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NATIONAL UNIVERSITY JODHPUR
GUIDED BY: PROF. S.N.GARG (H.O.D OF MECHANICAL)
SUBMITTED BY:AMRUTIYA DHAVAL (4TH YEAR, 8TH SEM)
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING FACULTY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY JODHPUR NATIONAL UNIVERSITY JODHPUR (RAJ.)
It is indeed a pleasure for me to express my sincere gratitude to those who have always helped me throughout my seminar report work. I would like to thank my report guide PROF. S.N.GARG (H.O.D of mechanical engg.) who helped me selecting the report topic, understanding the subject, stimulating suggestions, encouragement and also for writing of this thesis. I am sincerely thankful for this valuable guidance and help to enhance my presentation skill.
I here certify that the seminar entitled ROTARY ENGINE AND ITS APPLICATION IN AUTOMOBILE being submitted by AMRUTIYA DHAVAL KUMAR M. in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Technology in Mechanical Engineering to the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Technology, Jodhpur National University, Jodhpur is a record of the candidates own work carried out by him under my supervision and guidance the matter embodied in the seminar has not been submitted by him for the award of any degree.
Date: Place: -JODHPUR
Prof. S.N.Garg H.O.D Mech. Engg. Faculty of E&T JNU,Jodhpur
INDEX Introduction of Rotary Engine History Principles of Rotary Engine The Parts of Rotary Engine Rotary Engine Assembly Material used Sealing Working Ignition Cooling system Different and challenges Fuel consumption and hydrogen emission Rotary engine geometry Different types of rotary engine Research paper Advantages Disadvantages Application Utilities Conclusion References
6 8 9 11 13 13 13 17 19 21 22 22 25 30 40 40 41 41 41 42
Compression (green). Figure 29 MN30 Mini-Rotary Engine Figure 30 Modified MN30 Rotor with Apex Seals Figure 31 CWRU Micro-Rotary Engine Left: Three.wafer Si mold Right: Molded SiC rotor Figure 32 CWRU Micro-Rotary Engine Housing 5 .] Figure 6 One of the two end pieces of a two-rotor Wankel engine Figure 7 The part of the rotor housing that holds the rotors Figure 8 The center piece contains another intake port for each rotor. Figure 26 Rotary Engine Operation Figure 27 Mini-Rotary Engine Test Bench Figure 28 Dynamometer calibration chart for 50 W Maxon brushless electric motor. Note the eccentric lobes. of rotary engine Figure 10 intake stage Figure 11 compression stage Figure 12 combustion stage Figure 13 Exhaust stage Figure 14 [The Wankel cycle: Intake (blue). Exhaust (yellow)] Figure C-1 cooling system and lubrication system Figure 15 Rotary Engine Nomenclature Figure 16 Nomenclature For Epitrochoid parametric equation Figure 17 successive phases in the execution of the otto cycle in the rotary engine Fiugre 18 minimum working fluid with flat-flanked rotary engine Figure 19 maximum working-fluid volume for a flat-flanked rotary engine Figure 20 Geometry of circular arc of rotor Figure 21 Exploded view of twin rotary engine Figure 22 Influence of flank rounding onclearance and compression ratio for an eccentricity ratio of 0. Comparison of energy densities between internal combustion engines and primary batteries. Figure 9 schematic fig.FIGURE LIST Figure 1 Rotary Engine Figure 2 Rotary Engine Figure 3 Rotar Figure 4 Housing Figure 5 [Output Shaft. Ignition (red).16 Figure 23 After top center pilot. dual injector configuration Figure 24 Stratified-Charge Rotary Engine performance Figure 25.
with the piston moving continually from one to the next. Fig. The engine was invented by German engineer Felix Wankel. lightweight engine.ROTARY ENGINE Introduction of rotary engine: The Rotary engine is a type of internal combustion engine which uses a rotor to convert pressure into a rotating motion instead of using reciprocating pistons. Felix Wankel) is sometimes called a Wankel engine. compression. This design delivers smooth high-rpm power from a compact. Because of its compact. Kreiskolbenmotor) in 1957. combustion and exhaust. the same volume of space (the cylinder) alternately does four different jobs . lightweight design. go-karts.intake. The first working prototype DKM 54 as 6 . where he first conceived his rotary engine in 1954 (DKM 54. but each one happens in its own part of the housing. Its four-stroke cycle is generally generated in a space between the inside of an oval-like epitrochoid-shaped housing and a roughly triangular rotor (hypotrochoid). NSU then subsequently licensed the concept to other companies across the globe. The rotary engine (originally conceived and developed by Dr. Wankel rotary engines have been installed in a variety of vehicles and devices such as automobiles and racing cars. He began its development in the early 1950s at NSU Motorenwerke AG (NSU) before completing a working. aircraft. who added more efforts and improvements in the 1950s and 1960s. Wankel began development of the engine at NSU (NSU Motorenwerke AG). In a piston engine. Drehkolbenmotor) and later the KKM 57 (the Wankel rotary engine. running prototype in 1957.1 Rotary Engine History: In 1951. personal water crafts and auxiliary power units. A rotary engine does these same four jobs. It's kind of like having a dedicated cylinder for each of the four jobs.
in 1959 under license from NSU. In 1971 and 1972 Arctic Cat produced snowmobiles powered by 303 cc Wankel rotary engines manufactured by Sachs in Germany. the most extensive automotive use of the Wankel engine has been by the Japanese company Mazda. Mazda introduced the RENESIS engine with the new RX-8. in the 1960s.S. Marine combat vehicles in the late 1980s. better airflow. as well as abortive attempts by General Motors and Mercedes-Benz to design Wankel-engine automobiles. Dr. and environmental friendliness than any other Mazda rotary engine in history. Mazda's first Wankel engined car was the 1967 Mazda Cosmo. allowing for larger overall ports. and because of the reliability resulting from their simplicity. designed a version that was capable of using a variety of fuels. Considerable effort went into designing rotary engines in the 1950s and 1960s. Citroën with the M35. the RE-5. Also in Britain Norton Motorcycles developed a Wankel rotary engine for motorcycles. which was included in their Commander and F1. for instance by NSU with their Ro 80 model. Curtiss-Wright pioneered minor improvements in the basic engine design. Rolls Royce Motor Car Division at Crewe. Cheshire. After occasional use in automobiles. which used a twinturbo three-rotor engine. FelixWankel 7 . 1957 at the NSU research and development department Versuchsabteilung TX.3 L displacement with better fuel economy. The design was proposed as the power source for several U. Suzuki also made a production motorcycle with a Wankel engine. reliability. In Britain. The RENESIS engine relocated the ports for exhaust and intake from the periphery of the rotary housing to the sides.S.. John Deere Inc. and further power gains. After years of development. They were of particular interest because they were smooth and quiet running. and GS Birotor using engines produced by Co motor. In the United States. The company normally used two-rotor designs. but received considerable attention with their 1991 Eunos Cosmo. In 2003. The RENESIS is capable of delivering 238 horsepower (177 kW) from its 1. in the U.running on February 1. pioneered a two stage diesel version of the Wankel engine.
each of the three volumes of gas alternately expands and contracts. Fig. This path keeps each of the three peaks of the rotor in contact with the housing. We'll be taking a look inside a rotary engine to check out the parts. In a rotary engine. compresses it and makes useful power as the gases expand. creating three separate volumes of gas. 8 . The connecting rods and crankshaft convert the reciprocating motion of the pistons into rotational motion that can be used to power a car. and then expels the exhaust. In a piston engine. As the rotor moves around the chamber. but first let's take a look at a new model car with an all-new rotary engine. It is this expansion and contraction that draws air and fuel into the engine. that pressure is contained in the cylinders and forces pistons to move back and forth. Principles of a Rotary Engine: Like a piston engine. the pressure of combustion is contained in a chamber formed by part of the housing and sealed in by one face of the triangular rotor. the rotary engine uses the pressure created when a combination of air and fuel is burned. 2 Rotary Engine The rotor follows a path that looks like something you'd create with a Spirograph. which is what the engine uses instead of pistons.
each of which acts like a piston. These teeth mate with a gear that is fixed to the housing. The Parts of a Rotary Engine: A rotary engine has an ignition system and a fuel-delivery system that are similar to the ones on piston engines. The RX-7. The Mazda RX-8 . If you've never seen the inside of a rotary engine. which went on sale in 1978. starting with the 1967 Cosmo Sport. 9 . There are also metal rings on each side of the rotor that seal to the sides of the combustion chamber. a new car from Mazda. but the rotary engine is set to make a comeback in the near future. award winning rotary engine called the RENESIS. This gear mating determines the path and direction the rotor takes through the housing. Rotor : The rotor has three convex faces. The last year the RX-7 was sold in the United States was 1995. Each face of the rotor has a pocket in it. be prepared for a surprise. allowing more space for air/fuel mixture. 1. trucks and even buses.Mazda RX-8: Mazda has been a pioneer in developing production cars that use rotary engines. has a new. because you won't recognize much. At the apex of each face is a metal blade that forms a seal to the outside of the combustion chamber. But it was preceded by a series of rotary-engine cars. was probably the most successful rotary-engine-powered car. Named International Engine of the Year 2003. The rotor has a set of internal gear teeth cut into the center of one side. this naturally aspirated two-rotor engine will produce about 250 horsepower. which increases the displacement of the engine.
3 Rotar 2. [Rotor] The four sections are: · Intake · Compression · Combustion · Exhaust The intake and exhaust ports are located in the housing. There are no valves in these ports. Each part of the housing is dedicated to one part of the combustion process. Housing : The housing is roughly oval in shape (it's actually an epitrochoid). and the intake port connects directly to the throttle.4 Housing 10 .The shape of the combustion chamber is designed so that the three tips of the rotor will always stay in contact with the wall of the chamber. The exhaust port connects directly to the exhaust. Fig. forming three sealed volumes of gas.Fig.
As the rotor follows its path around the housing. the force that the rotor applies to the lobes creates torque in the shaft. which helps the seals on the rotor do their job. They also seal in the two sections of housing that contain the rotors. meaning that they are offset from the centerline of the shaft. causing it to spin.3.5[Output Shaft. Since the lobes are mounted eccentric to the output shaft. it pushes on the lobes. The two end layers contain the seals and bearings for the output shaft. Shaft: The output shaft has round lobes mounted eccentrically. An intake port is located on each of these end pieces. Fig. Note the eccentric lobes.6 One of the two end pieces of a two-rotor Wankel engine 11 . Fig. Each rotor fits over one of these lobes.] Rotary Engine Assembly: A rotary engine is assembled in layers. Coolant flows through passageways surrounding all of the pieces. The inside surfaces of these pieces are very smooth. The lobe acts sort of like the crankshaft in a piston engine. The two-rotor engine we took apart has five main layers that are held together by a ring of long bolts.
which contains the exhaust ports. one for each rotor. This is the part of the housing that contains the rotor Fig. 12 . so its outside surfaces are very smooth.8 The center piece contains another intake port for each rotor.) The center piece contains two intake ports. Fig.7 The part of the rotor housing that holds the rotors (Note the exhaust port location.The next layer in from the outside is the oval-shaped rotor housing. It also separates the two rotors.
leading to high local temperatures and unequal thermal expansion. Wankel rotor housings are constantly heated on one side and cooled on the other. While this places high demands on the materials used. minimizing the distortion. This is what determines the orbit of the rotor. Materials used: Wankel engine is constructed with an iron rotor within a housing made of aluminum. which has greater thermal expansion. quite evident on higher mileage engines. with the hot water from the hot bow heating the cold bow. The rotor also rides on the large circular lobe on the output shaft. with different coolant circulation patterns and housing wall thicknesses. Also.In the center of each rotor is a large internal gear that rides around a smaller gear that is fixed to the housing of the engine. This thermal distortion also causes uneven wear between the apex seal and the rotor housing. Unlike a piston engine. Sealing : Early engine designs had a high incidence of sealing loss. the simplicity of the Wankel makes it easier to use alternative materials like exotic alloys and ceramics. jamming the engine and requiring a partial rebuild. Further sealing problems arise from the uneven thermal distribution within the housings causing distortion and loss of sealing and compression. the thermal expansion remains tolerable. in earlier model Wankel engines carbon particles could become trapped between the seal and the casing. where the cylinder is cooled by the incoming charge after being heated by combustion. With water cooling in a radial or axial flow direction. of rotary engine 13 . Modern Wankel engines have not had these problems for many years. both between the rotor and the housing and also between the various pieces making up the housing. Attempts have been made to normalize the temperature of the housings. Working: Fig.9 schematic fig.
which is the same cycle that four-stroke piston engines use. passes through the center of the rotor and is supported by bearings.  In the Wankel engine. but with the middle of each side a bit more flattened). one half power stroke per crankshaft rotation per cylinder). and the inside of housing. As the rotor rotates and orbitally revolves. The best way to visualize the action of the engine in the animation at left is to look not at the rotor itself. National agencies that tax automobiles according to displacement and regulatory bodies in automobile racing variously consider the Wankel engine to be equivalent to a four-stroke engine of 1. But in a rotary engine. Thus. The central drive shaft. a three-pointed curve of constant width. Wankel engines also generally have a much higher redline than a reciprocating engine of similar size since the strokes are completed with a rotary motion as opposed to a reciprocating engine which must use connecting rods and a crankshaft to convert reciprocating motion into rotary motion. i. which is roughly triangular. Rotary Engine Power: Rotary engines use the four-stroke combustion cycle. the oval-like epitrochoid-shaped housing surrounds a three-sided rotor (similar to a Reuleaux triangle. The shaft turns three times for each rotation of the rotor around the lobe and once for each orbital revolution around the eccentric shaft. this is accomplished in a completely different way. the four strokes of a typical Otto cycle occur in the space between a rotor. dividing it into three moving combustion chambers. The power vector of the combustion stage goes through the center of the offset lobe. each side of the rotor gets closer and farther from the wall of the housing. all repeating the same cycle. power output of a Wankel engine is generally higher than that of a four-stroke piston engine of similar engine displacement in a similar state of tune and higher than that of a four-stroke piston engine of similar physical dimensions and weight. While a four-stroke piston engine makes one combustion stroke per cylinder for every two rotations of the crankshaft (that is. The Wankel engine is actually a variable-volume progressing-cavity system. one power stroke per rotor orbital revolution and three power strokes per rotor rotation.e. 14 .The "A" marks one of the three apexes of the rotor. In the basic single-rotor Wankel engine. some racing regulatory agencies ban it altogether. The "B" marks the eccentric shaft and the white portion is the lobe of the eccentric shaft. but the cavity created between it and the housing. compressing and expanding the combustion chamber similarly to the strokes of a piston in a reciprocating engine. Seals at the corners of the rotor seal against the periphery of the housing.5 to 2 times the displacement. Thus there are 3 cavities per housing. each combustion chamber in the Wankel generates one combustion stroke per each driveshaft rotation. The rotor both rotates around an offset lobe (crank) on the E-shaft and makes orbital revolutions around the central shaft. also called an eccentric shaft or E-shaft. Fixed gears mounted on each side of the housing engage with ring gears attached to the rotor to ensure the proper orientation as the rotor moves.
the volume of that chamber is close to its minimum. 15 . turning three times for every one revolution of the rotor. As the rotor orbits inside the housing. that chamber is sealed off and compression begins. Intake: The intake phase of the cycle starts when the tip of the rotor passes the intake port. This lobe is offset from the centerline of the shaft and acts like the crank handle on a winch. the volume of the chamber expands. As the rotor moves through the housing. This is when combustion starts. This size change produces a pumping action. The rotor is mounted on a large circular lobe on the output shaft. Let's go through each of the four strokes of the engine looking at one face of the rotor. When the peak of the rotor passes the intake port. At the moment when the intake port is exposed to the chamber. the three chambers created by the rotor change size. the volume of the chamber is again close to its minimum. it pushes the lobe around in tight circles. the volume of the chamber gets smaller and the air/fuel mixture gets compressed. giving the rotor the leverage it needs to turn the output shaft.10 intake stage Compression: As the rotor continues motion around the housing. By the time the face of the rotor has made it around to the spark plugs. As the rotor moves past the intake port.The heart of a rotary engine is the rotor. Fig. This is roughly the equivalent of the pistons in a piston engine. drawing air/fuel mixture into the chamber.
By the time the volume of the chamber is nearing its minimum.in one complete revolution of the rotor. Fig. The combustion chamber is long. the chamber starts to contract. moving the rotor and creating power. As the rotor continues to move. there will be three combustion strokes. 16 . The neat thing about the rotary engine is that each of the three faces of the rotor is always working on one part of the cycle -. pressure quickly builds. which means that there is one combustion stroke for each revolution of the output shaft.12 combustion stage Exhaust: Once the peak of the rotor passes the exhaust port. forcing the remaining exhaust out of the port. the output shaft spins three times for every complete revolution of the rotor. But remember. until the peak of the rotor passes the exhaust port. the high-pressure combustion gases are free to flow out the exhaust. When the spark plugs ignite the air/fuel mixture. The pressure of combustion forces the rotor to move in the direction that makes the chamber grow in volume. The combustion gases continue to expand. forcing the rotor to move. the peak of the rotor passes the intake port and the whole cycle starts again.11 compression stage Combustion: Most rotary engines have two spark plugs. so the flame would spread too slowly if there were only one plug.Fig.
 17 .14 [The Wankel cycle: Intake (blue). only one set of spark plugs are needed per rotor housing.13 Exhaust stage Fig. The lower one is called the "leading" spark plug. So. Compression (green). Due to the complexities of combusting a long chamber. and so forth.Fig. Additionally. in short hand. Ignition (red). while the top one is called the "trailing" spark plug. Exhaust (yellow)] Ignition: Since the working chambers of each rotor fire in the same geographic location in the engine. two spark plugs are used in each housing . the Trailing (top) plug on the front rotor housing is referred to as "T1". the front rotor housing is denoted as "1" and the rear rotor housing is denoted as "2". the Leading (lower) plug in the front rotor housing is referred to as "L1".
5° BTDC. Basically. both leading plugs always fire at the same time. the other trailing plug is already in the next working chamber. The trailing plugs cannot be fired in wastespark mode due to the location of the plug above the minor axis -. in degrees of eccentric shaft rotation Before or After those critical points. the leading plug fires a second time late in the power stroke.one for the leading plugs and two separate ones for the trailing plugs. Retarding the timing is the converse. The trailing plug typically fires 10 to 15 degrees later and effectively completes the combustion of the remaining air-fuel mixture above the minor axis of the trochoid housing. Relative measurements such as these are difficult to grasp at first. distributor-controlled. the leading plug fires first. It is also helpful to remember that each working chamber of a rotary engine has two Top Dead Centers (minimum chamber volume) and two Bottom Dead Centers (maximum chamber volume).when one trailing plug is firing. As you may have figured out. Further. but they make the most sense in application. rotary engines could get away with only two coils (one each for leading and trailing ignitions) due to the coil engery being redirected through the distributor to the appropriate trailing spark plug. starting the ignition of the air-fuel mixture and contributing most to the generation of power. for example. is based on degrees of eccentric shaft rotation. which simply means to increase degrees BTDC or BBDC. where it would preignite the incoming air-fuel mixture. The difference is that the rotor rotates at one third the forward rate of the eccentric shaft. crank angle sensor-controlled. TIMING COMMENTS Timing of the engine. so there is an extra (wasted) spark during the power stroke. The wastespark is done to simplify the ignition system by allowing both leading plugs to be fired "on the same channel" (one coil. 18 . one may refer to Advancing the timing. which is called a "wastespark". Additionally. rotary engines (starting with the 2nd generation RX-7) require three separate coils due to the direct-fire setup. Early. Later. so three degrees of eccentric shaft rotation translates to one degree of rotor rotation relative to the housing. means the event in question occurs 5° of eccentric shaft rotation Before the applicable Top Dead Center of a given working chamber. one signal) . rather than rotor rotation. or decrease degrees ATDC or ABDC. Timing is usually expressed relative to either TDC or BDC. there are three discrete ignition "channels" -. be it ignition or intake/exhaust porting.As the working chamber approaches Top Dead Center (TDC).
etc. volumetric displacement.g. and others. the fuel evaporation helps the engine's internal cooling.the introduction of an intercooler for the charge mixture in association with the CCR solution opens 19 .e. e. i. For these reasons we considered this solution representing the current full potential of the Wankel engine and we credited it with 100% rank (see Table 1). In the first case. COOLING SYSTEM FOR ROTOR: Table 1 suggests a classification of the Wankel type engines from the point of view of the cooling system employed for rotor and rotor bearing The best known concept to date is the oil cooled rotor (OCR) which is usually associated with a liquid cooling system of engine housings. The engine performance is even lower when the CCR solution is coupled with an air cooling system for the engine housings. engine rated speed.. rotor housing. the CCR system offers only 80% of the maximum obtainable power when compared to the OCR system applied to the same basic engine design. rotor bearing and eccentric shaft and to the diminished volumetric efficiency as a result of heat transfer from the above mentioned engine parts to the fresh charge mixture. Some CCR engines are using the fresh charge mixture to cool the eccentric shaft and rotor bearing. port arrangement. Combined with a liquid cooling system for the engine housing. Table 1 is far from being exhaustive. This was the original solution developed by NSU/Wankel. and was successfully applied in production type engines by Mazda. the charge cooled rotor (CCR) offers significant manufacturing cost reduction and added simplicity by eliminating the oil cooling system. front housing and rear housing. This method is usually employed when gasoline (mixed with oil) or natural gas are used as fuel. For example. John Deere. Poor performance of the CCR type engine is due to the higher temperature of the rotor. For light duty applications.
there are a few Wankel engines which are using the bleed air to cool the rotor and the rotor bearing.fig. Also. C-1 cooling system and lubrication system another branch of the classification tree. This combination again extends the classification related to the rotor and rotor bearing cooling system. 20 .
including pistons. etc. By eliminating the oil cooling system with an oil pump. the LCCR engine demonstrates a decisive advantage by exactly controlling its internal temperatures. an oil sump and especially the oil sealing system. 21 . only CCR rotary engines up to 650cc have been developed and produced successfully.Table 2 shows the influence of the rotor cooling design concept on estimated engine performance. total efficiency potential and production cost. The total efficiency of the CCR engines can equal that of the OCR engines due to the former's lower friction losses as long as the overheating phenomena can be controlled. timing gears and crankshaft. A two-rotor rotary engine has three main moving parts: the two rotors and the output shaft. rockers. connecting rods. Even the simplest four-cylinder piston engine has at least 40 moving parts. Fewer moving parts: The rotary engine has far fewer moving parts than a comparable four stroke piston engine. valve springs. To date. timing belt. valves. This is why some aircraft manufacturers (including the maker of Sky car) prefer rotary engines to piston engines. Overheating is especially worrisome at part load conditions. Differences and Challenges: There are several defining characteristics that differentiate a rotary engine from a typical piston engine. camshaft. The evaluation was limited to the basic design concept discounting the influence of engine accessories such as intercoolers. a heat exchanger. a cost advantage of up to 30% can be achieved for a LCCR engine when compared with the OCR solution. The CCR solution offers an even better cost advantage but its concept is limited to the relatively small engines. in this respect. This minimization of moving parts can translate into better reliability from a rotary engine.
with the remaining unburned hydrocarbons released into the exhaust. This approach allowed Mazda to eliminate overlap between intake and exhaust port openings.15 Rotary Engine Nomenclature 22 . Slower: Since the rotors spin at one-third the speed of the output shaft. The exhaust ports. while simultaneously increasing exhaust port area. thereby producing a clean exhaust at the cost of some extra fuel consumption. Rotary Engine Geometry Fig. Rotary engines are internally balanced with spinning counterweights that are phased to cancel out any vibrations. While manufacturers of piston-engine cars were turning to expensive catalytic converters to completely oxidize the unburned hydrocarbons. the main moving parts of the engine move slower than the parts in a piston engine. which in earlier Mazda rotaries were located in the rotor housings. Fuel consumption and hydrocarbon emissions : Just as the shape of the Wankel combustion chamber prevents preignition. in which combustion occurs during 180 degrees out of every two revolutions. each combustion event lasts through 270 degrees of the output shaft's rotation. This also helps with reliability. or only a quarter of each revolution of the crankshaft (the output shaft of a piston engine). This means that a single-rotor engine delivers power for three-quarters of each revolution of the output shaft. and the output shaft spins three revolutions for each revolution of the rotor. Compare this to a single-cylinder piston engine. The power delivery in a rotary engine is also smoother. rather than violently changing directions like the pistons in a conventional engine do. it also leads to incomplete combustion of the air-fuel charge. were moved to the sides of the combustion chamber. Mazda was able to avoid this cost by enriching the air/fuel mixture and increasing the amount of unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust to actually support complete combustion in a 'thermal reactor'(an enlarged open chamber in the exhaust manifold) without the need for a catalytic converter. Because each combustion event lasts through 90 degrees of the rotor's rotation.Smoother: All the parts in a rotary engine spin continuously in one direction.
Fig.17 successive phases in the execution of the otto cycle in the rotary engine 23 .16 Nomenclature For Epitrochoid parametric equation Fig.
This yields a single geometric parameter governing the equations. Equations (1) give the x and y coordinates defining the housing shape when is varied from 0 to 360 degrees. The motion of the rotor may now be understood in terms of the notation of Figure 16. Clearly.The major elements of the rotary engine. Note that the axes of the rotor and the eccentric coincide. A second circular cylinder. the eccentric. It will be seen that this parameter is critical to successful performance of the rotary engine. Thus the entire engine motion is related to the motion of these two lines. are shown in crosssection in Figure 15. known as the eccentricity ratio. e/R. as shown in Figures 15 and 17 (flank rounding and other refinements are discussed later in the chapter). The housing inner surface has a mathematical form known as a trochoid or epitrochoid. the positions of the tips are also given by equations of the form of Equations (1): x = e cos 3α + R cos(α+ 2nπ/3) [ ft | m] _ _ (2a) y = e sin 3α + R sin(α+ 2nπ) [ft | m] _ _ (2b) where n = 0. as seen in Figure 15. while the line labeled R is fixed to the rotor and turns with it through an angle α about the moving eccentric center. the rotor (and thus line R) rotates at one-third of the speed of the shaft. A single-rotor engine housing may be thought of as two parallel planes separated by a cylinder of epitrochoidal cross-section. The rotor shape may be thought of as an equilateral triangle. 24 . is rigidly attached to the shaft and is offset from the shaft axis by a distance. 1. and there are three shaft rotations for each rotor revolution. Gas forces exerted on the rotor are transmitted to the eccentric to provide the driving torque to the engine shaft and to the external load. The power from the engine is delivered to an external load by a cylindrical shaft. each separated by 120°. the eccentricity. For given values of e and R. The rotor slides on the eccentric. Following the notation of Figure 7.5. e. the parametric form of the epitrochoid is given by x = e cos 3α + R cosα [ft | m] _ _ _ (1a) y = e sin 3α+ R sinα [ft | m] _ _ (1b) where e is the eccentricity and R is the rotor center-to-tip distance. Because R represents the rotor center-to-tip distance. or 2. The line labeled e rotates with the shaft and eccentric through an angle 3α. The equations and Figure 17 indicate that the path of the rotor center is a circle of radius e. the motion of the center of the rotor can be obtained from Equations (2) by setting R = 0. the housing and the rotor. Note that Equations (1) and (2) can be non dimensionalized by dividing through by R. The shaft axis coincides with the axis of the housing. the three values identifying the positions of the three rotor tips. Because the rotor moves inside the housing in such a way that its three apexes are in constant contact with the housing periphery.
d.(e + R/2) = R/2 -2e [ft | m] _ _ _ (3) Setting the clearance to zero establishes an upper limiting value for the eccentricity ratio: (e/R)crit = 1/4. Different types of ROTARY ENGINES: (1) A Simple Model for a Rotary Engine: Fig. TC. at the other extreme. The rotor housing clearance parameter. the epitrochoid degenerates to a circle. is the difference between the housing minor radius. it is clear that usable values of e/R lie between 0 and 0. for e/R = 0. 25 . by analogy to the reciprocating engine. e + R cos 60 = e + R/2: d = (R -e) . shows that. R -e.18 minimum working fluid with flat-flanked rotary engine Additional important features of the rotary engine can be easily studied by considering an engine with an equilateral triangular rotor.25. for the flat-flanked rotor. Thus. In this case the rotor would spin with no eccentricity and thus produce no compression and no torque. and the distance from the housing axis to mid-flank. We will call this position top center. Study of Equations (1). Figure 18 shows the rotor in the position where a rotor flank defines the minimum volume.
the limits on the angle α must vary from 0° to 60°. Consider the maximum mixture volume shown in Figure 19. we obtain an equation for the dimensionless area in terms of the eccentricity ratio and the angle α Amax/R2 = .2 [(e/R)sin3α + sinα][3(e/R)sin3α + sinα]dα [dl] _ _ _(5) In order for the differential area to sweep over the maximum trapped volume in Figure 19. the differential area 2y dx can be written as: dA max= 2y dx = 2(e sin3α + R sinα) d(e cos3α + R cosα) [ft2 | m2] _ _ _ (4) Dividing by R2 and differentiating on the right-hand side.31/2/4[1 -6(e/R)] [dl] _ _ _ (6) Similarly.Fig.31/2/4 [1 + 6(e/R)] [dl] _ _ _ (7) 26 . using Figure 6 and the differential volume shown there. Using Equations (1). the nondimensionalized minimum area can be written as: Amin/R2 = π[(e/R)2 + 1/3] . Thus integration of Equation (5) with these limits and using standard integrals yields Amax/R2 = π [(e/R)2 + 1/3]. the maximum volume can be determined by calculating the area between the housing and the flank of the rotor. For a given rotor width w.19 maximum working-fluid volume for a flat-flanked rotary engine Now let’s examine some other fundamental parameters of the flat-flanked engine model.
 (2) The Circular-Arc-Flank Model: Fig. A little thought should convince the reader that the analogy holds quantitatively for the displacement and compression ratio of the rotary engine.These maximum and minimum volumes (area-rotor width products) are analogous to the volumes trapped between the piston and cylinder at BC and TC in the four-stroke reciprocating engine. whereas the compression ratio is independent of size but increases with increase in eccentricity ratio. the square of the rotor radius.20 Geometry of circular arc of rotor Fig 21 Exploded view of twin rotary engine 27 . In that engine the difference between the volumes at BC and TC is the displacement volume. and with the eccentricity ratio. subtracting Equation (7) from Equation (6) gives the displacement for a rotor width w for one flank of the flat-flanked engine as disp = 3 ×31/2 wR2(e/R) [ft3 | m3] _ _ _ (8) Thus the displacement increases with increases in rotor width. Therefore. and their ratio is the compression ratio.
16 While the triangular rotor model represents a possible engine and is useful as a learning tool. as shown in Figure 20. It therefore has no effect on displacement and it decreases the compression ratio. A more realistic model is one in which the triangular rotor is augmented with circular-arc flanks. Note that the center of curvature of an arc terminated by two flank apexes depends on the value of r. 28 . may be used to define the degree of flank rounding for a given rotor radius R. of a flank could vary from infinity. such an engine would perform poorly compared with one having a rotor with rounded flanks. r.Fig. [ 5 ] Rotary engines usually have the maximum rounding possible consistent with adequate engineering clearances. While flank recession reduces the compression ratio for given values of θ and e/R. Effect of the Recess Volume The additional capture volume associated with the recess is seen in Figure 21. subtended by the flank arc by r sin(θ/2) = R sin(π/3) = 31/2R/2 [ft | m] or r/R = 31/2/[2sin(θ/2)] [dl] _ _ _ (10) Thus either the included angle. Figure 22 shows the influence of flank rounding and recession on clearance and compression ratio. It can also be seen from Figure 20 that r is related to the angle.22 Influence of flank rounding onclearance and compression ratio for an eccentricity ratio of 0. The recess increases both minimum and maximum mixture volumes by the same amount. narrow combustion pocket forming the minimum capture volume. θ. r. it improves the shape of the long.θ. corresponding to a flat flank. to help overcome the combustion problems associated with this elongated shape. The radius of curvature. or the radius of curvature. Rotary engines usually have more than one spark plug. to a value for which the arc touches the minor axis of the epitrochoid. Its influence on the displacement and compression ratio may be reasoned in the same way as with the segment volume.
Throughout a range of loads and altitude conditions the engine operates with a fuel-air ratio between 0. The net fuel-air ratio is lean. the spark plug ignites a locally rich pilot stream that in turn ignites the fuel from the main injector.(3) Stratified-Charge Rotary Engine Fig. load. resulting in improved fuel economy over normal carburetion. The reference reports a lack of octane and cetane sensitivities. and jet fuel can all be used with this configuration. industrial.44 lbm/BHP-hr.037. dual injector configuration Fig. Figure 24 presents data for full-load brake horsepower and specific fuel consumption obtained with Jet-A fuel for the twin-rotor 2034R engine. The maximum takeoff power at 5800 rpm was 430 horsepower.035 and 0. and environmental conditions and with a variety of liquid fuels. gasoline.24 Stratified-Charge Rotary Engine performance The design and performance of stratified-charge rotary engines developed for commercial aviation propulsion and APU (auxiliary power unit) application as well as for marine. so that diesel. well below the stoichiometric value.23 After top center pilot. The reference reports a best 29 . and military requirements. Figure 23 shows a direct fuel injection configuration that has performed well under a wide range of speed. As air in the rotor recess passes below. with a brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of 0.
The ultimate goal of the MEMS Rotary Internal Combustion Engine Project is to develop a liquid hydrocarbon fueled MEMS-size rotary internal combustion micro-engine capable of delivering power on the order of milli-watts. design. larger-scale "minirotary" engines have been fabricated from steel. A test bench for the mini-rotary engine has been developed and experiments have been conducted with gaseous-fueled mini-rotary engines to examine the effects of sealing. This research is part of a larger effort to develop a portable. The rotary (Wankel-type) engine is well suited for the fabrication techniques developed in the integrated chip (IC) community and refined by the Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) field. autonomous power generation system with an order of magnitude improvement in energy density over alkaline or lithium-ion batteries. high specific power. Research Paper: DESIGN AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS OF SMALL-SCALE ROTARY ENGINES ABSTRACT A research project is currently underway to develop small-scale internal combustion engines fueled by liquid hydrocarbons.387 lbm/BHP-hr) at 3500 rpm and 225-horsepower output. To investigate engine behavior and design issues. and self-valving operation. Mini-rotary engine chambers are approximately 1000 mm 3 to 1700 mm 3 in size and their displacements range from 78 mm 3 to 348 mm 3.8% (BSFC = 0. 30 . The project aims at developing a "micro-rotary" engine with an epitrochoidal-shaped housing under 1 mm3 in size and with a rotor swept volume of 0. Testing has been performed using hydrogen-air mixtures and a range of spark and glow plug designs as the ignition source.7 W at 9300 RPM. Preliminary testing has shown net power output of up to 2. ignition.thermal efficiency of 35.08 mm 3. These particular designs are such that they can be incorporated into the fabrication of the micro-engine. Features of the rotary engine that lend itself to MEMS fabrication are its planar construction. Iterative design and testing of the mini engine has lead to improved sealing designs. and thermal management on efficiency.
heat loss and sealing issues are key for efficient operation of the micro-engine. Berkeley's Micro fabrication Laboratory. However. results and applications will be discussed in this paper.C. The mini-rotary engine design. NOMENCLATURE Bi Biot Number e Engine Eccentricity h Convection Coefficient k Ratio of Specific Heats ksolid Conduction Coefficient l Length nE Output Shaft Speed rv Compression Ratio rc CutoffRatio R Rotor Generating Radius Tres Residence Time Tehem Chemical Time Tm Temperature (Melting) U Velocity Vs Swept Volume (Displacement) W Engine Width Eth Theoretical Compression Ratio INTRODUCTION 31 . The fabrication of the micro-rotary engine is being conducted in U. testing. and they must be taken into account in the design and fabrication of the micro-rotary engine. Testing of the mini-engine has lead to the conclusion that there are no fundamental phenomena that would prevent the operation of the micro-engine.Design and fabrication of a first generation meso-scale rotary engine has been completed using a SiC molding process developed at Case Western Reserve University.
with swept volumes of 78 mm3to 32 . Comparison of energy densities between internal combustion engines and primary batteries. These micro scale engines have numerous applications.08 mm3 . because the power output can be electrical or mechanical (torque). more complex. with a swept volume of 0. MEMS fabrication uses lithography to mask the silicon substrate. and micro-fluidic systems). A series of larger scale "mini-rotary" engines. 25). Applications range from mobile electrical power supplies (potential battery replacements) to mechanical power. MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) devices are mechanical elements constructed using the manufacturing techniques and materials used in the integrated circuit / microchip industry [1. All parts subjected to high temperatures and stresses will be built either using molded SiC or a Si substrate with a thin SiC coating  The research program is planned in progressive steps leading to the fabrication of a MEMSscale engine. and Silicon Dioxide (SiO2). The combination of small scale and potentially inexpensive mass production is the Intake primary attraction of the technology. engineering systems (head-mounted displays. As new manufacturing techniques and materials have been developed.2].  Early products in the MEMS field (accelerometers and gyroscopes) have given way to other. A power generation system using the micro-rotary engine would have 5 times to 14 times the energy density of a primary battery  (see Fig. Typically. The MEMS scale "micro-rotary" engine will be constructed primarily of Silicon (Si). followed by etching and deposition to create the high aspect ratio features in the substrates. MEMS-scale thermal devices are now practical . The engine chamber will fit in a cubic millimeter. Silicon Carbide (SIC). The ultimate goal of the MEMS Rotary Internal Combustion Engine Project is to fabricate a micro-rotary 'Wankel' engine. which produces 10-100 mW of mechanical power.Figure 25. optical communication systems.
the power output is in the form of rotary motion of the shaft. In large-scale systems. fabrication of the micro rotary engine has begun. leading to a torque from which the shaft work is extracted (power). the exhaust gases are ejected from the engine by the decreasing volume (exhaust). eliminating the need for the complex valve actuating and valve timing systems found in 4-stroke reciprocating engines .the planar design of the rotary engine lends itself to MEMS fabrication . After the power stroke. The rotor apex then uncovers the intake port again. As the rotor continues to rotate. or compression ignition. taking in a fresh charge. The resulting pressure rise acts off the rotor axis due to the eccentricity.the rotor controls the timing of the intake and exhaust. as illustrated in Figure 26.348 mm3. glow plug. e. the increasing volume in the chamber draws in a fresh fuel / air charge (intake). As the rotor rotates about the center of the epitrochoid. design. Since there are three chambers formed by the rotor and epitrochoid. all three apexes of the rotor remain in contact with the walls. 26). which is necessary for powering either a micro-vehicle or an electric generator The rotary engine consists of a triangular rotor rotating within an epitrochoidal-shaped housing (see Fig. this cycle occurs three times for every 33 . This paper describes the challenges of building a small-scale rotary engine from testing. The rotary engine operates on a 4-stroke cycle. In addition. and the next apex closes the intake port and compresses the fuel / air mixture (compression). ROTARY ENGINE LAYOUT AND DESIGN Fig. The fuel / air mixture is ignited using a spark plug. e. The rotor continues to rotate. As the rotor apex passes over the intake port. have been constructed to investigate design and combustion issues as the engine scale is reduced. forming three sealed chambers. The seals incorporated into the present work will be addressed later in this paper. an elaborate sealing system is used to prevent leakage: 1) over the face of the rotor (face seals) and 2) around the rotor ends (apex seals). the rotor apex uncovers the exhaust port. The rotor centerline is offset from the housing centerline by an eccentric. 26 Rotary Engine Operation A rotary engine was selected for development as the basis of a MEMS-scale power generation system due to several factors: . and MEMS fabrication viewpoints and suggests solutions to these challenges.
Each engine has different power outputs and builds upon the lessons learned from the previous engine. Rather. COMBUSTION. and tip angle) are also established [7.000 RPM. the surface area to volume ratio increases . Since the micro-rotary engine is designed to operate at an engine speed of 40. hydrocarbons have a characteristic reaction time of 10 µsec Assuming tccs/tchem =10 for complete reaction. because the cutouts are different for each engine. The three primary engine parameters are: the rotor generating radius (R). The efficiency of both the Otto cycle engine and Diesel cycle engine is dependent on the compression ratio. the theoretical thermal efficiency of a compression ignited rotary engine (Diesel Cycle) is 56%. References to engine speed in this paper refer to the output shaft rotational speed. decreasing the size of an engine does not affect the theoretical compression ratio or the theoretical thermal efficiency the theoretical thermal efficiency of a spark ignited rotary engine (Otto Cycle) is 69%. THERMODYNAMICS. the maximum reaction time limited engine speed for a rotary engine is 150. The theoretical compression ratio does not take the rotor cutout into account. increased heat loss. the residence time is related to the operating speed of the engine. the reaction time is not a factor. Once these are established. The power stroke of the rotary engine occurs over 90 ° of the rotor turn. At 40. and assuming a cutoff ratio of 4:1 (typical for a diesel engine). The rotor spins at 1/3 the speed of the output shaft. theoretical compression ratio. and quenching. Therefore. A series of mini-rotary engines of intermediate size (78 mm3 to 348 mm3) have been built and used to study combustion.8]. All rotary engines have a rotor cutout to allow the combustion reaction to propagate at the onset of the power stroke.000 RPM. depending on the ignition source (spark or compression ignition.  34 . reaction time. fluid. the rotor width (w). all other engine parameters (displacement. As the length scale of the engine decreases. resulting in one power pulse for every revolution of the shaft. and the eccentricity (e). respectively). The design of the mini rotary mimics the proposed design of the micro-rotary. For the same compression ratio. and design issues as the engine is reduced in size. At normal combustion temperatures. Residence time (swept time of rotor through combustion chamber) in a rotary engine is independent of size. The compression ratio in a working rotary engine is also never as high as the theoretical compression ratio.revolution of the rotor. if the temperature is kept elevated. However. AND SCALING The rotary engine cycle can be described by either the Otto or Diesel cycle. the fuel / air mixture has 375 µsec to react before the exhaust port is uncovered. Issues include residence time vs.000 RPM. maximum tip velocity. As can the compression ratio is dependent only upon the rotor generating radius (R) and the eccentricity (e) rather than the length scale of the engine. there are other factors that affect the design and efficiency of the engine due to the change from the macro scale to micro scale.
For this purpose. the combustion reactions can be enhanced through catalytic surface reactions.Exhaust Gas Re circulation (EGR): A strategy that re circulates the combustion gases around the outside of the combustion chamber to decrease heat loss from the combustion chamber and pre-heat the incoming fuel-air mixture. either past the rotor tips or over the rotor face. surrounding the engine A significant problem facing large-scale rotary engines is leakage. quenching can be totally eradicated if the wall temperature can be maintained at the adiabatic temperature of the fuel.Stacking the engines to reduce the heat losses from the center engine(s). An isothermal housing implies that measures must be taken to control the amount of heat added to the incoming fuel / air mixture. The smallest linear distance of the micro-rotary engine is well below the quenching distance for any fuel. These sealing systems consist of spring35 . Heat loss decreases combustion temperatures. Several strategies are being reviewed to reduce heat loss: . care must be taken to avoid autoignition in the inlet port. In a supporting experiment. the housing and rotor walls can be coated with a catalyst (e. when the fuel/air mixture is compressed between the rotor cutout and the side of the epitrochoid. as well as radical destruction at the walls. The center engine(s) will operate at nearly adiabatic conditions due to insulation and the higher melting temperatures of SiC . this strategy has been successfully employed using only the exhaust gas to heat the tube wall. The effectiveness of this strategy has been demonstrated . The use of a SiC housing helps with this solution since there are no material constraints (SiC Tm= 31000(2). It should be noted that for catalytic reactions. It has been determined that a flame can be stabilized in tubes well below the quenching diameter with an external heat supply to heat the tube wall. the critical factor in MEMS combustion systems is the increased heat loss at small length scales. A further concern is that the heat added to the intake mixture will reduce the thermal efficiency due to the reduced TH/T c ratio of the cycle. Sealing mechanisms have been created to reduce this problem in large-scale engines. Platinum). From the point of view of combustion efficiency.An insulating channel filled with low conduction material. The minimum distance in the micro-rotary engine occurs at the point of maximum compression. If thermal management is not sufficient to support gas phase combustion. the increasing surface-area-tovolume ratio leads to overall higher conversion efficiency.g..The reduced temperature gradient between the hot (combustion / exhaust) and cold (intake) sides of the engine will reduce the effect of thermal expansion of the housing. Leakage reduces the engine efficiency (by reducing the compression ratio) and increases the effect of incomplete combustion. While pre-heating the intake fuel / air mixture will aid in obtaining combustion in the microscale. the obvious solution to the quenching problem is to increase the temperature of the engine wall. which leads to reduced reaction rate and quenching. Flame quenching occurs due to cooling of the reaction. In fact. Based on these findings. such as SIO2.
The rheostats can be adjusted to produce the appropriate load. MINI-ROTARY ENGINE TEST BENCH At the scale of the mini-rotary engine. given hydrogen's ease of ignition. S. To measure engine power. a test bench (Fig. The rectifier circuit converts the dynamometer's three-phase output to a DC voltage potential. A face seal system has not yet been developed that is compatible with MEMS fabrication. 27). The tabs maintain contact between the rotor and epitrochoid walls and sealing for the chambers. Therefore. Rheostats are used to apply a load to the dynamometer. Therefore. a pre-mixedhydrogen-air mixture is used rather than a liquid hydrocarbon. A gaseous fuel mixture is advantageous for this study because it does not require the complexity of a fuel carburetion system. Graupner) does not use a face seal. diagnostic engine test stands. a test bench (Fig. optical tachometer. Inc. The fuel is metered using valves and rotameters upstream of the T-junction. and flywheel. However. based on the mini-rotary engine being tested. 27 Mini-Rotary Engine Test Bench To test combustion in the mini-rotary engine. a dynamometer has been developed using a Maxon TM brushless electronically commutated motor and a rectifier circuit. The test bench consists of an electric motor / dynamometer. The mini-engine is rigidly coupled to the dynamometer via a steel shaft. which acts as a generator and produces electrical power. 3) was designed and fabricated to test the mini-engine operation. ignition system (for spark plug use).loaded tabs at the rotor apexes and across the rotor face. Ignition and spark timing is achieved with a Hall Effect sensor mounted on a rotary dial and a spark ignition system manufactured by CH Electronics. Apex seals have been fabricated in the mini-engine. Fig. Power generated by the mini-rotary engine spins the dynamometer. Engine speed is measured using a Monarch Instruments ACT-3 tachometer with a ROS-5W remote optical sensor. there are no commercially available diagnostic engine test stands. and designed for the micro-rotary engine. 36 . shown to be effective. A magnet on the flywheel is used to trigger the spark. The gaseous fuel and air are mixed upstream of the engine in a T-junction. it should be noted that the smallest commercially available rotary engine (the 5000 mm 30.
Pressure measurements upstream of the engine were also made to accurately measure fuel and air flow rates. For speed of fabrication. Temperature measurements were also made upstream of the engine and at the housing near the combustion chamber using thermocouple or infrared imaging. Fig. the dynamometer is driven by an electric motor while connected to a torque arm and load cell. The most accurate means of manufacture at this scale is through electrodischarge machining (EDM). During engine operation. and shaft. The basic engine is simple in design. Two bearings. 37 . MN30 MINI-ROTARY ENGINE DESIGN AND TESTING The MN30 generation mini-rotary engine is shown in Figure 29. Note that the initial design of the MN30 engine does not include apex or face seals.To calibrate the voltage across the dynamometer load to mechanical power output. mounted in the front and back plate. back plate. the output voltage of the motor is measured and related to the power output through the calibration curve. epitrochoid housing. the mini-rotary engine is made from steel. Figure 28 shows the calibration curve for the Maxon 50 W brushless DC motor. position the shaft. internal gear. consisting of 7 parts: front plate. rotor. Voltage drops across the rectifier circuit and across the engine coils were taken into account. 28 Dynamometer calibration chart for 50 W Maxon brushless electric motor. spur gear.
with peak exhaust temperatures at 7. In order to improve sealing. while a stoichio metric H2-air or H2-C3H8-air mixture was supplied.  Combustion tests were performed on the MN30 mini-engine with apex seals. Exhaust temperatures also changed with spark timing. From the leakage tests. 30). Preliminary sealing tests determined that the engine suffered from 20% leakage during operation due to poor tolerances during manufacturing. In these tests.30 Modified MN30 Rotor with Apex Seals The MN30 mini-rotary engine has a displacement of 78 mm 3. Even these simple designs significantly improved leakage. The springs consist of brass tabs with leaf springs formed from spring steel (see Fig. Ignition timing was changed from 15 degrees BTDC to 15 degrees ATDC. there was a 50% reduction in the power required by the electric motor to turn the mini-engine with combustion.29 MN30 Mini-Rotary Engine Fig.Fig. it was apparent that an apex sealing system was necessary. While the engine generated no net power output. an electric motor was used to rotate the engine. The ignition system used was a spark plug. 38 .5 degrees BTDC. slots were cut in the rotor apexes and apex seals inserted.
compared to the ultimate goal of 0. The larger engine was fabricated to test the limits of the CWRU SiC fabrication process. 32). 31). The Si housing is fabricated from three separate 500 mm wafers deep reactive ion etched (DRIE) to form the features and then fusion bonded together (see Fig. The CWRU micro-engine has a displacement of 1. A larger scale "meso-rotary" engine was fabricated at the Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) MEMS Research Center using Si and SiC.08 mm 3 displacement and 1 mm rotor diameter.MEMS-ROTARY ENGINE FABRICATION Design and fabrication of the MEMS-scale rotary engine (microrotary engine) has begun. For a high precision 39 . The rotor is made of molded SiC from a three-wafer Si mold (see Fig. Even though the tolerance obtained in MEMS is typically on the order of microns. Fig.wafer Si mold Right: Molded SiC rotor Fig.32 CWRU Micro-Rotary Engine Housing The CWRU micro-engine highlights some of the difficulties in fabricating an engine using MEMS techniques.31 CWRU Micro-Rotary Engine Left: Three. the percentage tolerance when compared to the length scale is high.2 mm 3 and a rotor diameter of 3 mm.
etc 3. Time available for fuel to be injected into a Wankel engine is significantly shorter. This lowers the thermal efficiency and thus the fuel economy.1% (<ll. in addition to having higher output for similar displacement and physical size.C. 2. 2. There can be more carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons in a Wankel's exhaust stream. This ensures that even a severely overheated Wankel engine cannot seize. The simplicity of design and smaller size of the Wankel engine also allows for savings in construction costs. the tolerance required is on the order of 0. This tolerance is complicated by potential misalignments of the three-layer Si mold when fusion bonded together. It is simple and has fewer moving parts.Wankel engines have several major advantages over reciprocating piston designs. The micro-rotary engine will be fabricated using bulk Si etching techniques at the U. compared to piston engines of comparable power output. In terms of fuel economy. 8. as well asone in Figure 32 for the Si housing due to a 20 Ixm misalignment. 6. There is no valve operation. The engine is constructed with an iron rotor within a housing made of aluminum. 9. 5. 3.  Advantages : 1.The fuel-air mixture cannot be pre-stored as there is no intake valve. Fuel of very low octane number can be used without pre ignition or knock. crankshaft balance weights. 40 . Work on the next generation CWRU mesoengine has begun with the aim of higher manufacturing tolerances. Disadvantages : 1 . Sealing loss is high. It is difficult to expand the engine to more than two rotors. a conventional crankshaft. A ridge can be seen on the SiC rotor in Figure 31. The compression ratio is lower. 4. there is no need for connecting rods. Wankel engines are very sensitive to misfires since the engine will lose momentum from the lost stroke and get slammed back into movement from the next chamber firing. It’s substantial safety benefit makes it useful in aircraft 6. Wankel engines are generally less efficient than four stroke piston engines 5. and Chemicals.  Fabrication of the 1 mm diameter micro-rotary engine has commenced. temperatures. which has greater thermal expansion. 4. Smoother flow of power but also the ability to produce more power by running at higher rpm. The rotor is geared directly to the output shaft.tm). 7. 7. It has smaller frontal area than a piston engine of equivalent power. 8. More complicated fuel injection technologies are required.system such as the rotary engine. Care of the ignition system is of utmost importance to avoid the problem. Berkeley Microlab with a SiC thin coating for protection against high stresses.
[13} Conclusion Application of adiabatic (low heat rejection) engine technology to the rotary (Wankel type) engine is highly dependent upon the materials used for the basic engine components. Racing car. micro. 5. The most exotic use of the Wankel design is in the seat belt pre-tensioner system of some Mercedes-Benz. personal water craft and auxiliary power units for aircraft. Aside from being used for internal combustion engines. which many believed would be the only engine in use within a decade. notably in drones. the basic Wankel design has also been utilized for air compressors. Never the less. anchoring the driver and passengers firmly in the seat before any collision. 3. 4. Fundamental work on increasing the permissible operating temperature of the apex seal/rotor housing tribological system is required before the adiabatic technology can be successfully applied to a complete engine. 2. and the introduction of better materials has helped the tip-seal problem. and superchargers for internal combustion engines. In a design using a Wankel supercharger on a Wankel engine. the general aviation world had already shrunk so much that there was little money for new engine designs. these UAV-designed engines are being found increasingly in other roles. but it was at this same time that almost the entire industry was moving to the jet engine. interest in them for small aircraft has continued. Applications: 1. and when it later became clear that the jet engine was far too expensive for all roles. such as personal water craft and auxiliary power units for aircraft. Go-karts. The Wankel suffered from a lack of interest. small blank cartridges are triggered electrically. and the resulting pressurized gas feeds into tiny Wankel engines which rotate to take up the slack in the seat belt systems. There was intense interest in them in this role in the 1950s when the design was first becoming well known. In this car. and micro-mini engine designs. Used in aircraft. For mini. UTILITY The Wankel's superb power-to-weight ratio makes it particularly well suited to aircraft engine use. None of their advantages have been lost in comparison to other engines. 41 . or UAVs. Wankels have made something of a comeback in recent years. They are being found increasingly in roles where their compact size and quiet running is important. More recently. the supercharger is twice the size of the engine! Perhaps the most exotic use of the Wankel design is in the seat belt pretensioner system of the Volkswagen VW_New Beetle. when deceleration sensors sense a potential crash. but in these cases the basic advantages of the Wankel over the four-stroke internal combustion engine are not relevant.
com (13) www. analyzed.com (10) Internal combustion engine by M.scribd.com (9) www.vorras.wankleccpapers.Successful low heat rejection major engine components have been designed.praxair.com (6) www.lindegroup. REFERENCES: (1) www.L.com (4) www.com (12) www.com (2) www.com (3) www.com 42 . fabricated and tested in a Mazda gasoline rotary engine and low heat rejection components fabricated for the NASA 1007R stratified charge engine.seminarprojects.wikipedia.google. Mathur (11) www.com (7) Steven R King Durability of Natural Gas Fueled Rotary Engine SAE 870048 (8) www.mazdarx7.howstuffworks.rotaryengines.com (5) www.
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