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1.

One cause of low-level smog is the reaction of ozone, O3, with ethene, C2H4. The smog
contains methanal, HCHO(g).
The equation for methanal production is shown below.
O3(g) + C2H4(g) 2HCHO(g) + O2(g)
The rate of the reaction was investigated, using a series of different concentrations of
either C2H4(g) or O3(g), by measuring the initial rate of formation of HCHO(g).
The results are shown below.
experiment

[O3(g)]

[C2H4(g)]

/ 10 mol dm

/ 10

mol dm

initial rate
12
3 1
/ 10 mol dm s

0.5

1.0

1.0

2.0

1.0

4.0

4.0

2.0

16.0

(i)

Analyse and interpret the results to deduce the order of reaction of each reactant
and the rate equation.
Explain your reasoning.
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[5]

Strode's College

(ii)

Calculate the value of the rate constant and state the units.

rate constant =.............................. units.


[3]

(iii)

Using the equation above, deduce the initial rate of formation of O2(g) in
experiment 1.
Explain your reasoning.

answer = ................................. mol dm

[1]

(iv)

The experiment was repeated at a higher temperature.


How would the new conditions affect the rate of the reaction and the value of the
rate constant?
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[1]
[Total 10 marks]

2.

Nitrogen monoxide, NO, is involved in formation of ozone at low levels.


Nitrogen monoxide is produced by combustion in car engines. Ozone is then formed
following the series of reactions shown below.
NO(g) + O2(g) NO2(g)
NO2(g) NO(g) + O(g)
O2(g) + O(g) O3(g)
Write the overall equation for this reaction sequence.
Identify the catalyst and justify your answer.
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[Total 3 marks]

3.

This question looks at the chemistry of transition elements.


(a)

(i)
Explain what is meant by the terms transition element, complex
ion and ligand,
(ii)

Discuss, with examples, equations and observations, the typical reactions


of transition elements.
In your answer you should make clear how any observations provide
evidence for the type of reaction discussed.
[11]

(b)

Describe, using suitable examples and diagrams, the different shapes and
stereoisomerism shown by complex ions.
In your answer you should make clear how your diagrams illustrate the type of
stereoisomerism involved.
[9]
[Total 20 marks]

Strode's College

4.

Mercury thermometers are not used in some laboratories because of the danger of
mercury vapour. This vapour is very easily absorbed through the lungs into the blood.
In the blood, mercury reacts with hydrogen peroxide to form mercury(II) oxide.
Hg + H2O2 HgO + H2O
The mercury(II) oxide formed accumulates within organs in the body.
Use oxidation numbers to show that the reaction between mercury and hydrogen
peroxide is an example of both oxidation and reduction.
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[Total 2 marks]

5.

2+

Mercury forms two ions, Hg2


of mercury in these ions.

2+

and Hg . The table shows the electronic configuration

ion

electronic configuration

2+

[Xe]4f 5d 6s

14

2+

[Xe]4f 5d

Hg2
Hg

14

10

10

Use the electronic configurations to explain why mercury is not a transition element.
.................................................................................................................................
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[Total 1 mark]

6.

A sample of iron is heated with a stream of dry hydrogen chloride. A different chloride
2+
of iron is formed that contains the Fe ion. This chloride dissolves in water to form a
pale green solution that contains the hexaaquairon(II) complex ion.
(i)

2+

Complete the electronic configuration of Fe .


2

1s 2s 2p .......................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

Draw the shape of the hexaaquairon(II) complex ion. Include the bond angles on
your diagram.

[2]

(iii)

2+

Aqueous sodium hydroxide is added to a solution containing Fe (aq).


State what you would observe.
........................................................................................................................
Write an ionic equation, with state symbols, for the reaction.
........................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 5 marks]

7.

The percentage purity of a sample of manganese(IV) oxide, MnO2, can be determined


by its reaction with acidified iron(II) ions.

Stage 1 A sample of known mass of the impure MnO2 is added to a conical


flask.

Stage 2 The sample is reacted with a known excess amount of Fe


with dilute sulphuric acid.

Stage 3 The contents of the flask are heated gently.

Stage 4 The cooled contents of the flask are titrated with aqueous potassium
manganate(VII) in acidic conditions to find the amount of unreacted
2+
Fe .

Strode's College

2+

acidified

(i)

The reduction half-equation for manganese(IV) oxide in the presence of dilute


acid is shown below.
+

2+

MnO2(s) + 4H (aq) + 2e Mn (aq) + 2H2O(l)


2+

Construct the balanced equation for the redox reaction between Fe (aq),
+
MnO2(s) and H (aq).
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

In Stage 1 and Stage 2 a student uses a 0.504 g sample of impure MnO2 and
3

100 cm of 0.200 mol dm

2+

Fe .
2+

In Stage 4 the student determines that the amount of unreacted Fe


0.0123 mol.

is

2+

1 mol of MnO2 reacts with 2 mol of Fe .


Calculate the percentage purity of the impure sample of MnO2.

percentage purity = ..................................................... %


[3]
[Total 4 marks]

8.

Ruthenium (Ru) is a metal in the second transition series. It forms complex ions with
the following formulae.
3+

= [Ru(H2O)6]

= [Ru(H2O)5Cl]

= [Ru(H2O)4Cl2]

(a)

2+

(i)

What is the oxidation number of ruthenium in B?

oxidation number of ruthenium = .........................................................


[1]

(ii)

One of the complex ions, A, B or C, shows stereoisomerism.


Draw diagrams to show the structures of the two isomers.

[2]

(iii)

Name this type of stereoisomerism.


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[1]

Strode's College

(b)

3+

The complex ion [Ru(H2O)6]


(i)

2+

can be converted into [Ru(H2O)5Cl] .

Suggest a suitable reagent for this conversion.


...............................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

What type of reaction is this?


...............................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 6 marks]

9.

2+

The standard electrode potential of Cu (aq) + 2e

Cu(s) is +0.34 V.
2+

A student measured the standard electrode potential of Cu (aq) + 2e


Cu(s). She
was surprised to see that the emf of the cell was less than the expected value of
+0.34 V.
2+

She decided to measure the concentration of the Cu (aq) ions in the solution by
titration.
3

2+

25.00 cm of the solution containing Cu ions were pipetted into a volumetric flask and
3
she made the volume up to 250.0 cm with distilled water.
3

An excess of aqueous potassium iodide, KI, was added to 25.00 cm of the diluted
solution.
3
The iodine formed was titrated against 0.100 mol dm sodium thiosulphate, Na2S2O3.
3

The volume of Na2S2O3(aq) used was 23.20 cm .

The equations for the formation and titration of iodine are given below.
2+

2Cu (aq) + 4I (aq) 2CuI(s) + I2(aq)

I2(aq) + 2S2O32(aq) 2I(aq) + S4O62(aq)

(i)

State how the student would identify the end point of the titration.
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

2+

Show that the concentration of the Cu (aq) ions was 0.93 mol dm .

[4]

(iii)

Explain, in terms of chemical equilibrium, why the emf of this cell was less than
the standard electrode potential.
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[2]
[Total 7 marks]

10.

Iron forms several complex ions in which the oxidation state of iron is +3.
(i)

3+

Complete the electronic configuration for an iron(Ill) ion, Fe .


2

1s 2s 2p .......................................................................................................
[1]

Strode's College

(ii)

Explain, using electronic configuration, why iron is a transition element.


........................................................................................................................
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[1]
[Total 2 marks]

11.

Iron forms several complex ions in which the oxidation state of iron is +3.
3

One of these complex ions is [Fe(CN)6] . This is called the hexacyanoferrate(III) ion.

In the hexacyanoferrate(III) ion the cyanide ions, CN , act as ligands.


(i)

Suggest why a cyanide ion can act as a ligand.


........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

Draw the expected shape for the complex ion [Fe(CN)6] . Include bond angles
and the name of the shape.

[2]
[Total 3 marks]

12.

Iron forms several complex ions in which the oxidation state of iron is +3.
Excess aqueous sodium hydroxide is added to an aqueous solution containing Fe
(aq).
(i)

3+

Describe what you would see happen.


........................................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

Write an ionic equation, including state symbols, for the reaction that takes place.
........................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 3 marks]

13.

An unusual compound of iron has been detected on the surface of the planet Mars.
This compound contains the ferrate(VI) ion.
When chlorine is bubbled through a suspension of iron(III) oxide in concentrated
aqueous sodium hydroxide, a solution of aqueous sodium ferrate(VI) forms.
The two relevant redox systems are shown below.
Cl2(aq) + 2e

2C/ (aq)

Fe2O3(s) + 10OH (aq) 2FeO4 (aq) + 5H2O(I) + 6e

Construct the redox equation for the reaction between chlorine, iron(III) oxide and
hydroxide ions.
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[Total 2 marks]

Strode's College

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14.

An unusual compound of iron has been detected on the surface of the planet Mars.
This compound contains the ferrate(VI) ion.
A student uses 1.00 g of iron(III) oxide and makes, on crystallisation, 0.450 g of sodium
ferrate(VI), Na2FeO4.
Calculate the percentage yield, by mass, of sodium ferrate(VI).
Show your working.
Express your answer to an appropriate number of significant figures.

percentage yield = ............................ %


[Total 4 marks]

15.

An unusual compound of iron has been detected on the surface of the planet Mars.
This compound contains the ferrate(VI) ion.
Ferrate(VI) ions will decompose in acidic solution as shown in the equation below.
2

3+

4FeO4 (aq) + 2OH (aq) 4Fe (aq) + 3O2(g) + 10H2O(l)


Explain, in terms of oxidation numbers, why this decomposition involves both reduction
and oxidation.
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[Total 2 marks]

16.

An unusual compound of iron has been detected on the surface of the planet Mars.
This compound contains the ferrate(VI) ion.
Aqueous sodium ferrate(VI) is a very powerful oxidising agent.
(i)

Predict what you would see when aqueous sodium ferrate(VI) is added to
aqueous potassium iodide.
Explain your answer.
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

Aqueous sodium ferrate(VI) will oxidise ammonia into substance X.


Suggest an identity for X.
........................................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 2 marks]

17.

2+

Under certain conditions, VO can be converted into VO2 by reaction with KMnO4.
The equation for the reaction is shown below.
5VO

2+

+ H2O + MnO4 5VO2 + Mn


3

What volume, in cm , of 0.0250 mol dm


3

20.0 cm of 0.100 mol dm

VO

2+

2+

+ 2H

KMnO4 would be required to convert


+

into VO2 ?

volume of KMnO4 required = ...................... cm

[Total 3 marks]

Strode's College

13

18.

The ethanedioate ion, C2O4 , can act as a bidentate ligand when it forms complex
ions with a transition metal ion. The structure of the ethanedioate ion is shown below.
O

O
C

(a)

C
O

What do you understand by the term bidentate ligand?


........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[2]

(b)

3+

The ethanedioate ion readily forms an octahedral complex ion with Cr .


Show the structure and charge of this complex ion.

[3]
[Total 5 marks]

19.

The Cr

3+

ion forms a complex ion of formula [Cr(C2O4)2(H2O)2] .

Use this complex to explain what is meant by the term stereoisomerism. Your answer
should contain suitable diagrams.

[7]
Quality of Written Communication [1]
[Total 8 marks]

20.

The compound FeSO4.7H2O can be used to kill moss in grass. Iron(II) ions in a solution
of FeSO4.7H2O are slowly oxidised to form iron(III) ions.
Describe a test to show the presence of iron(III) ions in a solution of FeSO4.7H2O.
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[Total 1 mark]

Strode's College

15

21.

The compound FeSO47H2O can be used to kill moss in grass.


The percentage purity of an impure sample of FeSO4.7H2O can be determined by
titration against potassium dichromate(VI), K2Cr2O7, under acid conditions, using a
suitable indicator.
2+

3+

During the titration, Fe (aq) ions are oxidised to Fe (aq) ions.

Stage 1 A sample of known mass of the impure FeSO4.7H2O is added to a


conical flask.

Stage 2 The sample is dissolved in an excess of dilute sulphuric acid.

Stage 3 The contents of the flask are titrated against K2Cr2O7(aq).

(i)

The reduction half equation for acidified dichromate(VI) ions, Cr2O7 , is as


follows.

2
+

3+
Cr2O7 (aq) + 14H (aq) + 6e
2Cr (aq) + 7H2O(l)
2+

Construct the balanced equation for the redox reaction between Fe (aq),
2
+
Cr2O7 (aq) and H (aq).
..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................
[2]

(ii)

In Stage 1, a student uses a 0.655 g sample of impure FeSO4.7H2O.


3

In Stage 3, the student uses 19.6 cm of 0.0180 mol dm


end-point.
2

One mole of Cr2O7

Cr2O7

to reach the

2+

reacts with 6 moles of Fe .

Calculate the percentage purity of the impure sample of FeSO4.7H2O.

percentage purity .........................


[4]
[Total 6 marks]

22.

2+

Dilute aqueous copper(II) sulphate contains [Cu(H2O)6]


(a)

ions.

Concentrated hydrochloric acid is added drop by drop to a small volume of dilute


aqueous copper(II) sulphate. The equation for the reaction taking place is as
follows.
2+

[CuCl4]2(aq) + 6H2O(l)
[Cu(H2O)6] (aq) + 4Cl (aq)

(i)

Describe the observations that would be made during the addition of the
concentrated hydrochloric acid.
...............................................................................................................
[1]

Strode's College

17

(ii)

Describe the bonding within the complex ion, [CuCl4] .


...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[2]

(b)

Concentrated aqueous ammonia is added drop by drop to aqueous copper(II)


sulphate until present in excess. Two reactions take place, one after the other, to
2+
produce the complex ion [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2] (aq).
Describe the observations that would be made during the addition of
concentrated aqueous ammonia.
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 5 marks]

23.

Ammonia is a simple molecule. The HNH bond angle in an isolated ammonia


molecule is 107.
2+
The diagram shows part of the [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2] ion and the HNH bond angle in
the ammonia ligand.

H
C

u+

N 1

. 5

H
Explain why the HNH bond angle in the ammonia ligand is 109.5 rather than
107.
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[Total 3 marks]

24.

Cobalt readily forms complex ions in which the cobalt has an oxidation state of +2.
2+

One complex ion of cobalt is the hexaaquocobalt(II) ion [Co(H2O)6] .


(i)

What is the co-ordination number of Co

2+

in this complex ion?

........................................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

Water is acting as a ligand. Explain the meaning of the term ligand.


........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 3 marks]

Strode's College

19

25.

Cobalt readily forms complex ions in which the cobalt has an oxidation state of +2.
2+

[Co(H2O)6]

readily undergoes the following reaction.


2+

[Co(H2O)6] (aq) + 4Cl (aq)

(i)

[CoCl4] (aq) + 6H2O(l)

What is the shape of each complex in this reaction?


[Co(H2O)6]

2+

shape ......................................................................................
2

[CoCl4]

shape ......................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

What colour change would occur on going from left to right in this reaction?
from ..................................................... to .....................................................
[1]

(iii)

What type of reaction is taking place when [Co(H2O)6]

2+

reacts with Cl ?

........................................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 3 marks]

26.

2+

(a) Co forms the complex [Co(NH3)4Cl2]. This complex exists as two


stereoisomers.
(i)

Draw diagrams to show the two isomeric forms of this complex.

[2]

Strode's College

21

(ii)

What type of stereoisomerism is shown by this complex?


...............................................................................................................
[1]

(b)

Cobalt also forms a complex with the formula [Co(H2NCH2CH2NH2)2Cl2]. This


complex shows the same kind of isomerism as [Co(NH3)4Cl2] but it also shows a
different type of stereoisomerism.
Draw diagrams to show the two isomers of this different type of stereoisomerism.

[2]
[Total 5 marks]

27.

Chromium metal and its compounds have a number of important uses.


2

Cr2O7 ions oxidise I ions to I2 under acid conditions according to the following
equation.
2

Cr2O7 (aq) + 6I (aq) + 14H (aq)

(i)

3+

2Cr (aq) + 3I2(aq) + 7H2O(l)

If you carried out this reaction, how could you see that iodine is formed?
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

How could you use the formation of I2 in this reaction to determine the
2
concentration of a solution of Cr2O7 ions?
In your answer

state the method you would use

state the reagents used

show how you would use your results.

........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
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[4]
[Total 5 marks]

28.

Copper and zinc are both d-block elements but only copper is a transition element.
2+
+
Copper forms compounds containing Cu or Cu ions but zinc only forms compounds
2+
containing Zn ions.
(a)

Use the electronic configurations of Cu


transition element and zinc is not.

2+

and Zn

2+

to explain why copper is a

........................................................................................................................
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[2]

Strode's College

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(b)

Suggest two differences between compounds containing Zn

2+

and Cu

2+

ions.

........................................................................................................................
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........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 4 marks]

29.

Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc.


The percentage of copper and zinc in a sample of brass can be determined by reaction
with hydrochloric acid. Only zinc reacts, as shown in the equation below.
+

2+

Zn(s) + 2H (aq) Zn (aq) + H2(g)

A sample of brass powder of known mass is added to an excess of 1.00 mol dm


3
hydrochloric acid.
The mixture is heated gently and the hydrogen collected is measured once the
reaction has finished.

A student analyses a 1.23 g sample of brass using the method described.


3
The student collects 76.0 cm of hydrogen at room temperature and pressure.
3
1 mol of gas molecules occupies 24.0 dm at room temperature and pressure.

Calculate the percentage by mass of copper in the sample of brass.


Give your answer to an appropriate number of significant figures.

answer .............................................. %
[Total 3 marks]

30.

Artists between the 13th and the 19th Centuries used a green pigment called verdigris.
The artists made the pigment by hanging copper foil over boiling vinegar.
During the preparation of verdigris, copper atoms are oxidised to copper(II) ions.
(i)

Write the oxidation half equation for the conversion of copper atoms into
copper(II) ions.
........................................................................................................................
[1]

Strode's College

25

(ii)

The reduction half equation that takes place is as follows.


+

O2(g) + 4H (aq) + 4e 2H2O(l)


Construct the equation for the redox reaction between copper, oxygen and
hydrogen ions.

[1]
[Total 2 marks]

31.

Artists between the 13th and the 19th Centuries used a green pigment called verdigris.
The artists made the pigment by hanging copper foil over boiling vinegar.
A sample of verdigris has the formula [(CH3COO)2Cu]2.Cu(OH) 2.xH2O.
Analysis of the sample shows that it contains 16.3% water by mass.
Calculate the value of x in the formula.

answer ...................................................
[Total 3 marks]

32.

In this question, one mark is available for the quality of spelling, punctuation and
grammar.
Iron and its compounds take part in several different types of reaction including ligand
substitution, precipitation and redox.
For each type of reaction

give an example, taken from the chemistry of iron or its compounds


state what you would see
write a balanced equation for your example.
[9]
Quality of Written Communication [1]
[Total 10 marks]

33.

The edta
(a)

2+

ion forms complex ions with Ni (aq).

Complete the electronic configuration of the Ni


2

2+

ion.

Is 2s 2p ........................................................................................................
[1]

(b)

The edta

ion has the following structure.

O
O
O

O
C

(i)

2H

N
C

2H

H
C

2H

2H

C C

C C

N
H

O
O
O

Put a ring around two different types of atom in the edta ion that are
2+
capable of forming a dative covalent bond with the Ni ion.
[2]

Strode's College

27

(ii)

2+

What feature of these atoms allows them to form a bond with Ni ?


...............................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 4 marks]

34.

Platinum forms complexes with a co-ordination number of 4.


(a)

(i)

Explain the term co-ordination number.

...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

State the shape of these platinum complexes.


...............................................................................................................
[1]

(b)

The tetrachloroplatinate(II) ion readily undergoes the following reaction.


x

[PtCl4] + 2NH3
(i)

[Pt(NH3)2Cl2] + 2Cl

What type of reaction is this?


...............................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

Suggest values for x and y in the equation.


x =
y =
[2]

(c)

The complex [Pt(NH3)2Cl2] exists in two isomeric forms.


(i)

Draw diagrams to show the structure of these isomers.

[2]

(ii)

What type of isomerism is this?


...............................................................................................................
[1]

(iii)

One of the isomers of [Pt(NH3)2Cl2] is an important drug used in the


treatment of cancer.
How does this drug help in the treatment of cancer?
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 10 marks]

Strode's College

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35.

Vanadium can exist in a number of different oxidation states. One compound of

vanadium is ammonium vanadate(V) and this contains the ion VO3 . This can be
2+

reduced to V

in several steps, using zinc metal and aqueous sulphuric acid.


3

(a) 25.0 cm of 0.100 mol dm ammonium vanadate(V) is completely reduced


2+
to V (aq) using zinc and aqueous sulphuric acid. The resulting solution is titrated
3

3
2+
with 0.0500 mol dm MnO4 (aq) and 30.0 cm is required to oxidise the V (aq)

back to VO3 (aq).

The half equation for acidified MnO4 acting as an oxidising agent is shown
below.

+

2+
MnO4 + 8H + 5e
Mn + 4H2O

Show that the vanadium has changed oxidation state from +2 to +5 in this
titration.

[4]

(b)

2+

Suggest an equation for the oxidation of V (aq) to VO3 (aq) by MnO4 (aq) under
acid conditions.

........................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 6 marks]

36.

A moss killer contains iron(II) sulphate.


Some of the iron(II) sulphate gets oxidised to form iron(III) sulphate. During the
2+
oxidation iron(II) ions, Fe , react with oxygen, O2, and hydrogen ions to make water
3+

and iron(III) ions, Fe .

(a)

Complete the electronic configuration for Fe3+ and use it to explain why iron is a
transition element.
3+

Fe :1s 2s 2p ................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[2]

(b)

State two typical properties of compounds of a transition element.


1 .....................................................................................................................
2 .....................................................................................................................
[2]

(c)

Describe how aqueous sodium hydroxide can be used to distinguish between


aqueous iron(II) sulphate and aqueous iron(III) sulphate.
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[2]

(d)

Construct the equation for the oxidation of acidified iron(II) ions by oxygen.
........................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 8 marks]

Strode's College

31

37.

The percentage by mass of iron in a sample of moss killer can be determined by


titration against acidified potassium manganate(VII).

Stage 1 A sample of moss killer is dissolved in excess sulphuric acid.

Stage 2 Copper turnings are added to the acidified sample of moss killer and
the mixture is boiled carefully for five minutes. Copper reduces any iron(III) ions
in the sample to give iron(II) ions.

Stage 3 The reaction mixture is filtered into a conical flask to remove excess
copper.

Stage 4 The contents of the flask are titrated against aqueous potassium
manganate(VII).

(i)

Suggest why it is important to remove all the copper in stage 3 before titrating in
stage 4.
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

The ionic equation for the redox reaction between acidified MnO4 and Fe
given below.

2+

2+

2+

is

3+

MnO4 (aq) + 8H (aq) + 5Fe (aq) Mn (aq) + 4H2O(l) + 5Fe (aq)


Explain, in terms of electron transfer, why this reaction involves both oxidation
and reduction.
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[2]

(iii)

A student analyses a 0.675 g sample of moss killer using the method described.
3

In stage 4, the student uses 22.5 cm of 0.0200 mol dm


endpoint.

MnO4 to reach the

Calculate the percentage by mass of iron in the moss killer.

percentage ...................................
[4]
[Total 7 marks]

38.

2+

Aqueous copper(II) sulphate contains [Cu(H2O)6] ions. Aqueous ammonia is added


drop by drop to a small volume of aqueous copper(II) sulphate. Two reactions take
place, one after the other, as shown in the equations.
2+

[Cu(H2O)6] (aq) + 2OH (aq)

Cu(OH) 2(s) + 6H2O(l)

Cu(OH) 2(s) + 2H2O(l) + 4NH3(aq)

[Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2] (aq) +

2+

2OH (aq)

(a)

Describe the observations that would be made as ammonia is added drop by


drop until it is in an excess.
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[2]

Strode's College

33

(b)

Draw the shape for the [Cu(H2O)6]


diagram.

2+

ion. Include the bond angles in your

[2]
[Total 4 marks]

39.

Water is a simple molecule. The HOH bond angle in an isolated water molecule is
104.5.
2+

The diagram shows part of the [Cu(H2O)6]


water ligand.

ion and the HOH bond angle in the


H

2 u+

H
Explain why the HOH bond angle in the water ligand is 107 rather than 104.5.
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
[Total 3 marks]

40.

Transition metals readily form complex ions when they are combined with a suitable
ligand.
What is meant by the following terms?
(i)

complex ion
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

ligand
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 3 marks]

41.

(a) A common ligand which combines with a number of transition metal ions is
ethane-1,2-diamine, H2NCH2CH2NH2. This is a bidentate ligand.
Explain the meaning of the term bidentate.
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[1]

Strode's College

35

(b)

The complex [CoCl2(H2NCH2CH2NH2)2] is a neutral molecule. It shows two types


of stereoisomerism. Use this molecule to explain what you understand by the
term stereoisomerism. Your answer should include diagrams to show clearly the
structures of the different isomers in both types of stereoisomerism.

........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[7]
[Total 8 marks]

42.

Potassium dichromate(VI) can be used in a number of redox reactions. The standard


electrode potentials for two half reactions are given below.
2

Cr2O7

+ 14H + 6e
I2 + 2e

2Cr

3+

+ 7H2O
2I

E = +1.33 V

E = +0.54 V

Acidified potassium dichromate(VI) is added to aqueous potassium iodide to give


aqueous iodine.

(i)

Construct an ionic equation to show the reaction taking place when acidified
potassium dichromate(VI) is added to aqueous potassium iodide.
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[2]

(ii)

An excess of aqueous sodium thiosulphate was then added. Describe and


explain what you would see.
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[3]
[Total 5 marks]

Strode's College

37

43.

Compound B is an organic base. A student analysed this base by the procedure below.
He first prepared a solution of B by dissolving 4.32 g of B in water and making the
3
3
solution up to 250 cm . The student then carried out a titration in which 25.00 cm of
3
3
this solution of B were neutralised by exactly 23.20 cm of 0.200 mol dm HCl.
1 mole of B reacts with 1 mole of HCl.
Use this information to calculate the molar mass of base B and suggest its identity.

[Total 6 marks]

44.

In this question, one mark is available for the quality of use and organisation of
scientific terms.
Copper and iron are typical transition elements. One of the characteristic properties of
a transition element is that it can form complex ions.

Explain in terms of electronic configuration why copper is a transition element.

Give an example of a complex ion that contains copper. Draw the three
dimensional shape of the ion and describe the bonding within this complex ion.

Transition elements show typical metallic properties. Describe three other typical
properties of transition elements. Illustrate each property using copper or iron or
their compounds.
[11]
Quality of Written Communication [1]
[Total 12 marks]

45.

Brass is a widely used alloy of copper. It is possible to analyse a sample of brass by


initially dissolving it in concentrated nitric acid.
(a)

(i)

What other metal is present in brass?

...............................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

Give one common use for brass and state the property of brass which
makes it ideal for that purpose.
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[1]

(b)

During the analysis of brass, 1.65 g of the alloy was reacted with concentrated
nitric acid. The resulting solution was neutralised, transferred to a volumetric flask
3
and made up to 250 cm using distilled water.
3

An excess of aqueous potassium iodide was added to a 25.0 cm portion of the


solution from the volumetric flask and the liberated iodine was titrated with
3
3
0.100 mol dm sodium thiosulphate. 20.0 cm of aqueous sodium thiosulphate
were required to remove the iodine.

(i)

What could be used to neutralise the excess nitric acid?


...............................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

What indicator is used in the titration of iodine with sodium thiosulphate?


...............................................................................................................
[1]

(iii)

When is this indicator added to the titration mixture?


...............................................................................................................
[1]

Strode's College

39

(c)

The reactions taking place in this titration may be summarised as follows.


2Cu

2+

2CuI + I2

2I + S4O6

+ 4I

I2 + 2S2O3

(i)

Calculate the amount, in moles, of sodium thiosulphate in 20.0 cm of


solution.

answer ......................... mol


[1]

(ii)

2+

For every one mole of Cu ions present in solution, deduce the amount, in
2
moles, of S2O3 ions needed for the titration.

answer ......................... mol


[1]

(iii)

What is the amount, in moles, of Cu


solution?

2+

ions present in 25.00 cm of

answer ......................... mol


[1]

(iv)

Calculate the percentage by mass of copper in the sample of brass.

answer ...................... % Cu
[3]
[Total 11 marks]

46.

The Co
(a)

2+

ion can form complexes with two different co-ordination numbers.

What is meant by the co-ordination number of a complex ion?


........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[1]

(b)

The following equilibrium is readily established.


[Co(H2O)6]

Strode's College

2+

+ 4Cl

[CoCl4]

+ 6H2O

41

(i)

In the boxes below, draw the shape of each complex ion.

[Co(H2O)6]

2+

[CoCl4]

[2]

(ii)

What colour change would you expect to see when an excess of Cl is


2+
added to [Co(H2O)6] ?
from ............................................... to ..................................................
[2]

(iii)

Describe how you would move the position of this equilibrium to the left.
...............................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 6 marks]

47.

In this question, one mark is available for the quality of use and organisation of
scientific terms.
Stereoisomerism is very common in transition metal complexes. Some complexes have
found an important use in the treatment of cancer.
(i)

Name a transition metal complex used in the treatment of cancer.


........................................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

Describe how this complex helps in the treatment of cancer.


........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 3 marks]

48.

Describe the types of stereoisomerism found in transition metal complexes.


Use suitable examples to illustrate your answer.
[8]
Quality of Written Communication [1]
[Total 9 marks]

49.

The table below shows the enthalpy changes needed to calculate the lattice enthalpy of
calcium oxide, CaO.
process

enthalpy change/ kJ mol

first ionisation energy of calcium

+590

second ionisation energy of calcium

+1150

first electron affinity of oxygen

141

second electron affinity of oxygen

+ 791

enthalpy change of formation of calcium oxide

635

enthalpy change of atomisation of calcium

+178

Strode's College

43

enthalpy change of atomisation of oxygen

+248

(a)

(i)
Explain why the second ionisation energy of calcium is more
endothermic than the first ionisation energy of calcium.
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[2]

Strode's College

45

(ii)

Suggest why the second electron affinity of oxygen is positive.


...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[2]

(b)

Complete the BornHaber cycle for calcium oxide below.


Use the data in the table to calculate the lattice enthalpy of calcium oxide.

e n
k J

r g y /
o l

( s )

( g

( g

2+

. 5

( g

( s )

2+

. 5

( g

( s )

lattice enthalpy = ............................ kJ mol

[5]

Strode's College

47

(c)

The lattice enthalpies of calcium oxide and magnesium oxide are different.
Comment on this difference.
In your answer you should make clear how the sizes of the lattice enthalpies are
related to any supporting evidence.
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[3]
[Total 12 marks]

50.

Most metals can be extracted by reduction from compounds obtained from their
naturally-occurring ores.
Metals such as calcium and magnesium are normally extracted by electrolysis but it is
feasible that calcium oxide could be reduced by carbon as shown in the equation
below.
CaO(s) + C(s) Ca(s) + CO(g)
Use the data in the table below to help you answer parts (i)(iii) below.

CaO(s)

C(s)

Ca(s)

CO(g)

635

110

39.7

5.7

41.4

197.6

Hf /kJ mol

S /J K

mol

(i)

Calculate the standard enthalpy change for the CaO reduction in the equation.

H = ............................................ kJ mol

[1]

(ii)

Calculate the standard entropy change for the CaO reduction in the equation.

S = ......................................... J K

mol

[1]

(iii)

Calculate the minimum temperature at which the carbon reduction in the equation
is feasible.

minimum temperature = ...............................


[5]
[Total 7 marks]

Strode's College

49

51.

Use the standard electrode potentials in the table below to answer the questions that
follow.
I

Fe (aq) + 2e

II

V (aq) + e

III

2H (aq) + 2e

IV

O2(g) + 4H (aq) + 4e

2+

3+

Fe(s)

E = 0.44 V

2+

V (aq)

E = 0.26 V

H2(g)

E = 0.00 V

2H2O(l)

E = +0.40 V

An electrochemical cell was set up based on systems I and II.

(i)

Write half-equations to show what has been oxidised and what has been reduced
in this cell.

oxidation:

reduction:

[2]

(ii)

Determine the cell potential of this cell.

Ecell = ......................................................... V
[1]
[Total 3 marks]

52.

Use the standard electrode potentials in the table below to answer the questions that
follow.
I

Fe (aq) + 2e

II

V (aq) + e

III

2H (aq) + 2e

IV

O2(g) + 4H (aq) + 4e

2+

3+

Fe(s)

E = 0.44 V

2+

V (aq)

E = 0.26 V

H2(g)

E = 0.00 V

2H2O(l)

E = +0.40 V

An electrochemical fuel cell was set up based on systems III and IV.

(i)

Construct an equation for the spontaneous cell reaction. Show your working.

[2]

(ii)

Fuels cells based on systems such as III and IV are increasingly being used to
generate energy.
Discuss two advantages and two disadvantages of using fuels cells for energy
rather than using fossil fuels.
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[4]
[Total 6 marks]

Strode's College

51

53.

In this question, one mark is available for the quality of spelling, punctuation and
grammar.
The lattice enthalpy of magnesium chloride, MgCl2, can be determined using a BornHaber cycle and the following enthalpy changes.
name of process

enthalpy change / kJ mol

enthalpy change of formation of MgCl2(s)

641

enthalpy change of atomisation of magnesium

+148

first ionisation energy of magnesium

+738

second ionisation energy of magnesium

+1451

enthalpy change of atomisation of chlorine

+123

electron affinity of chlorine

349

Define, using an equation with MgCl2 as an example, what is meant by the term
lattice enthalpy.

Construct a Born-Haber cycle for MgCl2, including state symbols, and calculate
the lattice enthalpy of MgCl2.

Explain why the lattice enthalpy of NaBr is much less exothermic than that of
MgCl2.
[11]
Quality of Written Communication [1]
[Total 12 marks]

54.

2+

The standard electrode potential of Cu (aq) + 2e


(a)

Cu(s) is +0.34 V.

Define the term standard electrode potential.


........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[3]

(b)

Complete the diagram to show how the standard electrode potential of


2+

Cu (aq) + 2e
Cu(s) could be measured.

c o

2 u (+

r o

[3]
[Total 6 marks]

55.

Chromium is an important metallic element. Its compounds have a number of different


oxidation states.
(a)

(i)
Give one use of chromium metal and state the property of
chromium that makes it suitable for this use.
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[1]

Strode's College

53

(ii)

Complete the electronic configuration of a chromium atom.


2

1s 2s 2p ..............................................................................................
[1]

(b)

The following equations relate to half-cells involving iron and chromium ions.
Fe

3+

+e
2

Cr2O7

Fe
+

2+

+ 14H + 6e

E = +0.77 V

2Cr

3+

+ 7H2O

E = +1.33

V
A cell was set up by combining these two half-cells.

(i)

Derive a balanced equation for the reaction that would occur when the cell
is in use.
Explain your reasoning in terms of oxidation and reduction.
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[3]

(ii)

Determine the emf of the cell under standard conditions.

emf = ...................................................... V
[1]
[Total 6 marks]

56.

In order to obtain full marks in this question, you must show all your working clearly.
In its reactions, sulphuric acid, H2SO4, can behave as an acid, an oxidising agent and
as a dehydrating agent.
The displayed formula of pure sulphuric acid is shown below.
H

O
S

Concentrated sulphuric acid will readily oxidise halide ions to the halogen.
The equation below represents the unbalanced equation for the oxidation of iodide ions
by sulphuric acid.

H
(i)

+ SO4

I2

H2S

H2O

Write the oxidation numbers of sulphur and iodine in the boxes above the
equation.
[2]

(ii)

Balance the equation above.

[1]
[Total 3 marks]

Strode's College

55

57.

The table below shows the enthalpy changes needed to calculate the enthalpy change
of formation of calcium oxide.
process

enthalpy change/kJ mol

lattice enthalpy for calcium oxide

3459

first ionisation energy for calcium

+590

second ionisation energy for calcium

+1150

first electron affinity for oxygen

141

second electron affinity for oxygen

+798

enthalpy change of atomisation for oxygen

+249

enthalpy change of atomisation for calcium

+178

(a)

(i)
Explain why the first ionisation energy of calcium is
endothermic.
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

Explain why the first electron affinity for oxygen is exothermic.


...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[1]

(b)

(i)

Draw a Born-Haber cycle for calcium oxide.

Include

correct formulae and state symbols


energy changes in kJ.

[3]

(ii)

Use your Born-Haber cycle in (i) to calculate the enthalpy change of


formation for calcium oxide.

enthalpy change of formation = .........................................


[2]

(iii)

The lattice enthalpy for iron(II) oxide is 3920 kJ mol .


Suggest a reason for the difference in lattice enthalpy between calcium
oxide and iron(II) oxide.
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 8 marks]

Strode's College

57

58.

The standard electrode potentials for some redox systems involving vanadium are
shown below.
These are labelled A, B, C and D.

E /V

(a)

VO2 + 2H + e

3+

+e

2+

+ 2e

VO

2+

VO
2+

2+

+ H2O

+1.00

0.26

V 1.20
+

+ 2H + e

3+

+ H2O

+0.34

Which of the vanadium species shown in A, B, C and D is the most powerful


oxidising agent?
........................................................................................................................
[1]

(b)

A student wishes to set up a cell with a standard cell potential of 0.60V.


(i)

Which two of the redox systems, A, B, C or D, should he choose?


...............................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

Complete the labelling of the following diagram which shows the cell with a
standard cell potential of 0.60V.
V

[4]

(iii)

The emf of this cell is only 0.60 V under standard conditions. What do you
understand by the expression standard conditions?
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 7 marks]

Strode's College

59

59.

Concentrated nitric acid is a powerful oxidising agent. Concentrated nitric acid oxidises
sulphur to sulphuric acid. Nitrogen dioxide and another product are also formed.
(i)

Suggest a balanced equation for this reaction.


.........................................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

Deduce the change in oxidation number of nitrogen in this reaction.


from ............... to ...............
[1]
[Total 2 marks]

60.

The standard electrode potential of the 2 Cl2/ Cl half-cell may be measured using the
following apparatus.
C
s a
H

( g

lt

r i d

e
D

( a

(a)

Suggest suitable labels for A, B, C and D.


A ....................................................................................................................
B ....................................................................................................................
C ....................................................................................................................
D ....................................................................................................................
[2]

(b)

The half cell reactions involved are shown below.

1
2 Cl2 + e

1
2 H2

H +e
(i)

Cl

E = +1.36 V

E = 0.00V

Use an arrow to show the direction of flow of electrons in the diagram of the
apparatus. Explain your answer.
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[2]

(ii)

The values of E are measured under standard conditions. What are the
standard conditions?
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[2]

Strode's College

61

(c)

The half cell reaction for

ClO3

ClO3 /

+ 6H + 5e

1
2 Cl2 is shown below.

1
2 Cl2 + 3H2OE = +1.47 V

What does this tell you about the oxidising ability of ClO3 compared with Cl2?
Explain your answer.
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 8 marks]

61.

The table below shows the enthalpy changes needed to construct a Born-Haber cycle
for sodium oxide, Na2O.
process

enthalpy change / kJ mol

first ionisation energy of sodium

+495

first electron affinity of oxygen

141

second electron affinity of oxygen

+791

enthalpy change of formation for sodium oxide

416

enthalpy change of atomisation for sodium

+109

enthalpy change of atomisation for oxygen

+247

(a)

Use the table of enthalpy changes to complete the Born-Haber cycle by putting in
the correct numerical values on the appropriate dotted line.
N+ a

N+ a

( g

H
H

. . . . . . . . . . k J
2
2

( g

( g
)

)
+

+
2

( g

+( g

( g

( 12 sO 2) ( g + )

. . . . . . . . . . k J
N

2a

( s )
[4]

(b)

Use the Born-Haber cycle to calculate the lattice enthalpy of sodium oxide.

lattice enthalpy = ....................................kJ mol

[2]

Strode's College

. . . . . . . . . . k J
2

( 12 gO 2 )

la t t ic e
e n t h a lp y
o f
s o d i u m
o x i d

. . . . . . . . . . k J
2

. . . . . . . . . . k J

N+ a

) 12 O+ 2

N + ( ag

) = + . . 2 . . e . . . . . . k J

O (H g
=

( g

63

(c)

Which one of the following compounds has the most exothermic lattice enthalpy?

calcium bromide
calcium chloride
potassium bromide
potassium chloride

Explain your answer in terms of the ions present.


........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[4]
[Total 10 marks]

62.

Some standard electrode potentials are shown below.

Ag + e
1
2 Cl2 + e
2+

Cu + 2e
3+

Fe + e
1
2 I2 + e

E /V
+ 0.80

Ag
Cl

+ 1.36

Cu
2+
Fe

+ 0.34
+ 0.77

+ 0.54

(a)

Define the term standard electrode potential.


........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[3]

(b)

The diagram below shows an incomplete cell consisting of Cu/Cu


half-cells.

2+

and Ag/Ag

( s )

(i)

+g

( a

Complete and label the diagram to show how the cell potential of this cell
could be measured.
[2]

(ii)

On the diagram, show the direction of electron flow in the circuit if a current
was allowed.
[1]

Strode's College

65

(iii)

Calculate the standard cell potential.

standard cell potential = V


[1]

(iv)

Write the overall cell reaction.


...............................................................................................................
[1]

(c)

2+

Chlorine will oxidise Fe to Fe


electrode potential data.

3+

but iodine will not. Explain why, using the

........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 10 marks]

63.

NO2 reacts with oxygen and water to form nitric acid, HNO3. In the atmosphere, this
contributes to acid rain. Construct a balanced equation for this formation of nitric acid
and use oxidation numbers to show that this is a redox reaction.
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
[Total 2 marks]

64.

The table below shows the enthalpy changes needed to calculate the lattice enthalpy of
calcium chloride, CaCl2.
process

Strode's College

enthalpy change / kJ mol

first ionisation energy of


calcium

+590

second ionisation energy of


calcium

+1150

electron affinity of chlorine

348

enthalpy change of
formation for calcium
chloride

796

enthalpy change of
atomisation for calcium

+178

enthalpy change of
atomisation for chlorine

+122

67

(a)

The Born-Haber cycle below can be used to calculate the lattice enthalpy for
calcium chloride.
2 a+

C
H

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . .

C
H

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . .

C
H

C
H

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . .

2+

m
2+

k J

k J

H =
2 e

2 a+

C
+

( g

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . .

l a t t ic e
e
c a l c i u m

( g

l
C

o
2

( g

l( g

)C

( s 2)

( g l 2 ) ( +g

( g

k J

(i)

k J

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . .

+ a( g

C
H

k J

a +( g

. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . .

( g

( g

t h a l p y
o
c h l o r i d e

l
l

( s )

Use the table of enthalpy changes to complete the Born-Haber cycle by


putting in the correct numerical values on the appropriate dotted line.
[3]

(ii)

Use the Born-Haber cycle to calculate the lattice enthalpy of calcium


chloride.

answer ........................... kJ mol

[2]

(iii)

Describe how, and explain why, the lattice enthalpy of magnesium fluoride
differs from that of calcium chloride.
.................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................
[3]

Strode's College

69

(b)

Explain why the first ionisation energy of calcium is less positive than the second
ionisation energy.
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 10 marks]

65.

The carbonates and nitrates of Group 2 elements decompose when heated.


(a)

Barium nitrate decomposes when heated to make barium oxide, nitrogen dioxide
and oxygen.
2Ba(NO3)2(s) 2BaO(s) + 4NO2(g) + O2(g)
(i)

Use oxidation states to explain why this decomposition reaction involves


both oxidation and reduction.
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[3]

(ii)

Calculate the enthalpy change of reaction, Hr, in kJ mol , for the thermal
decomposition of barium nitrate using the enthalpy changes of formation,
Hf, given in the table.
compound

Hf /kJ mol

Ba(NO3)2(s)

992

BaO(s)

558

NO2(g)

+33

answer ........................... kJ mol

[3]

(b)

A student investigates the volume of gas formed when barium nitrate is heated.
The diagram shows the apparatus the student uses.

Strode's College

r i u

i t r a

03 c m

s y r in

t e

71

(i)

A 1.31 g sample of barium nitrate is completely decomposed.


3

Use the equation above to calculate the volume, in cm , of gas formed at


room temperature and pressure.
3

1 mol of gas molecules occupies 24 000 cm at room temperature and


pressure.

answer ......................... cm

[3]

(ii)

Suggest one problem that the student may encounter when carrying out
the investigation.
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 10 marks]

66.

Chlorine gas may be prepared in the laboratory by reacting hydrochloric acid with
potassium manganate(VII). The following standard electrode potentials relate to this
reaction.

1
2 Cl2 + e

Cl
+

MnO4 + 8H + 5e

Mn

2+

E = +1.36 V

+ 4H2O

E = +1.52 V

(a)

Define the term standard electrode potential.


........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[3]

(b)

Determine the standard cell potential for a cell constructed from these two redox
systems.

[1]
[Total 4 marks]

67.

Chlorine gas may be prepared in the laboratory by reacting hydrochloric acid with
potassium manganate(VII). The following standard electrode potentials relate to this
reaction.

1
2 Cl2 + e

Cl
+

MnO4 + 8H + 5e

(a)

Mn

2+

E = +1.36 V

+ 4H2O

E = +1.52 V

Use the half-equations above to:


(i)

construct an ionic equation for the reaction between hydrochloric acid and
potassium manganate(VII);
.................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................
[2]

Strode's College

73

(ii)

determine the oxidation numbers of chlorine and manganese before and


after the reaction has taken place;
.................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................
[2]

(iii)

state what is oxidised and what is reduced in this reaction.


.................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................
[2]

(b)

If potassium manganate(VII) and very dilute hydrochloric acid are mixed, there is
no visible reaction. Suggest why there is no visible reaction in this case.
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 7 marks]

68.

Phenol, C6H5OH, is a powerful disinfectant and antiseptic.


Phenol is a weak BrnstedLowry acid.
C6H5OH(aq)

H (aq) + C6H5O (aq)

10

Ka = 1.3 10

mol dm

Define the following terms:


(i)

A BrnstedLowry acid,
........................................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

A weak acid.
........................................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 2 marks]

69.

When phenol is mixed with aqueous sodium hydroxide, an acidbase reaction takes
place.
C6H5OH(aq)

......................

OH (aq)
.....................

C6H5O (aq) +
.......................

H2O(l)
.....................

In the available spaces,

label one conjugate acidbase pair as acid 1 and base 1,

label the other conjugate acidbase pair as acid 2 and base 2.


[Total 1 mark]

70.

A solution of phenol in water has a concentration of 4.7 g dm .


(i)

Write an expression for the acid dissociation constant, Ka, of phenol.

[1]

Strode's College

75

(ii)

Calculate the pH of this solution of phenol.

[5]
[Total 6 marks]

71.

As part of an investigation, a student needed to prepare a buffer solution with a pH


value of 8.71. From the Ka value of phenol, the student thought that a mixture of phenol
and sodium phenoxide could be used to prepare this buffer solution.
3

The student decided to use a 0.200 mol dm


volume of sodium phenoxide.

solution of phenol, mixed with an equal

Use your knowledge of buffer solutions to determine the concentration of sodium


3
phenoxide solution that the student would need to mix with the 0.200 mol dm phenol
solution.

[Total 3 marks]

72.

Syngas is a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen gases, used as a feedstock for
the manufacture of methanol.
A dynamic equilibrium was set up between carbon monoxide, CO, hydrogen, H2, and
3

methanol, CH3OH, in a 2.0 dm sealed vessel.


The equilibrium is shown below.
CO(g) + 2H2(g)

CH3OH(g)

The number of moles of each component at equilibrium is shown below


component
number of moles
at equilibrium

(a)

CO(g)

H2(g)
3

6.20 10

CH3OH(g)
2

4.80 10

5.20 10

State two features of a system that is in dynamic equilibrium.


........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[2]

(b)

(i)

Write an expression for Kc for this equilibrium system.

[1]

(ii)

Calculate Kc for this equilibrium. State the units.

Kc = ... units:....
[4]

Strode's College

77

(c)

The pressure was increased whilst keeping the temperature constant. The
mixture was left to reach equilibrium.
The equilibrium position above shifted to the right.
(i)

Explain why the equilibrium position shifted to the right.


...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

What is the effect, if any, on the value of Kc?


...............................................................................................................
[1]

(d)

The temperature was increased whilst keeping the pressure constant. The
mixture was left to reach equilibrium.
The value of Kc for the equilibrium above decreased.
(i)

Explain what happened to the equilibrium position in the equilibrium.


...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

Deduce the sign of the enthalpy change for the forward reaction shown in
the equilibrium above.
Explain your reasoning.
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[1]

(e)

Methanol can be used as an additive to petrol.


(i)

Write an equation for the complete combustion of methanol, CH3OH.


...............................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

Suggest why methanol is added to petrol.


...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 13 marks]

73.

Nitrogen monoxide reacts with hydrogen at 500 C as in the equation below.


2NO(g) + 2H2(g) N2(g) + 2H2O(g)
A series of experiments was carried out to investigate the kinetics of this reaction. The
results are shown in the table below.
[H2]

experiment

[NO]
3
/ mol dm

0.10

0.20

2.6

0.10

0.50

6.5

0.30

0.50

58.5

/ mol dm

initial rate
3 1
/ mol dm s

In this question, one mark is available for the quality of spelling, punctuation and
grammar.

Strode's College

79

(i)

For each reactant, deduce the order of reaction. Show your reasoning.
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[4]
Quality of Written Communication [1]

(ii)

Deduce the rate equation for this reaction.


........................................................................................................................
[1]

(iii)

Calculate the rate constant, k, for this reaction. State the units for k.

k = .................................................... units ....................................................


[3]
[Total 9 marks]

74.

Nitrogen monoxide, NO, is involved in formation of ozone at low levels and the
breakdown of ozone at high levels.
(i)

In the lower atmosphere, NO is produced by combustion in car engines. Ozone is


then formed following the series of reactions shown below.
NO(g) + 1/2O2(g) NO2(g)
NO2(g) NO(g) + O(g)
O2(g) + O(g) O3(g)
Write the overall equation for this reaction sequence.
Identify the catalyst and justify your answer.
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[3]

(ii)

In the upper atmosphere, NO removes O3 by the following reaction mechanism.


NO(g) + O3(g) NO2(g) + O2(g)

slow

O(g) + NO2(g) NO(g) + O2(g)

fast

Suggest the rate equation for this process. Explain your reasoning.
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 5 marks]

Strode's College

81

75.

When heated, phosphorus pentachloride, PCl5, dissociates.


PCl5(g)

PCl3(g) + Cl2(g)

A chemist placed a mixture of the three gases into a container. The initial concentration
3
of each gas was the same: 0.30 mol dm . The container was left until equilibrium had
been reached.
3

Under these conditions, Kc = 0.245 mol dm .


(a)

Write an expression for Kc for this equilibrium.

[1]

(b)

Use the value of Kc for this equilibrium to deduce whether the concentration of
each gas increases, decreases or stays the same as the mixture approaches
equilibrium.
(i)

Show your answer by placing a tick in the appropriate cells in the table
below.
initial concentration
3
/ mol dm

PCl5

0.30

PCl3

0.30

Cl2

0.30

greater than

0.30 mol dm
3

less than
3
0.30 mol dm

equal to
3
0.30 mol dm

[1]

(ii)

Explain your deduction.


...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................

[1]

(c)

The chemist compressed the equilibrium mixture at constant temperature and


allowed it to reach equilibrium under these new conditions.
(i)

Explain what happens to the value of Kc.


...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

Explain what happened to the composition of the equilibrium mixture.


...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[2]

(d)

The chemist heated the equilibrium mixture and the equilibrium moved to the left.
(i)

Explain what happens to the value of Kc.


...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

Explain what additional information this observation reveals about the


reaction.
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 9 marks]

Strode's College

83

76.

In sewage plants, biological activity can be reduced by increasing the pH of the water.
This is achieved by adding small amounts of solid calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2, to the
sewage water.
In all parts of this question, assume that measurements have been made at 25 C.
(a)

The pH of aqueous solutions is determined by Kw.


14

Kw has a value of 1.0 10


(i)

mol dm

at 25 C.

What name is given to Kw?


...............................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

Write the expression for Kw.


...............................................................................................................
[1]

(b)

A chemist checked the concentration of aqueous calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2, in


3

the sewage water by titration with 5.00 10

mol dm

hydrochloric acid.

Ca(OH) 2(aq) + 2HCl(aq) CaCl2(aq) + 2H2O(l)


3

The chemist titrated 25.0 cm of the sewage water with 21.35 cm of HCl to reach
the endpoint of the titration.
3

Calculate the concentration, in mol dm , of the calcium hydroxide in the sewage


water.

concentration = .......................................... mol dm

[3]

(c)

The chemist analysed a sample of water from another part of the sewage works
3
3
and he found that the calcium hydroxide concentration was 2.7 10 mol dm .
When solid calcium hydroxide dissolves in water, its ions completely dissociate.
2+

Ca(OH) 2(s) Ca (aq) + 2OH (aq)


Calculate the pH of this sample.

[3]

(d)

After further treatment, the water could be used for drinking. In the drinking water

+
produced, the OH concentration was 100 times greater than the H
concentration.
What was the pH of this drinking water?

[1]
[Total 9 marks]

Strode's College

85

77.

Superphosphate fertilisers contain calcium dihydrogenphosphate, Ca(H2PO4)2. This


compound is one of the world's most important fertilisers. When dissolved in water,

Ca(H2PO4)2 dissociates forming H2PO4 ions which are easily taken up by plants.
(a)

Calcium dihydrogenphosphate, Ca(H2PO4)2, is produced by treating rock


phosphate, containing Ca3(PO4)2, with sulphuric acid, H2SO4.
Write a balanced equation for this reaction.
........................................................................................................................
[1]

(b)

Aqueous H2PO4 ions can act as a weak acid.

Write an equation to represent the dissociation of the H2PO4 ion.


........................................................................................................................
[1]

(c)

The H2PO4 ion can act as either an acid or a base.


(i)

State the formula of the conjugate base of H2PO4 .


...............................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

State the formula of the conjugate acid of H2PO4 .


...............................................................................................................
[1]

(iii)

A solution of calcium dihydrogenphosphate, Ca(H2PO4)2, in water acts as a


buffer solution.
Suggest, with the aid of equations, how this buffering action takes place.
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[3]
[Total 7 marks]

78.

In order to obtain full marks in this question, you must show all your working clearly.
In its reactions, sulphuric acid, H2SO4, can behave as an acid, an oxidising agent and
as a dehydrating agent.
The displayed formula of pure sulphuric acid is shown below.
H

O
S

Dilute sulphuric acid takes part in the typical acid reactions, reacting with metals,
carbonates and bases.
Write balanced equations for the reaction of sulphuric acid with
a metal, ...................................................................................................................
a carbonate, ............................................................................................................
a base. ....................................................................................................................
[Total 3 marks]

Strode's College

87

79.

1, 2-Dibromoethane, C2H4Br2, reacts with potassium iodide as shown in the equation


below.
C2H4Br2 + 3KI C2H4 + 2KBr + Kl3
A series of experiments was carried out to investigate the kinetics of this reaction.
(a)

In a first experiment the concentration of C2H4Br2 was measured during the


course of the reaction and a concentration-time graph was plotted. The reaction
was shown to be first order with respect to C2H4Br2.
(i)

On the axes below, sketch a graph to show how [C2H4Br2] changed during
the course of the reaction.

[ C2
/ m

H4
B 2r ]
o l3 d m

0
0

t i m

/ s
[2]

(ii)

Show on the graph how you would measure the initial rate of the reaction.
[1]

(iii)

How would you use the graph to show that the reaction is first order with
respect to C2H4Br2?
................................................................................................................
[1]

(iv)

The experiment was repeated using different initial concentrations of


C2H4Br2.
Using the axes below, sketch a graph to show how the initial rate of the
reaction changes with different concentrations of C2H4Br2.

i n i t i a l r a
m
o l 3 d m 1

t e

/
s

0
[ C2

H4

m
[1]

(b)

In a second experiment, the initial concentration of KI was varied and the initial
rate was measured. The results are shown in the table below.

experiment

[C2H4Br2]
/mol dm

[KI]
3
/mol dm

initial rate
3 1
/mol dm s

0.50

0.18

0.027

0.50

0.72

0.108

Deduce the order of reaction with respect to KI. Show your reasoning.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]

Strode's College

89

(c)

(i)

Construct the rate equation for the reaction.

................................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

Calculate the rate constant, k, for this reaction. State the units for k.

k = ............................ units ..................................


[3]
[Total 11 marks]

80.

Some ammonia plants are run at 200300 atm and 500 C, with an iron catalyst.
(a)

The hydrogen for the plants is obtained by reacting methane with steam.
Construct a possible equation for this reaction.
.........................................................................................................................
[1]

(b)

Nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas produce ammonia gas as shown below.
N2(g) + 3H2(g)
(i)

H = 92 kJ mol

2NH3(g)

Write the expression for Kc for this equilibrium.

[1]

(ii)

At 500 C, Kc = 8.00 x 10

dm mol .

At equilibrium, the concentration of N2 is 1.20moldm

and the

concentration of H2 is 2.00moldm .
Calculate the equilibrium concentration of ammonia under these conditions.

equilibrium concentration of NH3 = ........................................ moldm

[3]

(c)

In this question one mark is available for the quality of the use and organisation
of scientific terms.
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of running this reaction

at a pressure of 200300 atm;

at a temperature of 500C;

with an iron catalyst.


[6]
Quality of Written Communication [1]
[Total 12 marks]

Strode's College

91

81.

This question looks at two acids:

methanoic acid, HCOOH, a weak organic acid;

nitric acid, HNO3, a strong acid which can also act as a powerful oxidising agent.

Methanoic acid is a weak Brnsted-Lowry acid.


Explain what is meant by a weak Brnsted-Lowry acid.
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
[Total 2 marks]

82.

Calculate the pH of a 0.025 mol dm


4

solution of methanoic acid. Show your working.

For HCOOH, Ka = 1.58 x l0 mol dm .

pH = ............................
[Total 3 marks]

83.

Methanoic acid is a component of a buffer solution used in shampoos. The buffer


solution can be made by mixing methanoic acid with another chemical.
(i)

State what is meant by a buffer solution.


.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

Suggest a chemical that could be added to methanoic acid to prepare a buffer


solution. Explain your answer.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]

(iii)

What factors determine the pH of a buffer solution?


.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 5 marks]

84.

Nitric acid, HN03, is sold by a chemical supplier as a 65% solution, by mass. As


supplied, each cubic decimetre of this nitric acid has a mass of 1400g.
Calculate the pH of this solution.

pH = ....................................
[Total 3 marks]

Strode's College

93

85.

When dilute, nitric acid behaves as a typical acid.


Write an equation for the reaction of nitric acid with limestone.
..................................................................................................................................
[Total 2 marks]

86.

When nitric acid is added to methanoic acid, the acid-base equilibrium below is set up.
HNO3 + HCOOH

NO3 + HCOOH2

Use this equilibrium to explain what is meant by the term conjugate acid-base pairs.
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
[Total 3 marks]

87.

A student analysed an unsaturated carboxylic acid, A, using a titration procedure.


The student dissolved 2.580 g of the compound in water and made the solution up to
3
3
3
250.0cm . The student titrated 25.0 cm of this solution with 0.1263mol dm NaOH.
3
The volume of NaOH(aq) required to reach the end point was 23.75cm .
Each molecule of A has one acidic hydrogen atom and A behaves as a monoprotic (or
monobasic) acid.

Calculate the molar mass of the unsaturated carboxylic acid.

Determine the molecular formula and possible displayed or skeletal formulae of


the carboxylic acid.

[Total 8 marks]

88.

Methanoic acid, HCOOH, is a weak organic acid which occurs naturally in ants and
stinging nettles.
(a)

Use an equation for the dissociation of methanoic acid to show what is meant by
a weak acid.
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[1]

Strode's College

95

(b)

A 1.50 10
(i)

mol dm

solution of HCOOH has [H ] = 1.55 10

mol dm .

Calculate the pH of this solution and give one reason why the pH scale is a
more convenient measurement for measuring acid concentrations than
+
[H ].
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[2]

(ii)

Write the expression for Ka for methanoic acid.

[1]

(iii)

Calculate the values of Ka and pKa for methanoic acid.

[3]

(iv)

Estimate the percentage of HCOOH molecules that have dissociated in this


aqueous solution of methanoic acid.

[1]
[Total 8 marks]

89.

A student titrated the 1.50 10 mol dm methanoic acid with aqueous sodium
hydroxide.
3
A 25.00 cm sample of the HCOOH(aq) was placed in a conical flask and the
NaOH(aq) was added from a burette until the pH no longer changed.
(i)

Write a balanced equation for the reaction between HCOOH(aq) and NaOH(aq).
........................................................................................................................
[1]

Strode's College

97

(ii)

Part of the pH curve for this titration is shown below.

1 4
1 3
1 2
1 1
1 0
9
8
H 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
0

1
v o

0
l u

53

1
m

0
a

03

H3

( a

5
q

54

4
e

c m

Calculate the concentration, in mol dm , of the aqueous sodium hydroxide.

concentration = ......................mol dm

[3]

(iii)

Calculate the pH of the aqueous sodium hydroxide.


14
3
Kw = 1.00 10 mol dm

pH = .......................................
[2]

(iv)

The pH ranges in which colour changes for three acid-base indicators are shown
below.
indicator

pH range

metacresol purple
2,4,6-trinitrotoluene
ethyl orange

7.4 9.0
11.5 13.0
3.4 4.8

Explain which of the three indicators is suitable for this titration.


........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 8 marks]

90.

The preparation of hydrogen iodide, HI(g), from hydrogen and iodine gases is a
reversible reaction which reaches equilibrium at constant temperature.
H2(g) + I2(g)
(a)

2HI(g)

Write the expression for Kc for this equilibrium.

[1]

(b)

A student mixed together 0.30 mol H2(g) with 0.20 mol I2(g) and the mixture was
allowed to reach equilibrium. At equilibrium, 0.14 mol H2(g) was present.
(i)

Complete the table below to show the amount of each component in the
equilibrium mixture.
component

H2(g)

I2(g)

HI(g)

initial amount / mol

0.30

0.20

equilibrium amount / mol

Strode's College

99

[2]

(ii)

Calculate Kc to an appropriate number of significant figures. State the units,


if any.

Kc = ...........................................
units, if any ...........................................................................................
[3]

(c)

The student compressed the equilibrium mixture so that its volume was reduced.
The temperature was kept constant.
Comment on the value of Kc and the composition of the equilibrium mixture
under these new conditions.
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 8 marks]

91.

Hydroiodic acid, HI(aq), is a strong acid that is an aqueous solution of hydrogen iodide.
In the laboratory, hydroiodic acid can be prepared by the method below.
3

A mixture of 480 g of iodine and 600 cm of water was put into a flask. The
mixture was stirred and hydrogen sulphide gas, H2S(g), was bubbled
through for several hours.
The mixture became yellow as sulphur separated out. The sulphur was
filtered off and the solution was purified by fractional distillation. A fraction of
3
HI(aq) was collected containing 440 g of HI in a total volume of 750 cm .

(i)

Construct a balanced equation, with state symbols, for the preparation of


hydroiodic acid.
...............................................................................................................
[2]

(ii)

Determine the percentage yield of hydroiodic acid.

[3]

(iii)

Calculate the pH of the hydroiodic acid fraction.

[2]
[Total 7 marks]

92.

In this question, one mark is available for the quality of use and organisation of
scientific terms.
Propanone reacts with iodine in the presence of dilute hydrochloric acid.
A student carried out an investigation into the kinetics of this reaction.
He measured how the concentration of propanone changes with time. He also
investigated how different concentrations of iodine and hydrochloric acid affect the
initial rate of the reaction.

Strode's College

101

The graph and results are shown below.

[ C

CH

t im
[CH3COCH3]
/ mol dm

[I2]
/ mol dm

initial rate
3 1
/ mol dm s

[H ]
3
/ mol dm

1.5 10

0.0300

0.0200

2.1 10

1.5 10

0.0300

0.0400

4.2 10

1.5 10

0.0600

0.0400

4.2 10

The overall equation for the reaction is given below.


CH3COCH3 + I2 CH3COCH2I + HI
This is a multi-step reaction.

What conclusions can be drawn about the kinetics of this reaction from the
students investigation? Justify your reasoning.

Calculate the rate constant for this reaction, including units.

Suggest the equations for a possible two-step mechanism for this reaction. Label
the rate-determining step and explain your reasoning.
Quality of Written Communication [1]
[Total 14 marks]

93.

This question looks at different compounds used in medicine.


(a)

Nitrous oxide, N2O, is the gas used as a general anaesthetic.


(i)

What is the oxidation number of nitrogen in nitrous oxide?


...............................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

Suggest a dot-and-cross diagram for nitrous oxide. Show outer electrons


only.
The sequence of atoms in a nitrous oxide molecule is N N O.

[1]

(b)

The structure of the painkiller ibuprofen is shown below.

(i)

Determine the molecular formula of ibuprofen.

[1]

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103

(ii)

Suggest a chemical that would react with a solution of ibuprofen to produce


a gas.
Name the gas produced and write a balanced equation for the reaction.
chemical ...............................................................................................
gas ........................................................................................................
equation

[2]

(c)

Lidocaine, C13H20N2O2, is used as a local anaesthetic in dentistry. Lidocaine is


3

administered by syringe as a solution containing 100 mg in 5.00 cm .


3

Calculate the concentration, in mol dm , of lidocaine in the syringe.

concentration = ......................mol dm

[3]

(d)

Eugenol is used as a painkiller in dentistry. It is an organic compound of C, H


and O.
A sample of 1.394 g of eugenol was analysed by burning in oxygen to form
3.74 g of CO2 and 0.918 g of H2O. The relative molecular mass of eugenol was
shown to be 164 using a mass spectrometer.
Calculate the molecular formula of eugenol.

[5]
[Total 13 marks]

94.

Nitrogen dioxide is one of the major pollutants in air, formed by reaction of nitrogen
monoxide with oxygen.
2NO(g) + O2(g) 2NO2(g)

(a)

What is meant by the rate of reaction?


........................................................................................................................
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[1]

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105

(b)

A series of experiments was carried out to investigate the kinetics of this reaction.
The results are shown in the table below.
Experiment

(i)

[O2]
3

/ mol dm

[NO]
3
/ mol dm

initial rate
3 1
/ mol dm s

0.00100

0.00100

7.10

0.00400

0.00100

28.4

0.00400

0.00300

256

For each reactant, deduce the order of reaction. Show your reasoning.
O2(g) .....................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
NO(g) ....................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[4]

(ii)

Deduce the rate equation for this reaction.


...............................................................................................................
[1]

(iii)

Calculate the rate constant, k, for this reaction. State the units for k.

k = ................................... units ...................................


[2]
[Total 8 marks]

95.

Nitrogen dioxide reacts with carbon monoxide emitted from car exhausts in the
following reaction.
NO2 + CO NO + CO2
2

The rate equation for this reaction is rate = k[NO2] .


This is a multi-step reaction. The first step is the rate-determining step.

(i)

What is meant by the rate-determining step?


........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

Suggest a two-step reaction mechanism for this reaction that is consistent with
the kinetic data and the overall reaction.

[2]
[Total 3 marks]

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96.

The Ka values for three acids are shown in the table below.
acid

(a)

Ka / mol dm

ethanoic acid

CH3COOH

1.70 10

phenol

C6H5OH

1.28 10

sulphurous acid

H2SO3

1.50 10

10
2

What information is provided by Ka values?


........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[1]

(b)

When sulphurous acid and ethanoic acid are mixed together, an acid-base
reaction takes place.
H2SO3(aq)

+ CH3COOH(aq)

HSO 3 (aq)

+
CH3COOH2 (aq)

.......................
(i)

.......................

.......................

......................

In the spaces above

label one conjugate acid-base pair as acid 1 and base 1,


label the other conjugate acid-base pair as acid 2 and base 2.
[2]

(ii)

Predict and explain the acid-base reaction that would take place if ethanoic
acid were mixed with phenol. Include an equation in your answer.

...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[2]

(c)

The pH value of 0.0450 mol dm


3
0.0450 mol dm ethanoic acid.

hydrochloric acid is different from that of

Calculate the pH values of these two acids. Show all your working.

[5]
[Total 10 marks]

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109

97.

An excess of magnesium was added to 100 cm of 0.0450 mol dm hydrochloric acid.


3
3
The same mass of magnesium was added to 100 cm of 0.0450 mol dm ethanoic
acid.
3

Both reactions produced 54 cm of hydrogen gas, measured at room temperature and


pressure, but the reaction with ethanoic acid took much longer to produce this gas
volume.
Explain why the reactions produced the same volume of a gas but at different rates.
Use equations in your answer.
.................................................................................................................................
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[Total 4 marks]

98.

Chocolate mousse contains gelatine and a compound to promote fast setting of the
mousse.
Compound A is such a setting agent. It has two acidic hydrogen atoms per molecule
and is one of the six acids listed below.
oxalic acid

HOOCCOOH

malonic acid

HOOCCH2COOH

succinic acid

HOOC(CH2)2COOH

glutaric acid

HOOC(CH2)3COOH

adipic acid

HOOC(CH2)4COOH

pimelic acid

HOOC(CH2)5COOH

The student analysed a sample of compound A by titration.


The student dissolved 2.82 g of compound A in water and made the solution up to 250
3
3
cm3 in a volumetric flask. He titrated 25.0 cm of this solution with 0.175 mol dm
NaOH.
3

22.05 cm of NaOH were required for complete neutralisation.


Use the results of the students analysis to identify compound A from the list above.
Show all of your working.

[Total 5 marks]

99.

In the UK, almost all the sulphuric acid, H2SO4, is manufactured by the Contact
process.
One stage in the Contact process involves the reaction between sulphur dioxide and
oxygen.
2SO2(g) + O2(g)

2SO3(g)

The table below shows values of the equilibrium constant, Kp, for this equilibrium at
different temperatures.

Strode's College

temperature / C

Kp / kPa

25

4.0 10

200

2.5 10

800

1.3 10

22
8

111

(a)

Write an expression for the equilibrium constant, Kp, of this reaction.

[2]

(b)

In this question, one mark is available for the quality and use of scientific terms.

The conversion of sulphur dioxide and oxygen into sulphur trioxide is


carried out at slightly above atmospheric pressure. Comment on this
statement.

Explain what happens to the equilibrium amounts of SO2, O2 and SO3 as


temperature increases at constant pressure.

Deduce the sign of H for the forward reaction in the equilibrium. Explain
your reasoning carefully.

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[6]
Quality of Written Communication [1]

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113

(c)

An equilibrium is set up for the SO2, O2, SO3 equilibrium at 400 C.


At this temperature

the equilibrium partial pressure of SO2 is 10 kPa

the equilibrium partial pressure of O2 is 50 kPa

Kp = 3.0 10 kPa .

Calculate the equilibrium partial pressure of SO3 at 400 C. Hence determine the
percentage of SO3 in the equilibrium mixture at this temperature.

answer ..................................%
[3]

(d)

In the UK, almost all the sulphuric acid manufactured uses sulphur as a starting
material for SO2 production. In some countries, metal ores such as zinc sulphide,
ZnS, are used instead to form SO2 by heating with air.
(i)

Construct a balanced equation to show the reaction that takes place when
zinc sulphide is heated in air.
...............................................................................................................
[2]

(ii)

Suggest why countries may find it more economic to manufacture sulphuric


acid from zinc sulphide.
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 15 marks]

100. One cause of low-level smog is the reaction of ozone, O3, with ethene. The smog
contains methanal, CH2O(g), and the equation for its production is shown below.

1
O3(g) + C2H4(g) 2CH2O(g) + 2 O2(g)

(a)

equation 1

The rate of the reaction doubles when the initial concentration of either O3(g) or
C2H4(g) is doubled.
(i)

What is the order of reaction with respect to


O3 .............................
C2H4? .......................
[1]

(ii)

What is the overall order of the reaction?


..............................................................
[1]

(iii)

Write the rate equation for this reaction.


...............................................................................................................
[1]

(b)

For an initial concentration of ozone of 0.50 10 mol dm and one of ethene of


8
3
1.0 10 mol dm , the initial rate of methanal formation was
12
3 1
1.0 10 mol dm s .
(i)

How could the initial rate of methanal formation be measured from a


concentration/time graph?
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[2]

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115

(ii)

Calculate the value of the rate constant and state the units.

rate constant =.......................... units....................................


[3]

(iii)

The initial rate of methanal formation is different from that of oxygen


formation in equation 1.
Explain why.
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[1]

(iv)

The experiment was repeated but at a higher temperature. What would be


the effect of this change on the rate and the rate constant of the reaction?
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 11 marks]

101. In the stratosphere, ozone forms when oxygen free radicals react with oxygen
molecules.
O2 + O O3
The oxygen free radicals are initially formed as diradicals when oxygen gas, O2, is
dissociated by strong ultraviolet radiation,
O2(g) 2O(g)

(i)

Suggest why oxygen free radicals, O, are often called diradicals.


........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

Draw a dot-and-cross diagram of an ozone molecule. Show outer electrons only.

[2]

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117

(iii)

Chlorine free radicals formed from CFCs deplete the ozone layer in a chain
reaction.
Typically, 1 g of chlorine free radicals destroys 150 kg of ozone during the
atmospheric lifetime of the chlorine free radical (one to two years).
Calculate how many ozone molecules are destroyed in this chain reaction by a
single chlorine free radical before the free radical is destroyed.

answer........................................
[3]
[Total 6 marks]

102. Phenol, C6H5OH, is a powerful disinfectant and antiseptic. Phenol is a weak BrnstedLowry acid.
What is meant by the following terms;
(i)

a Brnsted-Lowry acid;
........................................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

a weak acid?
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 2 marks]

103. When phenol is mixed with aqueous sodium hydroxide, an acid-base reaction takes
place.
C6H5OH(aq)

......................

OH (aq)

C6H5O (aq)

.....................

.......................

H2O(l)
.....................

In the spaces above,

label one conjugate acid-base pair as acid 1 and base 1,


label the other conjugate acid-base pair as acid 2 and base 2.
[Total 2 marks]

104. A solution of phenol in water has a concentration of 38 g dm .


10
3
The acid dissociation constant, Ka, of phenol is 1.3 10 mol dm .
(i)

Write an expression for the acid dissociation constant, Ka, of phenol.

[1]

Strode's College

119

(ii)

Calculate the pH of this solution.

answer........................................
[5]
[Total 6 marks]

105. Hexylresorcinol is an antiseptic used in solutions for cleansing wounds and in


mouthwashes and throat lozenges.
The structure of hexylresorcinol is shown below.
O

O
C

2 H(

)H

H
4

Identify a compound that could be added to hexylresorcinol to make a buffer solution.


Explain your answer.

[Total 2 marks]

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121

106. Compound B is an organic base. A student analysed this base by the procedure below.
He first prepared a solution of B by dissolving 4.32 g of B in water and making the
3
3
solution up to 250 cm . The student then carried out a titration in which 25.00 cm of
3
3
this solution of B were neutralised by exactly 23.20 cm of 0.200 mol dm HCl.
1 mole of B reacts with 1 mole of HCl.
Use this information to calculate the molar mass of base B and suggest its identity.

[Total 6 marks]

107. The decomposition of dinitrogen pentoxide, N2O5, at 45 C was investigated. The


reaction that takes place is shown below.
2N2O5 4NO2 + O2
3

In an experiment, N2O5 with a concentration of 0.60 mol dm


45 C.

was decomposed at

At this temperature, the reaction has a constant half-life of 1200 s.

(i)

How can you tell that this reaction is first order with respect to N2O5?
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

Write down an expression for the rate equation of this decomposition.


........................................................................................................................
[1]

Strode's College

123

(iii)

Complete the graph below to show how the [N2O5] changes over the first 3600 s
of the reaction.
[ N2 O 5 ]

o 3 l

m
0 .6 0

0 .5 0

0 .4 0

0 .3 0

0 .2 0

0 .1 0

0
0
400
800
1200
1600
2000

t im e / s

2400
2800
3200
3600
[2]

(iv)

The rate of this reaction can be determined from this graph.


Show on the graph how the rate can be measured after 1200 s.
[1]

(v)

The rate can also be calculated from the rate equation. The rate constant for this
4 1
reaction is 6.2 10 s .
Calculate the initial rate of this reaction. State the units.

rate =.... units.....


[2]
[Total 7 marks]

108. A student investigated the hydration of 2-methylpropene, (CH3)2C=CH2, with dilute


aqueous acid to form 2-methylpropan-2-ol, (CH3)3COH.
The following mechanism has been proposed for this hydration.
+

step 1 (CH3)2C=CH2 + H (aq) (CH3)3C

rate determining step


+

step 2 (CH3)3C+ + H2O (CH3)3COH + H (aq)

(i)

Step 1 is the rate-determining step for this hydration.


What is meant by the term rate-determining step?
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[1]

Strode's College

125

(ii)

Write a balanced equation for the overall hydration reaction.


........................................................................................................................
[1]

(iii)

Suggest the role of H (aq) in this mechanism. Explain your reason.


........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[2]

(iv)

Use the mechanism above to suggest the rate equation for this hydration.
........................................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 5 marks]

109. Methanol, CH3OH(g), is manufactured from carbon monoxide and hydrogen in an


equilibrium reaction.
CO(g) + 2H2(g)
(a)

CH3OH(g)

H = 91 kJ mol

In this question, one mark is available for the quality of use and organisation of
scientific terms.
Explain the advantages and disadvantages of running this reaction

at a high pressure,

at a high temperature.

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[5]
Quality of Written Communication [1]

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127

(b)

This equilibrium reaction is normally carried out at 10MPa pressure and 550 K,
and starting with a 1 : 2 CO : H2 mixture. At equilibrium, only 10% of the CO has
reacted.
(i)

Deduce the equilibrium amounts, mole fractions and partial pressures of


CO, H2 and CH3OH present at equilibrium. Write your answers in the table
below.
Assume that you have started with a mixture of 1.0 mol CO and 2.0 mol H2.
CO

H2

CH3OH

initial amount /mol

1.0

2.0

0.0

equilibrium amount /mol

0.9

mole fraction at
equilibrium
partial pressure at
equilibrium /MPa
[4]

(ii)

Write the expression for Kp for this equilibrium.

[2]

(iii)

The CO : H2 ratio in the starting mixture was changed from 1 : 2 to 1 : 3 and


the mixture was allowed to reach equilibrium at the same temperature and
pressure.
Explain, in terms of Kp, the effect of this change on the equilibrium yield of
CH3OH.
...............................................................................................................
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[3]

(iv)

In another experiment, the equilibrium partial pressures were:


CO, 3.70 MPa; H2, 5.10 MPa; CH3OH, 0.261 MPa.
Calculate the value of Kp for this equilibrium. Express your answer to an
appropriate number of significant figures. State the units of Kp.

Kp = ............................. units.............................
[2]

(c)

In the UK, the annual production of methanol is 500 000 tonnes. Methanol has
many uses in fuels as a reliable and low pollution form of energy.
Suggest an equation for the combustion of methanol.
........................................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 18 marks]

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129

110. A student carried out an investigation with aqueous solutions of nitric acid, sodium
hydroxide, ethanoic acid and water.
Nitric acid, HNO3, is a strong Brnsted-Lowry acid.
(i)

Explain what is meant by a strong acid and a Brnsted-Lowry acid.


........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[2]

(ii)

What is the conjugate base formed from HNO3?


........................................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 3 marks]

111. A student carried out an investigation with aqueous solutions of nitric acid, sodium
hydroxide, ethanoic acid and water.
3

The student diluted 0.015 mol dm nitric acid with an equal volume of water and
measured the pH of the diluted acid at 25 C.
(i)

Calculate the pH of 0.015 mol dm

nitric acid.

[2]

(ii)

Calculate the pH of the diluted acid.

[1]
[Total 3 marks]

112. A student measured the pH of a solution of sodium hydroxide as 13.54 at 25 C.


14

Kw = 1.0 10

(i)

mol dm

at 25 C.

Write down an expression for the ionic product, Kw, for water.
........................................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

Calculate the concentration, in mol dm , of this solution of sodium hydroxide.

[2]
[Total 3 marks]

113. A student prepared two solutions.


3

Solution A was made by mixing together 25 cm 0.010 mol dm aqueous sodium


3
3
hydroxide with 50 cm 0.010 mol dm ethanoic acid, CH3COOH. Solution A is a
buffer solution.

Solution B was made by mixing together 25 cm 0.020 mol dm aqueous sodium


3
3
hydroxide with 50 cm 0.010 mol dm ethanoic acid, CH3COOH. Solution B is
not a buffer solution.

(i)

What is meant by a buffer solution?


........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[1]

Strode's College

131

(ii)

Explain why Solution A is a buffer solution whereas Solution B is not.


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[4]
[Total 5 marks]

114. A student measured the pH of water as 7.0 at 25 C. The student then warmed the
water to 40 C and measured the pH as 6.7.
What do these results tell you about the tendency of water to ionise as it gets warmer?
Explain your reasoning in terms of equilibrium.
.................................................................................................................................
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[Total 2 marks]