersible pump cable is used to supply power to submersible pumps in oil wells and in similar applications where temperatures may reach 300F (149C) and pressures up to 5000 psig. Cable voltage ratings from 2 kV to 5 kV are typical. IEEE Standard 1018 and 1019 may be used as guides. The basic construction of some types of submersible pump cables is as follows: Flat Oil Well Cable (5 kV). This cable consists of flat, parallel construction of three solid copper conductors, layers of fused Kapton (a Dupont film), a layer of EPR insulation, a moisture-resistant rubber compound overall jacket, and two layers of galvanized steel armor. It is for use where the ambient temperature is up to 350F (177C) and is manufactured in Sizes 6 AWG to 2 AWG. Round Armored Downhole Cable (3 kV). This cable consists of three coated and stranded copper conductors, center strand filled; EPR insulation; when required, a solid copper, polyester-coated instrument conductor; moisture-resistant rubber compound jacket; and galvanized steel interlocked armor. It is for use at temperatures up to 240F (116C) and is manufactured in Sizes 6 AWG to 1 AWG.

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Round Armored Downhole Cable (3 kV). This cable has the same construction as round armored downhole cable except that the insulation is a polypropylene-based compound suitable for temperatures up to 190F (88C). It is manufactured in Sizes 6 AWG to 1 AWG.

For more details and application information on downhole cable, refer to vendors catalogs or contact the vendor.

1140 Typical Wire and Cable Specified


The following descriptions apply to typical wire and cable used in Company onshore facilities. For description of cables typically used offshore refer to API RP 14F.

1141 Medium Voltage Power Conductors


Typical practice is to use UL-listed single conductor, copper, 5 kV or 15 kV, type MV-90, shielded, 133% EPR insulated cable in accordance with ELC-MS-2447. It is installed in aboveground or underground conduit and as messenger-supported aerial cable. When installed in cable tray or in direct burial systems, UL-listed multi-conductor armored cable type MC-MV90 is used with a corrugated welded or extruded aluminum sheath. A jacket over the armor may be required for moisture and corrosion resistance and direct burial. Nonshielded cable may be used in systems operating at 2.4 kV and in certain non-critical 5 kV services provided that they meet the requirements of NEC Articles 310-6 and 7.

1142 Low Voltage Power and Lighting Conductors


Typical practice is to use UL-listed, single conductor, copper, 600 volt rated wire. It is purchased without a Company specification, as follows: Type THW: 75C, UL-83, 600 volt, PVC-insulated for dry and wet locations. Type XHHW: 75C, UL-44, 600 volt, XLPE-insulated for wet locations; 90C (UL) for dry locations. Type THHN/THWN with nylon jacket, UL-83, 600 volt, PVC-insulated for dry and wet locations at 75C (UL) and for dry locations at 90C (UL). Type RHH/RHW with or without jacket, UL-44, 600 volt, EPR-insulated for dry and wet locations at 75C (UL) and for dry locations at 90C (UL). To be used on special applications where superior electrical characteristics and/or flexibility at low temperatures is required.

These wires can be installed in aboveground and underground conduit. If flame retardant, single conductor cable of sizes 250 MCM and larger can be installed in cable tray.

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Multi-conductor cables containing Types XHHW or THHN/THWN conductors may also be provided with a flame retardant jacket for use in cable tray. This is discussed in Section 1146. Type MC 600 volt armored cable with a corrugated welded or extruded aluminum sheath is recommended for exposed cable tray or direct burial installation.

1143 Low Voltage Control Cable


Typical practice is to use UL-listed single conductor, copper, 600 volt rated wire of the types indicated in Section 1142. It is run in aboveground or underground conduit. The minimum conductor size is 14 AWG for 120 volt AC motor control. It is recommended that multi-conductor control cable comply with ELC-MS-3553. The minimum conductor size is 16 AWG for 120 volt AC motor control. When installed in cable tray, the outer jacket must be flame retardant.

1144 Instrumentation, Control, and Alarm Cable


Typical practice is to use single pair, single triad, multi-pair or multi-triad cable in accordance with ELC-MS-3551. Single pair or triad is run in conduit. A minimum of 18 AWG is recommended for mechanical strength. Multi-conductor cable can be run in conduit or in cable tray (if labeled TC); the minimum recommended wire sizes are 20 AWG. Multi-conductor cable may be used as aerial cable when messenger-supported.

1145 Thermocouple Extension Cable


Typical practice is to use single pair or multi-pair twisted, shielded, and 300 volt rated. It is recommended that cables meet the requirements of ELC-MS-3552. The minimum sizes are, 16 AWG for single pair in conduit and 18 AWG for multi-pair in conduit or in cable tray.

1146 Flame Retardant Cable


The typical practice is to use PVC or CSP (Hypalon) outer jackets that are resistant to flame, oil, sunlight and moisture on all cables installed in cable tray. Cables should pass the UL 383 vertical tray flame test and be identified as to usage (i.e., Type TC, Type PLTC, or for TC use).

1147 High Temperature Cable


The typical practice for high temperature areas is to use silicon rubber or teflon insulations. For temperatures above 200C, glass reinforced mica tapes are recommended.

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1148 Fire Hazard Area Cable


The typical practice in fire hazard areas is to use insulation of mica tapes and glass braid impregnated with a silicone finish on instrument, thermocouple and control circuits in accordance with ELC-MS-3551, 3552, and 3553.

1150 Glossary
1151 Definitions
Ampacity: Current carrying capacity of electric conductors, expressed in amperes. Annealed: Copper wire softened and made flexible through a process employing exposure to high temperature in a vacuum or inert gas. Armor: A metallic covering placed over the wire or cable to afford mechanical protection from abrasive conditions and impact damage. AWG: (American Wire Gage). A system for classifying sizes of cable conductors, in which the higher numbers represent the smaller conductor diameters. Braid: A weave of organic or inorganic fiber used as a protective outer covering or as an inner braid for binding and insulation over a conductor or group of conductors. B & S: (Brown and Sharpe Gage). A wire diameter standard that is the same as the AWG system. Bunch Stranding: A method of twisting individual wires to form a finished, stranded conductor. Specifically, a number of fine wires are twisted together in a common direction, without regard to exact position, and with a uniform pitch (twist per unit of length). Cable Filler: The material used in multi-conductor cables to occupy the interstices of the insulated conductors, thus forming a rounded core. Circular Mil Area: The area of a conductor equal to the square of the diameter in mils (0.001 inches). This measure is also known as the cross-sectional area of a wire. (See definition of Cross-Sectional Area.) Concentric Stranding: A method of stranding wire in which a conductor is composed of a central core surrounded by one or more layers of helically-laid wires. Usually, all wires are of the same size and the central core is a single wire. Corona: An electrostatic discharge at high voltage resulting from ionization, which is detrimental to the dielectric material and outer coverings of cables. Cross-Sectional Area: The sum of the cross-sectional areas of the component wires. In determining wire sizes, the circular mil area of one of the strands is determined and multiplied by the total number of strands in the conductor. Dielectric: A medium or material which, when placed between conductors at different potentials, permits only a small or negligible current to flow through it.

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The term dielectric is almost synonymous with electrical insulation, which can be considered the applied dielectric. Dielectric Constant: That property of a dielectric which determines the electrostatic energy stored per unit volume for unit potential gradient. Usually a numerical value given relative to a vacuum. This value is an indication of losses in the cable during operation. Higher values indicate higher losses. Dielectric Strength: The ability of an insulating material to resist rupture by electrical potential. The maximum voltage which a dielectric can withstand for a short time without breakdown or rupture. Usually expressed as volts per mil. Direction of Lay: The lateral direction in which strands or the elements of a cable run over the top of the cable as they recede from the observer. It is expressed as right- or left-hand lay. Drain Wire: A bare conductor, usually in a metallic shielded instrument cable, used to connect the shield to ground. Extrusion: A process consisting of flowing plastic insulation material through forming dies, and subsequently cooling the insulation material in a homogeneous solid cylinder around the wire. Flex Life: The resistance of a conductor to fatigue failure when bent repeatedly. Insulation: A nonconducting material used to prevent leakage of current from a conductor and to isolate a conductor from other conductors, conducting parts, or from ground. Jacket: A covering, (usually thermoplastic or thermosetting material, sometimes fabric reinforced), applied over the insulation, core, metallic sheath, and (sometimes) the armor of a cable. Mil: One-thousandth of an inch; used in the U.S.A. to measure wire or cable diameter. Operating Voltage: The voltage at which a cable is actually used. It is usually expressed in volts rms. Ozone: A form of oxygen produced by the passage of electrical discharges or sparks through air. It is detrimental to cable insulations and outer coverings. Rope-Lay Stranding: A method of stranding wire in which a conductor is comprised of a central core made of a group of wires that are either concentric or bunched-stranded, and surrounded by one or more helically-laid groups of wire, which are also stranded in the manner of the center core. This type of stranding differs from concentric stranding only in that the main strands are themselves stranded. This type of stranding offers the highest degree of flexibility. Serving: Wrapping applied over the core of a cable to hold it in a cylindrical configuration before it is jacketed or armored. The commonly used materials are filaments, fibers, yarn, and tape. The serving is for mechanical protection and not for insulating purposes.

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Sheath: An outside covering that protects a cable from mechanical injury or from the harmful effects of water, oils, acids, and chemicals. Shield: A conductive layer placed around an insulated conductor or group of conductors to prevent electrostatic or electromagnetic interference between the enclosed wires and external fields. This shield can be braided or served wires, foil wrap, foil backed tape, a metallic tube, or conductive vinyl or rubber. When a metallic braid of tinned or bare copper is applied over the insulated conductors, the shielding effectiveness is in direct proportion to the amount of coverage, usually expressed in percentage. Stranded Conductor: A conductor composed of a group of bare wires twisted together. Temperature Rating: The maximum temperature at which the insulating material may be used in continuous operation without degradation of its basic properties. Treeing: Treeing is a gradual deterioration of insulation developed under voltage stress. The name treeing is derived from the branched appearance of the deterioration channels on the affected insulation. Twisted Pair (or Triad): A twisted pair (or triad) cable is comprised of two (or three) insulated conductors twisted together and coded for easy circuit identification, made firm by filler material and finished with a common protective covering. This type of construction usually is employed for instrumentation and communication cables. Voltage Rating: The highest voltage that may be continuously applied to a wire or cable in conformance with ICEA Standards. Voltage rating is given as phase-tophase voltage.

1152 Abbreviations and Acronyms


A AC ANSI API AWG B&S CM CSP DC EMI EPR Ampere Alternating Current American National Standards Institute American Petroleum Institute American Society for Testing and Materials American Wire Gage Brown and Sharpe (Gage) Circular Mil Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene (Hypalon) Direct Current Electromagnetic Interference Ethylene Propylene Rubber

ASTM -

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ICEA IEEE ISA MC MCM MI MV NEC NFPA NRTL PCP PE PLTC PVC RFI RMS TC UL XLPE

Insulated Cable Engineers Association Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Instrument Society of America Metal Clad Thousands of Circular Mils (or kcmil) Mineral Insulated Medium Voltage National Electrical Code National Electrical Manufacturers Association National Fire Protection Association Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory Occupational Safety and Health Administration Polychloroprene (Neoprene) Polyethylene Power Limited Tray Cable Polyvinyl Chloride Radio Frequency Interference Root Mean Square Tray Cable Underwriters Laboratories Cross-Linked Polyethylene

NEMA -

OSHA -

1160 References
The following references are readily available. Those marked with an asterisk (*) are included in this manual or are available in other manuals.

1161 Model Specifications (MS)


*ELC-MS-2447 *ELC-MS-3551 *ELC-MS-3552 *ELC-MS-3553 5 kV and 15 kV Insulated Power Cable Instrument and Control Cable Single and Multi-pair (or Multitriad) Construction Twisted and Shielded Thermocouple Extension Cable Single and Multi-pair Construction 600 Volt Multi-conductor Control Cable

1162 Standard Drawings


There are no standard drawings in this section.

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1163 Data Sheets (DS), Data Guides (DG) and Engineering Forms (EF)
There are no data sheets, data guides or engineering forms with this section.

1164 Other References


American Petroleum Institute Practices (API)
API RP 14F, Design and Installation of Electrical Systems for Offshore Production Platforms API RP 540, Recommended Practice for Electrical Installations in Petroleum Processing Plants

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)


ASTM B1, Specification for Hard-Drawn Copper Wire ASTM B2, Specification for Medium-Hard-Drawn Copper Wire ASTM B3, Specification for Soft or Annealed Copper Wire ASTM B8, Specification for Concentric-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors, Hard, Medium-Hard, or Soft ASTM B33, Specification for Tinned Soft or Annealed Copper Wire for Electrical Purposes ASTM B172, Specification for Rope-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors Having Bunch-Strand Members, for Electrical Conductors ASTM B173, Specification for Rope-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors Having Concentric-Strand Members, for Electrical Conductors ASTM B174, Specification for Bunch-Stranded Copper Conductors for Electrical Conductors ASTM B189, Specification for Lead-Coated and Lead-Alloy-Coated Soft Copper Wire for Electrical Purposes ASTM B496, Specification for Compact-Round-Concentric-Lay-Stranded Copper Conductors

Association of Edison Illuminating Companies (AEIC)


AEIC CS5, Specifications for Thermoplastic and Cross-linked Polyethylene Insulated Shielded Power Cables Rated 5 Through 46 kV. AEIC CS6, Specifications for Ethylene Propylene Rubber Insulated Shielded Power Cables Rated 5 Through 69 kV.

Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE)


ANSI/IEEE, Standard 141, IEEE Recommended Practice for Electric Power Distribution for Industrial Plants.

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IEEE, Standard 135, IEEE Power Cable Ampacities ANSI/IEEE Standard 45, IEEE Recommended Practice for Electric Installations on Shipboard. ANSI/IEEE Standard 383, IEEE Standard for Type Test of Class IE Electric Cables, Field Splices, and Connections for Nuclear Power Generating Stations. IEEE Standard 1018, IEEE Recommended Practice for Specifying Electric Submersible Pump Cable, Ethylene-Propylene Rubber Insulation. IEEE Standard 1019, IEEE Recommended Practice for Specifying Electric Submersible Pump Cable, Polypropylene Insulation.

Instrument Society of America (ISA)


ASI/ISA RP 12.6, Installation of Intrinsically Safe Systems for Hazardous (Classified) Locations ANSI MC 96.1, Temperature Measurement Thermocouples

Insulated Cable Engineers Association (ICEA)


ICEA P-32-382, Short-Circuit Characteristics of Insulated Cable. ICEA P-45-482, Short-Circuit Performance of Metallic Shields and Sheaths of Insulated Cable. ICEA P-54-440, Ampacities-Cables in Open-Top Cable Trays. ICEA S-19-81, Rubber-Insulated Wire and Cable for the Transmission and Distribution of Electrical Energy. ICEA S-61-402, Thermoplastic-Insulated Wire and Cable for the Transmission and Distribution of Electrical Energy. ICEA S-65-375, Varnished-Cloth-Insulated Wire and Cable for the Transmission and Distribution of Electrical Energy. ICEA S-66-524, Cross-Linked-Thermosetting-Polyethylene-Insulated Wire and Cable for the Transmission and Distribution of Electrical Energy. ICEA S-68-516, Ethylene-Propylene-Rubber-Insulated Wire and Cable for the Transmission and Distribution of Electrical Energy. ICEA S-82-552, Instrumentation Cables and Thermocouple Wire.

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)


ANSI/NFPA 70, National Electrical Code

Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. (UL)


ANSI/UL 44, Rubber-Insulated Wires and Cables. ANSI/UL 62, Flexible Cord and Fixture Wire.

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ANSI/UL 83, Thermoplastic-Insulated Wires and Cables. ANSI/UL 1569, Metal-Clad Cables. ANSI/UL 1581, Reference Standard for Electrical Wires, Cables, and Flexible Cords. UL 13, Outline of Proposed Investigation of Power-Limited Circuit Cable. July 1978. ANSI/UL 1072, Medium-Voltage Power Cables. ANSI/UL 1277, Electrical Power and Control Tray Cables with Optional OpticalFiber Members.

Miscellaneous:
Beeman, Industrial Power Systems Handbook. Calculation of Voltage Drop. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1955. IADC-DCCS-1 Interim Guidelines for Industrial System DC Cable for Offshore Drilling Units.

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1200 Lighting
Abstract
This section provides technical and practical guidance for the design and selection of lighting systems. It defines and describes lighting, different types of light sources, factors to consider when selecting lamps and fixtures, and the design, layout, and maintenance of lighting systems. Design considerations including acceptable lighting levels for specific areas, economic factors, safety issues, and different methods for determining the number and layout (location) of fixtures are also discussed. Contents 1210 Introduction 1211 Section Guide 1220 Light Sources (Lamps) 1221 Incandescent Lamps 1222 Fluorescent Lamps 1223 High Intensity Discharge Lamps 1224 Lamp Designations 1230 Fixture Selection 1231 Area Classification 1232 Luminous Efficacy and Lumen Depreciation 1233 Color 1234 Cost 1235 Temperature 1236 Lamp Starting and Restarting 1237 Ballasts 1238 Fixture Materials 1239 Voltage Levels 1240 Lighting System Design 1200-21 1200-8 1200-3 Page 1200-3

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1241 Distribution of Light 1242 Lighting Methods 1243 Illumination Level 1244 Lighting Level Reduction 1245 Emergency Lighting Systems 1246 Company Experience with Lighting Systems 1250 Lighting Calculations and Fixture Layout 1251 Area Lighting 1252 Lumen Maintenance Factor (LMF) 1253 Watts-Per-Square Foot Method 1254 Iso-Footcandle Method 1255 Fixture Layout Using Iso-Footcandle Charts 1256 Fixture Layout Using Iso-Footcandle Tables 1260 Maintenance Considerations 1270 Glossary of Terms 1280 References 1281 Model Specifications (MS) 1282 Standard Drawings 1283 Data Sheets (DS), Data Guides (DG), and Engineering Forms (EF) 1284 Other References 1200-44 1200-45 1200-46 1200-25

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1210 Introduction
Good lighting systems provide two primary benefits in a facility: personnel safety and efficiency of operations. All decisions involving lighting system design and selection must take into consideration these two factors. This section contains information that provides guidance for selecting appropriate lighting systems. It also provides guidance for analyzing the efficiency of existing systems and for analyzing systems maintenance.

1211 Section Guide


The following guide directs the user to the appropriate sections. If unfamiliar with different types of lamps, Section 1220, Light Sources (Lamps) should be reviewed. General information is provided about incandescent, fluorescent, and different high intensity discharge (HID) lamps. HID lamp types include mercury vapor, metal halide, and high pressure sodium. This section is not intended to be used for the selection of lighting fixtures. Section 1230, Fixture Selection, should be used as a guide in selecting the type of fixture. Factors discussed that influence fixture selection are: area classification, color rendition, luminous efficacy and lumen depreciation, cost, temperature, and lamp starting and restarting time. Three other factors should be considered when specifying fixtures: ballast, fixture materials, and voltage level. Section 1240, Lighting System Design, reviews the many considerations involved in lighting design. These considerations include the type of light distribution, lighting methods, illumination levels, and emergency lighting systems. Many OPCOs have standardized particular fixtures. For these applications, the recommended illumination levels listed in API RP 540, Section 6, Electrical Installations in Petroleum Refineries, and API RP 14F, Design and Installation of Electrical Systems for Offshore Production Platforms, should be used to determine the necessary footcandle levels. Company experience is also outlined for many applications. Section 1250, Lighting Calculations and Fixture Layout, can be used to determine the number of fixtures and their layout. Topics discussed are: area lighting, lumen maintenance factor (LMF), and three computational methods, with two examples using the iso-footcandle method. Section 1260, Maintenance Considerations, discusses relamping, cleaning fixtures, and cleaning lighted surfaces.

1220 Light Sources (Lamps)


The primary purpose of an electrical light source is the conversion of electrical energy into visible light. The effectiveness with which a lamp accomplishes this is expressed in terms of lumens emitted per watt of power consumed, or luminous efficacy.

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For an idea of the relative luminous effectiveness of common light sources, consider that a 60-watt incandescent lamp (A-19 medium base soft-white) emits about 900 lumens in comparison to a 60-watt fluorescent lamp (cool white) which emits about 5600 lumens. This is roughly six times the lumens per watt of the incandescent lamp. In addition, the fluorescent lamp has a ten-times longer life than the incandescent lamp. To obtain the predicted long life of any lamp, it must be mounted according to the manufacturers instructions. Some lamps can only be mounted in a vertical position; others, only in a horizontal position. Some have a requirement for the base to be up, others for the base to be down. The most common types of light sources and their associated groups are shown below.
Type Incandescent Fluorescent Mercury Vapor Metal Halide High Pressure Sodium (HPS) Group Filament Fluorescent High Intensity Discharge High Intensity Discharge High Intensity Discharge

1221 Incandescent Lamps


The filament lamp produces light by heating a wire filament to incandescence, which generates energy in the form of light and heat. The most common filament material is tungsten. All filament lamps emit a large quantity of heat with generally less than 5% light energy emitted. Both the life and light output of an incandescent lamp are determined by the filament temperature. The higher the temperature for a given lamp, the shorter the life. However, the larger the diameter of the filament wire, the hotter the lamp can operate. This results in more light output, which in turn means higher efficacy. To illustrate this, consider that a 150-watt, 120-volt lamp produces approximately 34% more light than three 50-watt, 120-volt lamps. Incandescent lamps have a rated average life of about 1000 hours and radiate about 14 to 20 lumens per watt. Vibration and shock should be eliminated as they can greatly reduce lamp life. Incandescent lamps are available with virtually unbreakable shells and filaments where high vibration or rugged duty is required. As a general rule, incandescent lamps should be operated at rated voltage. Overvoltage operation produces higher wattage, higher efficacy, and higher light output, but results in a shorter life. Undervoltage, while increasing lamp life, causes a reduction in wattage, efficacy, and light output. A voltage as little as 5% below normal results in a loss of light of more than 16%, with a savings in wattage of only 8%. Since the lamp cost is almost always small compared with the cost of the power to operate the lamp, the increased lamp life which accompanies reduced voltage does not compensate for the loss in light output. Maintaining the proper voltage is an important factor in obtaining good performance from lamps and lighting installations.

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1222 Fluorescent Lamps


The fluorescent lamp contains mercury vapor at low pressure with a small amount of inert gas for starting. When voltage is applied, an arc discharge is produced by current flowing through the mercury vapor. The discharge generates ultraviolet radiation which excites the fluorescent powders on the inner wall of the lamp, which in turn emit light. Like most gas discharge lamps, fluorescent lamps must be operated in series with a ballast. The ballast produces the required voltage to start and operate the lamp and the required current to produce the desired light output. Fluorescent lamps have a rated average life of about 20,000 hours when operated for a minimum of 3 hours per start. The lamps radiate about 74 to 84 lumens per watt. The average lamp life for fluorescent lamps is affected by the number of on-off operations. A rule-of-thumb is that each lamp start reduces the average lamp life by 3 hours. This might imply that fluorescent lamps should be operated continuously during the day to save lamp life rather than being turned off when not in use to save energy. However, the light should be turned off to save energy because approximately 80% of the life-cycle cost of a fluorescent lamp is for electrical energy. The life of F40 and F30 lamps, operating on rapid start ballasts when burned 3 or more hours per start, is not appreciably affected by the number of starts. All burned-out lamps should be removed promptly to prevent the auxiliary equipment from overheating. Depreciation in light output of the fluorescent lamp is due chiefly to a gradual deterioration of the phosphor powders and a blackening of the inside of the tube. In the last hours of lamp life, a dense deposit develops at the end of the lamp where the electrode is deactivated. This effect is especially marked if the lamp is allowed to flash on and off before it is replaced. Low voltage, as well as high voltage, reduces efficiency and shortens fluorescent lamp life. This is in contrast with filament lamps, where low voltage reduces efficiency but prolongs life. Low voltage and low ambient temperatures may also cause starting difficulties with fluorescent luminaires. A large voltage dip or reduction in line voltage affects the stability of the arc. The reaction to a voltage dip depends on the lamp type and ballast characteristics. For 40-watt, T-12 lamps, the line voltage can drop to the values illustrated in the table below before the lamps will extinguish:
Type Preheat Rapid-start series-sequence Instant-start lead-lag Instant-start series-sequence Percent of Normal Voltage 75 80 60 50

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1223 High Intensity Discharge Lamps


High intensity discharge (HID) lamps that are commonly used include mercury vapor, metal halide, and high pressure sodium. The light producing element of these lamps is a stabilized arc discharge contained within an arc tube. Light is produced by the passage of an electric current through a vapor or gas rather than through a tungsten wire. The applied voltage ionizes the gas and permits current to flow between two electrodes located at opposite ends of the lamp. The electrons which comprise the current stream, or arc discharge, are accelerated to tremendous speeds. When they collide with the atoms of the gas or vapor, they temporarily alter the atomic structure, and light is produced from the energy generated as the atoms return to their normal state. Low pressure sodium lamps are not recommended because of very poor color rendition and high operating costs.

Mercury Vapor Lamps


Most mercury vapor (MV) lamps are constructed with two envelopes, an inner envelope (arc tube) which contains the arc, and an outer envelope which: (a) shields the arc tube from outside drafts and resulting changes in temperature; (b) usually contains an inert gas which prevents oxidation of internal parts; (c) provides an inner surface for a coating of phosphors; and (d) acts as a filter to remove certain wavelengths of arc radiation. A significant part of the energy radiated by the mercury arc is in the ultraviolet region. Through the use of phosphor coatings on the inside surface of the outer envelope, some of this ultraviolet energy is converted to visible light by the same mechanism employed in fluorescent lamps. Mercury lamps used in open-type fixtures can cause serious skin burn and eye inflammation from shortwave ultraviolet radiation if the outer envelope of the lamp is broken or punctured and the arc tube continues to operate. For this reason, nonenclosed fixtures should be specified with self-extinguishing lamps that will automatically extinguish if the outer envelope is broken or punctured. Self-extinguishing lamps cost about twice as much as standard lamps.

Metal Halide Lamps


Metal halide (MH) lamps are very similar in construction to mercury lamps. The major difference is that the metal halide arc tube contains various metal halides in addition to mercury and argon. Almost all varieties of available white-light metal halide lamps produce color rendering which is equal or superior to the presently available phosphor coated mercury lamps. Metal halide lamps are also available with phosphors applied to the outer envelopes to further modify the color. Most metal halide lamps require a higher open-circuit voltage to start than corresponding wattage mercury lamps. Therefore, they require specifically designed ballasts.

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Metal halide lamps are constructed of a glass envelope with an internal arc tube made of quartz. These arc tubes operate under high pressure (6 to 7 atmospheres) at a very high temperature (up to 900C). The arc tube may unexpectedly rupture due to internal causes or external factors, but most commonly ruptures when the lamp is operated beyond its rated life. If the arc tube ruptures, the glass envelope surrounding the arc tube can break, allowing particles of extremely hot quartz from the arc tube and glass fragments from the glass envelope to be discharged into the fixture enclosure and surrounding area. This circumstance creates a risk of personal injury or fire. Metal halide lamps should always be used in enclosed fixtures with lens/diffuser material which is able to contain fragments of hot quartz or glass. To reduce the potential hazard of ruptured arc tubes, use metal halide lamp manufacturers with proven lamps. Additional precautions to use to reduce the likelihood of arc tube rupture are: 1. Turn continuously operating lamps off once a month for at least 15 minutes. Lights which are close to the end of their design life likely will not restart. This procedure will reduce the chance of arc tube rupture caused by continuously operating lamps burning beyond the end of rated life. Relamp fixtures at or before the end of their rated life. Allowing lamps to operate beyond their design life increases the possibility of arc tube rupture.

2.

Like mercury vapor lamps, metal halide lamps can cause serious skin burn and eye inflammation from shortwave ultraviolet radiation if the outer envelope of the lamp is broken or punctured and the arc tube continues to operate. When using open-type fixtures, self-extinguishing lamps that automatically extinguish when the outer envelope is broken or punctured should be specified.

High Pressure Sodium Lamps


In a high pressure sodium (HPS) lamp, light is produced by electric current passing through sodium vapor. The arc tube contains xenon as a starting gas. Special ballasts are required which incorporate starting voltages in the range of 2250 to 4000 volts to strike the arc. These high strike voltages can result in high temperatures which could possibly create problems in classified areas. HPS lamps do not incorporate a starting electrode or heater coil as do mercury vapor and metal halide lamps. Arc tube rupture is not a problem with high pressure sodium lamps since the arc tube is made of ceramic material. Shortwave radiation is also not a concern with high pressure sodium lamps.

1224 Lamp Designations


Lamp designations follow a system authorized by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). All designations begin with a letter that identifies the type of HID lamp: H for mercury, M for metal halide, and S for high pressure sodium. This letter designation is followed by an ANSI assigned number which identifies the electrical characteristics of the lamp and, consequently, the ballast. After the number, two arbitrary letters identify the bulb size, shape, and finish, but do not

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identify the color. Additional letters are used by individual manufacturers for special designations.

1230 Fixture Selection


A thorough understanding of the purpose for a lighting system must be established before the various selection factors can be evaluated. Figure 1200-1 lists fixture types and typical applications in order of preference for locations that require maximum light output at the lowest possible operating cost. On offshore platforms where power is generated and the physical layout prevents full use of light output, mercury vapor fixtures are often preferred. They give better color rendition and have lower installed costs in situations where some of the light is lost due to shadows. When several possible fixture types have been chosen, a review of the features of each one can be made to complete the selection process.
Fig. 1200-1 Light Fixture Selection (1 of 2) Light Fixture Type Application Outdoor: Entrance Illumination Wall Illumination Ladder Illumination Emergency Lights Area Floodlighting Walkways Roadways Corridors Canopy Lighting Heliports Indoor: Small Store Rooms Exit Lights Stairways Bulkheads Emergency Lights Offices Control Rooms Living Areas 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 4 3 1 1 4 2 4 3 3 3 3 2 2 4 2 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 (with instant restrike) 1 1 1 1 Incandescent Fluorescent MV MH HPS

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Fig. 1200-1 Light Fixture Selection (2 of 2) Light Fixture Type Application Corridors Switchgear Buildings High Bay Area Lighting Warehouses
Notes:

Incandescent 2

Fluorescent 1 1 3 3

MV

MH

HPS

2 2

1 1

1. Number indicates order of preference, 1 being the most preferred. 2. See Section 1230, Fixture Selection, for discussion of limited-light applications and low-cost power usage.

1231 Area Classification


Area classification must be determined before selecting lighting fixtures. Refer to Section 300 of this manual for guidance in determining area classification and Section 340 for specific lighting fixture considerations. Refer to the area classification drawing of the facility in which the lighting fixture is to be installed to identify the proper area classification. The fixture temperature must not exceed the ignition temperature of flammable gases or vapors present. See Figure 1200-2 for temperature identification numbers and T-Ratings for typical fixtures.

1232 Luminous Efficacy and Lumen Depreciation


One of the two primary factors used in fixture selection is the luminous efficacy (lumens per watt) of the light source. The other primary factor is the initial cost of the fixture. For fixtures that have a long life, the luminous efficacy, which relates directly to the operating cost of the lamp, usually will govern the selection process. These factors usually do not govern fixture selection when shadows prevent full use of light output or when power is generated at very low cost (e.g., on offshore platforms). Lumen depreciation is a reduction in normal light output that is unique to each type of lamp. It is an important factor during the design and fixture layout process. For example, the light output of a mercury vapor lamp at the end of rated life will only be about 50% of its original light output. By comparison, the light output of high pressure sodium and fluorescent lamps at the end of rated life will be about 80% of their original light output.

Luminous Efficacy and Lumen Depreciation Summary


Figure 1200-3 and Figure 1200-4 summarize the luminous efficacy and lumen depreciation for different light sources.

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Fig. 1200-2 Technical Data: Temperature Identification Numbers of Typical Fixtures (Courtesy of Appleton Electric Company)

1233 Color
In some applications, color rendition is the dominant factor in fixture selection. For example, metal halide fixtures are typically used in the canopy area of service stations because of the pleasing visual effect of the light. Metal halide lamps use more energy per lumen output and have a shorter life than high pressure sodium lamps, but the visual attractiveness obtained by using metal halide lamps outweighs their added operating cost. Mixing high pressure sodium with metal halide or mercury vapor is not recommended because of the contrasting colors. Mixing luminaires becomes a problem when color rendition is importantfor example, for distinguishing colors, for reading, and when performing precision, task-oriented activities. Mixing luminaires also presents a maintenance problem during relamping, when time is lost locating the correct lamps.

Incandescent Filament Lamps


Incandescent light closely resembles natural sunlight, with good color rendition.

Fluorescent Lamps
The color produced by a fluorescent lamp depends upon the blend of phosphors used to coat the wall of the tube. There are different white and color spectrum

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Fig. 1200-3 Efficacies for Various Light Sources (from The IESNA Lighting Handbook Reference and Application, Ninth Edition. Courtesy of IESNA)

fluorescent lamps available with their own particular coloration. White lamps have good color rendering properties.

High Intensity Discharge (HID) Lamps


A discussion of the color aspects of HID lamps follows. Mercury Vapor (MV) Lamps. The color spectrum of clear mercury lamps is deficient in red and has a preponderance of blue and green. This results in marked distortion of object colors, and makes mercury vapor lamps undesirable when the appearance of colors is important. This deficiency can be overcome by using deluxe white (color-corrected) lamps in which fluorescent phosphor coatings are added to the lamps to improve color rendering. MV lamps have poorer color rendition than MH lamps, but better color rendition than HPS lamps. MV lamps are best used for general lighting (street, industrial, and flood-lighting) where color rendering is not extremely important or where the full output of an HPS lamp will not be utilized because of shadowing. Metal Halide (MH) Lamps. The color spectrum of clear metal halide lamps is equal to or superior to phosphor-coated mercury vapor lamps. Phosphor coatings can be added for better color. MH lamps are best used where color rendering is important and in general lighting where only a few fixtures are required. High Pressure Sodium (HPS). The color spectrum of high pressure sodium lamps consists of white light with a yellow-orange tone. HPS lamps are best used for

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Fig. 1200-4 Lumen Depreciation Factor (LDF) (from Philips Lighting Guide to High Intensity Discharge Lamps" Printed 8/91, publication # P-2685, pages 7, 12, and 16. Courtesy of the Philips Lighting Company.)

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general lighting of large areas where good color rendition is a secondary consideration.

1234 Cost
High pressure sodium lamps are usually the best economic choice for lighting large areas, primarily because of their low operating cost and long life. Such areas include: floodlighting, general area lighting, road way lighting, and warehouse lighting. Metal halide is the second most cost effective choice for outdoor lighting, followed by fluorescent. Mercury vapor fixtures should not be used in new installations due to poor luminous efficacy and high lumen depreciation (which results in high operating costs) except for specific locations as discussed below. In fact, it may be cost effective to retrofit existing mercury vapor installations with high pressure sodium lamps. At locations where power is purchased or generated at low cost and physical layout prevents full use of light output, metal halide or mercury vapor fixtures may be more cost effective. An economic evaluation should be performed. Fluorescent lamps are often the preferred choice for enclosed areas, especially for control rooms, office buildings, and laboratories with low ceiling clearance. High pressure sodium lamps are often preferred for warehouses and indoor process areas. Incandescent lamps should be used sparingly, and only for specialty applications (e.g., emergency lighting) or where lighting is used infrequently and the initial fixture cost is low compared to alternative lighting fixtures.

Fluorescent Lamps
Figure 1200-5 shows a cost analysis for energy-saving versus standard efficiency fluorescent lamps. This analysis indicates that energy-saving lamps should be specified even when the time value of money is as high as 20%. Energy-saving lamps are more cost effective because the average lamp life is long (almost 7 years) and energy represents more than 80% of the life cycle cost (LCC) of operating lamps.

High Intensity Discharge Lamps


Figure 1200-6 shows a cost analysis to light a 50,000 square foot area to an illumination level of 5 footcandles. The analysis is based on using Class I, Division 2 (UL-844) fixtures, with an energy cost of $0.08/KWH, and 4000 burning hours per year. For different costs of power and labor, ratio actual costs to the costs used in this example (e.g., $0.04/KWH/$0.08/KWH=$4,864.00 annual operating cost). The undiscounted life cycle cost (LCC) of using HPS lamps in this example is approximately $300,000. By comparison, the undiscounted LCC of MV lamps is more than $720,000. This cost does not consider the added cost of source equipment (transformers and panelboards) for the MV lamp option (with a connected load of 82 KW versus 30 KW for the HPS option). In addition, more conduit, wire, and lamp stanchions are required for the MV lamp option. The metal halide option is also a better choice economically than mercury vapor. Figure 1200-7 illustrates another example in which one HPS, MV, or MH fixture provides a maintained minimum illumination of 5 footcandles. In this example, the

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Fig. 1200-5 Cost Analysis: Comparison of Fluorescent LampsEnergy Savers vs. Standard Lamps F40CW Standard Number of Luminaires Required Initial Lumens Per Lamp Estimated Lamp Life (Hrs) Average Lamp Replacements/yr Lamp Net Cost After Discount ($/lamp) Lamp Input (watts/lamp) Total Connect Load (W) Relamp Labor/lamp @$50/hr Annual Operating Cost ($) Relamp Cost: Lamps Relamp Cost: Labor Energy Cost Total Annual Operating Cost 20 Year Operating Cost ($) Relamp Cost: Lamps Relamp Cost: Labor Energy Cost Total 20 Year Operating Cost 20 Year Life Cycle Cost ($discounted) 8% Discount Rate 10% Discount Rate 12% Discount Rate 20% Discount Rate 110.81 96.08 84.30 54.96 97.38 84.44 74.08 48.30 3.72 30.00 192.00 225.72 5.16 30.00 163.20 198.36 0.19 1.50 9.60 11.29 0.26 1.50 8.16 9.92 1.00 3,150.00 20,000 0.15 1.24 40.00 40 10.00 F40 Energy Saver 1.00 2,775.00 20,000 0.15 1.72 34.00 30 10.00

MV option has the lowest initial cost and the lowest LCC even when the time value of money is over 20%. Figure 1200-8 demonstrates a retrofit example in which MV lamps are presently in use. An initial investment of approximately $96,000 will be required to retrofit to HPS or $104,000 to retrofit to MH. Based on a 10-year LCC, the option to retrofit with HPS yields a savings even when the time value of money is as high as 12%. Retrofitting with MH is not a cost effective option. This also is true when using a 20-year LCC. However, when the cost of energy is below $0.05/KWH, it is not cost effective to change out the MV lights. An economic analysis should be performed for each possible situation.

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Fig. 1200-6 Cost Analysis: High Intensity Discharge Fixtures High Intensity Discharge Fixtures Basis: 50,000 Sq Ft Area; Illuminated to 5 fc 4,000 Burning Hrs Per Yr; Energy Cost = $0.08/Kwh Area Class: Class I, Division 2, Group D 150 W HPS Number of Luminaires Required Initial Lumens Per Lamp Lumen Maintenance Factor Total Lumens Estimated Lamp Life (hrs) Avgerage Lamp Replacements/yr Lamp Net Cost ($) Luminaire Input (watts/fixture) Total Connected Load (kw) Fixture Cost ($) Installation Labor/Fixture @ $50/hr Relamp Labor/Lamp @ $50/hr Initial Installation Cost ($) Fixture Cost Labor Cost Total Initial Cost Annual Operating Cost ($) Relamp Cost: Lamps Relamp Cost: Labor Energy Cost Total Annual Operating Cost 20 Year Operating Cost ($) Relamp Cost: Lamps Relamp Cost: Labor Energy Cost Total 20 Year Operating Cost 20 Year Life Cycle Cost ($undiscounted) 20 Year Life Cycle Cost ($discounted) 8% Discount Rate 10% Discount Rate 12% Discount Rate 20% Discount Rate 225,615 202,896 185,198 143,525 542,332 483,338 437,382 329,173 332,451 294,623 265,155 195,770 14,580 5,400 194,560 214,540 294,540 19,040 11,900 525,504 556,444 720,664 46,400 16,000 294,400 356,800 446,800 729 270 9,728 10,729 952 595 26,275 27,822 2,320 800 14,720 17,840 56,000 24,000 80,000 110,670 53,550 164,220 60,000 30,000 90,000 160 16,000 0.60 1,536,000 24,000 27 27 190 30.40 350 150 10 175 W MV 357 8600 0.50 1,535,000 24,000 60 16 230 82.11 310 150 10 175 W MH 200 14,000 0.55 1,540,000 10,000 80 29 230 46.00 300 150 10

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Fig. 1200-7 Cost Analysis: High Intensity Discharge Fixtures High Intensity Discharge Fixtures Basis: Equal Number of Fixtures; Illumination Minimum to 5 fc; 4,000 Burning Hrs Per Yr; Energy Cost = $0.08/kwh; Area Class: Class I, Division 2, Group D 70 W HPS Number of Luminaires Required Initial Lumens Per Lamp Lumen Maintenance Factor Total Lumens Estimated Lamp Life (hours) Avgerage Lamp Replacements/yr Lamp Net Cost ($) Luminaire Input (watts/fixture) Total Connected Load (kw) Fixture Cost ($) Installation Labor/Fixture @ $50/hr Relamp Labor/Lamp @ $50/hr Initial Installation Cost ($) Fixture Cost Labor Cost Total Initial Cost Annual Operating Cost ($) Relamp Cost: Lamps Relamp Cost: Labor Energy Cost Total Annual Operating Cost 20 Year Operating Cost ($) Relamp Cost: Lamps Relamp Cost: Labor Energy Cost Total 20 Year Operating Cost 20 Year Life Cycle Cost ($undiscounted) 20 Year Life Cycle Cost ($discounted) 8% Discount Rate 10% Discount Rate 12% Discount Rate 20% Discount Rate 1,006 923 859 707 1,004 904 827 644 1,662 1,473 1,325 978 97 33 652 782 1,257 63 33 844 941 1,306 232 80 1,472 1,784 2,234 4.80 1.70 32.60 39.10 3.20 1.70 42.20 47.10 11.60 4.00 73.60 89.20 325 150 475 215 150 365 300 150 450 1 5800 0.60 3,480 24,000 0.17 29 102 0.10 325 150 10 100 W MV 1 4200 0.50 2,100 24,000 0.17 19 132 0.13 215 150 10 175 W MH 1 14,000 0.55 7,760 10,000 0.40 29 230 0.23 300 150 10

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Fig. 1200-8 Fixture Retrofit Cost Analysis Replace Existing Mercury Vapor (MV) Fixtures Basis: 50,000 Sq Ft Area; Illuminated to 5 fc 4,000 Burning Hrs Per Yr; Energy Cost = $0.08/kwh Area Class: Class I, Division 2, Group D Number of Luminaires Required Initial Lumens Per Lamp Lumen Maintenance Factor Total Lumens Estimated Lamp Life Avgerage Lamp Replacements/yr Lamp Net Cost ($) Luminaire Input (watts/fixture) Total Connected Load (kw) Fixture Cost ($) Installation Labor/Fixture @ $50/hr Relamp Labor/Lamp @ $50/hr Initial Installation Cost ($) Fixture Cost Engineering Installation Labor Cost Remove MV Fixtures ($50/fixture) Total Initial Cost Annual Operating Cost ($) Relamp Cost: Lamps Relamp Cost: Labor Energy Cost Total Annual Operating Cost 10 Year Operating Cost ($) Relamp Cost: Lamps Relamp Cost: Labor Energy Cost Total 10 Year Operating Cost 10 Year Life Cycle Cost ($undiscounted) 10 Year Life Cycle Cost ($discounted) 8% Discount Rate 10% Discount Rate 12% Discount Rate 20 Year Life Cycle Cost ($discounted) 8% Discount Rate 10% Discount Rate 12% Discount Rate 14% Discount Rate 150 W HPS 160 16,000 0.60 1,536,000 24,000 27 27 190 30.40 350 150 10 56,000 6,000 24,000 9,850 95,850 729 270 9,728 10,727 7,290 2,700 97,280 107,270 203,120 167,746 161,686 156,390 201,048 187,070 175,882 166,814 175 W MV 357 8,600 0.50 1,535,000 24,000 60 16 230 82.11 0 0 10 0 0 0 0 0 952 595 26,275 27,822 9,520 5,950 262,752 278,222 278,222 186,689 170,955 157,201 273,162 236,866 207,816 184,270 175 W MH 200 14,000 0.55 1,540,000 10,000 80 29 230 46.00 300 150 10 60,000 6,000 30,000 7,850 103,850 2,320 800 14,720 17,840 23,200 8,000 147,200 178,400 282,250 223,557 213,469 204,649 279,005 255,731 237,104 222,006

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1235 Temperature
Temperature can affect the installation and operation of light sources in many ways. Ambient temperatures can affect the lumen output of some fixtures. Self-generated heat in excess of that which is designed to be dissipated by the fixture can damage the ballast, lamp, base, and fixture. Ballast life is very sensitive to high ambient temperatures. For high ambient temperature areas, it may be more cost effective to use fixtures with remote-mounted ballasts, even though the initial costs for fixtures with integral ballasts may be lower. Fixtures must be mounted according to manufacturers recommendations to correctly dissipate heat.

Incandescent Filament Lamps


Operation of lamps under conditions which cause excessive bulb and base temperatures may result in softening of the base cement and loosening of the base. In extreme cases, the fixture and adjacent wiring can be damaged. Care should be taken to ensure that the correct wattage lamps are installed in fixtures. Most fixtures are designed to dissipate a specific quantity of heat generated by the lamps. Overvoltage conditions or the use of lamps of higher wattage than the manufacturers rating can cause slight or severe damage. The use of incorrect wattage lamps may also affect light distribution by fixtures since the focal point will not be correct for reflectors.

Fluorescent Lamps
Temperature is an important factor in the performance of fluorescent lamps. The temperature of the bulb wall has a substantial effect on the amount of ultraviolet light generated by the arc; therefore, light output is significantly affected by the temperature and movement of the surrounding air. For maximum efficiency, bulb wall temperatures should be within a range of 100 to 120F. Light output decreases about 1 percent for each 1-degree drop in bulb temperature below 100F, and decreases a like amount for each 2-degree rise between 120 to 200F. When fluorescent lamps with P ballasts are installed, fixtures must be able to dissipate the heat which is generated. Insulation around the fixture, or a fixture installed in a high ambient temperature area, can cause the ballast protection to cut in and out, turning the lamp off and on unpredictably. Low temperatures may also cause starting difficulty. This normally is not a problem with indoor applications, but can become a significant problem outdoors. For outdoor applications, fluorescent lamps designed for outdoor use are recommended because of their high lumen output. In order to maintain high output in cold climates, the lamps must be enclosed. Enclosing the lamps shifts the peak output to a lower ambient temperature. When using lamps in cold weather without a surrounding enclosure, best results will be obtained from T10J lamps specifically designed for use in low air temperatures.

High Intensity Discharge Lamps


The lumen output of the enclosed arc-tube type lamp is not significantly affected by ambient temperature. However, to insure immediate starting at low temperatures,

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many HID lamps require a ballast which has a higher open-circuit voltage than that of a standard ballast designed for a temperature-controlled environment. Because HID lamps have a long life, operating temperatures are particularly important. The effect of heat is partly a function of time, and the longer the life of the lamp, the greater the possibility of damage from high temperature. Excessive bulb and base temperatures may cause the following conditions: lamp failure, unsatisfactory performance due to softening of the glass, damage to the arc tube from moisture being driven out of the outer envelope, softening of the basing cement or solder, or corrosion of the base, socket, or lead-in wires. The use of any reflecting equipment that might concentrate heat and light rays on either the inner arc tube or the outer envelope should be avoided.

1236 Lamp Starting and Restarting


Lamp starting and restarting can be an important consideration if there is a significant time delay before light output can be achieved. This factor can be important in remote locations, or in an industrial setting where an unsafe condition may exist after a power dip if light is not restored immediately. Of all luminaires, metal halide lamps take the longest time to restart and reach full power output after a power failure.

Incandescent Lamps
Incandescent lamps achieve immediate light output upon starting and restarting.

Fluorescent Lamps
Fluorescent lamps should be equipped with rapid-start ballasts which provide immediate starting and restarting characteristics.

High Intensity Discharge (HID) Lamps


All HID lamps need time to reach full output and stable color. If the arc is extinguished after this warm-up, the lamp will not relight until it is cooled sufficiently to lower the vapor pressure of the gases to a point where the arc will restrike with the available voltage. Some ballasts can be equipped with a restart circuit that will provide sufficient starting voltage to overcome the higher vapor pressure of the gases. Ballasts equipped with restart circuits provide full light output immediately upon restoration of power. Battery-powered emergency lighting systems may be required for outages which are longer than momentary outages. Epoxy encapsulated ballasts should be considered for high humidity areas and corrosive environments. The epoxy protects the ballast from possible contaminants.

Mercury Vapor (MV) Lamps


The time from initial starting to full light output at ordinary room temperature varies from 5 to 7 minutes. Restrike time (including cooling time until the lamp will restart) varies between 3 and 6 minutes.

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Mercury vapor lights with an auxiliary quartz lamp are available. The incandescent quartz lamp lights immediately when the circuit is restored. When the MV lamp attains 75% of its rated output, a current sensing relay turns the quartz lamp off. Quartz lamps operate at temperatures which are above those allowed for Class I, Division 1 or 2 areas.

Metal Halide (MH) Lamps


The warm-up time for MH lamps is slightly less than that of MV lamps, varying between 2 and 5 minutes. Since MH arc tubes operate at higher temperatures than MV lamps, the time to cool and lower the vapor pressure of the metal halide lamp is longer, varying between 10 and 20 minutes.

High Pressure Sodium (HPS) Lamps


The lamp warm-up time for HPS lamps is between 3 and 4 minutes, and full light output is reached in approximately 10 minutes. Because the operating pressure of a high pressure sodium lamp is lower than that of a mercury lamp, the restrike time is shorter, between 0.5 and 1 minute. Ninety percent of full light output is reached in 3 to 4 minutes. HPS lamps can be equipped with a special feature called Instant Restrike for convenience (or for use as emergency lighting) when uninterrupted illumination is required. With this feature, some light is available immediately. Light output reaches 30% of full output after 1/2 minute. Full light output is achieved in about 3 minutes.

Lamp Start and Restrike Summary


Figure 1200-9 summarizes the lamp starting and restrike times for the various HID light sources.
Fig. 1200-9 Lamp Start and Restrike Time (in Minutes) Type of Lamp MV Start Time Restrike Time 5-7 3-6 MH 2-5 10-20 HPS 3-4 0.5-1(1) Incandescent immediate immediate Fluorescent immediate immediate

(1) Also available with instant restrike.

1237 Ballasts
Fluorescent Lamps
The components of a typical rapid start ballast consist of a transformer-type core and coil, power capacitor, thermal protective device, and a potting compound (such as asphalt) containing a filler (such as silica). The average ballast life at a 50% duty cycle and proper operating temperature is about 12 years. In the United States and Canada, it is mandatory that all fluorescent lamp ballasts be thermally protected internally. The thermally protected Underwriters Laboratory approved ballast is marked or labeled as Class P. Ballasts should also be listed by

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the Certified Ballast Manufacturers Association (CBM). All CBM listed ballasts are also UL listed. CBM publishes sound ratings for ballasts.

High Intensity Discharge


The Constant Wattage Autotransformer CWA lead circuit ballast is the preferred choice for most HID installations. It consists of a high reactance autotransformer with a capacitor in series with the lamp. The capacitor allows the lamp to operate with better wattage stability if branch circuit voltage fluctuates. Other advantages of the CWA ballast are a high power factor, low-line extinguishing voltage, and lower line starting currents. Fixtures with ballasts other than CWA will require approximately 60% more starting current than operating current. The CWA features allow maximum loading on branch circuits and provide more cost-effective HID lighting systems.

1238 Fixture Materials


Fixture material may be an important consideration in the selection of lighting fixtures, especially in marine environments. Underwriters Laboratories Standard UL-595 covers marine-type electric light fixtures. Outdoor fixtures for use on shipboard or offshore platforms should be UL-595 listed.

1239 Voltage Levels


The voltage level of the electrical supply is discussed in Section 100, System Design. Incandescent and fluorescent fixtures normally are supplied with 120 volts. HID fixtures can be supplied at 120, 208, 240, 277, or 480 volts. Many locations have standardized a particular voltage level. This practice should be investigated before selecting fixtures. Many locations prefer 120 volts for all fixtures for safety considerations, easier phase balancing, and reduced inventories of fixtures and ballasts.

1240 Lighting System Design


Before the system design process can begin, the following design parameters must be determined: area classification, fixture selection, and voltage level. In addition, the following project design tasks must be completed: facility layout, mechanical equipment plans, structural plans, and emergency escape routes. The design of any lighting installation involves the consideration of many variables. These variables include: (1) lighting for detailed work, (2) flood lighting, (3) task-oriented lighting, and (4) emergency lighting. The lighting system should be designed to provide slightly more than the initial desired light to allow for lamp deterioration and dirt accumulation on the fixture lens (i.e., maintenance factor and luminaire depreciation factor). The lighting system should also be designed to provide the desired quantity of light at the particular location and in the proper visual plane. The amount of glare produced, the ease of installation and maintenance, and environmental suitability (e.g., indoors, outdoors, and hazardous locations) should all be considered during the design phase.

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1241 Distribution of Light


The distribution of light is divided into five classes: direct, semi-direct, generaldiffuse (or direct-indirect), semi-indirect, and indirect. Direct lighting provides 90 to 100% of its light downward, and while it often is most efficient, it usually results in glare. Semi-direct lighting provides 60 to 90% of its light downward, with a general decrease in glare and increase in seeing comfort. General-diffuse (direct-indirect) lighting systems provide approximately equal components of up-light and down-light. This system emits very little brightness in the direct-glare zone. The efficiency of the system depends largely on the reflectances of all the room surfaces. This system is widely used in laboratories and offices. Semi-indirect lighting provides 60 to 90% up-light and depends on light being reflected from the ceiling and walls. This type of lighting system is used when reflected glare from room surfaces must be minimized. Indirect lighting systems provide 90 to 100% up-light and produce the most comfortable light. However, they have the lowest utilization of the five classes and often are difficult to maintain. Indirect lighting is preferred for control rooms with CRT monitors.

1242 Lighting Methods


To provide the necessary quantity and quality of light for lighting system applications, three types of lighting are used. General lighting should provide overall, uniform lighting with special attention focused on the areas along walls. The lighting level at the wall should be comparable to that at the center of the room. An example of this is in the bunk areas of living quarters. Localized general lighting is used in areas where higher illumination levels are required. This often can be obtained by increasing the output of the general lighting system in the particular area. Supplementary luminaires are used to provide higher levels of illumination in small or restricted areas.

The illumination of vertical surfaces often requires special considerations to provide uniformity and, in those cases where the vertical surface is behind a transparent cover, to prevent reflected glare. Where vertical surfaces are adjacent to sources of high luminance, acceptable brightness ratios should be maintained to help avoid eye-strain caused by a large difference in brightness between the task area and the background.

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1243 Illumination Level


Company experience has shown that the lighting levels listed in API RP 540, Section 6, Electrical Installations in Petroleum Refineries, and API RP 14F, Design and Installation of Electrical Systems for Offshore Production Platforms, are adequate and are recommended for Company installations.

1244 Lighting Level Reduction


In the interest of energy conservation, lighting levels which exceed the standard recommendation should be reduced. Levels listed for office areas are based on the 1974 guidelines of the Federal Energy Administration. Persons with uncorrectable visual difficulties and those performing difficult visual tasks may require supplemental lighting. When supplemental lighting is provided in the form of desk or floor lamps, the lamps should be selected and placed so that minimum glare is introduced. Lighting level reductions often are made by removing fluorescent lamps from fixtures. Even if all lamps are removed from a fluorescent fixture, energy is still consumed by the ballasts. Certain considerations and precautions must be made when removing fluorescent lamps: 1. With the exception of Slim-Line (Instant-Start) lamps, all lamps connected to a given ballast should be removed. Removing only a portion of the lamps from a ballast can cause damage to the ballast from overheating. Most four-lamp fixtures operate from two ballasts, with two lamps on each ballast. Removing only one or three lamps from this type of fixture is not a safe practice. Either all four lamps should be removed or two lamps operating from the same ballast should be removed. UL rating and manufacturers warranties are normally invalidated if the above steps are not followed. There is one exception to this rule: any number of lamps can be removed from a Slim-Line (Instant-Start) fixture providing the fixture is equipped with circuit-interrupting lampholders as required by UL. If maintenance personnel are uncertain about the lampholder type, technical assistance should be obtained before lamps are removed. When lamps are removed from a fixture, a potential voltage remains at the sockets which could be dangerous. A suitable protective cap should be used or the sockets should be taped with high temperature tape. All maintenance personnel who are likely to be working on or cleaning these fixtures should be made aware of this potentially dangerous condition. As a general rule, the power factor in a given installation will not drop below 90% provided that no more than one-half of the lamps are removed. Disconnecting additional lamps lowers the power factor further, resulting in higher currents and possible utility charges for excessive use of reactive power. A ballast will continue to draw current after all lamps are removed (except for fixtures with circuit-interrupting lampholders), resulting in wasted energy and possible overheating of the ballast. For example, measurements taken on a fourlamp, 40 watts-per-lamp, Rapid-Start fixture show that each ballast uses 10

2.

3.

4.

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watts of power with all lamps removed. Therefore, if practical, and especially if the reduction in lighting level is to be permanent, the ballast should be disconnected from the power source.

1245 Emergency Lighting Systems


Emergency lighting is used during power failures and provides illumination by silhouetting objects. It should be provided in control rooms, at critical instrument locations, in large electrical substations, in mechanics shops, and in laboratories. Emergency systems are used to evacuate personnel, to provide light to shut down controls and equipment, and to maintain a level of illumination adequate for safety and security. It may also be required to illuminate equipment for plant startup following a power outage. Local, city, state, and federal codes may require emergency lighting for special areas where personnel work. Applicable codes should be reviewed carefully. The power source for emergency lighting systems should be separate from the normal electrical source. If the same power source is used for both normal and emergency lighting, a power outage would render the emergency lighting useless. Emergency lighting power sources include engine generator sets, UPS, and batteries. If normal power is lost, light should automatically be provided in areas where the loss of light might cause personnel hazard.

1246 Company Experience with Lighting Systems


Industrial Lighting
High pressure sodium lamps are preferred for most outdoor onshore lighting applications because of their lower initial capital investment and operating costs. MV or MH fixtures should be considered for offshore locations where power is locally generated (often at lower cost/KWH) and where obstructions may shadow areas (requiring more fixtures regardless of the individual fixture output). There are some applications where only a few fixtures are required or where color rendering is of primary importance. In these situations, metal halide or color-corrected mercury vapor fixtures may be preferred.

Service Station Lighting


Metal halide lighting is almost exclusively used for outdoor lighting at Chevron service stations. The better color rendering properties of metal halide help to maintain the Company image and improve sales. Normally, high pressure lighting is used for tank truck loading racks and warehouse lighting.

Roadway and Parking Lot


High pressure sodium lighting normally is preferred for roadways and parking lots.

Offshore Platforms
Mercury vapor and metal halide (and occasionally high pressure sodium) lamps are used for area lighting and lighting the interiors of large buildings. Fluorescent

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lighting is used indoors (and at times outdoors) for area lighting, particularly where low profile fixtures are needed because of low ceiling heights.

Control Room Lighting


Control rooms or other rooms equipped with CRTs should be designed with indirect lighting to reduce glare. Wall-mounted or suspended indirect fluorescent fixtures with adjustable light level controls are preferred. Fluorescent lighting with parabolic louvers (to reduce glare) can also be used for general lighting. Incandescent spot lighting can be used for task lighting. An effort should be made to prevent light penetration from other work spaces. All surfaces in control rooms should be nonreflective.

Aviation Lighting
Metal halide or color-corrected mercury vapor systems are preferred for most heliport lighting applications on offshore platforms because of their superior quality of light. Fluorescent fixtures may be required for low profile applications. Incandescent fixtures equipped with long-life lamps are used for landing lights.

1250 Lighting Calculations and Fixture Layout


The three most common methods used to determine the number of fixtures required to provide the necessary maintained illumination for an area are: the lumen method, the point-to-point method, and the iso-footcandle method. The watts-per-square foot method is used for estimating purposes very early in a project or during the conceptual phase of a project. Generally, the lumen method is used in calculations where fixtures are installed in an enclosed space (like a room). The point-to-point method is commonly used in calculations for outside applications where reflected light is not a factor. However, either method may be used for indoor or outdoor locations. The IES Handbook and the Westinghouse Lighting Handbook contain detailed, step-by-step processes for using these two methods. Most lighting design done by the Company is for exterior (outdoor) lighting, primarily for area lighting and floodlighting. This section explains two lighting-calculation methods: the watts-per-square foot method for conceptual design, and the isofootcandle method for general outdoor applications.

1251 Area Lighting


Area lighting for a particular operating company location should be standardized as much as possible. Designs should produce uniform and efficient lighting levels and facilitate cost-effective maintenance.

Floodlighting
The difference between floodlighting and area lighting is the aiming angle. The greater the aiming angle, the greater the area illuminated; however, light output directly beneath the fixture will be lower. Since the objective of floodlighting is to

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maintain only 1 to 2 footcandles at grade, the best method is usually to angle fixtures at 60 degrees from horizontal and install them at heights of about 25 feet. The area illuminated by floodlights can be varied by using different beam widths. This is particularly useful when the light must be directed to a specific area where an individual lighting fixture cannot be installed. Standard floodlight beam widths are specified by NEMA as follows: NEMA TYPE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 BEAM SPREAD (degrees) 10 - 18 18 - 29 29 - 46 46 - 70 70 - 100 100- 130 130 and up

Variables in Area Lighting


By understanding and properly addressing the variables discussed below, an effective lighting design can be achieved. 1. Fixture Reflector. The purpose for the reflector is to direct light down, as opposed to out. Figures 1200-10 and 1200-11 are iso-footcandle tables for fixtures with and without reflectors. Since the objective of area lighting is to provide light at grade level, reflectors should be used in most applications. Figure 1200-12 provides a conversion table for lamps other than high pressure sodium lamps. Mounting Height. Both Figures 1200-10 and 1200-11 demonstrate that the lower a fixture is mounted, the brighter the area directly below the fixture. However, as the fixture height is lowered, the amount of peripheral light decreases. When selecting mounting height, it should be kept in mind that the objective of area lights is to achieve a fairly high illumination level directly below fixtures, and that relatively low mounting heights facilitate maintenance. Angled Mounting. Angle stanchion mount fixtures are available to direct the light to one side so that fixtures need not be directly above the area to be illuminated. It is more efficient to mount a fixture directly above an area, but if this is not possible, angled mounts work well. Angled Reflector. Angled reflectors serve the same purpose as angled mounts. A good application for an angled reflector is for fixtures mounted adjacent to buildings. Since minimal light is needed on the side of the building, as much light as possible should be directed to the area needing illumination.

2.

3.

4.

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Fig. 1200-10 Footcandle TableTypical HPS Fixture, Standard Reflector, No Guard (See Figure 1200-12 to convert HPS footcandle values to MV or MH) Courtesy of EGS Electrical Group (formerly Appleton Electric)

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Fig. 1200-11 Footcandle TableTypical HPS Fixture, No Reflector, No Guard (See Figure 1200-12 to convert HPS footcandle values to MV or MH) Courtesy of EGS Electrical Group (formerly Appleton Electric)

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Fig. 1200-12 Conversion Table for HPS to MV or MH Courtesy of EGS Electrical Group (formerly Appleton Electric)

1252 Lumen Maintenance Factor (LMF)


As lamps age, lumen output deteriorates (lumen depreciation). Dirt depreciation is the lamp depreciation associated with dirt on the lamp, lens, and reflector. Together, lamp depreciation and dirt depreciation constitute the lumen maintenance factor (LMF). Figure 1200-13 provides the recommended lumen maintenance factors to apply to various types of fixtures.
Fig. 1200-13 Lumen Maintenance Factors (1 of 2) Type of Fixture Incandescent -Indoor -Outdoor Fluorescent -Indoor -Outdoor Mercury Vapor -Indoor -Outdoor High Pressure Sodium -Indoor 0.55 0.40 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.60 0.70 Lumen Maintenance Factor

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Fig. 1200-13 Lumen Maintenance Factors (2 of 2) Type of Fixture -Outdoor Metal Halide -Indoor -Outdoor 0.45 0.55 Lumen Maintenance Factor 0.60

For example, a 70-watt HPS fixture with a standard reflector and no guard, mounted 8-feet high, will provide 10 footcandles of initial illumination in a 5-foot radius. By applying the LMF of 0.6 for HPS fixtures, the illumination level design basis is 6 footcandles (10 x 0.6) near the end of rated life. If the minimum recommended illumination level is 12 footcandles, two 70-watt HPS fixtures spaced 5-feet apart would provide the required illumination.

1253 Watts-Per-Square Foot Method


The watts-per-square foot method works well to determine the appropriate number of lighting fixtures required and to estimate the total lighting loads for determining initial calculations during the conceptual phase of a project. To use this method, a six-step process is outlined below: Step 1. Determine the illumination level for the area(s) in question. Step 2. Determine the total square footage of the area to be illuminated from the preliminary plot plan. Step 3. Determine the type of lighting fixture to use from Figure 1200-1, Light Fixture Selection. Step 4. Determine the watts per square foot from Figure 1200-14. Step 5. Obtain the total wattage required by multiplying the watts per square foot (from Step 4) by the area to be illuminated (from Step 2). Step 6. Determine the total number of fixtures required by dividing the total wattage required (from Step 5) by the wattage of each lamp (from Step 3).

1254 Iso-Footcandle Method


The iso-footcandle lighting-calculation method works well for outdoor locations, but is not well suited for indoor applications. Figure 1200-15 shows an iso-footcandle chart for a 70-watt HPS fixture with a standard dome reflector mounted at an elevation of 8 feet. Iso-footcandle charts show lines of equal footcandles that will be produced by a specific fixture at a given height. These curves are created from photometric test data, and are representative of the lamps actual output. Iso-footcandle charts are useful as they can be superimposed on the design plot plan and relocated until satisfactory light levels are achieved. Iso-footcandle charts (IFCs)

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Fig. 1200-14 Chart for Determining Watts per Square Foot

may be hard to obtain for a specific fixture and often have to be scaled to match the plot plan. An alternative to the iso-footcandle chart is the iso-footcandle table, which is readily available from most fixture manufacturers. Using this data, isofootcandle levels can be placed on the plot plan. Sections 1255 and 1256 present two examples that illustrate the layout of lighting fixtures using the iso-footcandle method.

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1255 Fixture Layout Using Iso-Footcandle Charts


Figure 1200-16 shows a plot plan of a tank truck loading dock, including area classification. The facility consists of a pump pad, an elevated valve manifold platform, an MCC, walkways, and a parking lot. The first step for fixture layout is to determine the proper illumination levels for the various areas. The lighting levels listed in Figure 1200-17 were chosen from API RP 540, Section 6. High pressure sodium fixtures have been selected since they have the highest lumen efficacy and adequate color rendering. The first decision is whether to use floodlights or area lights. The pump pad and valve platform could be adequately lit with two floodlights. A better choice, however, is to use three or four area lights because a uniform light level over the entire area (including the two stairways) can be achieved. Logical locations for the area lights would be the perimeters of the pump pad and the valve platform. In particular, placing a luminaire on an 8-foot stanchion near each stairway would light both the platform and the stairs. The 8-foot height also provides ease of relamping. Using the lumen method, three 70-watt HPS lamps will provide adequate light for the pump pad and elevated platform. The next step is to use the detailed iso-footcandle method. An iso-footcandle chart (drawn to plot-plan scale) for a 70-watt HPS fixture mounted 8-feet high is shown in Figure 1200-18. The values are for initial footcandle levels. A lumen maintenance factor of 0.6 for HPS lamps (from Figure 1200-13) will reduce the radiated light shown on the chart by a factor of 0.6.

Pump Pad and Elevated Valve Platform


The iso-footcandle chart (drawn to the scale of the plot plan) is now located at the top of each stairway, and one more fixture is located to provide the three fixtures called for in the lumen method. Figure 1200-19 shows the iso-footcandle lighting level of the three fixtures. One more fixture is needed near the valve wheels on the tank-side of the platform to achieve a reasonably uniform 5 footcandles (including lumen maintenance factor) on the pump pad and valve platform.

Walkway
The walkway requires a minimum of 1 footcandle. An iso-footcandle chart (IFC) is superimposed on the plot plan to locate the fixtures along the walkway. Using 70watt HPS fixtures mounted at 8 feet, the result is one fixture, 15 feet from the valve platform, and two more at 25-foot intervals at the loading dock area. Figure 1200-20 shows the results.

MCC
Note that the walkway fixtures do not provide adequate light at the MCC where a minimum of 5 footcandles is required. Another fixture should be located to one side of the MCC. The location in Figure 1200-21 was chosen for two reasons: first, to light the face of the MCC at an angle from the side so an operator standing in front of the MCC will not receive any glare from glass-instrument faces; and second, to

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Fig. 1200-15 Iso-Footcandle Chart for Stanchion Mount Fixture Courtesy of EGS Electrical Group (formerly Appleton Electric)

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Fig. 1200-16 Plot Plan for Fixture Layout Using Iso-Footcandle Charts

Fig. 1200-17 Desired Lighting Levels for Areas in Figure 1200-16 Area Pump Pad Elevated Valve Platform Stairs Area of Loading Dock Paved Walkways Instruments and Gages Parking Area Lighting Level (footcandles) 5 5 5 10 1 5 1

provide some light on the guard posts to the side of the MCC so that a person walking from the MCC to the parking area will see the posts.

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Fig. 1200-18 Diagram of Iso-Footcandle Chart for 70 Watt HPS Plot-Plan Scale

Loading Dock
The illumination level on the loading dock needs to be much higher than other areas. By inspection, the 70-watt HPS will not provide adequate lumen output per fixture. In addition, the canopy above the loading rack is 15 feet above grade. By choosing a 100-watt HPS pendant-mounted fixture with a 4-foot pendant, plus the fixture length of 1 foot, the fixture height is 10 feet above grade. Figure 1200-22 shows the IFC drawn to scale for this fixture, superimposed on the plot plan. Two fixtures are located to provide the desired 10 footcandles in the loading area. The area of the overhang normally will be occupied by a tanker truck and will only receive partial lighting.

Parking Lot
The final area to be illuminated is the parking lot. Floodlights should be used for this application since the area is larger and light levels need not be uniform or high. A single, 150-watt HPS floodlight, mounted 20 feet above grade (as shown in Figure 1200-23) will provide the necessary lighting levels across the parking area and is high enough that so it will not blind people walking to the loading dock from the parking area.

1256 Fixture Layout Using Iso-Footcandle Tables


Iso-footcandle tables can also be used to determine fixture locations. Figure 1200-10 is an iso-footcandle table for a 70-watt HPS fixture with a reflector. The table indicates the amount of light at grade level from a light source mounted at a given height.

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Fig. 1200-19 Pump-Pad Platform Lighting Level

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Fig. 1200-20 Walkway Lighting Levels

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Fig. 1200-21 MCC Lighting Levels

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When using iso-footcandle tables, the best method to overlap light output from different sources must be determined in order to achieve desired light outputs. For instance, assume it is necessary to light a circle of 5-foot radius to 5 footcandles. One 70-watt HPS fixture with a reflector, mounted at 8 feet, will light a 5-foot radius circle to 6 footcandles (after a 60% maintenance factor is applied). See Figure 1200-24 (top). Therefore, one fixture will fulfill the requirement. Assume the area to illuminate is 10 feet by 20 feet. Two 70-watt HPS fixtures, spaced 15 feet apart, will do the job. When two fixtures are adjacent, the resulting footcandle level is the sum of the contributions from each fixture. For example, the sum of the contributions at the center of the 10-foot by 20-foot area is approximately 6 footcandles. See Figure 1200-24 (bottom). To illustrate the iso-footcandle table method, Figure 1200-25 shows a plot plan where two gasoline pumps are to be installed in an area adjacent to a pipeway. The area classification is shown by hashed marks representing a Class I, Division 2, Group D area. Two new walkways and a small parking lot are to be added. The only existing lights in the area are the streetlights on the road and the floodlights by the existing pump station. A lighting survey has shown that the existing illumination where the new facilities are to be installed is essentially zero. To determine the lighting levels in Figure 1200-25, refer to API 540, Section 6. High pressure sodium fixtures are used for this application since they have the lowest life-cycle cost and adequate color rendering for the application. To design the lighting system, divide the new area into four sections: (a) the parking lot, (b) the walkways, (c) the pumps, and (d) the pump manifold.

Parking Lot
A 250-watt, HPS widebeam floodlight, mounted at a height of 25 feet and aimed at 60 degrees, illuminates an oval shaped area 70 feet by 50 feet to approximately 1 footcandle. Because of the lumen maintenance factor, two floodlights will be required to adequately light the 75-foot by 65-foot parking lot to an illumination level of about 1 footcandle (2 x 1 fc x 0.6 = 1.2). Mounting both floodlights on a single pole (compared to two poles) in the middle of the right side of the parking lot will reduce costs. The fixtures are aimed at 60 degrees to the opposite corners of the parking lot. There may be shadow areas that may not achieve 1 footcandle, but most of the lot will be adequately illuminated. With most multiple floodlight designs, it is virtually impossible to avoid shadow areas and still achieve a cost-effective design. Lighting design pamphlets available from major lighting manufacturers can be used as guides.

Walkways
For standardization purposes, 70-watt HPS fixtures mounted at a height of 8 feet will be used throughout the facility. Standardization simplifies the design, construction, and maintenance of the facility. From Figure 1200-10, about 1 footcandle can be maintained (including the lumen maintenance factor) for a horizontal distance of

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Fig. 1200-22 Loading Dock Lighting Levels

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Fig. 1200-23 Parking Lot Lighting Levels

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Fig. 1200-24 Lighting Level at a Radius of 5 ft. Circle (top) and Lighting Level at Center of 10 ft. by 20 ft. Area (bottom)

12.5 feet. Fixtures will be separated by 25 feet. One fixture is installed on the paved walkway, 12.5 feet from the parking lot. Four more are installed along the walkway toward the new pumps, 25 feet apart. Along the 225 foot walkway towards the pump station, a fixture is installed 12.5 feet from the intersection of the two new walkways and eight more are installed along the walkway towards the pump station, 25 feet apart.

Pumps
Seventy-watt HPS fixtures spaced 12.5 feet apart (one per pump) will provide the required 5 footcandles of illumination.

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Fig. 1200-25 Iso-Footcandle Plot-Plan: Example Showing Iso-Footcandle Table Method

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Fig. 1200-26 Desired Lighting Levels for Iso-Footcandle Areas in Figure 1200-25 Area Pump Pad Pump Manifold/General Area Walkways Parking Lot Lighting Level (footcandles) 5 1 1 1

Manifold Area
The general area to be illuminated around the pump is approximately 50 feet by 50 feet. One 250-watt HPS floodlight on a 25-foot pole will sufficiently light the general area to approximately 1 footcandle and keep the fixture out of the classified area.

1260 Maintenance Considerations


If a regularly scheduled maintenance program is not followed, the effectiveness of a lighting system can be substantially reduced. Proper maintenance is usually more economical than allowing the system to operate at low efficiency. A good maintenance program involves: (1) replacing lamps, (2) cleaning fixtures, and (3) cleaning lighted surfaces.

Replacing Lamps (Relamping)


Two different approaches may be taken in relamping programs: (1) replace lamps as they extinguish, or (2) replace all lamps at one time (group replacement). The first approach, individual lamp replacement, is usually the least cost-effective method. The labor portion of the relamping program typically dominates the total cost. When the labor cost is not the largest portion of relamping cost, the first approach is the more economical (e.g., on offshore platforms.) A group replacement scheme can be developed for a given installation by considering the cost of labor and lamps, lamp life, and the effect of work interruptions. A commonly used criterion for group replacement is: When 20% of the original lamps have failed, the entire installation is relamped. This approach cannot be used if fixtures provide light for specific locations. The time between replacements may vary somewhat because of variations in system voltage and operating schedules. Overvoltage or undervoltage should be suspected if the replacement interval is several months shorter than normal.

Cleaning Fixtures
In some instances, dust and other foreign material on lighting equipment can reduce the lighting level by 30% in only a few months. The type of ventilation and cleanliness of the surrounding area determine the required cleaning intervals. It is important to clean fixtures regularly. If fixture cleaning is coordinated with group lamp replacement, maintenance costs usually can be kept to a minimum.

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Cleaning Lighted Surfaces


Cleaning interior lighted surfaces usually is an important maintenance factor. If an illumination survey indicates less than the design level illumination after lamp replacement and fixture cleaning, the lighted surfaces may need painting or cleaning. However, a check should be made first to insure that low voltage is not the problem.

1270 Glossary of Terms


Average Luminance: The average brightness of a luminary at a given angle, expressed in candles per square inch or footlamberts. Ballast: An electromagnetic device used to control starting and operating conditions of electric discharge lamps. Brightness: See luminance. Brightness Ratio: See luminance ratio. Candela: Unit of luminous intensity (preferred over the term candle). Candle: Unit of luminous intensity (candela is preferred). Candlepower: Luminous intensity expressed in candelas. Dekalux: 10 lux (0.929 footcandles.) Electric discharge lamp: A lamp in which light is produced by passing an arc current through a vapor or gas. Fixture: A full assembly of lamp, ballast (if necessary), socket, holder, diffuser, lens and guard. The term luminaire is used interchangeably with fixture. Footcandle: The unit of illumination used in the United States. It is equal to the illumination of a surface area of 1 square foot on which there is a uniformly distributed flux of 1 lumen. One footcandle equals 10.76 lux or 1.076 dekalux. Footlambert: The unit of luminance (brightness). Glare, Direct: Glare resulting from high brightness in the field of vision. Glare, Disability: Glare which reduces visibility and causes discomfort. Glare, Discomfort: Glare that produces discomfort, but does not necessarily reduce visibility. Illumination: The quantity of light (lumens) falling on a given surface area. Lumen: The unit of luminous flux. The amount of light flux radiated into a solid angle by a uniform light source. In practice, it is the unit of light output that lamp manufacturers identify on their specification sheets. Lumen maintenance: Data, usually given in graph form, showing the effect of age on the output of a lamp.

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Luminaire: A complete lighting unit which consists of a lamp with components to distribute light, the parts to protect and position the lamps, and the parts to connect the lamps to the power supply. Luminance: Brightness, the luminous intensity of a surface in a given direction, per unit of projected area of the surface. Luminance ratio: The ratio of brightness between any two areas in the field of vision. Luminous Efficacy: The ratio of luminous flux (lumens) output to electrical power (in watts) input for a lamp, expressed in lumens per watt. Luminous flux: The time rate of flow of light, expressed in total output of a light source in lumens. Lux: The International System Unit (SIU) of illumination, equal to the illumination on a surface area of 1 square meter on which there is a uniformly distributed flux of 1 lumen. One lux equals 0.0929 footcandles. Mounting height: The distance from the work plane to the center of the lamp. Reflectance: The fraction of the total luminous flux incident on a surface that is reflected. Work plane: The plane where the task under consideration is located and where the recommended illumination is required.

1280 References
The following references are readily available. Those marked with an asterisk (*) are included in this manual or are available in other manuals.

1281 Model Specifications (MS)


There are no specifications for this section.

1282 Standard Drawings


There are no standard drawings in this guideline.

1283 Data Sheets (DS), Data Guides (DG), and Engineering Forms (EF)
*ELC-EF-484 Lighting Schedule *ELC-EF-599 Lighting Standards, Flood Ltg. Fixtures & Mtg. Details *ELC-EF-600 Standard Lighting Poles, Fixtures, and Receptacle Mountings

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1284 Other References


American National Standard Practice for Industrial Lighting (ANSI/IES RP-7) American National Standards Practice of Office Lighting (ANSI/IES RP-1) *American Petroleum Institute RP 14F, Design and Installation of Electrical Systems for Offshore Production Platforms *American Petroleum Institute RP 540, Recommended Practice for Electrical Installations in Petroleum Processing Plants Code for Safety to Life from Fire in Buildings and Structures, ANSI/NFPA No. 101 Electrical Construction Guidelines for Offshore, Marshland, and Inland Locations, revised August 1988, CUSA Eastern Region Production Department ANSI/IEEE Std 45, IEEE Recommended Practice for Electric Installations on Shipboard IES Lighting Handbook, 1984 Reference Volume and 1987 Application Volume IES RP 12, Recommended Practice for Marine Lighting National Electric Code, ANSI/NFPA 70 U.S. Coast Guard Regulations, Federal Register Title 33, July 1, 1987, Pollution Prevention - Regulations for Marine Oil Transfer Facilities, Paragraph 154.570, Lighting, and Paragraph 155.79, Deck Lighting. Washington, DC Westinghouse Lighting Handbook, Revised May, 1978 (No longer published)

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1300 Auxiliary Power Systems


Abstract
This section describes auxiliary power systems in industrial plants and provides guidelines for specifying the most commonly used equipment for auxiliary power systems. It also lists and describes various disturbances and outages in power systems, their effects, and methods for managing them. Contents 1310 Introduction 1311 Scope 1320 Types of Disturbances and Outages 1321 Power System Disturbances 1322 Power System Outages 1330 Solving Power Problems 1331 Disturbance Problems 1332 Outage ProblemsEmergency and Standby Systems 1340 Equipment Used for Auxiliary Power Systems 1341 Common Equipment 1350 Power Conditioning Equipment 1351 Power Synthesizer 1352 Motor-Generators 1353 Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) 1354 Dual Feeds 1355 Summary 1360 References 1361 Model Specifications 1362 Standard Drawings 1363 Data Sheets (DS), Data Guides (DG), and Engineering Forms (EF) 1300-18 1300-16 1300-6 1300-5 1300-3 Page 1300-3

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1300 Auxiliary Power Systems

1310 Introduction
Generally, the most convenient and economical source of electric power is a local electric utility (commercial power). The quality and reliability of the power is, in most cases, adequate and acceptable. Some locations, notably offshore, are not served by local utilities. Certain types of equipment, facilities, plants, and processes require high quality electric power and reliability that cannot be met by commercial power. In these situations the most cost effective method of supplying power (at the required standards) must be determined. This may require adding power conditioning equipment, requesting the electric utility to install additional or parallel facilities, or installing an emergency or standby power system.

1311 Scope
This section identifies the common types of power deficiencies that can occur and outlines the steps that can be taken to minimize or eliminate their effect on operations. A full engineering analysis of all types of power conditioning equipment and emergency and standby power systems is beyond the scope of this section. However, a brief discussion of the various alternatives is presented. This section also provides descriptions and general guidelines for specifying and sizing equipment that is commonly used for auxiliary power systems.

1320 Types of Disturbances and Outages


This section provides a brief description of possible power system disturbances and outages.

1321 Power System Disturbances


Transient and Oscillatory Overvoltage
Voltage spikes may exceed 200 to 400% of rated rms voltage, with durations of 0.5 to 200 microseconds. They may be oscillatory up to 16.7 milliseconds at frequencies of 0.2 to 5 kHz and higher. Voltage spikes are caused by lightning, power network switching, and operation of large, on-site motor loads. Electric common-mode noise is an in-phase change in voltage that appears equally on each conductor to ground, and is caused by electromagnetic or electrostatic induction from the surroundings. Normal-mode noise is a change in voltage appearing differentially between conductors. It is caused by unequal electromagnetic or electrostatic induction between the conductors and their surroundings. The effects of transient and oscillatory over-voltages are generally limited to systems which include computers (e.g., microprocessors and process controls.) Oscillatory transients can cause damage to both hardware and software. The damage can result in errors, omissions, program upsets, and downtime. Conventional power, control, and instrumentation systems generally are not affected by oscillatory transients due to the relatively slow response time and the high BIL levels of the equipment.

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Momentary Under- or Over-voltage


Under- and over-voltage conditions are either below 80 to 85% or above 110% of rated rms voltage, respectively. They have durations of 4 to 60 cycles, depending on the type of power system and on-site distribution. They are caused by power system faults, large load changes (possibly seasonal), and power system equipment malfunctions. The effects of under- or over-voltage depend upon the length and severity of the voltage disturbances. At the lower end of the 4 to 60-cycle range, computer systems and some types of sensitive high speed instrumentation and control systems will be affected. The effects would be similar to those that occur in transient and oscillatory disturbances except that hardware damage seldom occurs. As the duration of the disturbance increases, more conventional types of power equipment are affected. Depending upon the severity of the under-voltage, relays and contactors may drop out, protective systems may initiate shutdowns, and control system readouts may go off scale. Generally, power utilization equipment is not affected by short duration disturbances. For instance, motors will continue to run (ride through), because of inherent inertia, with only a slight increase in slip (induction) or torque angle (synchronous). However, motors may stop because their starter contacts open due to low voltage. High-Intensity Discharge (HID) lighting (e.g., mercury vapor and high-pressure sodium), will extinguish if the voltage drops below certain levels. See Section 1200, Lighting, for additional details.

1322 Power System Outages


Momentary Outage
A momentary outage is a short-duration power failure caused by the opening of a protective device as a result of a transient fault or overload and restored by automatic reclosure of the protective device or automatic transfer to an alternate source. The timing of reclosure can range from 0.5 to 60 seconds. The first reclosure usually occurs in less than 10 seconds. Some circuit protective devices are set for three or four automatic reclosures before lockout. Automatic transfer can occur in a time as short as four milliseconds (1/4 cycle) if a static transfer switch is used. Automatic reclosure of utility system protective devices or automatic transfer to an alternate source is seldom fast enough to prevent shutdown of the supplied equipment when momentary outages occur. If the reclosure is too fast, many transient conditions will not clear, and a second momentary outage or a lockout will result. Depending on the facility, momentary outage problems can range from a minor annoyance to a serious hazard and financial loss. (Certain facilities may require planned orderly shutdowns to prevent equipment damage, loss of production, or product rejection.) Personnel safety should also be considered if HID lighting is involved (due to the restrike time).

Permanent Outage
A permanent outage is a complete, sustained power failure due to a protective device opening as a result of (1) a fault, (2) an electrical system equipment failure,

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or (3) incorrect operation of power system protective equipment. In all cases, power system operating personnel must respond before power can be restored. Outage time can range from a few minutes to days. The effects of permanent outages are much the same as momentary outages except that production losses may become more significant. Startups can be difficult and lengthy after a long shutdown. Personnel safety could also become a problem with a total blackout.

1330 Solving Power Problems


1331 Disturbance Problems
Solving power system disturbance problems is accomplished by evaluating the degree of power conditioning required. First, a study should be conducted to identify the extent and nature of the power problems. The study should begin with the installation of power disturbance recording equipment. Normal system instrumentation is generally not capable of recording high speed transients and oscillations. An analysis of the power source operating records is needed to develop a complete power profile of the system. The study should continue for a reasonable period of time to ensure that the nature and magnitude of the system disturbance problems are identified. Second, when the power profile of the system is complete, the cause of the system disturbances should be determined. (Keep in mind that the source of the disturbance could be at the power source or the facilitys distribution system.) Knowing the source of the disturbance is important to ensure that power conditioning equipment is installed at the most effective locations. The imperfections in available power, the necessity for continuous equipment operation, and the clean power requirements of the equipment define the extent of the power conditioning required to solve power disturbance problems. The various methods of power conditioning and their effectiveness are examined below.

1332 Outage ProblemsEmergency and Standby Systems


The effects of an outage may range from tolerable to completely unacceptable regardless of whether the outage is momentary or permanent. A careful study should be made to determine if an emergency or standby power system is necessary for personnel safety, process control, continuous equipment operation, or orderly plant shutdown. Emergency systems are characterized by continuous (or rapidly available) electric power of limited time duration which is supplied by a separate system. Emergency systems may be supplemented by standby power systems to increase the supply time.

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Standby power systems should have the following features: 1. 2. 3. An alternate source of electric power (separate from the normal power source). Starting and regulating controls (for on-site standby generation). Controls (manual or automatic) that transfer loads from the normal to standby or alternate source.

See Section 100, System Design, for details regarding whether an emergency and/or a standby system is required.

1340 Equipment Used for Auxiliary Power Systems


Once it has been established that an emergency or standby power system is required, a study should be conducted to determine the proper system and hardware needs. The following questions should be answered before a decision is made. 1. What are the power requirements? Is highly reliable and/or high quality power required for process controls or computers, or is commercial quality power acceptable? Is power required for only a short length of time for an orderly shutdown, or must power be provided until normal power is restored to prevent equipment or personnel hazards or financial losses? Must power be available under no-break conditions or are momentary outages acceptable? What frequency of outages are acceptable? Can several facilities be supplied from a single alternate source? Can the provider of normal power (the utility) improve the reliability of its service? If so, at what cost? (Utilities usually charge customers for the cost of facilities that use power in excess of what is normally required for standard service). Customers may also be charged amortization and/or standby costs for additional equipment. What is the outage history of the normal source (quantity and duration of outages)? Is the quality of service improving or deteriorating? Is the utility matching load growth with new plants, or must old plants carry a greater burden?

2.

3. 4. 5.

6.

1341 Common Equipment


In most industrial plants, an auxiliary power system independent of the utility power source is needed to provide uninterrupted emergency or standby power. See Section 100, System Design for further information. The four most common systems used in industrial plants as auxiliary power are: 1. 2. Generators Storage Battery Systems

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3. 4.

Uninterruptible Power Supplies Unit Equipment (primarily for emergency lighting systems)

For more information, see IEEE Std 446, Recommended Practice for Emergency and Standby Systems for Industrial and Commercial Applications.

Generators
Engine-Generators. Diesel engine-generators (as shown in Figure 1300-1) are commonly used in industrial plants to provide emergency or standby power. Diesel generators are available in sizes up to several MW. Properly designed engine-generators can start and accept full load in less than 10 seconds. The fuel cost is relatively low and fire and explosion hazards are less for a diesel engine-generator than for a gasoline engine-generator. Provisions must be made for automatic starting of the engine, automatic transfer of the load to the generator and fuel storage. For sizing generators, see Section 100, System Design.
Fig. 1300-1 Typical Diesel Engine-Driven Generator Permission granted by Caterpiller, Inc.

For standby service, the diesel engine-generator should be specified to conform to the following conditions, it must be capable of operating at 110% of nameplate kW rating for 1 hour in every 18 hours with the generator full-load rating not exceeding 60%-80% of the engines maximum continuous rating. Caution! The generator normal operating load should not be less than 50% of the diesel engine nameplate

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rating. Operation at less than 50% will cause carbon buildup in the engine and decrease reliability. Removable, thermostatically controlled, electric immersiontype crankcase oil and water jacket heaters should be specified for use in cold weather climates. Fuel will also need to be heated in cold climates. Naturally aspirated engines are preferred over turbocharged engines. Natural gas-fueled engines are used where natural gas or LP gas is readily available (such as on offshore platforms). They have a long life and are quick starting after extended shutdown periods. For details of natural gas engines, refer to the Driver Manual. Gasoline engine-generators may be appropriate for installations up to 100 kW but are not recommended for offshore and metropolitan applications. Other advantages of gasoline engine-generators are: Rapid startup Low initial cost High operating costs Gasoline is hazardous to store and handle Low mean time between overhauls

Steam Turbine-Driven Generators. Steam turbine drivers are an alternative to engine-driven generators where steam is available. Many refineries utilize steam turbine-driven standby generators. Some problems can be expected if these are used. Governors can be a source of trouble, causing the turbine to overspeed and trip on startup. Damage to turbines may occur because of wet steam if the steam trapping is not adequate. Both of these problems can become more serious in cold climates. The decision to use a steam turbine should be carefully considered. See the Driver Manual for information on selecting a steam turbine.

Storage Battery Systems


A storage battery system is the most dependable system for providing DC power for emergency or standby power for loads (e.g., communication equipment, emergency lighting systems, fire and gas detection systems, and switchgear control power). A storage battery system consists of rechargeable batteries and a battery charger. For sizing batteries and battery chargers see Section 100, System Design. Batteries and battery chargers for DC power supplies should be specified in accordance with the attached Specification, ELC-MS-4802 and DC Power Storage Battery System Data Sheet, ELC-DS-4802. The three types of batteries most commonly used are: 1. 2. 3. Lead-acid flooded cell batteries (lead-calcium and lead-antimony) Sealed, valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries Nickel-cadmium batteries

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Lead-Acid Flooded Cell Batteries. Lead-acid flooded (or wet) cell batteries use sulfuric acid and water as electrolyte and include lead-antimony and lead-calcium alloy plate designs. Detailed comparisons are shown in Figures 1300-2 and 1300-3.
Fig. 1300-2 Recommended Battery Type Location Controlled Temperature Environment Uncontrolled Temperature Environment Inside Office Area <100 Discharges (To Final End Voltage) Lead-calcium Nickel-cadmium Sealed Lead-calcium >100 Discharges (To Final End Voltage) Lead-antimony Nickel-cadmium Lead-antimony in Adjacent Battery Room

Fig. 1300-3 Comparative Features of Lead-calcium, Lead-antimony, Sealed VRLA and Nickel-cadmium Batteries (1 of 2) Lead-Acid Lead-calcium Gassing Gases on float/equalize Yes Yes 32-85F without freeze hazard or loss of life Yes, when discharged 2.0 10-25 WH/Lb Good Quarterly 100% Lead-antimony Gases on float/equalize Yes Yes 32-85F without freeze hazard or loss of life Yes, when discharged 2.0 Slightly less than lead-calcium Good Quarterly 105% Sealed VRLA Gases recombine inside battery No No 32-80F without freeze hazard or loss of life Yes, when discharged 2.0 Low end of leadcalcium Good Quarterly 140-200% Does not gas on float. Does gas on high rate No Yes -50-115F without freeze hazard or loss of life Only at -50F or below 1.2 20 WH/Lb Better than leadcalcium Quarterly 160-300% Nickel-cadmium

Corrosive Fumes Spillage Hazard Temperature Range

Freezing Problems Volts/Cell, Nominal Energy Density Mechanical Ruggedness Maintenance Requirements Relative Cost Based on 20-Year Battery Shelf Life When Filled and Not on Charge

6 mo.-1 yr.

6 mo.-1 yr.

6 mo.-1 yr.

Indefinite, very long

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Fig. 1300-3 Comparative Features of Lead-calcium, Lead-antimony, Sealed VRLA and Nickel-cadmium Batteries (2 of 2) Lead-Acid Lead-calcium Specific Gravity Changes to indicate state of charge Average 100 cycles to end of voltage Poor, severely reduces life Lead-antimony Changes to indicate state of charge Good, 500 cycles to end of voltage Poor, severely reduces life Sealed VRLA Changes (cannot monitor) Average 100 cycles to end of voltage Poor, severely reduces life Stays constant, does not indicate charge state Very good, 2000 or more in lifetime Very good, no damage on complete discharge Required, gases on high rate Yes, normally Use is low, mainly due to high cost Hazardous waste disposal 40+ years 20+ years Nickel-cadmium

Cycling Capability Ability to Withstand Complete Discharge Ventilation Requirements Special Room Required? Frequency of Use Disposal Years in Field Application Life to 80% Capacity with Minimum Cycling
Note

Required, gases on float/equalize Yes, normally Widely used Normal battery disposal 40+ years 15-20 years

Required, gases on float/equalize Yes, normally About 10-20% Normal battery disposal 75+ years 15-20 years

Not required under normal conditions Temperature controlled About 30-50% Normal battery disposal 8 years in U.S. 5-15 years (Depending upon design)

Additional comparative battery data is available in API RP-14F.

Lead-calcium batteries may be used for many applications. They have a longer shelf life and are less expensive than lead-antimony batteries. Both of these are less expensive than sealed VRLA and nickel-cadmium batteries. Lead-calcium batteries require fewer equalizing charges and charge more efficiently than lead-antimony batteries. However, lead-calcium batteries cannot tolerate discharge cycling as frequently as lead-antimony batteries. Lead-acid type batteries do not tolerate elevated temperatures and, therefore, are recommended only for use in temperature-controlled environments. The life of a lead-acid battery is reduced by 50% for each 15F above 77F. Lead-acid batteries require low voltage disconnects to prevent full discharge, from which they cannot be recharged economically. Lead-Acid Sealed Batteries. Sealed, valve-regulated lead acid (VRLA), leadcalcium batteries have a minimum amount of electrolyte which is absorbed in the absorbtive glass mat (AGM) separator material or contained in a gel. Gas is not emitted under normal usage, therefore, water normally does not need to be replaced.

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The advantages of sealed lead-calcium batteries are: No need to add water Can be installed without venting provisions Can be tilted without spilling electrolyte

The disadvantages of the sealed VRLA batteries are: More expensive than wet cell, lead-calcium batteries Same temperature degradation as other lead-acid cells Subject to thermal runaway due to overcharging and electrolyte dryout Same limited cycling as other lead-calcium cells Approximate 5-year life May vent on high overcharge rates

Nickel-Cadmium Batteries. Nickel-cadmium batteries are made with nickelcadmium plates in an electrolyte solution of potassium hydroxide and pure water. Except for standby switchgear control power applications, nickel-cadmium batteries are not frequently used in on-shore plant applications. Their initial cost is more than lead-acid batteries, but their cost per amphour, per year, may be less. More cells are required for a nickel-cadmium battery than for a lead-acid battery of the same voltage. The nominal nickel-cadmium cell voltage is 1.2 volts, compared to 2.0 volts for lead-acid batteries. In offshore platform operations, nickel-cadmium batteries are recommended for most applications (except for engine cranking service where lead-acid batteries are used). Nickel-cadmium batteries have a longer life, are more ruggedly constructed, and are more tolerant of elevated temperatures. They can be charged after a full discharge (common during platform evacuations), they can withstand ten times as many discharge cycles, and they require less maintenance. The nickel-cadmium cell also has a much lower self-discharge. As a result, if a nickel-cadmium battery is not discharged with an external load, it will remain charged for a longer time than a lead-acid battery. Nickel-cadmium batteries can tolerate much harsher temperatures than lead-acid batteries. Nickel-cadmium batteries can operate more efficiently at much lower temperatures than lead-acid batteries. The life of a nickel-cadmium battery is minimally affected by temperatures up to 115F. Pocket plate, as opposed to sintered plate, cells should be specified. Sintered plate cells are subject to thermal runaway. Battery Chargers. A battery charger converts AC voltage into a regulated DC voltage. Battery chargers are selected to deliver a float charge to maintain a battery at full charge and will restore it from a discharged state to a fully charged state within a specified period of time. The charger keeps the battery fully charged at all times so that the battery will be available during failures of normal power. In this system, the battery does not supply load current unless the charger is overloaded or

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shut down. The special features that distinguish a battery charger from a conventional rectifier are: 1. 2. 3. 4. Close output voltage regulation over the full range of rated-output current and input voltage Current-limiting capacity (including discharged batteries) Automatic switching from a voltage-regulating mode to a current-regulating mode at preselected values of output current Stable output when connected to a fully charged or discharged battery

SCR type battery chargers are most commonly used. Charging methods. Several charging methods are available. The choice of method depends primarily on the service intended for the battery system. The most common charging methods are: 1. 2. 3. Float Trickle Equalizing

Float charging. Float charging is a condition where the battery is permanently connected to a constant potential charging device from which the battery receives its charge, and delivers energy on demand. This method is used for uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems. Trickle charging. Trickle charging is continuous, constant current charging at a low rate. Trickle charging, at a rate which is several times the rate of self-discharge, is used primarily for emergency and standby systems. Equalizing charging. Because of minor differences among individual cells in leadacid batteries, not all cells in a multi-cell battery display identical current efficiencies in charge and discharge. As a result, the state of charge of the cells becomes unbalanced when charged by constant potential methods. Therefore, batteries are periodically overcharged with an equalizing charge commonly consisting of a 110% constant current charging for a period of approximately 25-30 hours (depending on the battery design and application).

Uninterruptible Power Supplies For AC Power


The primary function of an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is to provide critical loads with uninterrupted clean, and stable AC power. (Clean and stable is defined as having minimal harmonic distortion and being free of transients and voltage swings.) For sizing UPS systems see Sections 124, 134, and 135 in System Design. UPS systems utilize standby storage batteries to provide clean AC power for a limited time during power outages. If power is not restored, the UPS will shut down when the batteries are nearly discharged. The UPS may provide power for critical

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systems to allow orderly shutdowns and to provide for personnel safety. The typical UPS system is solid state, contains a battery charger, storage batteries, a static inverter, and a static transfer switch. The battery is sized to provide the system standby time requirements (typically 15 minutes to 4 hours). UPS systems should be specified in accordance with Specification ELC-MS-2643, Solid State AC Uninterruptible Power Supply, and Data Sheet, ELC-DS-2643. Under normal operation, the AC power supplies the rectifier and the battery charger which provides DC input power to the static inverter and charges the battery. The inverter supplies power to the AC load through a transformer, if required. Because this is the normal mode of operation, any power disturbance that may occur in the incoming AC line will not be transmitted to the AC load. With this system, the AC output of the inverter can, therefore, be of better quality than the normal AC power source. If the UPS fails or is overloaded, it will be bypassed automatically through a static transfer switch to the internal bypass circuit. If a fault occurs on a downstream branch circuit that exceeds the inverters capability (normally about 150% of rated current), the output will be transferred from the inverter to an AC bypass through a static transfer switch. The transfer is necessary as the inverter is normally incapable of supplying the energy necessary to clear a fault. Upon sensing a fault, the SCRs in the static transfer switch will begin conducting in 1/2 cycle. For a period of 2-1/2 to 6 cycles, the UPS inverter output and the bypass will be in parallel, supplying fault current. After 6 cycles, the inverter-output circuit breaker opens and fault current is supplied by the bypass. Since most short circuits are ground faults and most UPS branch circuits are protected by circuit breakers, the short circuit condition will persist for about 3 - 10 cycles. During the fault time period of between 0.05 to 0.2 seconds, all UPS branch circuits will be subject to the effects of the fault, notably a low voltage condition. The magnitude and location of the fault will determine the voltage drop on the system. The duration of the voltage drop depends upon the time the protective device takes to clear the fault. If branch circuits are protected by current limiting (CL) fuses and if the fault current is within the current limit range, a faulted branch will clear in less than one-half cycle. Voltage dip is minimized by the fast action of the CL fuse. (See Section 124 and 645 for more discussion on the UPS branch circuit protection.) A UPS inverter should be capable of supplying fault current for 1/2 cycle, the time necessary for a CL fuse to clear a fault and not transfer to the bypass. If a transfer has been made and the system has stabilized, an automatic retransfer to the inverter is advised. All manufacturers provide the automatic retransfer feature. A manual external bypass switch is recommended to allow switching the load to the AC line, which isolates the inverter and static switch for maintenance. The manual bypass switch should have make-before-break contacts to permit bypass of the load without any interruption. The UPS may consist of single (see Figure 1300-4) or multiple modules (see Figure 1300-5). It is recommended that the isolated redundant system with two sets

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of batteries be used for most systems where the process is critical and instrumentation cannot operate properly on utility power. This system is suitable for loads with dual power supplies. Each UPS is sized to carry the entire load and each UPS supplies an input to the dual power supply.
Fig. 1300-4 Non-Redundant UPS Configuration with External Maintenance Bypass

Although more expensive than a single system, the isolated redundant system is more reliable for providing power to instrumentation, and may be justified for critical processes where the instrumentation requires continuous higher quality power than that which is available from normal power. (See Figures 1300-4 and 1300-5.)

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Fig. 1300-5 Isolated Redundant with Individual Batteries and External Maintenance Bypass

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If a standby generator is provided, the UPS system should be connected to the standby bus to reduce the required capacity of the batteries.

Unit Equipment
Two types of unit equipment are available for emergency lighting: AC emergency lighting inverter units and self-contained individual emergency lighting units. In AC emergency lighting inverter units, utility power is fed directly to the lighting load via a transformer and a static switch. The inverter is normally off and the batteries charged. When utility power fails, a high speed circuit detects the failure and simultaneously turns on the inverter (battery powered) and disconnects the utility input with the static switch. When utility power is restored, the static switch simultaneously turns off the inverter and transfers the lighting load back to the utility source without interruption of power to the load. AC inverter units are used primarily for providing emergency lighting power when there are no standby generators for emergency power or when standby high intensity discharge lamps are used in the emergency lighting system. High intensity discharge lamps that have been illuminated will extinguish with power interruptions, and will not relight for 10 minutes or more (if not provided with instant restrike). See Section 1200, Lighting. AC Emergency Lighting Inverter Units (ACELIU) cost less than UPS systems but do not provide the same quality of power. However, they do provide continuous power upon failure of utility power. They can be used for emergency lighting and other loads (such as P.A. systems) which do not require high quality power. Completely self-contained individual emergency lighting units are also available. These units usually contain the following: a trickle charger, an inverter, a battery (normally nickel-cadmium), a solid state switch, an indicator lamp, and a test switch. They are used for emergency exit signs and emergency lighting fixtures. These units are used where economics do not justify a central supply system such as that described above. They typically supply emergency light for up to 1-1/2 hours.

1350 Power Conditioning Equipment


The following methods should be considered to modify and improve incoming power waveforms by clipping, filtering, isolating, increasing, or decreasing the voltage before delivering power to the equipment. Isolation transformers can prevent power system noise from disturbing sensitive equipment. They should be installed as close to the protected equipment as possible. The isolation transformer will reduce common-mode noise and electromagnetic interference (EMI). It does not provide protection from normal-mode transients, regulate line voltages, or reduce distortion. Transformer taps allow higher or lower output voltage levels to be set. The transformer should have the capability to sufficiently attenuate electrical noise. An electrostatically shielded isolation transformer is very effective in reducing common-mode noise.

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For protecting computer-controlled data processing systems, pre-engineered power systems should be considered. They contain the following isolation and distribution equipment: (1) an isolation transformer with an electrostatic shield and voltage adjustment taps, (2) a main circuit breaker with a shunt trip feature, (3) a circuit breaker panel, and (4) an insulated, shielded flexible conduit with appropriate wiring and receptacles for the equipment to be serviced. The system is portable, and can be placed close to the system being protected, and provides power that is almost free of spikes and transient disturbances. Transient-voltage surge suppressors are devices (usually solid state) that reduce transient disturbances (spikes) on supply lines to sensitive equipment without reducing line voltage below its steady state value. Surge suppressors clip high voltage spikes and transients. They do not provide protection from noise, voltage sags, long-term high voltage, or voltage spikes that do not exceed the clamping limits. To ensure better voltage regulation, feeders should be designed with the impedance as low as possible to minimize voltage drops, and the electrical loads should be balanced on the phases. For an existing system, an alternative is to install a line-voltage regulator. A linevoltage regulator maintains steady state voltage within desired operating limits and permits reduction of transient voltage disturbances of short duration. The inherent limitations of a typical regulator allow short-term variations to be transmitted to the load and offer no protection from waveform distortion. The following power conditioning methods offer the most dependable means of delivering power without spikes, noise, and voltage fluctuations by creating a new, completely isolated power output waveform.

1351 Power Synthesizer


An AC magnetic power synthesizer uses pulse transformers, inductors, and capacitors to create the desired AC output waveform. The system is virtually maintenance free and will maintain power during a loss of input power for one cycle.

1352 Motor-Generators
Motor-generators are one of the oldest methods for providing high quality power. These are often used where 400 Hz power is required. A motor draws power from the utility line to drive an alternator, which in turn supplies power to the equipment. The inertia stored in the rotor provides power for several cycles or longer after a loss of input power and helps maintain power during the transfer to a standby power source. Some motor-generators are equipped with a flywheel to increase the stored inertia. The disadvantages of motor-generator sets include relatively complex starting mechanisms and control circuits, as well as possible variations in frequency.

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1353 Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS)


The UPS is the most expensive power conditioning system. It requires a large initial investment, considerable space (dependent to a large extent on battery back-up time), and maintenance costs can be high. See Section 1341 for more details.

1354 Dual Feeds


A third alternative for protection from momentary under or over voltage disturbances is dual feeders with a magnetic synthesizer. Two independent power sources are used in conjunction with a static switch (capable of switching in a nanosecond) and a magnetic synthesizer that will maintain power during the switching time to provide constant voltage power. Reliability is dependent on the available power sources.

1355 Summary
The alternatives for power conditioning range from circuit modifications to total isolation of sensitive equipment from the power system. The following table summarizes and compares the effectiveness of the more common methods of reducing power system disturbance problems. (See Figure 1300-6.) The above information is intended only as a brief summary of the various methods of power conditioning. Many variations and options are available within the various categories.

1360 References
The following references are readily available. Those with an asterisk (*) are included in this manual or are available in other manuals.

1361 Model Specifications


* ELC-MS-2643 * ELC-MS-4802 Solid State AC Uninterruptible Power Supply DC Power Battery Storage System

1362 Standard Drawings


* GF-P-99972 One Line Diagram 480V Emergency Power System

1363 Data Sheets (DS), Data Guides (DG), and Engineering Forms (EF)
* ELC-DS-2643 Solid State AC Uninterruptible Power Supply Data Sheets

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* ELC-DG-2643 * ELC-DS-4802 * ELC-DG-4802

Instructions for Solid State AC Uninterruptible Power Supply Data Sheet DC Power Storage Battery System Data Sheet Instructions for DC Power Storage Battery System Data Sheet

Fig. 1300-6 Comparison of Power Conditioning Methods Condition Method Balanced load on three-phase supply with improved grounding Surge suppressor, filters, and lightning arrestors combined Shielded isolation transformer Transient and Oscillatory Overvoltage Some improvement(1) Suppresses most voltage spikes Eliminates most source voltage spikes; does not eliminate loadgenerated spikes Eliminates some source voltage spikes; does not eliminate load generated spikes Eliminates all voltage spikes Momentary Under-voltage or Overvoltage Some improvement(1) No effect No effect

Line-voltage regulator

Some, depending on regulator response time Eliminates most, depends on capability to maintain generated power during voltage fluctuation Eliminates most, depends on capability to maintain generated power during voltage fluctuation Eliminates all under- and over-voltages, and spikes Eliminates most under- and overvoltage

Magnetic synthesizer

Motor-generator

Eliminates all voltage spikes

Uninterruptible power supply Dual feeders


Note

Eliminates all voltage spikes No effect

The above information is intended only as a brief summary of the various methods of power conditioning. Many variations and options are available within the various categories. Refer to the text for details.

(1) These improvements do not suppress disturbances but can make the load less sensitive to voltage disturbances.

1364 Other References


API RP 14F, Design and Installation of Electrical Systems for Offshore Production Platforms API RP 540, Recommended Practice for Electrical Installations in Petroleum Processing Plants ANSI/IEEE Standard 446, IEEE Recommended Practice for Emergency and Standby Power Systems for Industrial and Commercial Applications.

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ANSI/IEEE Standard 484, IEEE Recommended Practice for Installation Design and Installation of Large Lead Storage Batteries for Generating Stations and Substations. ANSI/IEEE Standard 485, IEEE Recommended Practice for Sizing Large Lead Storage Batteries for Generating Stations and Substations. IEEE, Diagnosing Power Quality Related Computer Problems, Transactions Industrial Applications ANSI/NFPA 70, National Electric Code ANSI/NFPA 101, Code for Safety to Life from Fire in Buildings and Structures. ANSI/UL924, Emergency Lighting and Power Equipment Linden, Handbook of Batteries and Fuel Cells, N.Y., McGraw-Hill, 1984.

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1400 Electrical Checkout, Commissioning, and Maintenance


Abstract
This section establishes requirements for the checkout and commissioning of newly installed or upgraded electrical systems. It discusses preventive maintenance of electrical systems and equipment. Inspection and Testing checklists are provided. Company equipment specifications and data sheets for factory check-out and testing of most equipment are also in this section. Contents 1410 General 1411 Scope 1412 Safety 1413 Documentation 1420 Testing Methods 1421 Visual Inspection 1422 Insulation Testing 1423 Insulating Liquid Testing 1424 Protective Device Testing 1425 Impedance and Resistance Measurements 1426 Infrared Inspection 1427 Transformer Fault-Gas Analysis 1428 Functional Testing 1429 Operational Testing 1430 Factory Testing 1440 System Check-Out and Commissioning 1400-9 1400-9 1400-4 Page 1400-3

Chevron Corporation

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September 1990

1400 Electrical Checkout, Commissioning, and Maintenance

Electrical Manual

1450 Maintenance 1460 References 1461 Model Specifications (MS) 1462 Standard Drawings 1463 Data Sheet (DS), Data Guide (DG) and Engineering Forms (EF) 1464 Other References

1400-10 1400-10

Note All figures reprinted from NFPA are reprinted with permission from NFPA 70B, Electrical Equipment Maintenance, Copyright 1987, National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, Mass. 02269. This reprinted material is not the complete and official position of NFPA on the referenced subject which is represented only by the standard in its entirety.

September 1990

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Chevron Corporation

Electrical Manual

1400 Electrical Checkout, Commissioning, and Maintenance

1410 General
Electrical equipment and systems are inspected and tested during the various phases of a facilitys life. Initially, factory acceptance tests should be conducted to ensure that equipment conforms with specifications and industry standards. Electrical systems should then be checked and commissioned as part of the construction and start-up phases of a project. Finally, operating facilities require ongoing maintenance, inspection and testing.

1411 Scope
This guideline discusses recommended methods for checking and testing electrical equipment and systems. Company specifications covering factory tests for different types of electrical equipment are referenced. Detailed references are also provided. For check out and commissioning of a complete electrical facility, use of Specification ELC-MS-4744, Electrical Systems Check-out and Commissioning, is recommended. This specification covers the inspection and testing requirements for newly installed or upgraded electrical systems. It is comprehensive and may be tailored to the users specific requirements. For guidance in developing an Electrical Preventive Maintenance (EPM) program, refer to NFPA 70B, Recommended Practice for Electrical Equipment Maintenance. This may be used in conjunction with facility operating experience for developing an EPM program.

1412 Safety
Many tests performed on electrical equipment involve the use of imposed high voltages and special test equipment. A comprehensive safety program should be in operation before testing electrical equipment or systems. Safety procedures must be designed to prevent injury to both test and non-test personnel, as well as ensure that damage to equipment and plant shutdowns do not occur. Only qualified personnel should be permitted to participate in any test program and only proper test equipment should be used.

1413 Documentation
Proper documentation of all inspections, tests, and maintenance performed is very important. During facility construction, field personnel need to follow the progress of check-out and commissioning activities so that system and plant start-ups may be scheduled in a timely manner. Test data must be recorded so that personnel may evaluate any problem areas that are detected at the time of the test or later. Also, comparison of test data throughout the life of equipment may be used to track deterioration and predict failures.

Chevron Corporation

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September 1990

1400 Electrical Checkout, Commissioning, and Maintenance

Electrical Manual

1420 Testing Methods


The following discusses the basic inspections and tests which are performed on most electrical facilities. Detailed information on these testing methods can be found in Chapter 18 of NFPA 70B, Recommended Practice for Electrical Equipment Maintenance.

1421 Visual Inspection


Visual inspection is critical. It includes comparing equipment and systems with design drawings, inspecting for foreign objects and contaminants, and checking for changes in appearance over time. Visual inspections should be performed during factory tests, facilities commissioning and plant maintenance.

1422 Insulation Testing


Insulation failure is the most common cause of failure of electrical equipment. Insulation may deteriorate due to aging, environmental factors, voltage stresses, or mechanical and thermal damage. Insulation is tested by placing a test potential across the insulation and comparing the readings to a reference standard.

DC Voltage (Potential) Testing


DC voltage testing is the most commonly used method for testing insulation. It is less stressful to the insulation than AC voltage testing, therefore, less potential for damage exists. Test equipment for DC voltage testing is smaller and more readily available than AC voltage testing equipment. Since DC insulation testing is easy to perform, it is the preferred method to gage insulation deterioration. Test data obtained from DC testing may be used to track insulation resistance over time. Insulation resistance or megohmeter testing is performed by applying 500 to 5,000 V DC across the insulation. An ohmmeter which reads directly in megohms is used as the potential source. Megohmeter testing is easy to perform and is used extensively during all phases of equipment testing, facility check-out and commissioning, and plant maintenance. Megohmeter readings may be charted and used to detect deterioration in insulation systems. Since temperature and humidity can affect the megohmeter readings, the changes in readings must be carefully analyzed before deciding the insulation has deteriorated. Insulation resistance values are affected by temperature and should be corrected to a base value for proper comparison. The temperature correction is made according to the equation R = K (1 + KV) as defined in ELC-MS-4744. One rule of thumb is that insulation resistance should be at least one megohm per 1,000 V of insulation rating, with a minimum of 1 megohm. Clean dry insulations will normally test higher than this value. The DC high potential test is performed by applying voltage acros