On the test, 10 of the following will be presented, but you will only need to answer 5 of them.

Tip: Remember, you only have to study 25 of the following people and concepts, not 30!
1. Glorious Revolution – The overthrow of James II of England in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Duth stadtholder William of Orange (William III of Orange-Nassau). The aims of the Revolution were to preserve the Anglican church, the traditional institutions of Parliament, and decentralized government. The Tories insisted that the Revolution was an act of divine providence. This was the final successful invasion of England. The Revolution is relevant with the events of the 9 years war in Europe. 2. Baron de Montesquieu – (1689-1755) He was born in Bordeaux, a port city in France. He was a French political thinker who lived during the Enlightenment. He was known for his theory of his separation of powers which was implemented in many constitutions all over the world. Montesquieu was a philosophe who gave attention to the position of women. He said that men’s “power over women is mere tyranny” and that “among the most civilized nations wives have always had authority over their husbands.” He was also known for using the terms “Feudalism” and “Byzantine Empire”. 3. Voltaire – (1694-1778) Voltaire was a well-known intellectual figure who lived during the Enlightenment. He was a writer, essayist, deist philosopher known for his wit and defense of civil liberties, including freedom of religion (people could choose whether or not they wanted to practice it at all) and the right to a fair trial. He sought to establish peace and stability, and was an outspoken supporter of social reform. He mainly proposed all his ideas through writing. Voltaire wanted the country to be rules by an enlightened monarch. 4. Jean-Jacques Rousseau – (1712-1778) Born in Geneva, Switzerland, Rousseau was a philosopher during the Enlightenment. His political ideas influenced the French revolution as well as the development of socialist theory and nationalism. Rousseau also made contributions to music as a theorist and composer. His most famous line: “man is born free, and everywhere he is, in chains.” 5. Abbé Sieyes – (1748-1836) Born in the south of France, his full name was Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès. He was an abbé (French for an “abbot”) and a statesman. He was of the main theorists of the French revolution, French Consulate and the First French Empire. His pamphlet “What is the Third Estate?” became the manifesto of the revolution. He was an instigator of the 1779 coup d’état which brought Napoleon into power. 6. Denis Diderot – (1713-1784) He was born in Langres, France. He was a prominent individual in the Enlightenment. He was a French philosopher and writer. He was the editor-in-chief of Encyclopédie. He also translated great works like Stanyan’s “History of Greece” and Robert James’ “Medical Dictionary.” 7. Cesare, Marquis of Beccaria-Bonesana – (1738-1794) He was born in Milan, Italy. He was an Italian philosopher and politician best known for his treatise “On

Crimes and Punishments.” Here he condemned torture and the death penalty and it proved to be a founding work in the field of criminology. 8. Condorcet – (1743-1794) He was a French philosopher, mathematician and political scientist who set designed the concept of a Condorcet method. This ensured that candidates are ranked by voters in order of preference. He advocated a liberal economy, free and equal public education, constitutionalism, and equal rights for women and people of all races. His ideas and writings are said to embody the ideals of the Enlightenment and rationalism, and remain potent and influential to this day. 9. Frederick the Great – (1712-1786) Also known as Frederick II, he was the King of Prussia, and one of the enlightened monarchs. He accomplished many great things and therefore inherited his name. He called himself, the first servant of the state. He was in conflict with Maria Theresa, and this weakened the Holy Roman Empire. He was a patron of the arts and philosophers. He had a turbulent friendship with Voltaire. He modernized Prussian bureaucracy and civil service and promoted religious tolerance. 10. French Constitution of 1791 – This was adopted by the national constituent assembly during the French Revolution. The constitution was ceased to function from a national standpoint less than a year after it was compiled. The constitution attempted to establish a liberal bourgeois constitutional monarchy. The constitution dissolved amongst the chaos of forces. 11. Jacques-Benigne Bossuet – (1627-1704) He was born at Dijon. He was a French bishop, theologian, pulpit orator, and court preacher. He was a strong supporter to stop the theory of political absolutism. He believed that Kings got their power from G-d and that Governments were Divine. 12. Oliver Cromwell – (1599-1658) He was born in Huntingdon, England. He was an English military and political leader best known for making England into a republican Commonwealth. He later became the Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland. Cromwell is a controversial figure both considered a regicidal tyrant by some and a hero of liberty to others. 13. Committee of Public Safety – This committee was set up by the National Convention in 1793. This was a de facto executive government during the Reign of Terror of the French Revolution. Essentially run by the Jacobins, the committee was responsible for thousands of executions, mostly by the guillotine. The committee ceased meeting in 1795. 14. Levée en Mass – In 197,2 the Public Safety Committee passed a law called “Levee en Masse”. This called for all able-bodied men to defend the nation. All unmarried men between the ages of eighteen and twenty- five years of age were drafted into the army. In less than a year more than 800,000 soldiers were recruited. This huge army helped fight the war, and brought all the citizens together. France got everyone involved! This army was the biggest army in Europe, and because of its size it helped France protect themselves against enemies. It also marked a new era in which citizens were considered military targets.

15. Declaration of the Rights of Man – A document from the French revolution which defined individual and collective rights of the people. The declaration was adopted by the National Constituent Assembly as the first step towards writing a constitution. “Men are born and remain free, and equal in rights.” 16. Blaise Pascal – (1623-1662) He was born in Clermont-Ferrand. He was a French mathematician, physicist and religious philosopher. He was a child prodigy who was educated by his father, a judge and amateur scientists. Blaise made contributions to the construction of mechanical calculators, the study of fluids, and clarified the concepts of pressure and vacuum. His two most famous philosophical works are “Lettres provinciales” and “Pensées.” 17. Code Napoleon – (1804) This was a French civil code request by Napoleon. It was the first successful code, and influenced the law in other countries as well. This code helped establishing the rule of law. It divided civil law into personal status, property and acquisition of property. The code also established the supremacy of the husband with respect to the wife and children. 18. Thermidorian Reaction – (1794) This was a revolt during the French revolution against the extremes of the Terror. It was sparked by the execution of Robespierre and other members of the Committee of Public Safety. This revolt led to the end of the radical phase of the French Revolution. 19. Civil Constitution of the Clergy – (1790) This passed during the French Revolution. The law subordinated the Roman Catholic Church in France to the French government. The constitution was predominantly supported by the revolutionary priest, Henri Grégoire. 20. Battle of Austerlitz – (1805) This battle was one of Napoleon’s greatest victories. The result was the destruction of the Third Coalition against the French Empire. Led by Emperor Napoleon I, French troops decisively defeated a RussoAustrian army, commanded by Tsar Alexander I. The battle took place in Austerlitz, near Moravia. After the battle, Austria and France signed the Treaty of Pressburg. This did not, however, establish a lasting peace in the continent. 21. Jean-Baptiste Colbert – (1619-1683) He served as the French minister of finance under the rule of King Louis XIV. He was described as cold and unemotional. He achieved a reputation of improving the state of French manufacturing and bringing the economy back from the brink of bankruptcy. 22. Battle of Waterloo – (1815) This was Napoleon’s last battle. His defeat put an end to his rule as Emperor of France. Louis XVIII was restored to the throne of France, and Napoleon was exiled to St. Helena, where he died in 1821. 23. Seven Years’ War – (1756-1763) This was the first conflict to be fought around the globe. The war involved all of the major European powers of the time. The result of the war ended France’s power both in America and in continental Europe, until the time of the French Revolution. In the meantime, Great Britain emerged as the dominant colonial power in the world. 24. Nicolaus Copernicus – (1473-1543) He was born in Toruń in Royal Prussia. He

was the first European astronomer who provided the first modern formulation of how the sun rather than the earth is the center of the universe. He was a mathematician, jurist, physician, classical scholar, Catholic cleric, governor, administrator, military leader, diplomat and economist. 25. Galileo Galilei – (1564-1642) He was born in Pisa, Italy. He was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer and philosopher associated with the scientific revolution. He studied uniformly accelerate motion, improved the telescope, and made a variety of astronomical observations. He is often referred to as the “father of modern astronomy”, the “father of modern physics”, as well as, simply, the “father of science.” 26. René Descartes – (1596-1650) He was a French philosopher, mathematician and scientist. He has been dubbed the “founder of modern philosophy and modern mathematics.” He was a major figure in 17th century continental rationalism, influences later intellectuals such as Spinoza and Leibniz. Descartes founded analytic geometry. He was also a theologian, and insisted on the absolute freedom of G-d’s act of creation. His famous quote is: “I think, therefore I am.” 27. Sir Isaac Newton – (1643-1727) He was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, philosopher and alchemist. He is regarded by many as the greatest figure in science. He described the three laws of motion, laying the groundwork for classical mechanics. He invented the reflecting telescope. He also argued that light is composed of particles. He studied the speed of sound and also proposed a theory on the origin of stars. He co-developed calculus. 28. Richelieu & Mazarin – (1585-1642) / (1602-1661) Richelieu was a French clergyman, noble and statesman. He was consecrated as a bishop in 1607 and later entered into politics, becoming Secretary of State. Becoming King Louis XIII’s chief minister in 1624, he remained in office until his death and was succeeded by Mazarin. Mazarin carried on his mentor Richelieu’s position until his own death. 29. Mary Wollstonecraft – (1759-1797) She was a British writer, philosopher and feminist. She was famous for writing “A Vindication of the Rights of Woman” in which she argues that women are not inferior to men. She believed that men and women should be treated equally. Today, she is considered to be one of the foundational feminist philosophers. 30. Peter the Great – (1672-1725) Also known as Peter I, he ruled as tsar of Russia from 1682 until his death. He descended from the Romanov dynasty. He carried out a policy of “westernization.” He centralized the government, modernized the army. He executed an aggressive foreign policy. He is credited for pulling Russia out of its medieval state and into a leading eastern European state.