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A History of the Quynelds in

Lancaster, Yorkshire and


Hampshire from 1260 to 1413

-----

With special reference to the


history and life and times of
John Quyneld of Hertfordshire

Trevor Skingle
Brixton, London, 21 December 2008
Lancaster, probably about 12601

Universis Christi fidelibus hoc scriptum visuris vel audituris Thomas de Coupmanwra
salutem. Noveritis me pro salute animee me et animarum predecessorum et
successorum meorum concessisse dedisse, et hoc presenti scripto meo confirmasse Deo
et ecclesie beate marie de Lancastr[e], Priori et monachis ibidem Deo servientibus, tres
acras terre et dimidiam in villa de Skerton quas habui de Quenild filio Roberti Scathon in
puram et perpetuam elemosinam. Tenendas et habendas dictas tres acras terre et
dimidiam cum omnibus suis pertinenciis dictis Priori et monachis et eorum successoribus
adeo libere et quiete sicut aliqua elemosina liberius dari potest et concedi. Et ego Thomas
predictus dictam terram cum pertinenciis et heredes mei dictis Priori et monachis et
eorum successoribus contra omnes mortales warantizabimus et defendemus
imperpetuum. In cujus rei testimonium presenti scripto sigillum meum apposui. Hiis
testibus Domino Benedicto Gernet, Domino Willelmo de Heton, Alano de Catherton,
Johanne Gernet, Johanne de Oxclyve, et aliis.

TRANSLATION

To all the faithful of Christ who shall see or hear this writing, Thomas of Capernwray
greeting. Know ye that I, for the welfare of my soul and of the souls of my predecessors
and successors, have granted, given, and by this my present writing have confirmed, to
God and the church of the Blessed Mary of Lancaster, to the Prior and monks there
serving God, three acres and a half of the Church of Lancaster land in the village of
Skerton, which I had of Quenild, son of Robert of Skerton2, in pure and perpetual alms.
To hold and to have the said three acres and a half of land, with all their appurtenances,
to the said Prior and monks and their successors, as freely and quietly as any alms can
be freely given and granted. And I, the aforesaid Thomas and my heirs, will warrant and
defend the said land with the appurtenances to the said Prior and monks and their
successors against all men for ever. In testimony whereof I have set my seal to this
present writing. These being witnesses Sir Benedict Gernet, Sir William of Heaton, Alan of
Catherton, John Gernet, John of Oxcliffe, and others.

Yorkshire 1296-1338

Jordan Quenild

Jordan Quenild was listed as a debtor along with William, the son of Alan de Knapton3.
Hugh Grime of Rufforth4 issued the writ which was heard in York on the 29th September
1296 at which the Cancellario, or Chancellor5, found in favour of the plaintiff, a Master
Robert (de la Ford) who, listed as Magistro6

Once again Jordan Quenild, alongside two others, Hugh Boye and Jordan de Braham of
Rufforth, were named in a writ of debt considered at York on the 12th June 1297 for a
debt of 40 shillings, owed to Ralph de Whitewell of Yorkshire7 which was endorsed ‘Ebor’
(York)8

1
Materials for the History of the Church of Lancaster Part II. The Chartulary of the Priory of Lancaster. Chapter
III. 40. Land in Skerton. Pp.268-269 in Volume 31 New Series: Remains Historical and Literary connected with
the Palatine Counties of Lancaster and Chester. Printed for the Chesham Society, Manchester. Ed. Roper W O.
1894
2
Schertune in the Domesday Book, lit. Scar Town. Known as Skereton in 1292. On the banks of the River Lune
Lancaster parish, Lancashire
3
At a hearing in 1292 William (who was subject to a number of writs for unpaid debts) laid claim to a charter
given to him by the husband of Amery de Eccleston but which he was unable to produce as evidence since it
had been destroyed in a fire which had also destroyed his house and goods. 'Townships: Eccleston', A History of
the County of Lancaster: Volume 3 (1907), pp. 362-367. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk
4
Rughford, a parish some 5 miles to the west of York in Ainsty Wapentake sometimes included with East or
West Riding
5
probably Thomas of Corbridge
6
Magistro - a Master of a Guild. C 241/31 National Archives, UK
7
Ralph is listed in ‘The History and Antiquities of the County Palatine, of Durham’, By William Hutchinson, page
36, as a bastard and who’s will ordered his property in Hartlepool to be sold to pay for a Chaplain to pray for
his soul in the Chapel of St. Helen, Hart Warren (medieval Hert), on the outskirts of Hartlepool (County
Durham). However, when he died Bishop Beaumont seized the property and kept it is an escheat (a reversion
of property and land to the lord of the manor so it is not left in limbo) though this was reversed by a ruling by
William Quyneld

At Lanercost Priory9 in Cumbria during Edward I’s residency there for the duration of his
last campaign in 1306/7 a pardon was issued by the King on the 26th January 1307 to
Richard, son of Thomas Thurstan a ‘mercer’10, of Estrington11 for the death, at his hands,
of William Quyneld12. The pardon was again issued by Edward II to Richard for William’s
death ‘and for other felonies’ on the 26th October 1310 ‘on account of his good service in
Scotland and for his abjuration of the realm on that account’13.

It would seem that Richard Thurstan’s father Thomas was something of a bully since in
1323 a petition was made against him to Edward II, in the week of Pentecost in the
sixteenth year of the King's reign, by a John de Touthorp, a clerk, who requested remedy
for actions by Thomas de Estrington and John de Esshton, both of York, that they ‘came
to Clifton and took 101 sheep of the petitioner and drove them to York and then to
Knavesmire14 where they detained them, and ate some, and the petitioner could not
have delivery until he made a fine and ransom, and he could still not have delivery until
he released all manner of actions that he had against them’. He was advised sue a writ of
trespass15 though it was doubtful this would have succeeded as it would seem that both
William and Thomas were in the favour of the Crown since between 1328 and 1330 under
Edward III they were both made freemen of York16

Richard Quyneld

Richard Quyneld is listed as one of the Cistercian monks listed as having received a
pension from Henry VIII on 11 December 153917 on the dissolution of Meaux Abbey18,
Beverley, Yorkshire, not far from Hull

Meaux Abbey Earthworks and Wharram Percy Medieval village, site of the Abbey’s Sacred Well

Bishop Bury on 3rd April 1336. In 1845 the area was excavated and a large stone coffin containing a skeleton
(Ralph perhaps?) was found but no attempt was made to conserve the remains.
8
C 241/56 National Archives, UK
9
Lanercost Priory, in the north of Cumbria close to the Scottish border, was attacked a number if times by
William Wallace and was where Edward I spent the last months of his life directing a campaign against Robert
the Bruce, where he caught and hanged three of the Bruce's four brothers. The seriously ill but stubborn 68
year old King still refused to admit defeat and on horseback on 26th June attempted to cross the estuary on his
way to Scotland to crush the rebellion lead by Robert the Bruce. He finally had to be carried in a litter and
reached Kirkandrews-on-Eden on 2nd July. he struggled on for three days until he arrived at Burgh by Sands,
where on 7th July 1307 he died at Burgh Marsh, Solway Moss
10
A merchant
11
now Eastrington in the East Riding of Yorkshire
12
Patent Rolls. Edward I, Volume 4, Membrane 40, pg 439. 26 January 1307
13
Patent Rolls. Edward II, Volume 1, Membrane 6d, pg. 295/298. 26 October 1310
14
Knaresmire, aka Strays of York, a collective name for four areas of open land of 800 acres in York
15
SC 8/327 E 787-E 866 UK National Archives, in French
16
'Admissions to the Freedom of York: 1-25 Edward III (1327-52)', Register of the Freemen of the City of York:
Vol. 1: 1272-1558 (1897), pp. 23-45. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk
17
'Letters and Papers: December 1539, 11-15', Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume
14 Part 2: August-December 1539 (1895), pp. 243-255. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk
18
Eastrington (see William Quyneld page 4) is not far from Hull and Meaux Abbey, a Cistercian Abbey founded
in 1151 by William le Gros, Lord of Holderness, near Beverley in the East Riding of Yorkshire, who’s daughter
Hawise married William de Forz who inherited the title Count of Aumale
William Quenild

Matilda, the wife of William son of Hugh de Garthorp19, swore a oath to the Edward III on
the Tuesday after the Annunciation, in the presence of a Richard de Ty and William
Trussel, the King’s escheator for the south of Trent, that she would not marry without the
king's licence. In return she was made a present by Edward III of a dower on the 21st
April 1338, the custody her husband’s lands which formed a third part of a property in
Wyverton20, with an income of 8 pennies a year, 21½ acres of land and a third part of a
half of an acre of land with the adjacent headrigs21 and property and land in Berneston22,
worth 7 shillings and 2½ pennies annually, and 4 acres of meadow in both towns, worth
4 shillings and annual rents of 4 shillings, 10 pennies and a farthing from the meadows.
Also annual rents of 17 pennies and 3 farthings from Margery Kynt, of 12 pennies from
William Quenild, and of 2 shillings and four pence ha’penny from Richard Knollen.23

Johan Quenyld, Magot and her daughter Johanna, Johannes Queynnild, his wife Matilda,
and William Quenild and his wife of Strafforth wapentake24, Sheffield parish in Yorkshire,
were documented in the Yorkshire Poll Tax in 137925

Hampshire 1310/1320

William Quenyld

In 1310 in Andover Robert Cappell is recorded as a witness to certain transgressions


between William of Shamwell and William Quenyld26 and in 1320 William petitioned a
senior Guild Official for compensation for the killing of a bull27

19
Garthorpe/Fockerby. Not far from Hull on the Lincolnshire/Yorkshire border
20
In Nottinghamshire, south west of Hull to the east of Nottingham
21
Sawmills
22
Barmston or Burmeston: the manor of Beneston, or Berneston as the name is written in records subsequent
to the Domesday Book is situated on the Hull road, near the sea coast, six miles south of Bridlington Quay and
was in the Wapentake of Holderness (North Division) and was part of the estates of the Albemarles, Earls of
Holderness
23
'Close Rolls, Edward III: April 1338', Calendar of Close Rolls, Edward III: volume 4: 1337-1339 (1900), pp.
398-407. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk
24
A political unit similar to a "Hundred" in Anglo-Saxon England, The Wapentake is a collection of local
parishes. The term is used in former Danelaw region of England and derives from words meaning "show your
weapon". The idea was that all in favor of a resolution would raise their sword, axe, etc. to show agreement.
Sheffield parish. Strafforth was the southernmost wapentake in the West Riding of Yorkshire, England
25
Johan Quenyld. Magot Quenyld' & Johanna filia (daughter) ejus (his). Johannes Queynnild' & Matilda uxor
(wife) ejus (his). Willelmus Quenild' & uxor (wife). Subsidiary Patent Roll, Poll tax, Sheffield, 1379
http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/eng/YKS/Misc/SubsidyRolls/WRY/Sheffield.html
26
Essoniatus (Excuses) Willielmus atte (of) Schamele (Shamwell) uesus (versus) Willielmum Quenyld de (of)
placito (the pleasure of) transgressionis per (according to) Robertum Cappellanum. Gross C PhD, The Gild
Merchant: A Contribution to British Municipal History, Vol. II. Pub. Clarendon Press, Oxford. 1890. pp 303
27
Will. Quenyld vadiat (petition) Senescallis (of the official. "Seneschal" from the Old French and was
introduced by the Normans) Emendas (finance) pro (for) eo quod (because) mactauit (to slay, or kill) unum
(one) taurum (bull). Gross C PhD, The Gild Merchant: A Contribution to British Municipal History, Vol. II. Pub.
Clarendon Press, Oxford. 1890. pp 315
John Quyneld about 1340 – after 1413

John Quyneld (sic Quenyld), a Squire, and MP in 1377,1378 and 1380, holding land in
1373 in the manor of Ware in Hertfordshire, was quite possibly the father of John
Quyneld, father of Peter Quyneld, as was shown by a monument formerly at Haslemere28
(see below)

In the lead up to the appearance of John Quyneld in the records the Ordinance and
Statute of labourers was enacted in response to a labour shortage and introduced by Sir
John Halles, who resided in a mansion called 'le brick house' within the cemetery of the
priory of St. Mary Spital in London, then known as the New Hospital of St Mary without
Bishopgate, one of the biggest hospitals in medieval England.

About a third of the population of Europe had been killed by the Black Death, resulting in
a dramatic decrease in the supply of labour resulting in a sharp increase in competition
for workers who, with increased bargaining power, could command higher wages which
in turn led to inflation throughout the economy. The elite classes resented this shift in
economic power and Edward, in an attempt to control the cost of labour and increasing
inflation, issued the Ordinance of Labourers in 1349, reinforced by Parliament with the
Ordinance with the Statute of Labourers in 1351 which set a maximum wage for
labourers to match that of wage levels before the Black Death, levels which had been low
as a result of the economic depression in England as a result of the Hundred Years War
and even lower during the period of the Black Death. The Statute demanded that healthy
men and women should work, imposing strict penalties for idlers but this was poorly
enforced and unsuccessful and exacerbated the situation for those who were unable to
work for whatever reason resulting in laws enacted later to address issues of poverty.

The Statute was very unpopular with those who wanted higher wages and improvements
in their quality of life and the simmering resentment of the peasantry contributed to
unrest and the subsequent Peasants' Revolt of 1381. As is shown in the records John
Quyneld was involved in a number of commissions from 1360 onwards relating to not
only the Hundred Years war but also in maintaining the peace in England in the face of
outbreaks of protest and increasing unrest as a result of the Statute, and would result in
changes in location and shifting fortunes and favour with the Crown until a John Quyneld,
possibly the younger, is recorded in Hampshire, Kent, Middlesex and Surrey where the
family finally settled in Chiddingfold. During John’s lifetime he would have served the
interest of three, possibly four, Kings and their shifting fortunes; in sequence their reigns
were Edward III 1327-1377, Richard II 1377-1399, Henry IV 1399-1413, and Henry V
1413-1422, though during Henry V’s reign no records could be found of John Quyneld
having been involved to the extent of his previous commissions so either his fortunes had
waned, he had died or he had settled into relative obscurity. Potentially there are two
John Quyneld’s involved, the elder and the younger. From the records the age range that
is possible for John Quyneld the elder is from about 1340, which would make John
roughly 20/21 years old at the time, the age which in Medieval Europe would mark his
coming of age at about the time of his first commission in 1360, until the last mention in
1413, when John the elder would have been about 73. In the 1380s John Quyneld is
recorded as having lands and title in both Hertfordshire and Surrey so it is quite possible
that John Quyneld the younger was born at Cottered in Hertfordshire and moved with the
family to Surrey. For it to be possible for the fathering of the sequence of generations
between John Quyneld (the elder?) and Peter Quennell the potential dates would have to
look something like this…

John Quyneld the elder 1340-1413


John Quyneld the younger 1380-
Peter Quyneld 1430-
Peter Quennell 1480-1559

Based on this premise if would be relatively safe to say that John Quyneld the elder,
mentioned in the following records, held the manor of Cottered in Hertfordshire in 1387

28
'Parishes: Chiddingfold', A History of the County of Surrey: Volume 3 (1911), pp. 10-16. URL:
http://www.british-history.ac.uk/
which was transferred to Philip Bluet and his wife Katherine on John’s death. John
Quyneld the elder also held property in Surrey in 1383 so it may be that if John Quyneld
the elder died in Hertfordshire sometime after 1413 that John Quyneld the younger at
the age of about 33, hailing from Hertfordshire, moved his family to their holdings in
Surrey after Cottered reverted to the Bluets. And so to the records…

During the last year of the phase of the Hundred Years War called the Edwardian War
1337-1360, and under Edward III, John Quyneld seems to have held substantial rank
and to have been held in high enough esteem that he was entrusted, along with some of
the most prominent figures of the day with the serious responsibility or arraying men to
arms and at Westminster on 28 March 1360 a Commission was issued29 which reads…

To Hugh Chastilon30, Sherriff of Bedfordshire and Buckinghamshire. and his fellows,


arrayers31 of men at arms and archers in the county of Buckingham, reciting that
because it is the king's will that twenty men at arms, to wit the said Hugh, (Sir) Henry
(de) Chalfhunt, Lord of Frinstead in Kent, Geoffre de Lucy, Of Cublington, Aylesbury,
Buckinghamshire, John son of John Giffard32, Edmund de Hampden33, Edmund Waleys34,
Martin Chaunceux35, John de Coueley(e)36, William Wyot37, John de Thame38, Thomas
Frisel39, Richard Hampden, John Baret40, John de Wermeston41, John de Amondesham42,
John Reynam43, John de Nowers44, and three other men at arms, twenty armed men and
eighty archers of the strongest and bravest of the county be selected in the county and
go in ships upon the sea for the defence of the realm, he commands that on sight of
these presents these said men be arrayed and duly furnished with arms, armour, bows
and arrows and brought to Sandwich45, and that if need be they be compelled to this by
incarceration of their bodies and taking of their lands and goods into the king's hand, so
that they be there by Tuesday in Easter week to enter the ships ordained to take them to
go on the king's service at the accustomed wages of war. In the meantime the
commissioners are to send men to Sandwich to provide victuals for the men ready to be
shipped on their arrival. It is the king's will also that when they reach the sea their
horses shall be sent back to their own parts. He has commanded the collectors of the
tenth and fifteenth granted by the commonalty of the realm for the expenses of the men
going on the said service to pay them their wages, to wit to every knight 2 shillings to an
esquire I2 pennies to an armed man 6 pennies and to an archer 4 pennies a day, for one
month from the time of at which they left the said county. Furthermore he gives the

29
Patent Rolls, Edward III, Volume 11, Membrane 22, pg 413/4. 28 March 1360
30
As master of the cross-bows in France, in 1369, along with count Guy de St. Pol, besieged and took the town
of Abbeville, and the whole country of Ponthieu. The records of the Exchequer of Edward III state that in 1370
a ransom of 10,000 marks was paid to Sir Nicholas Levigne (of the Parish of All Hallows the Great in Thames
Street) for the freedom of Hugh, his prisoner taken in war
31
Who was an officer who had a commission of array, to put soldiers of a country in a condition for military
service
32
Of Chillington Hall, South Staffordshire whose Father was an MP under Edward II
http://www.chillingtonhall.co.uk/
33
Of Great Hampden, Buckinghamshire, England. John de Hampden, the son of Reginald, held the manor in
1346, and was a knight of the shire in two Parliaments of Edward III in 1351–2, and again in 1363. There is a
tradition that Edward III. and the Black Prince once paid a visit to Hampden, and that while the Prince and his
host were amusing themselves with games of chivalry, a quarrel arose and the prince received a blow in the
face, which greatly enraged his royal father, who instantly left the house with his son; and afterwards seized
some valuable manors belonging to De Hampden as a punishment for his want of manners and loyalty. The
following lines are said to refer to this incident:-

"Tring, Wing, and Ivanhoe


Hampden did forego
For striking of a blow,
And glad he did escape so."

http://www.mspong.org/picturesque/great_hampden.html
34
Son of Lord William Le Waleys of Aston Cantlow. Warwickshire?
35
Of Okhide Manor, Horton, Buckinghamshire
36
Of Berkeley Castle, Berkeley, Gloucestershire. The place where Edward II was murdered 21 September 1327
37
Possibly the brother of John Wyatt and brother in law of John of Gaunt’s wife, Catherine Swinford
38
Of Buckinghamshire. Nominated to the Council of the Guildhall of London for Aldersgate in 1347. Possibly a
Knight Hospitalier
39
Occupied Bradenham Manor, Desborough, Buckinghamshire between 1350-1360
40
Of Bernwell
41
Of Urmston Old Hall, Urmston then Wermeston
42
Of Amondesham, near Abbots Langley, Hertfordshire
43
Of Buckinghamshire, now Raynham and part of Luton
44
of Gothirst, Buckinghamshire
45
an important major port in Kent
commissioners power to arrest and imprison contrariants or rebels and take their lands
and goods into his hand, and hereby gives command to the sheriff, men at arms and
archers, mayors, bailiffs, ministers and others of the said county to be attending,
answering, counselling and aiding to them in the premises. By the guardian & C.

The like to the following arraying men at arms be in the counties named and bringing
them to Sandwich at the same day: Hugh de Blount46, knight, and the arrayers in the
county of Essex, twenty, men at arms, to wit the said Hugh, John de Seintclier47, Thomas
de Clopton48, Henry Moyne49, William Gennyn50, John de Boys51, Lionel de Bradenham52,
William de Dale, Robert de Rokele53, Roger Monkoye and ten others, twenty armed men
and sixty archers, (Sir) Hugh FitzSymond54, and his fellows, arrayers in the county of
Hertford, twenty armed men, to wit the said Hugh, John de Chilterne55, John Quenyld56,
Hamo de Ware57

The following year at Westminster on 21 March 1361 John Quenyld, along with a number
of high ranking officials, was again given a commission, this time of the peace under
Edward III’s Great Seal58, which also included a warrant to raise militias as the need
arose to John de la Lee59, William de Notton60, John Lodewyk61, Richard de Bydeford62,
Thomas de Eston, John de Whitewell63 in the county of Hertford

The same year, on the 21st of October 1361, Pelham, Thursday after St Luke, 35, Edward
III, John Quynled, along with Robert de Geddyng64, Thomas Logat, William Schanke and
William Rokesburgh65 were witnesses to the granting of the title and deeds of Landbeach
to Sir John de la Lee, the Royal Steward, in the presence of Sir Thomas de Knesworthe66
and Adam de Wyvelyngham67, knight, in return for his support to Thomas Grey of
Hertfordshire68

46
Knight of Essex and High Sherriff of Hertfordshire in 1361, Owned land adjacent to St. Mildred the Virgin in
Poultry
47
John Saint Clair, knight, of Aldham St Cleres, Igtham (Eyghtham), Kent,
48
(Croyon-Cum) Clopton Deserted Medieval Village (Cambridgeshire) is situated to the west of Croydon village,
and can be reached by following the footpath at the western end of Croydon High Street. The Medieval village
of Clopton is mentioned in the Domesday Book, and is known from documentary sources to have had a market
in the 13th century. The village seems to have gone into decline during the later middle ages, and was finally
deserted during the early 16th century when the land was purchased by John Fisher. By enclosing the common
strip fields into large pasture fields, the villagers were stripped of their livelihood and ejected from the
countryside. All that remains today are the earthwork traces of the village layout. The earthworks are difficult
to interpret as the village was terraced into the hillside. However earthwork survey and excavation have greatly
increased our understanding, and demonstrated the presence of a central church, two moated sites and a
probable mill. The roughly rectangular moat has been identified as that of Clopton Bury, the manor of Clopton,
and a series of channels link the moat with the mill site in the south-east of the village.
49
Of Willingham, Cambridgeshire?
50
Of Guildford, Surrey?
51
Patron of the Augustinian Priory of Tiptree, Essex. The only remaining part of the priory is a rubble wall
extending E of the present house built in the 16th century
52
Knight and Lord of the Manor of Langenhoe, Essex
53
Of Hertfordshire
54
Knight and Lord of the Manor of Merston, Kent, and Caxton, Cambridgeshire
55
Of Chilthorne Vagg, near Yeovil in Somerset
56
MP in 1377,1378 and 1380
57
Of Meldebourn and Ware in Hertfordshire who also occupied property in Cambridge. The name Hamo means
house or home and was introduced from Germany during the Norman Conquest
58
Patent Rolls. Edward III. Volume 12, Membrane 33d, pg. 64. 21 March 1361
59
Knight and Royal Steward of Edward III’s household, of Albury, Hertfordshire. Seized the manor of
Chamberlains in Cambridgeshire and sold it back to Corpus Christi College in 1361 for 700 marks
60
Knight, of Notton in Yorkshire and the King’s serjeant and justice of the King’s bench. He was the King’s
lieutenant in 1361 when he was sent to Ireland
61
Of Wormlee (Wormley) of Brokysburn (Broxbourne), and Ludwick in Hertfordshire on the route from London
to Ware; 23 miles. Justice of the peace for Hertfordshire. His father, William, went on pilgrimage with Hugh
Fitzsimmons to Santiago de Compostella in 1332
62
Coroner of Hitchin, Hertfordshire
63
Of Skeyton, Runhal, Norfolk
64
Knight, of Northampton
65
Previous owner of Mark Lane, now in the ownership of the Drapers' Company of Throgmorton Avenue,
London EC2N 2DQ
66
Kneesworth now Bassingborn-Cum-Kneesworth Cambridgeshire
67
A village now known as Willingham. Cambridgshire
68
Deeds relating to Landbeach, Cambridgeshire. CCCC09/35/55 http://janus.lib.cam.ac.uk
And then later that year at Westminster on the 15th December 1361, John Quenyld was
reaffirmed in his role as a one of the commissioners of the peace for Hertfordshire69
alongside Guy de Boys70, John de Chilterne, Thomas de Eston, and John de Whitewell71

Once again, on the 3rd of May 1365 we find John Quyneld in distinguished company when
at Westminster, probably in response to simmering resentment and unrest on the part of
the peasantry as a result of Edward III’s Statute of Labourers, he was confirmed as a
Commissioner of the Peace, pursuant to the statutes of Winchester, Northampton and
Westminster, alongside John, Duke of Lancaster72, John atte Lee, Edward Fitz Symond,
John Foxcote73, John Strete74, and Luke Vynter75 of oyer and terminer76, touching
felonies, trespasses, forestalleries and regrateries, abuses of measures and weights and
delinquencies against the statutes and ordinances of labourers77 in the county of
Hertford78, intended to put and keep the peasants in their place.

Three years later, one month from St Michael, 42 Edward III on the 27th of October
136879 at Westminster a plea of covenant submitted in the county of Hertfordshire was
heard. The plaintiff was John Quynild80 and related to 1 messuage, 40 acres of land, 6
acres of meadow, 2 acres of pasture, 9 pence of rent and a rent of 1 clove in Thoreleye81
and Sabrychesworth82, and was against Roger Bunne83 and Joan, his wife, deforciants,
having obstructed John’s access to his estate. The agreement reads: Roger and Joan
have acknowledged the tenements to be the right of John, and have remised and
quitclaimed them from themselves and the heirs of Joan to him and his heirs for ever.
Warranty: Warranty. For this: John has given them 100 marks of silver

84

On the 12th of January 1374 a licence was granted for the alienation85 in mortmain86 for
John Quyneld and Walter Lepere to transfer two properties and 2 acres of land in
Eggeswere and Ildestre87 and for John Chishull88, William Stoteville89, and John

69
Patent Rolls. Edward III, Volume 12, Membrane 32, pg. 66. 15 December 1361
70
Lord of the manor of Munden or Great Furnivall, Hertfordshire in 1361
71
Of Watford and Caysho. See CP 25/1/89/90, number 539 at
http://www.medievalgenealogy.org.uk/fines/abstracts/CP_25_1_89_90.shtml
and http://aalt.law.uh.edu/CP25(1)/CP25(1)Herts89/IMG_0074.htm
72
John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, third son surviving son of Edward III, Called Gaunt because he was
born in Ghent in Belgium; Gaunt was the old English name for Ghent
73
a major fish merchant
74
Mayor of Dover in 1378
75
who Testified at the petition of a John West about the Manor of Ayot St. Lawrence, Hertfordshire in 1370
76
Oyer and terminer - a term used in England in commissions directed to judges of assize about to hold court,
directing them to hear and determine cases brought before them,
77
post 1348 Black Death institution of Edward III’s Statute of Labourers in 1351, hugely unpopular with the
peasants of England
78
Edward III, Volume 13, Membrane 22, pg. 144. 3 May 1365
79
CP 25/1/89/92, number 589.
80
Quenild
81
Thorley
82
Sawbridgeworth
83
Bunn
84
CP 25/1/89/92, number 589. © Crown copyright. National Archives, London, England
85
The regulation of the 'alienation' or transfer of feudal lands without a licence from the Government. Henry III
issued an ordnance prohibiting the tenants in chief of feudal lands from alienating those lands without a proper
licence from the state. The penalty for not going through the licensing system was forfeiture of the lands
concerned
86
Mortmain is a legal term, derived from medieval French, literally meaning dead hand and refers to the
sterilisation of ownership of property by vesting it perpetually in the form of a religious office
87
Edgware and Elstree
88
Chaplain of the Priory of Thomas of Watford
Harpesfeld to transfer a toft90, 116 acres of land, 5 acres of meadow and 6 acres of wood
in Acton valued of 32 shillings annually, the value determined in a survey undertaken by
Nicholas Heryng91, escheator92 in the county of Middlesex, which were given to the Priory
and Convent of St. Bartholomew's, Smethefeld93, at an estimated value of 40 shillings
annually, as part of the King’s grant to the Priory and Convent to enable them to raise
£20 yearly in lands and rent94. In the fourteenth century the Prior was Thomas de
Watford'95

As a result of disturbances and uprisings that occurred between the post 1348 Black
Death institution of Edward III’s Ordinance and Statute of Labourers in 1351, hugely
unpopular with the peasants of England, and the Peasants’ Revolt in 1381, on the 26th
July 1374 at Westminster, Commissions were given by the King and Council96 to,
amongst others, John Boterwyk97, David de Westminster. Berdevill, Henry Traynel, John
de Salesbury and John Bysouth, serjeants-at-mace, and on 29th July 1374 to John
Filyol98, Luke Vyriter, William Quenyld (quite possibly John’s brother) to arrest a large
group of men…

Robert Cavendyssh, John Hidigham, Thomas Branton, John Wespray, Simon Bereford,
John Morewell, Richard Norhampton, John Peyk, Richard Ivy, Walter Guldeford, Bobert
Spelyng, John Halys, William Michel, John Hamstede, John Faucon, John Waryn, Thomas
Fakenam, Bobert Anton, John Grandon, William Bysude, William Ledys, Gilbert Forester,
Thomas Pope, John Brokelee, John Walche, John Stalbrigge, John Orby, John West, John
Kent, Benedict Wade, William Barton, John Woleward, Nicholas Kembere, William
Catisby, Bobert Aston, Robert Nely, Simon Bucell, Henry Biriount, John Lane, Walter
Wynchestre, Nicholas Nettilham, John Sharp, John Wolwirton, John Brandon, John
Someri, John Lilie, Nicholas Neubolt, Roger Lucas, Simon Vinur, Richard Fitekyn, Richard
Poche, John Topclif, John Stirbourne, William Walys, Richard Couke, Robert Duram,
Thomas Strode, John Stekis, John Frend, Stephen Goldfynch, William Ocle, John atte
Parke, John Salusbiri, Richard Shirbourne, William Witby, William Schambir, Walter West,
John Wodestoke, Walter Lucas, William Alret, John Fulbourne, John Sutfold, Richard
Dancastre, John Honcler, John Clifford, Richard Baker, John Soutyng, Thomas Harnme,
John Grenehell, Richard Sutton, Hugh Cursun, Thomas Langeton, William Martlesham,
John Wytbred, John Ermyn, John Helmele, Henry Juwet, John Kitteson, John Catour,
Robert Hare, John Bynle, Martin Zonge, William Gillot, John Dobbys, Richard Little, John
Lile, Richard Frere, Roger Kendale, John Freman, Robert Bladys, Robert Hedon, Reynold
Man, Richard Bakere, William Cook, John atte Wode, John Causere, William Berkyng,
Henry Cok, Tlaomas Croft, John Cristemasse, Richard Gerard, John Dodele, John Elene,
John Herewell, John Dod, Ivo Serle, John Spencer, Richard Fuller, Robert Sewet, John
Goudwyn, Thomas Fischere, John Froisel, Nicholas Cruce, Alexander Stephan, William
Haunsel, John Cook, Thomas Skynnere, Thomas Prince, Simon Bakere, Hugh Toky,
William Walter, William Leverik, John Poddyng, John Smyth, John Tredegold, John Brice,
William Raulyn, 'page,' John Passelewe, John Bylet, John Coggere, Edmund Vynceiit,
Thomas Sneyth, Simon Hasse, Richard Thomme, John Sharp, Stephen Beneyt, John
Belde, John Walyngton, John Barker, William Somer, William Bussh, John Hert, Benedict
Neweland, Ellis Rekeman, William Flemyng, John Lambyn, William Catour, 'page,'

89
Vicar of the church of St. Sepulchre without Neugate (Newgate), London
90
Homestead
91
Seneschal and Supervisor of the King’s castles and manors in Kent
92
In feudal England, escheat referred to the situation where the tenant of a fief died without an heir or
committed a felony. The fief reverted to the King's ownership for one year and one day, by right of primer
seisin, after which it reverted to the original lord who had granted it. From the time of Henry III, the monarchy
took particular interest in escheat as a source of revenue. From the 12th century onward, the Crown appointed
escheators to manage escheats and report to the Exchequer, with one escheator per county established by the
middle of the 14th century. Upon learning the death of a tenant, the escheator would hold an "inquisition" to
learn if the king had any rights to the land. If there was any doubt, the escheator would seize the land and
refer the case to Westminster where it would be settled, ensuring that not one day's revenue would be lost.
This would be a source of concern with land owners when there were delays from Westminster
93
a large area, about 3 acres in extent, much of it marshy, full of water and mud, lying to the north-west of the
City of London, adjoining the Church and Hospital of St. Bartholomew on the west, at the northern end of
Giltspur Street, in Farringdon Ward Without, and extending to the Bars of Smithfield. Formerly used as a large
Cattle Market. Harben Dictionary
94
Patent Rolls. Edward III, Volume1, Membrane 5, pg. 380. 12 January 1374
95
The records of St. Bartholomew's priory [and] St. Bartholomew the Great, West Smithfield: volume 1 (1921),
pp. 168-177
96
Patent Rolls. Edward III, Volume 15, Membrane 6d, pg. 489-491. 26 July 1374 – 29 July 1374
97
Sheriff of Middlesex
98
Sheriff of Essex and Hertford
Thomas Shippernan, 'page,' Thomas Staleworthyn, John Do, John Thomme, Thomas
Salman, Robert Hood, Ralph Smyth, Geoffrey Perers, John Cheseman, 'page,' John More,
John Berne, John Bode, John Bondys, Roger Zongwyne, Thomas Rolf, John Gaskwyn,
Alan Coggare, John Stemhache, Robert Bam, Nicholas Taillour, William Hudde, John Mois,
Thomas Adam, Richard Pirye, 'archer,' Nicholas Dole, John Symond, 'archer,' John
Furmyton, John Herdyng, John Jacmyn, ' archer,' Philip Yle, ' archer,' John Kencot, Philip
Sampton, ' archer,' John Frere, Richard Byx, Henry Norkyn, John Reynold, ' archer,' John
Edwyne, Ralph Denys, William Shepherd, John Sellay, John Pipere, William Sneyere,
William Moys, ' archer,' John Wytle, ' archer,' Richard Souter, ' archer,' Thomas Bor, John
Andreu, John Lenne, Thomas Surl, John Knetthere, Gilbert Hesne, John Cherryngherst,
Nicholas Boydyn, John Boydyn, Thomas Page, Laurence Justice, John Zonge, Walter
Zonge, Henry Tybbe, John Grene, John North, John Cornyssh, John Gallewere, Andrew
Yasterlyng, Andrew Smert, John Person, Gilbert Trumplour, John Spriner, Thomas Alwyk,
John Yol, Thomas Yol, John Wyther, John Malle, Thomas Brokman, John Colyn, John
Sende, Simon Londyn, Robert Soleys, John Prison, John Arnold, William Huglot, William
Spisour, Alexander Cook, John Aleyn, Thomas Elys, John Ecchere, John Short, John
Corey, John Chelf, John Crippe, 'page,' John Soylard, 'page,' Thomas Iryssh, Andrew
Mersey, Pernelt Laurence, Thomas Meynard, John de Baylle, Peter Gerard and William
Richard, ' page,' and to bring them to London and deliver them to the sheriffs for safe
keeping in Neugate gaol until further order for their delivery

Two years later Southampton is mentioned as a residence of John Quyneld when a writ
issued against him on the 10th August 1375, by the executors, Matilda Hervyle, Thomas
Potesgrave, and John Clayditch, as part of the probate proceedings of the will of Matilda’s
husband Walter Hervyle, citizen and pewterer of London, now deceased, through the
office of Nicholas Brembre, Mayor of London, on the matter of a debt of £40. The writ
was heard on the 2nd of February 137699 by William Walworth100 and Helmyng Leget,
Clerk, and endorsed in London: Coram Justice de Banco in quindena Pasche101, though no
record seemed available to show the eventual outcome

John was a busy man as ten days later, on 12 February 1376 at Westminster,
commissions were issued to Edmund Fauconer102, Simon Kegworth, John Quyneld,
William Brok and John Welde, escheator in the county of Hertford, to find by inquisition in
the counties of Hertford and Essex what lands, knights' fees and advowsons103 of
churches Simon son of Imbert and Henry Merk104, held of the king in chief, in
demesneas105 well as in service, on the days on which they died, and what they held of
others, at what time they died, who are their next heirs and who have held the lands
since their death and taken the issues, and by what title106The next few years, at least
until 1376/78, looked like they may have been relatively uneventful for John Quyneld
though he was involved in a number of writs arising from property disputes and rulings.
One week from Holy Trinity, 50 Edward III, on the 15th of June 1376 at Westminster,
Geoffrey Hunden, John Quyneld107, John Basset of Chishull108 and John Basset of
Walkern, querents109, had a plea of covenant110 entered by John Heydon111, which was
submitted in Hertfordshire and were granted the tenements of 2 messuages112, 4 tofts,
140 acres of land, 8 acres of meadow, 2 acres of pasture and 4 pounds of rent in
Asshewell113, Hynxstworth114 and Redreth115 replacing John Basset and John Basset116,
and William Rokesburgh117 and Pernel, his wife, deforciants118

99
C 241/173 National Archive
100
Mayor of London In 1381 killed Wat Tyler leader of the Peasants’ Revolt army which marched on London.
Previously worked for a time for Geoffrey Chaucer at the Customs House in London
101
Coram Justice de Banco qundena Pasche – Brought to the attention of the Justice of the Bench on the
quindene of Easter, the Monday on which the Easter law term usually began
102
Of Heston and Isleworth
103
the right to nominate a person to hold a church office in a parish
104
Of the medieval moated manor of Marks, Dagenham, Essex
105
land kept in the lord's possession, not leased out but, under the feudal system, worked by villeins (peasants)
to supply the lord's household
106
Edward III, Volume 6, Membrane 37d, pg. 315. 12 February 1376
107
Quineld
108
Chishall in Essex
109
Plaintiffs
110
A plea for the enforcement of leases
111
Haydon
112
Properties
113
Ashwell
114
Hinxworth
119

The agreement reads: William and Pernel have granted to Geoffrey, John, John and John
and have rendered whatsoever they had in them for the life of Pernel to them in the
same court, to hold to Geoffrey, John, John and John and the heirs of John Basset of
Chishull', of the chief lords for the life of Pernel. For this: Geoffrey, John, John and John
have given them 100 marks of silver120

On the 6th of October the same year, 1376, 50 Edward III, Margery Draper granted to
John Quenild, for the term of her life, land in Codrech121, lying in Spedeleye, in
Hertfordshire122

The following year Richard II enthroned in 1377 at the age of 10 and John of Gaunt
became regent in all but name. The first poll tax was levied the same year

In 1378 preparations were probably being made in the lead up to the beginning of the
Caroline War phase (1379-1389) of the Hundred Years War. John Quyneld, then in Kent,
was commissioned into the service of Richard II but didn’t turn up when John of Gaunt
Duke of Lancaster left England for France. For this misdemeanour a revocation of the
protection was issued at Westminster123, with clause volumus124, granted to John
Quenyld, going over sea (as was believed) on the king's service in the company of John,
duke of Lancaster, as Thomas de Cobeham, sheriff of Kent, certifies that he is skulking125
in his (the sheriff’s) bailiwick126

From this point on there is a change in regional focus and fortunes for John Quyneld
away from his holdings in Hertfordshire to the south of England, and in particular
Hampshire, Kent and Surrey. It would seem that he had fallen on hard times, becoming a
fishmonger in Southampton, and, given his reluctance to accept two overseas
commissions as well as an allegation of obtaining money by deception, had given cause
for suspicion of his loyalty to the crown as well as his integrity. This was exacerbated by
the uprising in June 1381 when 10,000 men, forming the vanguard of the Peasants
Revolt, marched on London. John Quyneld, referred to in one record as having been
expected at Westminster as an insurgent, was suspected of involvement in the Peasants’
Revolt of 1381, when on the 13th June, residents in Hertfordshire joined the uprising in
the south-east, which continued even after the death of Wat Tyler at Smithfield127

115
Ruddery, in Guilden Morden, Cambridgeshire
116
Probably elder and younger; father and son
117
Roxburgh
118
One who keeps out of possession the rightful owner of an estate
119
CP 25/1/90/95, number 674 © Crown copyright. National Archives, London, England
120
Feet of Fines: CP 25/1/90/95 http://www.medievalgenealogy.org.uk
121
Goodrich, Watford Hertfordshire
122
D. 997 'Deeds: D.901 - D.1000', A Descriptive Catalogue of Ancient Deeds: Volume 3 (1900), pp. 511-523.
URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk
123
Richard II, Volume 1, Membrane 37, pg.268. 8 August 1378
124
Judicial protection, which granted immunity from most suits at law guaranteeing the safety of possessions
and servants
125
Evading his obligation
126
The term applied to a territory in which the sheriff's functions were exercised under a Crown grant

127
Le soulèvement des travaileurs d'Angleterre en 1381: études et documents publiés avec un introd.
historique par Ch. Petit-Dutaillis (1898). The rising of the workers of England in 1381: studies and documents
published with an historical introduction by CH. Small-Dutaillis (1898). Pp. 340
On the issue of obtaining money by deception a Commission was issued on 20th October
1380 and reviewed on the 10th February 1381128 to John de Monte Acuto129, Sir Bernard
Brocas130, Walter Haywode131, Michael Skillyng132, and William Ryngebourne133, to
enquire into the truth of a petition (which eventually succeeded) of Hugh Craan134, of
Winchester, alleging that, whereas on Tuesday after St. Benedict, 2 Richard II, he
acquired to himself and Isabel his wife, for life, the manor of Oterbourn135, co.
Southampton, from Richard Wyncestre136, for a certain sum of money, the said Richard
and Agnes his wife, Richard Uttokcestre137, parson of the church of Lymynge, co, Kent,
John Quenyld of Edenbrugge138, Thomas Stanton, of Oxford, clerk, executor of the will of
William Underhull, Nicholas Langestoke139, late mayor of Southampton, Thomas (de)
Kyngton140, clerk, for receiving recognizances of debts in the same town, schemed to
dispossess him and his wife of the same, and forged a recognisance of the statute of
merchants for 550 pounds, dated 22 February, 26 Edward III., payable on a day now
past to the said William Underhull and John Payn, clerk, and caused it to be sealed under
the names of John de Wyncestre, knight, and the said Richard his brother, and in the
presence of the said mayor and clerk to be enrolled in the books for the purpose, and a
certificate to be delivered in Chancery for obtaining execution in respect of the manor
and other hinds141 belonging at that date to the said John and Richard Wyncestre.

The Caroline War phase (1379-1389) of the Hundred Years War was ongoing at this
juncture and expedition was undertaken in 1381 when Edmund, Earl of Cambridge, sailed
to Portugal, then at war with Castile, and was joyfully received at Lisbon by King
Ferdinand. John Quyneld didn’t do himself any favours at the time when on the 13th
October 1381 a revocation of protection with clause volumus, for one year, was granted
at Westminster142, retrospective to the 3rd of October to John Quenyild, fishmonger of, or
lately staying in, Edenbrigge, co. Kent, alias of the county of Southampton, as going
beyond seas on the king's service in the company of Edmund, earl of Cambridge143, on
testimony that he is not on the king's service, but stays in England on his own affairs.

Two years later it would seem that to some degree John Quyneld, in Hampshire at the
time, was back on his feet as one week from St Hilary, 6 Richard II, on 20 January 1383
and again two weeks from Easter in the same year on 5 April 1383 a plea of covenant
was issued in Hampshire between the plaintiffs Richard Auditour144, the parson of the
church of Lemyngge145 (in Yorkshire; providing evidence of a connection between John
Quyneld and Yorkshire), John Lauynton146 the elder and John Quenyld147, esquire,

128
Richard II, Volume 1, Membrane 10d, pg. 577. 20 October 1380 and Richard II, Volume 1, Membrane 13d,
pg. 630. 10 February 1381
129
Aka Montague. Knighted in France during the Hundred Years War. Earl of Salisbury and supporter of Richard
II. One of the wealthiest men in England at the time with substantial landholdings. Aristocratic poet and
possibly the author of the early ballads of Robin Hood. Convicted of treason for raising troops to challenge the
ascent of the Duke of Lancaster who later became Henry IV. He was beheaded by a mob in Wales 7th Jan
1399/1400 after his failed plot to kill Henry IV at the jousts. His head was placed on London Bridge and his
body was buried at Cirencester Abbey then later moved to Bisham Priory, Berkshire
130
of Clewer near Windsor, Berkshire. Friend and companion to the Black Prince, eldest son of Edward III who
had died 4 years earlier than this entry. Bernard was Edward III’s Master of the Horse and Master of the
Buckhounds. Captain of Callais under Richard II and the Queens Chamberlain. MP for Hampshire in 10
parliaments and Wiltshire on the 11th time of re-election. His son would also be executed alongside John De
Monte Acuto in Cirencester (see above). Familial brass monuments extant in churches in Sherbourne St John
and Bramley in Hampshire. Sir Bernard is buried in Westminster Abbey
131
Of Stratfeld and Lord of the Manor of Sulham, Berkshire. Hampshire County Sherriff and guardian of the
manor of Compton Monceux
132
Sherriff of Winchester in 1357 and Justice of the Peace in 1380
133
Of Barton Stacey and Liss, both in Hampshire
134
Or Crane. Sometime holder of the manor of Hedgecourt, Felbridge, on the Surrey-Sussex border
135
Otterbourne, district of Chilcombe, Hampshire
136
Winchester
137
Uttoxeter, Staffordshire
138
Eatonbridge aka Stangrave, Kent
139
and Steward of Southampton and owner of two vaults in English Street
140
who In 1404 became rector of St. Andrews Church, Burton Overy, Leicester
141
Middle English hine, household servants
142
Richard II, Volume 2, Membrane 19, pg. 46/7. 18 October 1381
143
Of Kings Langley, Hertfordshire. Fifth son of Edward III. 1361 created Earl of Cambridge and on 6 August
1385 created Duke of York
144
Auditor
145
Leeming (in Yorkshire)
146
Lavington
147
Quenild
querents, and Richard de Wynchestre148 and Agnes, his wife, deforciants regarding the
property of the manors of Suburton149 and Leyneston150 and the advowson of the church
of Leyneston.

151

The agreement reads: Richard de Wynchestre and Agnes have acknowledged the manors
and advowson to be the right of Richard Auditour, and have rendered the advowson to
the same Richard, John and John in the same court, to hold to Richard Auditour, John
and John and the heirs of Richard, of the chief lords for ever. And besides Richard de
Wynchestre and Agnes granted for themselves and the heirs of Richard that the manor of
Suburton' - which Geoffrey Roucle152 and Henry Jordan held for a term of 12 years - and
also that the manor of Leyneston' - which Hugh, the prior of St Swithin, Wynton', held for
a term of 13 years - of the inheritance of Richard de Wynchestre on the day the
agreement was made, and which after the terms ought to revert to Richard de
Wynchestre and Agnes and the heirs of Richard - after the terms shall remain to Richard
Auditour, John and John and the heirs of Richard, to hold together with the advowson of
the chief lords for ever. Warranty; For this: Richard Auditour, John and John have given
them 200 pounds sterling153

Two months later, at Westminster, on the 1st of May 1383154 a request for the pardon of
John Quenhill of Surrey, alias Quenyld of Edenbrigg (still a fishmonger), co. Kent, alias
Quenyld of Crassiilton, co. Surrey was made at the supplication of Richard de Burde,
knight, for all treasons, felonies and trespasses committed by him, notwithstanding he
was excepted in Parliament as a principal insurgent; a reference perhaps as a result of a
suspicion that he may have participated in the Peasants’ Revolt in 1381. It is recorded on
the same day that, although he was excluded from any amnesty at the Parliament of
Westminster, the king thanked John Quenhill, of Surrey, (also called John Quenyld d'
Edenbridge, of Kent, or John Quenyld de Carshalton, of Surrey)155. Though he had in fact
been pardoned on 15th of May 1385, for of outlawries in the counties of Southampton and
Middlesex and for not appearing in the King's Bench to answer Hugh Crane and John
Glemes for respectively touching trespasses or to pay the king a ransom in each case, he
surrendered to the Marshalsea prison, as certified by Robert Tresilian, chief justice156,
probably pending a review of his case, and then escaped and was being pursued as a
fugitive. Eventually John, and the letters, were delivered coram rege, into the presence
of the King himself, and his Bench of Justice and returned sine die (permanently) and
was pardoned at Easter on the 22nd of April 1386157

148
Winchester
149
Soberton
150
Lainston (in Sparsholt), Winchester
151
CP 25/1/207/28, number 33 © Crown copyright. National Archives, London, England
152
Rockley
153
CP 25/1/207/28, number 33 UK National Archives
154
Richard II, Volume 2, Membrane 12, pg 269. 1 May 1383.
155
1383, 1st mai, Westminster. — Le roi accorde sa grâce à John Quenhill, du Surrey, (appelé aussi John
Quenyld d'Edenbridge, du Kent, ou John Quenyld de Carshalton, du Surrey,) bien qu'il ait été exclu de toute
amnistie au parlement de Westminster. Pat. 6 Ric. II, part. 3, m. 12.
CH. Small-Dutaillis (1898). Ibid Pp. 227. Note 92
156
Richard II, Volume 3, Membrane 15, pg. 141. 15 May 1385
157
15 May 1386. John Quenyld, poissonnier, en fuite et mis hors la loi, s'est présenté au terme de Pâques en
1386 et a obtenu ensuite, le 15 mai, des lettres de pardon. Coram rege, East. 9 Richard. II, m. 2. CH. Small-
Dutaillis (1898). Ibid Pp. 227. Note 93 and 18 May 1386. John Quyneld (sic), demeurant à Edenbridge,
poursuivi par les shériffs de comté en comté sur l’ordre du roi, et mis hors la loi, a comparu au Banc du roi à
Westminster le 18 mai 1386 et s’est constitué prisonnier. Il apporte des lettres de pardon du 15 mai 1386 et
est renvoyé sine die. Coram rege. East. 9 Ric. II, Pt. 3. M 2d. CH. Small-Dutaillis (1898).pp. 227. Note 94
However, with the Caroline War phase (1379-1389) of the Hundred Years War being
fought at the time, on the 2 November 1387, a revocation of protection with clause
volumus for one year, was granted at Westminster158 to John Quenhild alias Quenyld,
sometime of Edenbrigge, co. Kent, as going to Calais on the king's service in the
company of (Sir) William de Bello Campo, captain of Calais159, because he is not
preparing to go.

John Quyneld wasn’t doing himself any favours as on the day after All Souls, 11 Richard
II, the 3rd of November 1387 and again one week from Holy Trinity in the same year, the
31st May 1388160 a plea of covenant issued by Andrew de Burys161, son and heir of
Andrew de Burys of the county of Suffolk, querent, and Philip Bluet162 and Katherine, his
wife, and John Radeswell163 and Margaret, his wife, deforciants, and originating in
Hertfordshire was heard at Westminster

Bures. Ermine a chief indented sable with two lions or therein164

The plea was entered regarding the manor of Coderede165, which John Qwenyld166 of the
county of Hertford holds for life (a fact not mentioned at all in 'Parishes: Cottered', A
History of the County of Hertford: volume 3 (1912), pp. 226-232167)

Cottered: The Lordship from the Northwest168

158
Richard II, Volume 3, Membrane 12, pg. 364. 2 November 1387
159
William Beauchamp, Knight, made 1st Baron, Lord of Bergavenny, Monmouthshire, England, in 1392, and
third son of Thomas Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick. His grandfather Guy, who was with Edward I when he died,
would most likely have been at the hearing at Lanercost in 1307 when the first of two pardons was issued to
Richard of Estrington for the death of William Quenyld. Guy was responsible for the kidnap at Deddington and
the subsequent trial and execution of Piers Gaveston, Edward II’s lover. William Beauchamp is buried at Black
Friars, Hereford, Herefordshire, England. The will of William Le Beauchamp, Lord of Bergavenny, dated 25 April
1408, reads… My body to be buried in the Church of Friars Preachers at Hereford, next and beneath the tomb of
John of Hastings, Earl of Pembroke. I will that five tapers be hung about my body as soon as may be after my
decease, and that twenty four poor men be clothed in black, and that each of them carry a torch, receiving two
pence a piece for that service. To the place of my burial twenty marks or more, as my executors shall think fit;
for the charges of my funeral one hundred pounds; I desire that ten thousand masses be said for my soul in all
possible haste after my death by the most honest priest that can be found; and that four good priests be found
for ten years to sing for my soul and for the soul of my Lord Sir John Hastings, Earl of Pembroke, and for all the
souls to whom I owe obligation; to the poor tenants within my Lordship one hundred pounds; to Joan, my wife,
a pair of basons covered and over gilt, having the arms of Warwick and Arundel impaled thereon; to Richard,
my son, my best sword and harness for the justs of the peace, which belonged to war; to Joan and Elizabeth,
my daughters, one thousand marks each for their marriage. And I constitute Thomas Arundel, Archbishop of
Canterbury; Thomas Earl of Arundel; and Joan, my wife, my executors. From the Testamenta Vetusta by
Nicholas Harris Nicolas,
160
CP 25/1/90/99, number 97 UK National Archives
161
Bures
162
Bluett
163
Radswell
164
'Parishes: Cottered', A History of the County of Hertford: volume 3 (1912), pp. 226-232. URL:
http://www.british-history.ac.uk
165
Cottered, Hertfordhsire
166
Quenild
167
Op cit: http://www.british-history.ac.uk
168
Op cit: http://www.british-history.ac.uk
The agreement reads: Philip and Katherine and John Radeswell' and Margaret have
acknowledged the manor to be the right of Andrew, and have granted for themselves and
the heirs of Katherine that the manor…

169

…which John Qwenyld' held for life of the inheritance of Katherine on the day the
agreement was made, and which after the decease of John Qwenyld' ought to revert to
Philip and Katherine and John Radeswell' and Margaret and the heirs of Katherine - after
the decease of John Qwenyld shall remain to Andrew and his heirs, to hold of the chief
lords for ever. For this: Andrew has given them 100 marks of silver. It is likely that this
was heard in John Quyneld’s absence and, given John Quyneld’s record, would have been
looked on positively by the Crown, who in effect disinherited John Quyneld’s family from
the estate and probably resulted in the removal of the family to Surrey.

In 1086 the manor of Cottered was held by Bishop Walkelin of Winchester. The chancel,
nave, with south porch and west tower, of the church of St. John the Baptist in Cottered,
built in about 1350, would have been a building familiar to those involved in the hearing.

St John the Baptist Cottered Herts170


The last two records found deal with relatively minor issues; debt to John Quyneld and
trespass on his land.

On the 9th November 1389 at Westminster in the reign of Richard II171… …Pardons of
outlawry to the following - John Costidell, parson of Hevere, co. Kent, for not appearing
to answer John Quenyld touching a debt of 80 pounds

And on the 11th February 1413 at Westminster in the reign of Henry IV172… …Pardons of
outlawry to the following - Richard Hylles ' sometyme dwelling in Missenden,' for not
appearing before the king to answer John Quenyld touching a trespass. Middlesex

Perhaps it was just as well that, given the downturn in his fortunes and loss of favour,
John was keeping his head down during his later years.

Timeline:

 1373 Plague

169
CP 25/1/90/99, number 97 © Crown copyright. National Archives, London, England
170
© under common license, John Salmon
171
Richard II, Volume 4, Membrane 41-40, pg. 63/66. 9 November 1389
172
Henry IV, Volume 4, Membrane 27.25, pg. 437/444. 11 February 1413
 1381 Plague in the north of England
 1381. The Peasants Revolt led by Wat Tyler. Peasants in Essex and Kent rose up
and marched on London capturing the Tower and killing the Archbishop of
Canterbury and the King’s Treasurer. The King, Richard II, managed to persuade
them to disperse by making promises, none of which he kept.
 1382 Winchester College is founded by William of Wickham
 1388 The Scots defeat the English at the battle of Otterburn
 1391 Plague almost as bad as that of 1348-1349 in the north of England
 1400 Geoffrey Chaucer dies. He was the first great writer in the English language
 1405 Plague
 1407 Plague
 1415 The battle of Agincourt. Once again the English win a great victory
 1420 Plague
 1427 Influenza
 1439 Pestilence
 1453 The Hundred Years War ends. England loses all its territory in France except
for Calais.
 1455-1485 England suffers a series of civil wars known as the Wars of the Roses
 1461 The battle of Towton
 1464 Plague
 1471 The battle of Tewkesbury and plague
 1472 Plague
 1476 Caxton introduces the printing press into England and plague
 1478 Plague
 1479 Plague
 1483-1485 Reign of Richard III
 1485 Plague and the English sweat

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