Dynamic analysis of steel frames with flexible connections

Miodrag Sekulovic
*
, Ratko Salatic, Marija Nefovska
Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Belgrade, Bulevar kralja Aleksandra 73, 11000 Belgrade, Yugoslavia
Received 1 June 2001; accepted 14 February 2002
Abstract
This paper deals with the effects of flexibility and damping in the nodal connections on the dynamic behavior of
plane steel frames. A flexible eccentric connection is idealized by nonlinear rotational spring and dashpot in parallel.
Thus, the effects of viscous and hysteretic damping on dynamic response of frame structures are taken into consid-
eration. A numerical model that includes both nonlinear connection behavior and geometric nonlinearity of the
structure is developed. The complex dynamic stiffness matrix for the beam with flexible connections and linear viscous
dampers at its ends is obtained. Several examples are included to illustrate the efficiency and accuracy of the present
model. Ó 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Steel frame; Semi-rigid connection; Nonlinear dynamic analysis
1. Introduction
The conventional methods of analysis and design of
frame structures are based on the assumption that the
joint connections are either fully rigid or ideally pinned.
The models with ideal connections simplify analysis
procedure, but often cannot represent real structural
behavior. Therefore, this idealization is not adequate as
all types of connections are more or less, flexible or semi-
rigid. It is proved by numerous experimental investiga-
tions that have been carried out in the past [1–4].
Based on experimental study due to static monotonic
loading tests for various types of connections, many
models have been done to approximate the connection
behavior. The simplest one is the linear model that has
been widely used for its simplicity [5–7]. However, this
model is good only for the low level loads, when the
connection moment is quite small. In each other case,
when the connection rigidity may rapidly decrease
compared with its initial value, a nonlinear model is
necessary. Several mathematical models to describe the
nonlinear behavior of connections have been formulated
and broadly used in research practice [8–11].
So far, most experimental and theoretical work is
limited to static analysis of steel frames with flexible
connections. Very few papers have been devoted to the
dynamic analysis although the flexibility of connections
with energy dissipation has a great influence on dy-
namic behavior of these types of structures. Under cy-
clic loads, the connection hysteresis loop increases the
energy absorption capacity and hysteretic damping may
significantly reduce dynamic response of real structures.
Therefore, modelling of the nodal connection is impor-
tant for the design and accuracy in the dynamic frame
structure analysis. However, as the experimental data
for the connection behavior under cyclic loading are
rather poor, it is difficult to make corresponding math-
ematical model. The experiments carried out by Popov
and coworkers [12–16] and also in Refs. [17,18] show
that the hysteresis loops under repeated and reversed
loading are very stable, so the moment–rotation func-
tions obtained by static tests can be extended to the
dynamic analysis.
The dynamic analysis of frames with flexible con-
nections using linear moment–rotation relationship has
been studied in several papers [19–21]. Kawashima and
Fujimoto [20] obtained the complex dynamic stiffness
Computers and Structures 80 (2002) 935–955
www.elsevier.com/locate/compstruc
*
Corresponding author. Tel.: +381-11-3218552; fax: +381-
11-3370223.
E-mail address: sekulovic@grf.bg.ac.yu (M. Sekulovic).
0045-7949/02/$ - see front matter Ó 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
PII: S0045- 7949( 02) 00058- 5
matrix for a uniform beam element with linear rota-
tional springs and dashpots at its ends. The influence of
the flexibility and eccentricity in the connections on
dynamic behavior of plane frames within the linear
theory was investigated by Suarez et al. [21]. Although
the linear constitutive model of nodal connections is
very easy to use, it is inadequate in the term that it is
applicable only to a small range of the initial rotations
and because it cannot represent hysteretic damping to be
a primary source of passive damping in the frame
structures. A bilinear moment–rotation function, which
is also accurate only for a small rotation range, was used
by Sivekumaran [22] and Yousef-Agha et al. [23]. The
effect of hysteretic damping resulting from the nonlinear
flexible connection on the dynamic response of the frame
was studied by Shi and Altury [24]. They developed a
numerical model based on the complementary energy
approach using the Ang and Morise [6] function for the
moment–rotation relations at connections. Chan and
Ho [25] proposed a numerical method for linear and
nonlinear vibration analysis of frame with semi-rigid
connections. They adapted the conventional cubic
Hermitian shape functions for a uniform beam with end
springs and derived the element matrices using the
principle of total potential energy. The influence of both
hysteretic and viscous damping at connections on seis-
mic response of the steel frames was considered by
Sekulovic et al. [26]. The combined effects of material
yielding and connection flexibility in static and dynamic
problems have been discussed in detail by Chan and
Chui [36]. Several nonlinear flexible connection models
under cyclic loading were established in the past decade
[27–30].
The present study is an extension of the author’s
previous work [31], regarding static analysis of flexibly
joint frames, on a more general case of the dynamic
analysis. Two types of nonlinearities are considered:
geometric nonlinearity of the structure and material
(constitutive) nonlinearity of the connections. These
nonlinearities are interactive. The eccentricity of the
connections is also considered. To describe the nonlinear
behavior of the connection under cyclic loading, the
independent hardening model is used. So, the effect of
hysteretic damping on dynamic behavior of the structure
is directly included through the connection constitutive
relation. Moreover, the influence of viscous damping at
connections on dynamic response of frame structures is
considered. For a uniform beam with rotational springs
and dashpots attached at its ends the complex dynamic
stiffness matrix is obtained. The stiffness matrix has been
obtained based on analytical solutions of governing
differential equations second order analysis, so that each
beam represents one element. Nodal displacements and
rotations are chosen as the primary unknowns, while
displacements and rotations of the element ends are
eliminated. Thus, the number of degrees of freedom
are the same as for the system with rigid connections.
Besides, the consistent mass and damping matrices
are derived. These matrices are based on the physical
properties of the member and given in an explicit
form. The present matrices are more general than the
corresponding matrices previously obtained by other
authors.
Energy dissipation exists in frame structures under
dynamic loads. The primary sources of energy dissipa-
tion, is known, may be hysteretic behavior of connec-
tions and the friction between elements forming the
beam–column assemblage. In addition, different types of
energy dissipation devices can be installed into connec-
tions in order to increase the structural energy absorp-
tion capacity. For this reason, in the present model, the
total energy dissipation is confided to the joint connec-
tions. Two types of energy dissipation are assumed.
They are: hysteretic damping due to nonlinear behavior
of connections and viscous damping at the connections.
In general, the effects of these dampings are coupled.
Also, they can be considered separately using either
linear constitutive relation for the connections or zero
value for the viscous damping coefficients at the con-
nections. As it is assumed that all structural elements,
except the connections, remain elastic through the whole
loading range, the energy dissipation at plastic hinges
cannot be observed. Also, energy dissipation due to ra-
diation damping at the supports is not included in this
consideration. The other types of energy dissipation that
may exist in real frame structures can be included in the
present model in the usual way, by mass and stiffness
proportional damping matrix.
Based on theoretical problem formulation, a com-
puter program was developed in order to increase dy-
namic analysis efficiency and design of steel frames. A
parametric study has been performed in order to esti-
mate the influence of nonlinear connection flexibility
and viscous damping at connections on the frame dy-
namic (seismic) response. The present numerical model
is restricted to 2D frame systems. It can be extended on
a more general case of 3D analysis without difficulty.
Besides, the proposed beam element can be easily
incorporated into existing commercial programs for
structural analysis.
2. Formulation of structural element
A beam element with flexible, eccentric and viscous
damping connections is shown in Fig. 1. The flexible
connections are represented by nonlinear rotational
springs at beam ends. Thus, only the influence of
bending moment on the connection deformation is
considered, while the influences of axial and shear forces
are neglected. The connection spring element is assumed
massless and dimensionless in size. The eccentricity is
936 M. Sekulovic et al. / Computers and Structures 80 (2002) 935–955
modelled by short infinitely stiff elements whose lengths
are e
1
and e
2
. The linear viscous damping at nodal
connections are modelled by dashpots acting at beam
ends.
2.1. Stiffness matrix and nodal force vector
The stiffness matrix and the nodal force vector for the
flexible eccentric beam have been represented in a pre-
vious work by the authors [31]. It will be briefly sum-
marized herein. Joint displacements and rotations are
the primary unknowns, while displacements and rota-
tions of the beam ends can be eliminated as has been
shown in [31]. Thus, the number of degrees of freedom is
the same as for the beam element with fully rigid con-
nections. Consequently, the function describing lateral
displacement vðxÞ for the element with flexible eccentric
connections can be written in the usual way by inter-
polation function matrix and nodal displacements vector
as:
vðxÞ ¼ NðxÞðI þ GÞq ¼
¯
NNðxÞq; ð1Þ
where
NðxÞ ¼ N
1
ðxÞ N
2
ðxÞ N
3
ðxÞ N
4
ðxÞ ½ Š; ð2aÞ
q
T
¼ v
1
u
1
v
2
u
2
f g; ð2bÞ
G ¼
1
D
0 De
1
0 0
g
21
g
22
g
23
g
24
0 0 0 ÀDe
2
g
41
g
42
g
43
g
44
_
¸
¸
_
_
¸
¸
_
; ð2cÞ
denoting the matrix of interpolation functions obtained
based on the analytical solutions of the second order
analysis equations [32], the nodal displacement vector
and the correction matrix, respectively. Interpolation
functions N
i
ðxÞ, i ¼ 1; . . . ; 4 and elements of correction
matrix G are given in Appendix A.
Stiffness matrix for the beam element with flexible
eccentric connection is obtained through the total po-
tential energy, that can be written as
U ¼ U
a
þ U
f
þ U
s
; ð3Þ
where
U
a
¼
EI
2
2A
k
4
l; ð4aÞ
U
f
¼
EI
2
_
l
0
v
2
;xx
dx; ð4bÞ
U
s
¼

2
i¼1
c
i
a
2
i
; ð4cÞ
denoting strain energy of the beam, axial (U
a
) and
flexural (U
f
) and strain energy of the springs (U
s
). Strain
energy due to axial deformation and bending are cou-
pled since parameter k
2
includes derivatives of both axial
and lateral displacements [31]. With the assumption that
k
2
¼ const., these two part of the strain energy can be
expressed independently. Thus, after substituting Eq. (1)
into Eq. (4b) the following can be obtained:
U
f
¼
1
2
q
T
ðk
II
þ k
ef
Þq; ð5Þ
where matrices k
II
and k
ef
are defined as
k
II
¼ EI
_
l
0
ðN
00
ðxÞÞ
T
N
00
ðxÞ
_ _
dx; ð6aÞ
k
ef
¼ G
T
k
II
þ k
II
G þ G
T
k
II
G; ð6bÞ
denoting beam stiffness matrix with the rigid connec-
tions according to the second order analysis and cor-
rection matrix that accounts for the effects of flexibility
and eccentricity, respectively. Analytical expression for
the elements of matrix k
II
and the appropriate expan-
sions in the power series form, convenient for the nu-
merical analysis, are given by Goto and Chen [33].
The simplified form of this matrix, corresponding to
the linearized second order analysis, can also be used. In
that case, the stiffness matrix has the form
k
II
¼ k
0
þ k
g
; ð7Þ
Fig. 1. A beam with flexible, eccentric and viscous damping
connections.
M. Sekulovic et al. / Computers and Structures 80 (2002) 935–955 937
where k
0
is the conventional stiffness matrix and k
g
is the
geometric stiffness matrix of the uniform beam. In this
case, the simplified form of the matrix G, with functions
/
i
, i ¼ 1; . . . ; 4, are replaced by 1.0, can be used.
The strain energy of the springs can be expressed in
the form
U
s
¼
1
2
q
T
k
s
q; ð8Þ
where
k
s
¼ G
T
CG: ð9Þ
The explicit form of matrices G and C can be found in
[31]. From Eqs. (5) and (8) the total strain energy due to
the bending for the beam with flexible and eccentric
connections can now be written as:
U ¼ U
f
þ U
s
¼
1
2
q
T
ðk
II
þ k
ef
þ k
s
Þq: ð10Þ
The equivalent generalized end force vector due to
distributed loads along the beam pðxÞ is obtained in the
usual maner:
Q ¼
_
l
0
pðxÞ
¯
NN
T
ðxÞ dx ¼ ðI þ GÞ
T
_
l
0
pðxÞN
T
ðxÞ dx: ð11Þ
Components of the vector Q, for some simple load
distributions and temperature change are given in the
closed form in [32]. In general case, elements of the
vector Q are computed numerically.
2.2. Element mass matrix
Assuming that the mass density q is constant, the
element consistent mass matrix m can be formulated as:
m ¼
_
V
q
¯
NN
T
ðxÞ
¯
NNðxÞ dx; ð12Þ
where
¯
NNðxÞ is the matrix of modified shape functions
defined by Eq. (1). After substitution of Eq. (1) into Eq.
(12), the consistent element mass matrix, for the uniform
beam with flexible eccentric connections, can be written
as:
m ¼ m
0
þ m
ef
; ð13Þ
where
m
0
¼
_
V
qN
T
ðxÞNðxÞ dx; ð14aÞ
m
ef
¼ G
T
m
0
þ m
0
G þ G
T
m
0
G: ð14bÞ
In the above relations, m
0
denotes conventional mass
matrix for the beam element and m
ef
denotes the mass
correction matrix.
2.3. Complex dynamic stiffness matrix
Apart from nonlinear rotational springs, rotational
viscous dashpots are attached at beam ends, as shown in
Fig. 1. The total moment at each nodal connection
(i ¼ 1, 2) can be given in terms of relative rotation h
between beam end and column face and relative angular
velocity
_
hhðtÞ as:
M
i
ðtÞ ¼ k
i
h
i
ðtÞ þ c
i
_
hh
i
ðtÞ; i ¼ 1
0
; 2
0
; ð15Þ
where k
i
and c
i
are rotational spring stiffness and rota-
tional viscous damping coefficients, while dot over the
symbols denotes differentiation with respect to time. The
tangent or secant form of the above relation may be
written if nonlinear springs and/or dashpots are con-
sidered. In the case of periodic response with circular
frequency x the following relation between the ampli-
tudes may be derived:
M
ið0Þ
¼ k
Ã
i
_
hh
ið0Þ
; i ¼ 1
0
; 2
0
; ð16Þ
where complex flexural stiffness k
Ã
i
of the connection is
defined as the ratio between moment and relative rota-
tion amplitudes:
k
Ã
i
¼
M
i
ðtÞ
h
i
ðtÞ
¼ k
i
þ jxc
i
; j ¼
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
À1
p
; ð17aÞ
h
i
ðtÞ ¼ h
ið0Þ
e
jxt
: ð17bÞ
The beam end force vector RðtÞ can be expressed in
terms of the end displacement vector qqðtÞ and relative
end rotation vector hðtÞ as:
RðtÞ ¼ kfqqðtÞ À hðtÞg; ð17aÞ
where
RðtÞ ¼ f T
1
ðtÞ M
1
ðtÞ T
2
ðtÞ M
2
ðtÞ g; ð18Þ
qqðtÞ ¼ fvv
1
ðtÞ uu
1
ðtÞ vv
2
ðtÞ uu
2
ðtÞ g; ð19Þ
h
T
ðtÞ ¼ f 0 h
1
ðtÞ 0 h
2
ðtÞ g; ð20Þ
are end force vector, end displacement vector and rela-
tive end rotation vector of the member respectively (Fig.
1), while k is the classical or the second order flexural
stiffness matrix of a uniform beam, that depends on the
type of analysis.
After the elimination of relative end rotation vector
hðtÞ, Eq. (17a) transforms to:
RðtÞ ¼

kk
Ã
qqðtÞ; ð20Þ
where

kk
Ã
¼ ðI À SÞ
T
kðI À SÞ þ S
T

kk
s
S ¼ k þ k
1
þ k
2
; ð21aÞ
k
1
¼ ÀkS À S
T
k; ð21bÞ
938 M. Sekulovic et al. / Computers and Structures 80 (2002) 935–955
k
2
¼ S
T
ðk þ K
*
ÞS; ð21cÞ
qqðtÞ ¼ qq
ð0Þ
e
jxt
: ð21dÞ
The explicit forms of matrices k
1
and k
2
are given in
Appendix A. The matrix S can be obtained from matrix
G putting e
1
¼ e
2
¼ 0, and it can be found in Appendix
A. The matrix k
Ã
is a complex flexural stiffness matrix of
uniform beam with flexible connection according to the
linear or second order analysis, including both flexible
and viscous phenomena. The elements of this matrix
corresponding to the linear analysis are given in Ap-
pendix A.
Expanding the elements of the dynamic stiffness ma-
trix in series with respect to the circular frequency x and
neglecting higher terms than the third order, the fol-
lowing expansion is obtained in the decomposed form:
k
Ã
¼ k þ jxc À x
2
m; ð22Þ
where k is the static stiffness matrix; c, the damping
matrix and m, the mass matrix for the uniform beam
with flexible springs and dashpots at its ends.
It should be noted that if neither eccentricities nor
springs and dashpots are present, the matrix k trans-
forms to the classical beam element flexural stiffness
matrix k
0
. The matrix c is consistent element damping
matrix, which is based on physical properties of the
member. The elements of the matrix c and matrix m for
a uniform beam according to the linear analysis are
provided in Appendix A.
The proposed viscous damping at beam ends causes
that viscously damped system does not satisfy Caughey
and O’Kelly’s condition [34]. The response of a multi-
degree-of-freedom system cannot be expressed as a lin-
ear combination of its corresponding modal responses.
So, the system is nonclassically damped and it generally
has complex valued natural modes. It is necessary to
elucidate physical interpretation of solutions represented
by complex conjugate pairs of characteristic values. In
order to establish the relationship between coefficient c
i
of viscous damping in joints and modal relative damping
factor f
k
for k mode shape, a specific procedure has been
established.
Provided that the amount of damping in the system is
not very high, the characteristic values occur in complex
conjugate pairs with either negative or zero real parts.
Let k
i
and

kk
i
be a pair of characteristic values defined by:
k
i
¼ Àe
i
þ jx
di
; ð23aÞ

kk
i
¼ Àe
i
À jx
di
: ð23bÞ
Further, let xx
di
be the modulus of k
i
, i.e.:
xx
di
¼
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
e
2
i
þ x
2
di
_
: ð24Þ
The corresponding pseudo-damping factor 11
i
is:
11
i
¼
e
i
xx
di
: ð25Þ
Based on the parametric study, the relationship between
coefficient c
i
of viscous damping in joints and modal
pseudo-relative damping factor 11
i
for i mode shape can
be obtained, and the corresponding curve is presented in
Fig. 2.
3. Semi-rigid connection modelling
Numerous experimental results have shown that the
connection moment–rotation relationships are nonlinear
over the entire range of loading for almost all types of
connections. To describe connection behavior, different
mathematical models have been proposed. In this study,
the three parameter power model proposed by Richard
and Abbott [8] and Kishi et al. [27] is used to represent
moment–rotation behavior of the connection under
monotonic loading. This model can be formulated as:
M ¼
k
0
h
½1 þ ðh=h
0
Þ
n
Š
1=n
; ð26Þ
where k
0
initial connection stiffness; n, the shape pa-
rameter; h
0
¼ M
u
=k
0
, the reference plastic rotation and
M
u
, the ultimate moment capacity. Accordingly to Eq.
(26), M–h functions for the two types of connection
(double web angle (DWA), top and seat angle with
double web angle (TSDWA)) are shown in Fig. 3a. The
first of these connections are rather weak and the second
is relatively stiff. The details of these connections can be
found in Ref. [35].
The independent hardening model was adopted to
simulate the inelastic connection behavior under cyclic
loading. In this model, the characteristics of connec-
tions are assumed to be unchanged through the loading
Fig. 2. Relationship between coefficient c
i
and modal pseudo-
relative damping factor 11
i
.
M. Sekulovic et al. / Computers and Structures 80 (2002) 935–955 939
cycles. The moment–rotation curve under the first cycle
of loading unloading and reverse loading remain un-
changed under the repetititon of loading cycles. The
skeleton curve used in the model was obtained from
three parameter power model. The cyclic moment–
rotation curve based on this model is schematically
shown in Fig. 3b. The independent hardening model is
simple and easily applicable to all types of steel frames
connection models. More information about this model
can be found in Refs. [35,36].
4. Numerical procedures
The equations of motion of a frame subjected to
dynamic loading can be written in the following form:
´
MM

UU þ
´
CC
_
UU þ
´
KKU ¼ F; ð27Þ
or
´
MM

UU þ
´
CC
_
UU þ
´
KKU ¼ À
´
MM

UU
g
; ð28Þ
in which
´
MM is the mass matrix,
´
CC is viscous damping
matrix and
´
KK is static stiffness matrix for the system of
structural elements. The time dependent vectors

UU,
_
UU
and U are the relative node accelerations, velocities and
displacements respectively, while the vectors F and

UU
g
are externally applied loads and ground accelerations.
The equations of motions are integrated using step-by-
step integration, with a constant acceleration assump-
tion within any step.
To solve the nonlinear equations, that are nonlinear
in terms of the displacements as well as the axial force,
secant stiffness method is used. This method is very
simple in computer implementation and also gives con-
vergent solutions for design loadings. In each time step,
the load increment DF or D

UU
g
is divided into a few
smaller subincrements (Fig. 4) and iterative procedures
are employed. The iterative algorithm is based on eval-
uating secant stiffness matrix, which depends on the
stiffness of connections, represented by slope of its mo-
ment–rotation curve at any particular moment value.
The convergence is obtained when the differences be-
Fig. 3. (a) Three parameter power model and (b) independent
hardening model.
Fig. 4. Secant stiffness method in a case of nonlinear connec-
tion behavior.
940 M. Sekulovic et al. / Computers and Structures 80 (2002) 935–955
tween two consecutive cycles displacements at all joints
reach the prescribed tolerance. The current connection
stiffness becomes the starting connection stiffness for the
next load subincrement. The convergent solutions for all
load subincrements are accumulated to obtain the total
nonlinear response within time step.
5. Numerical examples
Based on the above theoretical considerations, a
computer program has been developed and dynamic
analysis of plane frames with different number of stories
and bays, as well as different types of connections and
loads, has been performed. For illustration, only some
typical results are presented herein.
5.1. Ten-storey single bay frame
Ten-storey single bay plane steel frame 40.00 m high
and 8.00 m wide has been analyzed. The geometrical and
material properties of this frame are shown in Fig. 5.
Two types of semi-rigid beam-to-column connections
(TSDWA and DWA) with both linear and nonlinear
moment–rotation relations were considered. For com-
parison the same frame with rigid joints was analyzed.
Linear (first order) and a geometrically nonlinear (sec-
ond order) analyses of the frame were carried out for all
aforementioned connection types. The results of linear
and nonlinear analyses of the frame with fully rigid
joints obtained by this study have been compared with
the corresponding results obtained by the known soft-
ware package SAP 2000 [37]. These two sets of results
are quite close to each other. For the semi-rigid type
connections database developed by Chen and Kishi [38]
was used. The following examples include vibration and
transient analysis of steel frame shown in Fig. 5, if
subjected to uniform and seismic ground excitations.
5.1.1. Natural frequencies
The natural frequencies and the corresponding peri-
ods for the first three modes are determined for the cases
of fully rigid and linear semi-rigid connection (DWA,
TSDWA) and shown in Table 1. The change in natural
frequencies due to variation of joint stiffness (fixity fac-
tor) is shown in Fig. 6. The natural frequencies are
normalized by dividing their values by the frequencies
obtained for the frame with rigid joints and fixity factors
are defined as:
k
i0
¼
3EI
l
c
i
1 À c
i
_ _
; ð29Þ
where k
i0
is initial connection stiffness that varies from 0
in the case of pinned connection to 1 for the case of
fully rigid connection and c
i
is fixity factor whose values
are normalized form 0 to 1.
As seen in Fig. 6, the connection flexibility has a sig-
nificant influence on variation of the natural frequencies
particularly on the lower frequencies. This fact can be
Fig. 5. Layout and properties of single-bay ten-storey frame
investigated.
Table 1
Natural frequencies of the frame investigated
Type of
connection
Natural frequencies (rad/s) Periods (s)
First mode Second mode Third mode First mode Second mode Third mode
Rigid 6.328 17.523 31.116 0.993 0.359 0.202
TSDWA 5.727 16.088 28.611 1.097 0.391 0.220
DWA 4.647 13.519 24.247 1.352 0.465 0.259
M. Sekulovic et al. / Computers and Structures 80 (2002) 935–955 941
very important for seismic analysis of frame structures,
as the lower modes may generally have the principal in-
fluence on seismic response of buildings.
Fig. 7 shows the influence of eccentricity beam-
to-column connection on the variation of natural
frequencies. It can be seen that the eccentricity of con-
nections may have a practical influence depending on
the type and size of the connection.
5.1.2. Transient analysis
The transient displacement analysis of the frame
shown in Fig. 5 has been performed for the two cases of
ground motions: two steps sudden acceleration and an
earthquake excitation. Gravitational loads are also in-
cluded and they are considered as additional lumped
masses at the beam nodes.
5.1.3. Two-steps ground acceleration
The frame is assumed to be subjected to the sudden
discontinuous two-steps uniform ground acceleration
shown in Fig. 10. The transient response analysis of the
frame with various connection types according to the
first order and second order analyses has been carried
out. Characteristic results of the lateral displacements
and accelerations at the top of frame as well as bending
moments and shear forces at the base of the frame for
the various types of connections are presented in Table
2. The effects of viscous damping at joint connections on
the deflection and internal forces of the frame are also
included. The envelopes of lateral displacement and
shear force of the frame with various connection types
according to the first order and second order analyses
are plotted in Figs. 8 and 9.
It can be seen from Table 2 and Figs. 8 and 9 that the
frame with semi-rigid connections has a larger lateral
displacements, but smaller shear forces when compared
with the fully rigid connection. These differences in-
crease with decrease in the connection stiffness. Conse-
quently, the difference in maximum displacement at the
top of the frame with rigid joints and semi-rigid type of
joints are (in percent): 15.1 and 48.6 for linear or 19.1
and 64.0 for nonlinear types of TSDWA and DWA
connections, respectively. The differences (in percent) in
the shear forces at the base of the frame are: 3.9 and 13.2
for linear or 5.5 and 20.9 for nonlinear types of TSDWA
and DWA connections, respectively.
It is obvious that there is a significant difference be-
tween the results obtained for the frame with rigid joints
and the frames with semi-rigid (DWA and TSDWA)
connections especially in the case of the weak connec-
tions type (DWA).
The time histories of the lateral displacements at the
left top node of the frame with various connection types
according to the first order and second order analyses
are plotted in Fig. 10. It can be seen from Fig. 10 that
the frame with nonlinear connections has longer am-
plitudes and period when compared with the rigid joint
case. The displacement amplitudes and period increase
with a decrease in joint stiffness. They are longer in
DWA connection case than in the TSDWA connection
case. Besides, the nonlinear connections dampen and
produced nonrecoverable deflection due to the presence
of permanent deformations at connections. On the
contrary, the frame with either fully rigid and linear
Fig. 6. The influence on connection flexibility on the natural
frequencies.
Fig. 7. The influence of connection eccentricity on the natural
frequencies.
942 M. Sekulovic et al. / Computers and Structures 80 (2002) 935–955
connection types produces no hysteretic damping. Fig.
10 shows also that the second order analysis further
magnifies the aforementioned nonlinear effects on the
frame deflection response.
Fig. 8. Lateral displacement envelopes (a) and shear force envelopes (b) according to the first order analysis.
Table 2
Maximum displacements and internal forces of frame investigated
Type of
connec-
tions
Maximum displacement
of node A (cm)
Maximum bending mo-
ment of node B (kNm)
Maximum shear force of
node B (kN)
Maximum acceleration
of node A (m/s
2
)
First order Second order First order Second order First order Second order First order Second order
Rigid
Present
study
2.84 3.10 161.16 166.59 58.00 55.86 0.863 0.736
SAP2000 2.85 3.10 161.50 166.60 58.13 55.81 0.905 0.953
TSDWA
Linear
c ¼ 0
3.27 3.58 164.33 174.39 53.39 51.98 1.23 1.31
Linear
c ¼ 50; 000
2.96 3.24 154.49 162.27 50.26 48.47 0.696 0.767
Nonlinear
c ¼ 0
3.38 3.66 166.39 176.23 52.43 50.39 1.05 1.13
Nonlinear
c ¼ 50; 000
3.00 3.30 153.66 161.98 48.10 45.95 0.673 0.709
DWA
Linear
c ¼ 0
4.22 4.60 178.02 182.67 47.59 42.61 1.38 0.712
Linear
c ¼ 50; 000
2.96 3.46 137.93 153.12 37.64 36.34 0.475 0.479
Nonlinear
c ¼ 0
4.66 5.66 177.51 203.79 40.03 34.95 0.705 0.765
Nonlinear
c ¼ 50; 000
3.68 5.36 150.98 192.86 35.58 34.45 0.460 0.465
M. Sekulovic et al. / Computers and Structures 80 (2002) 935–955 943
Fig. 9. Lateral displacement envelopes (a) and shear force envelopes (b) according to the second order analysis.
Fig. 10. Time history displacement at the left top node of the frame with various connection types. According to the (a) first order
analysis and (b) second order analysis.
944 M. Sekulovic et al. / Computers and Structures 80 (2002) 935–955
The influence of viscous damping at connections on
displacement response of frame with some types of
connections is shown in Figs. 11 and 12. These figures
show that viscous damping alters the deflection response
of the frame significantly, particularly in case a weak
connection type (DWA). It is obvious that the dis-
placement response of the frame decays with time for
both linear and nonlinear types of connections. In the
linear type connection case plotted in Figs. 11a and 12a
there is only viscous damping, so the frame oscillates
about its initial position. In the nonlinear type connec-
tion case plotted in Figs. 11b and 12b, there are both
viscous and hysteretic damping, so the frame oscillates
about its permanent drift position which exists as a re-
sult of the permanent nonrecoverable rotations of con-
nections.
5.1.4. Earthquake excitation
The frame is assumed to be subjected to the first four
seconds of Montenegro earthquake (1979) NS compo-
nent motion shown in Fig. 13b. The peak ground ac-
celeration was 0.4 g at about third second. The
displacement response at the top of the frame with two
types of nonlinear connections and rigid jointed frame
according linear and second order analyses plotted in
Fig. 14. This figure shows considerable difference be-
tween the responses of rigid jointed frames and frames
with nonlinear connection types. The main reason for it
is hysteretic damping which exists only in nonlinear
connection case. It reduced transient deflection response
gradually decreasing its amplitude with time.
Fig. 14a shows that in both TSDWA and DWA
nonlinear types of connection there are permanent de-
flection drift (due to large connection rotation) to the
positive side (forward permanent deflection) in the first
case, and to the negative side (backward permanent
deflection) in the second case. Fig. 14b also shows that
the frame with DWA connection demonstrates re-
markably different response from the others. After
about 3 s in this case, the frame deforms suddenly to a
Fig. 11. The influence of viscous damping at connections on displacement response of the frame with TSDWA connections. (a) Linear
type of connection and (b) nonlinear type of connection.
M. Sekulovic et al. / Computers and Structures 80 (2002) 935–955 945
Fig. 12. The influence of viscous damping at connections on displacement response of the frame with DWA connections. (a) Linear
type of connection and (b) nonlinear type of connection.
Fig. 13. Lateral load history. Accelerogram (a) and spectrum (b) for Montenegro earthquake (1979), Petrovac NS component.
946 M. Sekulovic et al. / Computers and Structures 80 (2002) 935–955
peak value that reaches over 60 cm, and oscillates about
this permanent deflection. The main reason for this is
the appearance of large rotational deformations at the
joint connections.
The lateral displacement and shear force envelopes of
the frame with the previous connection types obtained
according linear and second order analyses are shown in
Figs. 15 and 16. The frames with flexible nonlinear con-
nections under applied earthquake motion have smaller
lateral displacements and shear forces when compared
with the rigid jointed frame. It is necessary bear in mind
that any earthquake is an excitation with a wide range of
frequencies. The predominant frequencies of the applied
earthquake are within the range from 2 to 10 Hz (peri-
ods 0.1–0.5 s). The lowest natural frequencies of the
investigated frames (rigid, TSDWA, DWA) are much
higher than the predominant earthquake frequencies,
while the second and the third natural frequencies are
within the range of predominant frequencies of the ap-
plied earthquake (Fig. 13b). It obviously has a great
influence on displacement response of these frames.
Time history acceleration responses of the frame with
rigid and two types nonlinear (TSDWA, DWA) connec-
tions according to linear and second order analyses are
shown in Fig. 17. It is obvious that there is a substantial
hysteretic damping effect on the acceleration response of
the frame with nonlinear connections. On the contrary,
in the case of rigid jointed frame, the acceleration re-
sponse is not dampened, so the large amplification of
the acceleration response exists. For the applied
ground motion, the acceleration is amplified from the
base to top of the frame by factors 6.5, 3.9 and 1.7 for
rigid, TSDWA and DWA case of connections, respec-
tively.
The hysteresis M–h loops at joint C of the frame with
TSDWA and DWA type of connections are shown in
Fig. 14. Time history displacement with various connection types according to the (a) first order analysis and (b) second order analysis.
M. Sekulovic et al. / Computers and Structures 80 (2002) 935–955 947
Fig. 18. It can be seen that the connections undergo
strong rotational deformations during the applied earth-
quake motion.
5.2. Single-bay two-storey frame
For the purpose of comparison of the analysis in this
paper with existing computational methods the single-
bay two-storey frame shown in Fig. 19 has been ana-
lyzed. Vibration and transient response analysis of the
frame were investigated by Chan and Ho [25] and Chan
and Chui [36]. They applied the numerical model based
on the linearized second order theory assuming the lin-
ear and nonlinear types of connections. The stiffness and
geometric matrices of the uniform beam with end
springs were obtained using conventional cubic Hermi-
tian shape functions. Two elements per beam and one
element per column were applied. The flush end plate
flexible connection type was assumed and modelled by
Chen–Lui exponential model [39] shown in Fig. 19b.
Fig. 15. Lateral displacement envelopes (a) and shear force envelopes (b) according to the first order analysis.
Fig. 16. Lateral displacement envelopes (a) and shear force envelopes (b) according to the second order analysis.
948 M. Sekulovic et al. / Computers and Structures 80 (2002) 935–955
The transient response of the frame was performed for
the two cases of lateral loads (cyclic and impact) with
and without the presence of gravitational loads.
The same frame has been analyzed by the present
numerical model and the results compared with those
previously obtained by Chan and coworkers [25,36].
Fig. 17. Time history acceleration with various connection types according to the (a) first order analysis and (b) second order analysis.
Fig. 18. Hysteresis M–h loops at joint C of the frame with TSDWA (a) and DWA (b) type of connections.
M. Sekulovic et al. / Computers and Structures 80 (2002) 935–955 949
The natural frequencies of the frame for the fully
rigid and linear semi-rigid (flush end plate and TSDWA)
connections have been determined and shown in Table
3. It can be seen that they are agree well with the results
by Chan and Ho.
The time histories of the displacement at node B and
the hysteretic loops at node A of the frame under the
lateral cyclic loads obtained by Chan and Chui and in
the current study are shown in Fig. 20. It can be seen
that the response curves are very close.
Displacement response of the frame subjected to the
impact loads obtained by Chan and Chui and by the
present study is shown in Fig. 21.
It can be seen that the response curves have the same
character, but there are some differences between their
amplitudes and periods. These differences are small at
the beginning and they gradually increase with time. As
expected, they are larger in the case the presence than in
the case the absence of gravitational loads. The frame
analyzed by the present study has smaller amplitudes
and nonrecoverable deflections, as well as shorter peri-
ods when compared with the same frame analyzed by
Chan and Chui.
6. Conclusion
An efficient method to perform dynamic analyses of
steel frame structures with flexible connections has been
presented in this paper. A numerical model that includes
both nonlinear connection behavior and geometric
nonlinearity of the structure has been developed. The
complex dynamic stiffness matrix for a prismatic beam
with rotational springs and dashpots attached at its ends
was obtained in an explicit form. The stiffness matrix
was based on the analytical solutions of the second order
equations, so that each beam corresponds to one finite
element.
On the bases of the above theoretical considerations
and the results of the applied numerical analysis, it is
evident that the flexible joint connections greatly influ-
ence the dynamic behavior of steel frames. The connec-
tion flexibility may significantly alter both vibration
and the response of frames. An increase in the connec-
tion flexibility reduces the frame stiffness, and thus the
eigenfrequencies, particularly the lower ones, which may
have a primary influence on dynamic response of the
structure.
From the results of numerical examples it can be
concluded that the structural responses of the frames
with nonlinear connections and the frames with con-
ventional type of connections (rigid or linear) are con-
siderably different. It shows that the effect of hysteretic
damping on structural response is significant. Therefore,
the nonlinear constitutive model for connections should
be used in design and response analysis of real frame
structures. The linear model is inadequate as it cannot
represent a hysteretic behavior of connection under cy-
clic loads.
From the results, it can also be concluded that the
viscous damping at connections may considerably re-
duce the displacement response and internal forces of
the frame, particularly in the case of weak connection
types. The influence of the geometric nonlinearity in-
creases with the gravitational loads and the lateral frame
deflections. It is higher in the frame with flexible con-
nections than with rigid joints.
The connections are vital structural components that
are very often responsible for the behavior and safety of
frame structures subjected to strong dynamic (seismic)
loads. Therefore, connection design and modelling have
a great practical importance.
Fig. 19. Single-bay two-storey frame. (a) Layout and (b) moment–rotation curves of flush end plate connection.
Table 3
Natural frequencies of the single-bay two-storey frame
Type of
connection
Natural frequencies (rad/s)
Present work Chan and Ho
Rigid 10.50 10.35
Flush end plate 7.28 7.30
TSDWA 7.11 7.13
950 M. Sekulovic et al. / Computers and Structures 80 (2002) 935–955
Appendix A.
The interpolation functions N
i
ðxÞ, i ¼ 1; . . . ; 4, for the
compressive member ðN < 0Þ, are:
N
1
ðxÞ ¼ D
À1
½1 À cos x À xsinx þ xn sinx
À sin xsinxn þ ð1 À cos xÞ cos xnŠ;
N
2
ðxÞ ¼ lðDxÞ
À1
½xcos x À sin x þ xnð1 À cos xÞ
þ ð1 À cos x À xsinxÞ sinxn
þ ðsinx À xcos xÞ cos xnŠ;
N
3
ðxÞ ¼ D
À1
½1 À cos x À xn sin x þ sin xsinxn
À ð1 À cos xÞ cos xnŠ;
N
4
ðxÞ ¼ lðDxÞ
À1
½sinx À x þ xnð1 À cos xÞ
À ð1 À cos xÞ sinxn þ ðx À sinxÞ cos xnŠ;
where
D ¼ 2ð1 À cos xÞ À xsin x; n ¼
x
l
; x ¼ l
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
N j j
EI
_
:
Fig. 20. Dynamic behavior of two-storey frame under cyclic loads. (a) Displacement response at node B and (b) hysteretic loops at
node A.
M. Sekulovic et al. / Computers and Structures 80 (2002) 935–955 951
The shape functions for the tensile member ðN > 0Þ can
be obtained from the foregoing expressions replacing
x ¼ jx, and using the relations shx ¼ Àj sin jx and
chx ¼ cos jx.
The elements of the correction matrix G are:
g
21
¼ Àg
23
¼
À6
lD
½g
1
þ 2g
1
g
2
ð2/
3
À /
4
ފ/
2
;
g
22
¼
À6e
1
lD
½g
1
þ 2g
1
g
2
ð2/
3
À /
4
ފ/
2
À 4½g
1
/
3
þ g
1
g
2
ð4/
2
3
À /
2
4
ފ;
g
24
¼
À6e
2
lD
½g
1
þ 2g
1
g
2
ð2/
3
À /
4
ފ/
2
À 2g
1
/
4
;
g
41
¼ Àg
43
¼
À6
lD
½g
2
þ 2g
1
g
2
ð2/
3
À /
4
ފ/
2
;
g
42
¼
À6e
1
lD
½g
2
þ 2g
1
g
2
ð2/
3
À /
4
ފ/
2
À 2g
2
/
4
;
g
44
¼
À6e
2
lD
½g
2
þ 2g
1
g
2
ð2/
3
À /
4
ފ/
2
À 4½g
2
/
3
þ g
1
g
2
ð4/
2
3
À /
2
4
ފ;
D ¼ ð1 þ 4g
1
/
3
Þð1 þ 4g
2
/
3
Þ À 4g
1
g
2
/
2
4
; g
i
¼
EI
lk
i
i ¼ 1; 2:
Fig. 21. Displacement response of two-storey frame under impact loads. (a) Without gravity and (b) with gravity loads.
952 M. Sekulovic et al. / Computers and Structures 80 (2002) 935–955
The elements of matrix k
1
according to the second
order theory are:
k
1 11
¼ Àk
1 13
¼ k
1 33
¼ À
EI
l
3
D
12l/
2
ða þ bÞ;
k
1 22
¼ À
EI
l
3
D
4l
2
ð2/
3
c þ /
4
f Þ;
k
1 12
¼ Àk
1 23
¼ À
EI
l
3
D
½6l/
2
ðc þ f Þ þ 2l
2
ð2/
3
a þ /
4
bފ;
k
1 44
¼ À
EI
l
3
D
4l
2
ð2/
3
d þ /
4
eÞ;
k
1 14
¼ Àk
1 34
¼ À
EI
l
3
D
½6l/
2
ðd þ eÞ þ 2l
2
ð2/
3
b þ /
4
aފ;
k
1 24
¼ À
EI
l
3
D
2l
2
½2/
3
ðe þ f Þ þ /
43
ðd þ cފ;
k
1 jk
¼ k
1 kj
:
The elements of matrix k
2
according to the second
order theory are:
k
2 11
¼ Àk
2 13
¼ k
2 33
¼
EI
lD
2
4/
3
ða
2
_
þ b
2
Þ þ 4/
4
ab þ
a
2
g
1
þ
b
2
g
2
_
;
k
2 12
¼ Àk
2 23
¼
EI
lD
2
4/
3
ðac
_
þ bf Þ þ 2/
4
ðaf þ bcÞ þ
ac
g
1
þ
bf
g
2
_
;
k
2 14
¼ Àk
2 34
¼
EI
lD
2
4/
3
ðae
_
þ bdÞ þ 2/
4
ðad þ beÞ þ
ae
g
1
þ
bd
g
2
_
;
k
2 22
¼
EI
lD
2
4/
3
ðc
2
_
þ f
2
Þ þ 4/
4
cf þ
c
2
g
1
þ
f
2
g
2
_
;
k
2 44
¼
EI
lD
2
4/
3
ðd
2
_
þ e
2
Þ þ 4/
4
ed þ
e
2
g
1
þ
d
2
g
2
_
;
k
2 24
¼
EI
lD
2
4/
3
ðce
_
þ df Þ þ 2/
4
ðcd þ ef Þ þ
ce
g
1
þ
df
g
2
_
;
where a ¼ g
21
¼ Àg
23
, b ¼ g
41
¼ Àg
43
, c ¼ g
22
, d ¼ g
44
,
e ¼ g
24
, f ¼ g
42
and e
1
¼ e
2
¼ 0.
Analytical expressions for the functions /
i
,
i ¼ 1; . . . ; 4 can be found in Ref. [35].
The elements of complex dynamic stiffness matrix kÃ
according to the first order analysis are:
k
Ã
11
¼ Àk
Ã
13
¼ k
Ã
33
¼
12EI
l
3
D
Ã
ð1 þ g
Ã
1
þ g
Ã
2
Þ; k
Ã
14
¼ Àk
Ã
34
¼
6EI
l
2
D
Ã
ð1 þ 2g
Ã
1
Þ;
k
Ã
12
¼ Àk
Ã
23
¼
6EI
l
2
D
Ã
ð1 þ 2g
Ã
2
Þ; k
Ã
44
¼
4EI
lD
Ã
ð1 þ 3g
Ã
1
Þ;
k
Ã
22
¼
4EI
lD
Ã
ð1 þ 3g
Ã
2
Þ; k
Ã
24
¼
4EI
lD
Ã
; k
Ã
jk
¼ k
Ã
kj
g
Ã
i
¼
EI
l
1
k
Ã
i
; k
Ã
i
¼ k
i
þ jxc
i
; j ¼
ffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
À1
p
;
D
Ã
¼ 1 þ 4g
Ã
1
þ 4g
Ã
2
þ 12g
Ã
1
g
Ã
2
:
The elements of damping matrix c are:
c
11
¼ Àc
13
¼ c
33
¼
36EI
l
3
D
2
ðh
1
þ h
2
þ 4g
1
h
2
þ 4g
2
1
h
2
þ 4g
2
h
1
þ 4g
2
2
h
1
Þ;
c
12
¼ Àc
23
¼
12EI
l
2
D
2
ð2h
1
þ h
2
þ 2g
1
h
2
þ 10g
2
h
1
þ 12g
2
2
h
1
Þ;
c
14
¼ Àc
34
¼
12EI
l
2
D
2
ðh
1
þ 2h
2
þ 10g
1
h
2
þ 12g
2
1
h
2
þ 4g
2
h
1
Þ;
c
22
¼
4EI
lD
2
ð4h
1
þ h
2
þ 24g
2
h
1
þ 36g
2
2
h
1
Þ;
c
24
¼
8EI
lD
2
ðh
1
þ h
2
þ 3g
1
h
2
þ 3g
2
h
1
Þ;
c
44
¼
4EI
lD
2
ðh
1
þ 4h
2
þ 24g
1
h
2
þ 36g
2
1
h
2
Þ; c
jk
¼ c
kj
;
where h
i
¼ ðc
i
EIÞ=ðlk
2
i
Þ, i ¼ 1; 2.
The elements of mass matrix m are:
m
11
¼ Àm
13
¼ m
33
¼
36EI
l
3
D
3
g
1
g
2
ðg
2
h
2
1
þ 8g
2
2
h
2
1
þ 20g
3
2
h
2
1
þ 16g
4
2
h
2
1
À 4g
1
g
2
h
1
h
2
À 8g
2
1
g
2
h
1
h
2
À 8g
1
g
2
2
h
1
h
2
À 16g
2
1
g
2
2
h
1
h
2
þ g
1
h
2
2
þ 8g
2
1
h
2
2
þ 20g
3
1
h
2
2
þ 16g
4
1
h
2
2
Þ;
m
12
¼ Àm
23
¼
12EI
l
2
D
3
g
1
g
2
ð2g
2
h
2
1
þ 18g
2
2
h
2
1
þ 52g
3
2
h
2
1
þ 48g
4
2
h
2
1
À 6g
1
g
2
h
1
h
2
À 8g
2
1
g
2
h
1
h
2
À 16g
1
g
2
2
h
1
h
2
À 24g
2
1
g
2
2
h
1
h
2
þ g
1
h
2
2
þ 6g
2
1
h
2
2
þ 8g
3
1
h
2
2
Þ;
m
14
¼ Àm
34
¼
12EI
l
2
D
3
g
1
g
2
ðg
2
h
2
1
þ 6g
2
2
h
2
1
þ 8g
3
2
h
2
1
À 6g
1
g
2
h
1
h
2
À 16g
2
1
g
2
h
1
h
2
À 8g
1
g
2
2
h
1
h
2
À 8g
1
g
2
2
h
1
h
2
À 24g
2
1
g
2
2
h
1
h
2
þ 2g
1
h
2
2
þ 18g
2
1
h
2
2
þ 52g
3
1
h
2
2
þ 48g
4
1
h
2
2
Þ;
M. Sekulovic et al. / Computers and Structures 80 (2002) 935–955 953
m
22
¼
4EI
lD
3
g
1
g
2
ð4g
2
h
2
1
þ 40g
2
2
h
2
1
þ 132g
3
2
h
2
1
þ 144g
4
2
h
2
1
À 8g
1
g
2
h
1
h
2
À 24g
1
g
2
2
h
1
h
2
þ g
1
h
2
2
þ 4g
2
1
h
2
2
Þ
m
24
¼
8EI
lD
3
g
1
g
2
ðg
2
h
2
1
þ 7g
2
2
h
2
1
þ 12g
3
2
h
2
1
À 5g
1
g
2
h
1
h
2
À 12g
2
1
g
2
h
1
h
2
À 12g
1
g
2
2
h
1
h
2
À 36g
2
1
g
2
2
h
1
h
2
þ g
1
h
2
2
þ 7g
2
1
h
2
2
þ 12g
3
1
h
2
2
Þ;
m
44
¼
4EI
lD
3
g
1
g
2
ðg
2
h
2
1
þ 4g
2
2
h
2
1
À 8g
1
g
2
h
1
h
2
À 24g
2
1
g
2
h
1
h
2
þ 4g
1
h
2
2
þ 40g
2
1
h
2
2
þ 132g
3
1
h
2
2
þ 144g
4
1
h
2
2
Þ
m
jk
¼ m
kj
:
References
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M. Sekulovic et al. / Computers and Structures 80 (2002) 935–955 955

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M. Sekulovic et al. / Computers and Structures 80 (2002) 935–955

matrix for a uniform beam element with linear rotational springs and dashpots at its ends. The influence of the flexibility and eccentricity in the connections on dynamic behavior of plane frames within the linear theory was investigated by Suarez et al. [21]. Although the linear constitutive model of nodal connections is very easy to use, it is inadequate in the term that it is applicable only to a small range of the initial rotations and because it cannot represent hysteretic damping to be a primary source of passive damping in the frame structures. A bilinear moment–rotation function, which is also accurate only for a small rotation range, was used by Sivekumaran [22] and Yousef-Agha et al. [23]. The effect of hysteretic damping resulting from the nonlinear flexible connection on the dynamic response of the frame was studied by Shi and Altury [24]. They developed a numerical model based on the complementary energy approach using the Ang and Morise [6] function for the moment–rotation relations at connections. Chan and Ho [25] proposed a numerical method for linear and nonlinear vibration analysis of frame with semi-rigid connections. They adapted the conventional cubic Hermitian shape functions for a uniform beam with end springs and derived the element matrices using the principle of total potential energy. The influence of both hysteretic and viscous damping at connections on seismic response of the steel frames was considered by Sekulovic et al. [26]. The combined effects of material yielding and connection flexibility in static and dynamic problems have been discussed in detail by Chan and Chui [36]. Several nonlinear flexible connection models under cyclic loading were established in the past decade [27–30]. The present study is an extension of the author’s previous work [31], regarding static analysis of flexibly joint frames, on a more general case of the dynamic analysis. Two types of nonlinearities are considered: geometric nonlinearity of the structure and material (constitutive) nonlinearity of the connections. These nonlinearities are interactive. The eccentricity of the connections is also considered. To describe the nonlinear behavior of the connection under cyclic loading, the independent hardening model is used. So, the effect of hysteretic damping on dynamic behavior of the structure is directly included through the connection constitutive relation. Moreover, the influence of viscous damping at connections on dynamic response of frame structures is considered. For a uniform beam with rotational springs and dashpots attached at its ends the complex dynamic stiffness matrix is obtained. The stiffness matrix has been obtained based on analytical solutions of governing differential equations second order analysis, so that each beam represents one element. Nodal displacements and rotations are chosen as the primary unknowns, while displacements and rotations of the element ends are eliminated. Thus, the number of degrees of freedom

are the same as for the system with rigid connections. Besides, the consistent mass and damping matrices are derived. These matrices are based on the physical properties of the member and given in an explicit form. The present matrices are more general than the corresponding matrices previously obtained by other authors. Energy dissipation exists in frame structures under dynamic loads. The primary sources of energy dissipation, is known, may be hysteretic behavior of connections and the friction between elements forming the beam–column assemblage. In addition, different types of energy dissipation devices can be installed into connections in order to increase the structural energy absorption capacity. For this reason, in the present model, the total energy dissipation is confided to the joint connections. Two types of energy dissipation are assumed. They are: hysteretic damping due to nonlinear behavior of connections and viscous damping at the connections. In general, the effects of these dampings are coupled. Also, they can be considered separately using either linear constitutive relation for the connections or zero value for the viscous damping coefficients at the connections. As it is assumed that all structural elements, except the connections, remain elastic through the whole loading range, the energy dissipation at plastic hinges cannot be observed. Also, energy dissipation due to radiation damping at the supports is not included in this consideration. The other types of energy dissipation that may exist in real frame structures can be included in the present model in the usual way, by mass and stiffness proportional damping matrix. Based on theoretical problem formulation, a computer program was developed in order to increase dynamic analysis efficiency and design of steel frames. A parametric study has been performed in order to estimate the influence of nonlinear connection flexibility and viscous damping at connections on the frame dynamic (seismic) response. The present numerical model is restricted to 2D frame systems. It can be extended on a more general case of 3D analysis without difficulty. Besides, the proposed beam element can be easily incorporated into existing commercial programs for structural analysis.

2. Formulation of structural element A beam element with flexible, eccentric and viscous damping connections is shown in Fig. 1. The flexible connections are represented by nonlinear rotational springs at beam ends. Thus, only the influence of bending moment on the connection deformation is considered, while the influences of axial and shear forces are neglected. The connection spring element is assumed massless and dimensionless in size. The eccentricity is

. ð2aÞ ð2bÞ ð1Þ 2 X ci a2 . i i¼1 ð4cÞ denoting strain energy of the beam. eccentric and viscous damping connections. . With the assumption that k 2 ¼ const. kII ¼ EI 0 ð5Þ ð6aÞ ð6bÞ kef ¼ GT kII þ kII G þ GT kII G.. (1) into Eq. ð7Þ . Analytical expression for the elements of matrix kII and the appropriate expansions in the power series form. 2A EI 2 Z 0 l ð3Þ ð4aÞ Uf ¼ Fig.1.M. . i ¼ 1. the number of degrees of freedom is the same as for the beam element with fully rigid connections. the function describing lateral displacement vðxÞ for the element with flexible eccentric connections can be written in the usual way by interpolation function matrix and nodal displacements vector as: e vðxÞ ¼ NðxÞðI þ GÞq ¼ N ðxÞq. / Computers and Structures 80 (2002) 935–955 937 0 1 6 g21 G¼ 6 D4 0 g41 2 De1 g22 0 g42 0 g23 0 g43 3 0 g24 7 7. The linear viscous damping at nodal connections are modelled by dashpots acting at beam ends. Consequently. these two part of the strain energy can be expressed independently. after substituting Eq. the nodal displacement vector and the correction matrix. 4 and elements of correction matrix G are given in Appendix A. In that case. convenient for the numerical analysis. denoting beam stiffness matrix with the rigid connections according to the second order analysis and correction matrix that accounts for the effects of flexibility and eccentricity. A beam with flexible. 2. ÀDe2 5 g44 ð2cÞ denoting the matrix of interpolation functions obtained based on the analytical solutions of the second order analysis equations [32]. Interpolation functions Ni ðxÞ. where NðxÞ ¼ ½ N1 ðxÞ N2 ðxÞ N3 ðxÞ N4 ðxÞ Š. corresponding to the linearized second order analysis. Stiffness matrix for the beam element with flexible eccentric connection is obtained through the total potential energy. are given by Goto and Chen [33]. while displacements and rotations of the beam ends can be eliminated as has been shown in [31].xx ð4bÞ Us ¼ modelled by short infinitely stiff elements whose lengths are e1 and e2 . v2 dx. where Ua ¼ EI 2 4 k l. . that can be written as U ¼ Ua þ Uf þ Us . Sekulovic et al. Thus. Thus. Joint displacements and rotations are the primary unknowns. qT ¼ f v1 u1 v2 u2 g. (4b) the following can be obtained: Uf ¼ 1qT ðkII þ kef Þq. axial (Ua ) and flexural (Uf ) and strain energy of the springs (Us ). Strain energy due to axial deformation and bending are coupled since parameter k 2 includes derivatives of both axial and lateral displacements [31]. 1. Stiffness matrix and nodal force vector The stiffness matrix and the nodal force vector for the flexible eccentric beam have been represented in a previous work by the authors [31]. It will be briefly summarized herein. . The simplified form of this matrix. the stiffness matrix has the form kII ¼ k0 þ kg . respectively. can also be used. respectively. 2 where matrices kII and kef are defined as Z lh i ðN00 ðxÞÞT N00 ðxÞ dx.

ð16Þ The equivalent generalized end force vector due to distributed loads along the beam pðxÞ is obtained in the usual maner: Z l Z l e Q¼ pðxÞ N T ðxÞ dx ¼ ðI þ GÞT pðxÞNT ðxÞ dx: ð11Þ 0 0 where complex flexural stiffness kià of the connection is defined as the ratio between moment and relative rotation amplitudes: kià ¼ Mi ðtÞ ¼ ki þ jxci . q where RðtÞ ¼ f T 1 ðtÞ M 1 ðtÞ T 2 ðtÞ M 2 ðtÞ g. v v hT ðtÞ ¼ f 0 h1 ðtÞ 0 h2 ðtÞ g. . . From Eqs. . with functions /i . are replaced by 1.938 M. (1). . (1) into Eq. rotational viscous dashpots are attached at beam ends. i ¼ 10 . 2 where ks ¼ G CG: T 2. the simplified form of the matrix G. m0 denotes conventional mass matrix for the beam element and mef denotes the mass correction matrix. can be used. ð17aÞ ð17bÞ Components distributions closed form vector Q are of the vector Q. i ¼ 1.3. After substitution of Eq. The strain energy of the springs can be expressed in the form Us ¼ 1qT ks q. the element consistent mass matrix m can be formulated as: Z e e ð12Þ m ¼ q N T ðxÞ N ðxÞ dx. hi ðtÞ j¼ pffiffiffiffiffiffiffi À1. while k is the classical or the second order flexural stiffness matrix of a uniform beam. elements of the computed numerically. V    qðtÞ ¼ f 1 ðtÞ u1 ðtÞ 2 ðtÞ u2 ðtÞ g. 1. ð21aÞ ð21bÞ In the above relations. as shown in Fig. that depends on the type of analysis. Element mass matrix Assuming that the mass density q is constant. The tangent or secant form of the above relation may be written if nonlinear springs and/or dashpots are considered. Complex dynamic stiffness matrix Apart from nonlinear rotational springs. . i ¼ 10 . In the case of periodic response with circular frequency x the following relation between the amplitudes may be derived: _ Mið0Þ ¼ kià hið0Þ . The total moment at each nodal connection (i ¼ 1. while dot over the symbols denotes differentiation with respect to time. for some simple load and temperature change are given in the in [32]. can be written as: m ¼ m0 þ mef .0. where Z m0 ¼ qNT ðxÞNðxÞ dx. for the uniform beam with flexible eccentric connections. end displacement vector and relative end rotation vector of the member respectively (Fig. 1). ð15Þ ð8Þ ð9Þ The explicit form of matrices G and C can be found in [31]. the consistent element mass matrix. (12). Eq. 20 . / Computers and Structures 80 (2002) 935–955 where k0 is the conventional stiffness matrix and kg is the geometric stiffness matrix of the uniform beam. V The beam end force vector RðtÞ can be expressed in terms of the end displacement vector ðtÞ and relative q end rotation vector hðtÞ as: RðtÞ ¼ kfðtÞ À hðtÞg. 4. ð18Þ ð19Þ ð20Þ ð17aÞ e where N ðxÞ is the matrix of modified shape functions defined by Eq. Sekulovic et al. 2) can be given in terms of relative rotation h between beam end and column face and relative angular _ velocity hðtÞ as: _ Mi ðtÞ ¼ ki hi ðtÞ þ ci hi ðtÞ. ð20Þ mef ¼ GT m0 þ m0 G þ GT m0 G: ð14bÞ where   kà ¼ ðI À SÞT kðI À SÞ þ ST ks S ¼ k þ k1 þ k2 .2. In general case. After the elimination of relative end rotation vector hðtÞ. (17a) transforms to:  q RðtÞ ¼ kà ðtÞ. In this case. k1 ¼ ÀkS À ST k. (5) and (8) the total strain energy due to the bending for the beam with flexible and eccentric connections can now be written as: U ¼ Uf þ Us ¼ 1qT ðkII þ kef þ ks Þq: 2 ð10Þ where ki and ci are rotational spring stiffness and rotational viscous damping coefficients. ð13Þ ð14aÞ are end force vector. hi ðtÞ ¼ hið0Þ ejxt : 2. 20 .

h0 ¼ Mu =k0 . (26). a specific procedure has been established. The elements of the matrix c and matrix m for a uniform beam according to the linear analysis are provided in Appendix A. 2. c.  The corresponding pseudo-damping factor 1i is:  1i ¼ ei :  xdi ð25Þ ð22Þ where k is the static stiffness matrix. i. the characteristic values occur in complex conjugate pairs with either negative or zero real parts. the system is nonclassically damped and it generally has complex valued natural modes. [35]. It should be noted that if neither eccentricities nor springs and dashpots are present. n. 3a. let xdi be the modulus of ki . the mass matrix for the uniform beam with flexible springs and dashpots at its ends. Expanding the elements of the dynamic stiffness matrix in series with respect to the circular frequency x and neglecting higher terms than the third order. M–h functions for the two types of connection (double web angle (DWA). the three parameter power model proposed by Richard and Abbott [8] and Kishi et al. The elements of this matrix corresponding to the linear analysis are given in Appendix A. To describe connection behavior. which is based on physical properties of the member. and it can be found in Appendix A. Accordingly to Eq. top and seat angle with double web angle (TSDWA)) are shown in Fig. In this model. the damping matrix and m. the relationship between coefficient ci of viscous damping in joints and modal  pseudo-relative damping factor 1i for i mode shape can be obtained. [27] is used to represent moment–rotation behavior of the connection under monotonic loading. The matrix c is consistent element damping matrix. the matrix k transforms to the classical beam element flexural stiffness matrix k0 . the characteristics of connections are assumed to be unchanged through the loading . In order to establish the relationship between coefficient ci of viscous damping in joints and modal relative damping factor fk for k mode shape. The independent hardening model was adopted to simulate the inelastic connection behavior under cyclic loading.M.: qffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi  xdi ¼ e2 þ x2 : i di ð23aÞ ð23bÞ Based on the parametric study. 3. The matrix S can be obtained from matrix G putting e1 ¼ e2 ¼ 0. the following expansion is obtained in the decomposed form: k ¼ k þ jxc À x m. Semi-rigid connection modelling Numerous experimental results have shown that the connection moment–rotation relationships are nonlinear over the entire range of loading for almost all types of connections. In this study. and the corresponding curve is presented in Fig. It is necessary to elucidate physical interpretation of solutions represented by complex conjugate pairs of characteristic values. ð26Þ ð24Þ where k0 initial connection stiffness. Relationship between coefficient ci and modal pseudo relative damping factor 1i .  Let ki and ki be a pair of characteristic values defined by: ki ¼ Àei þ jxdi . the shape parameter. 2. So. The response of a multidegree-of-freedom system cannot be expressed as a linear combination of its corresponding modal responses. the ultimate moment capacity. the reference plastic rotation and Mu .  qðtÞ ¼ ð0Þ ejxt : q * ð21cÞ ð21dÞ The explicit forms of matrices k1 and k2 are given in Appendix A. different mathematical models have been proposed. / Computers and Structures 80 (2002) 935–955 939 k2 ¼ ST ðk þ KÞS. Sekulovic et al. The details of these connections can be found in Ref. The proposed viscous damping at beam ends causes that viscously damped system does not satisfy Caughey and O’Kelly’s condition [34]. The matrix kà is a complex flexural stiffness matrix of uniform beam with flexible connection according to the linear or second order analysis. à 2 Fig.  ki ¼ Àei À jxdi :  Further. The first of these connections are rather weak and the second is relatively stiff.e. Provided that the amount of damping in the system is not very high. This model can be formulated as: M¼ k0 h ½1 þ ðh=h0 Þn Š1=n . including both flexible and viscous phenomena.

U and U are the relative node accelerations. Numerical procedures The equations of motion of a frame subjected to dynamic loading can be written in the following form: c U þ C U þ K U ¼ F. with a constant acceleration assumption within any step. € the load increment DF or DUg is divided into a few smaller subincrements (Fig. 3b. secant stiffness method is used. More information about this model can be found in Refs. which depends on the stiffness of connections. The moment–rotation curve under the first cycle of loading unloading and reverse loading remain unchanged under the repetititon of loading cycles. The skeleton curve used in the model was obtained from three parameter power model. 3. [35. The time dependent vectors U. represented by slope of its moment–rotation curve at any particular moment value. The cyclic moment– rotation curve based on this model is schematically shown in Fig. / Computers and Structures 80 (2002) 935–955 b in which c is the mass matrix. Sekulovic et al. while the vectors F and Ug are externally applied loads and ground accelerations. The iterative algorithm is based on evaluating secant stiffness matrix. ð27Þ . In each time step. velocities and € displacements respectively. cycles. Secant stiffness method in a case of nonlinear connection behavior.940 M. To solve the nonlinear equations. 4. 4) and iterative procedures are employed.36]. b M€ b _ M€ ð28Þ Fig. This method is very simple in computer implementation and also gives convergent solutions for design loadings. The convergence is obtained when the differences be- Fig. The equations of motions are integrated using step-bystep integration. The independent hardening model is simple and easily applicable to all types of steel frames connection models. C is viscous damping M b matrix and K is static stiffness matrix for the system of € _ structural elements. (a) Three parameter power model and (b) independent hardening model. that are nonlinear in terms of the displacements as well as the axial force. b M€ b _ or c U þ C U þ K U ¼ À c Ug . 4.

5. 5. a computer program has been developed and dynamic analysis of plane frames with different number of stories and bays. The change in natural frequencies due to variation of joint stiffness (fixity fac- Fig. For comparison the same frame with rigid joints was analyzed.359 0.00 m high and 8. Linear (first order) and a geometrically nonlinear (second order) analyses of the frame were carried out for all aforementioned connection types. The convergent solutions for all load subincrements are accumulated to obtain the total nonlinear response within time step. The geometrical and material properties of this frame are shown in Fig. This fact can be Table 1 Natural frequencies of the frame investigated Type of connection Rigid TSDWA DWA Natural frequencies (rad/s) First mode 6. The results of linear and nonlinear analyses of the frame with fully rigid joints obtained by this study have been compared with the corresponding results obtained by the known software package SAP 2000 [37].247 Periods (s) First mode 0. TSDWA) and shown in Table 1. has been performed.352 Second mode 0. Layout and properties of single-bay ten-storey frame investigated. the connection flexibility has a significant influence on variation of the natural frequencies particularly on the lower frequencies.647 Second mode 17. Ten-storey single bay frame Ten-storey single bay plane steel frame 40. / Computers and Structures 80 (2002) 935–955 941 tween two consecutive cycles displacements at all joints reach the prescribed tolerance.523 16.M. The current connection stiffness becomes the starting connection stiffness for the next load subincrement.220 0. 5.116 28. The natural frequencies are normalized by dividing their values by the frequencies obtained for the frame with rigid joints and fixity factors are defined as:   3EI ci ki0 ¼ . if subjected to uniform and seismic ground excitations.519 Third mode 31. 6.097 1.391 0. Sekulovic et al.259 .611 24. 5. Natural frequencies The natural frequencies and the corresponding periods for the first three modes are determined for the cases of fully rigid and linear semi-rigid connection (DWA. only some typical results are presented herein.993 1. For the semi-rigid type connections database developed by Chen and Kishi [38] was used.465 Third mode 0. Numerical examples Based on the above theoretical considerations. 5.088 13.727 4.1. tor) is shown in Fig.1. These two sets of results are quite close to each other. As seen in Fig. Two types of semi-rigid beam-to-column connections (TSDWA and DWA) with both linear and nonlinear moment–rotation relations were considered.00 m wide has been analyzed.1. ð29Þ l 1 À ci where ki0 is initial connection stiffness that varies from 0 in the case of pinned connection to 1 for the case of fully rigid connection and ci is fixity factor whose values are normalized form 0 to 1.202 0.328 5. The following examples include vibration and transient analysis of steel frame shown in Fig. For illustration. 5. 6. as well as different types of connections and loads.

The differences (in percent) in the shear forces at the base of the frame are: 3.0 for nonlinear types of TSDWA and DWA connections. Besides. as the lower modes may generally have the principal influence on seismic response of buildings.3. 5. 7 shows the influence of eccentricity beamto-column connection on the variation of natural frequencies. Fig.1. Characteristic results of the lateral displacements and accelerations at the top of frame as well as bending moments and shear forces at the base of the frame for the various types of connections are presented in Table 2. On the contrary. The influence of connection eccentricity on the natural frequencies. The transient response analysis of the frame with various connection types according to the first order and second order analyses has been carried out. 10. Gravitational loads are also included and they are considered as additional lumped masses at the beam nodes.1 and 48. Fig. It can be seen from Fig. 7. Transient analysis The transient displacement analysis of the frame shown in Fig. the nonlinear connections dampen and produced nonrecoverable deflection due to the presence of permanent deformations at connections. very important for seismic analysis of frame structures. 8 and 9 that the frame with semi-rigid connections has a larger lateral displacements. They are longer in DWA connection case than in the TSDWA connection case. The displacement amplitudes and period increase with a decrease in joint stiffness. 6. the frame with either fully rigid and linear . 8 and 9. The effects of viscous damping at joint connections on the deflection and internal forces of the frame are also included.2. but smaller shear forces when compared with the fully rigid connection. Sekulovic et al. 10. 5 has been performed for the two cases of ground motions: two steps sudden acceleration and an earthquake excitation.1 and 64. The time histories of the lateral displacements at the left top node of the frame with various connection types according to the first order and second order analyses are plotted in Fig.5 and 20.1. It can be seen that the eccentricity of connections may have a practical influence depending on the type and size of the connection.9 and 13. The influence on connection flexibility on the natural frequencies.942 M. It can be seen from Table 2 and Figs. Fig. the difference in maximum displacement at the top of the frame with rigid joints and semi-rigid type of joints are (in percent): 15.9 for nonlinear types of TSDWA and DWA connections. respectively. / Computers and Structures 80 (2002) 935–955 5. The envelopes of lateral displacement and shear force of the frame with various connection types according to the first order and second order analyses are plotted in Figs. respectively.2 for linear or 5. Consequently.6 for linear or 19. 10 that the frame with nonlinear connections has longer amplitudes and period when compared with the rigid joint case. It is obvious that there is a significant difference between the results obtained for the frame with rigid joints and the frames with semi-rigid (DWA and TSDWA) connections especially in the case of the weak connections type (DWA). These differences increase with decrease in the connection stiffness. Two-steps ground acceleration The frame is assumed to be subjected to the sudden discontinuous two-steps uniform ground acceleration shown in Fig.

27 176.39 50.673 943 Second order 0.13 53. Sekulovic et al.50 164.33 154. connection types produces no hysteretic damping.39 45.953 1.98 48.23 161.96 3.68 4.64 40. 000 Nonlinear c¼0 Nonlinear c ¼ 50. Lateral displacement envelopes (a) and shear force envelopes (b) according to the first order analysis.66 3.736 0.95 34.13 0.03 35.95 Maximum acceleration of node A (m/s2 ) First order 0.31 0.46 5.39 162.23 0.85 3. Fig.81 51.M.39 153.765 0.38 0.10 3. / Computers and Structures 80 (2002) 935–955 Table 2 Maximum displacements and internal forces of frame investigated Type of connections Rigid Present study SAP2000 TSDWA Linear c¼0 Linear c ¼ 50.66 3.36 178.66 Second order 166.84 2.30 Maximum bending moment of node B (kN m) First order 161.12 203.45 1.05 0.10 Second order 55.66 5.49 166.98 Maximum shear force of node B (kN) First order 58. 8.59 37.26 52.38 3.460 0. .696 1.61 36.47 50. 10 shows also that the second order analysis further magnifies the aforementioned nonlinear effects on the frame deflection response.43 48.00 Second order 3.22 2.00 58.58 3.27 2.16 161.98 182.767 1.60 174.86 55.24 3.51 150.709 4.60 3.712 0.465 Fig. 000 Nonlinear c¼0 Nonlinear c ¼ 50. 000 Maximum displacement of node A (cm) First order 2.96 4.705 0.67 153.93 177.475 0.905 1.479 0.86 47.59 166.863 0.34 34.10 3.02 137.58 42.79 192. 000 DWA Linear c¼0 Linear c ¼ 50.

10. / Computers and Structures 80 (2002) 935–955 Fig. Sekulovic et al. Time history displacement at the left top node of the frame with various connection types. Fig. 9. Lateral displacement envelopes (a) and shear force envelopes (b) according to the second order analysis. According to the (a) first order analysis and (b) second order analysis. .944 M.

the frame deforms suddenly to a Fig. In the linear type connection case plotted in Figs. The peak ground acceleration was 0. It reduced transient deflection response gradually decreasing its amplitude with time. These figures show that viscous damping alters the deflection response of the frame significantly. This figure shows considerable difference between the responses of rigid jointed frames and frames with nonlinear connection types. 14. 14b also shows that the frame with DWA connection demonstrates remarkably different response from the others. Fig. 11a and 12a there is only viscous damping. there are both viscous and hysteretic damping. and to the negative side (backward permanent deflection) in the second case. The influence of viscous damping at connections on displacement response of the frame with TSDWA connections. particularly in case a weak connection type (DWA). 13b.M. 5. . 11b and 12b.4. It is obvious that the displacement response of the frame decays with time for both linear and nonlinear types of connections. so the frame oscillates about its initial position. The main reason for it is hysteretic damping which exists only in nonlinear connection case. After about 3 s in this case.1. In the nonlinear type connection case plotted in Figs. Fig. so the frame oscillates about its permanent drift position which exists as a result of the permanent nonrecoverable rotations of connections. 11 and 12.4 g at about third second. The displacement response at the top of the frame with two types of nonlinear connections and rigid jointed frame according linear and second order analyses plotted in Fig. (a) Linear type of connection and (b) nonlinear type of connection. 11. / Computers and Structures 80 (2002) 935–955 945 The influence of viscous damping at connections on displacement response of frame with some types of connections is shown in Figs. Sekulovic et al. 14a shows that in both TSDWA and DWA nonlinear types of connection there are permanent deflection drift (due to large connection rotation) to the positive side (forward permanent deflection) in the first case. Earthquake excitation The frame is assumed to be subjected to the first four seconds of Montenegro earthquake (1979) NS compo- nent motion shown in Fig.

Accelerogram (a) and spectrum (b) for Montenegro earthquake (1979). (a) Linear type of connection and (b) nonlinear type of connection.946 M. The influence of viscous damping at connections on displacement response of the frame with DWA connections. 13. Lateral load history. / Computers and Structures 80 (2002) 935–955 Fig. Fig. Petrovac NS component. 12. Sekulovic et al. .

5. and oscillates about this permanent deflection. the acceleration is amplified from the base to top of the frame by factors 6.M. It obviously has a great influence on displacement response of these frames. On the contrary. Sekulovic et al. respectively. 17. 14. For the applied ground motion. DWA) connections according to linear and second order analyses are shown in Fig. The main reason for this is the appearance of large rotational deformations at the joint connections. The predominant frequencies of the applied earthquake are within the range from 2 to 10 Hz (periods 0. the acceleration response is not dampened.1–0.5 s). TSDWA. 13b).9 and 1. 15 and 16. peak value that reaches over 60 cm. The hysteresis M–h loops at joint C of the frame with TSDWA and DWA type of connections are shown in . It is necessary bear in mind that any earthquake is an excitation with a wide range of frequencies. 3. in the case of rigid jointed frame. so the large amplification of the acceleration response exists. Time history acceleration responses of the frame with rigid and two types nonlinear (TSDWA. The frames with flexible nonlinear connections under applied earthquake motion have smaller lateral displacements and shear forces when compared with the rigid jointed frame. The lateral displacement and shear force envelopes of the frame with the previous connection types obtained according linear and second order analyses are shown in Figs. Time history displacement with various connection types according to the (a) first order analysis and (b) second order analysis. It is obvious that there is a substantial hysteretic damping effect on the acceleration response of the frame with nonlinear connections. while the second and the third natural frequencies are within the range of predominant frequencies of the applied earthquake (Fig. / Computers and Structures 80 (2002) 935–955 947 Fig. The lowest natural frequencies of the investigated frames (rigid. DWA) are much higher than the predominant earthquake frequencies.7 for rigid. TSDWA and DWA case of connections.

948 M. 15. 16. Vibration and transient response analysis of the frame were investigated by Chan and Ho [25] and Chan and Chui [36]. It can be seen that the connections undergo strong rotational deformations during the applied earthquake motion.2. 19 has been analyzed. Lateral displacement envelopes (a) and shear force envelopes (b) according to the second order analysis. 18. . The stiffness and geometric matrices of the uniform beam with end springs were obtained using conventional cubic Hermitian shape functions. Lateral displacement envelopes (a) and shear force envelopes (b) according to the first order analysis. Single-bay two-storey frame For the purpose of comparison of the analysis in this paper with existing computational methods the singlebay two-storey frame shown in Fig. / Computers and Structures 80 (2002) 935–955 Fig. They applied the numerical model based on the linearized second order theory assuming the linear and nonlinear types of connections. 5. Fig. 19b. Sekulovic et al. Two elements per beam and one element per column were applied. Fig. The flush end plate flexible connection type was assumed and modelled by Chen–Lui exponential model [39] shown in Fig.

The same frame has been analyzed by the present numerical model and the results compared with those previously obtained by Chan and coworkers [25. 18. The transient response of the frame was performed for the two cases of lateral loads (cyclic and impact) with and without the presence of gravitational loads. Fig. 17. / Computers and Structures 80 (2002) 935–955 949 Fig. Hysteresis M–h loops at joint C of the frame with TSDWA (a) and DWA (b) type of connections. . Time history acceleration with various connection types according to the (a) first order analysis and (b) second order analysis.M.36]. Sekulovic et al.

A numerical model that includes both nonlinear connection behavior and geometric nonlinearity of the structure has been developed.28 7. Sekulovic et al. Single-bay two-storey frame.13 The natural frequencies of the frame for the fully rigid and linear semi-rigid (flush end plate and TSDWA) connections have been determined and shown in Table 3. The stiffness matrix was based on the analytical solutions of the second order equations. It shows that the effect of hysteretic damping on structural response is significant. Conclusion An efficient method to perform dynamic analyses of steel frame structures with flexible connections has been presented in this paper. From the results of numerical examples it can be concluded that the structural responses of the frames with nonlinear connections and the frames with conventional type of connections (rigid or linear) are considerably different. connection design and modelling have a great practical importance. . As expected. It is higher in the frame with flexible connections than with rigid joints. 19. (a) Layout and (b) moment–rotation curves of flush end plate connection. The frame analyzed by the present study has smaller amplitudes and nonrecoverable deflections.50 7. Table 3 Natural frequencies of the single-bay two-storey frame Type of connection Rigid Flush end plate TSDWA Natural frequencies (rad/s) Present work 10. it is evident that the flexible joint connections greatly influence the dynamic behavior of steel frames.950 M.30 7. The complex dynamic stiffness matrix for a prismatic beam with rotational springs and dashpots attached at its ends was obtained in an explicit form. The time histories of the displacement at node B and the hysteretic loops at node A of the frame under the lateral cyclic loads obtained by Chan and Chui and in the current study are shown in Fig. as well as shorter periods when compared with the same frame analyzed by Chan and Chui. but there are some differences between their amplitudes and periods. Displacement response of the frame subjected to the impact loads obtained by Chan and Chui and by the present study is shown in Fig. From the results. it can also be concluded that the viscous damping at connections may considerably reduce the displacement response and internal forces of the frame. and thus the eigenfrequencies. Therefore. particularly the lower ones. Therefore. / Computers and Structures 80 (2002) 935–955 Fig. It can be seen that the response curves have the same character. which may have a primary influence on dynamic response of the structure. These differences are small at the beginning and they gradually increase with time. so that each beam corresponds to one finite element. particularly in the case of weak connection types. It can be seen that the response curves are very close. 21. 20. The linear model is inadequate as it cannot represent a hysteretic behavior of connection under cyclic loads. The influence of the geometric nonlinearity increases with the gravitational loads and the lateral frame deflections. The connection flexibility may significantly alter both vibration and the response of frames. The connections are vital structural components that are very often responsible for the behavior and safety of frame structures subjected to strong dynamic (seismic) loads. An increase in the connection flexibility reduces the frame stiffness. they are larger in the case the presence than in the case the absence of gravitational loads.11 Chan and Ho 10. the nonlinear constitutive model for connections should be used in design and response analysis of real frame structures. 6. It can be seen that they are agree well with the results by Chan and Ho.35 7. On the bases of the above theoretical considerations and the results of the applied numerical analysis.

Dynamic behavior of two-storey frame under cyclic loads. N3 ðxÞ ¼ DÀ1 ½1 À cos x À xn sin x þ sin x sin xn À ð1 À cos xÞ cos xnŠ. for the compressive member ðN < 0Þ. . . .M. (a) Displacement response at node B and (b) hysteretic loops at node A. . 20. l rffiffiffiffiffiffiffi jN j : x¼l EI D ¼ 2ð1 À cos xÞ À x sin x. The interpolation functions Ni ðxÞ. N4 ðxÞ ¼ lðDxÞÀ1 ½sin x À x þ xnð1 À cos xÞ À ð1 À cos xÞ sin xn þ ðx À sin xÞ cos xnŠ. N2 ðxÞ ¼ lðDxÞÀ1 ½x cos x À sin x þ xnð1 À cos xÞ þ ð1 À cos x À x sin xÞ sin xn þ ðsin x À x cos xÞ cos xnŠ. Sekulovic et al. 4. are: N1 ðxÞ ¼ DÀ1 ½1 À cos x À x sin x þ xn sin x À sin x sin xn þ ð1 À cos xÞ cos xnŠ. i ¼ 1. Appendix A. where x n¼ . . / Computers and Structures 80 (2002) 935–955 951 Fig.

and using the relations shx ¼ Àj sin jx and chx ¼ cos jx. The elements of the correction matrix G are: g21 ¼ Àg23 ¼ À6 ½g1 þ 2g1 g2 ð2/3 À /4 ފ/2 .952 M. 3 4 EI lki g22 ¼ À6e1 ½g1 þ 2g1 g2 ð2/3 À /4 ފ/2 lD À 4½g1 /3 þ g1 g2 ð4/2 À /2 ފ. Displacement response of two-storey frame under impact loads. 2: gi ¼ . (a) Without gravity and (b) with gravity loads. g24 ¼ lD D ¼ ð1 þ 4g1 /3 Þð1 þ 4g2 /3 Þ À 4g1 g2 /2 . lD À6e2 ½g2 þ 2g1 g2 ð2/3 À /4 ފ/2 À 4½g2 /3 lD þ g1 g2 ð4/2 À /2 ފ. / Computers and Structures 80 (2002) 935–955 Fig. Sekulovic et al. 21. 4 i ¼ 1. lD g41 ¼ Àg43 ¼ À6 ½g2 þ 2g1 g2 ð2/3 À /4 ފ/2 . The shape functions for the tensile member ðN > 0Þ can be obtained from the foregoing expressions replacing x ¼ jx. lD g42 ¼ À6e1 ½g2 þ 2g1 g2 ð2/3 À /4 ފ/2 À 2g2 /4 . 3 4 g44 ¼ À6e2 ½g1 þ 2g1 g2 ð2/3 À /4 ފ/2 À 2g1 /4 .

lDà à à kjk ¼ kkj EI 2 4l ð2/3 c þ /4 f Þ. l3 D già ¼ k1 12 ¼ Àk1 23 ¼ À k1 44 ¼ À pffiffiffiffiffiffiffi EI 1 . . . i ¼ 1. lD k1 jk ¼ k1 kj : The elements of matrix k2 according to the second order theory are: k2 11 ¼ Àk2 13 ¼ k2 33   EI a2 b2 . d ¼ g44 . 2 ¼ 6EI à ð1 þ 2g1 Þ. lDà 4EI . l2 Dà à k24 ¼ 4EI à ð1 þ 3g1 Þ. lD2 8EI ðh1 þ h2 þ 3g1 h2 þ 3g2 h1 Þ. l3 D à à k12 ¼ Àk23 ¼ 6EI à ð1 þ 2g2 Þ. ¼ 2 4/3 ðae þ bdÞ þ 2/4 ðad þ beÞ þ þ g1 g2 lD k2 22 k2 44   EI c2 f 2 . f ¼ g42 and e1 ¼ e2 ¼ 0. l3 Dà à à k14 ¼ Àk34 m14 ¼ Àm34 12EI 2 3 ¼ 2 3 ðg2 h2 þ 6g2 h2 þ 8g2 h2 1 1 1 l D g1 g2 2 2 2 À 6g1 g2 h1 h2 À 16g1 g2 h1 h2 À 8g1 g2 h1 h2 À 8g1 g2 h1 h2 2 2 2 3 À 24g1 g2 h1 h2 þ 2g1 h2 þ 18g1 h2 þ 52g1 h2 2 2 2 4 þ 48g1 h2 Þ. 4/3 ðce þ df Þ þ 2/4 ðcd þ ef Þ þ þ g1 g2 lD2 c12 ¼ Àc23 ¼ c14 ¼ Àc34 ¼ c22 ¼ 4EI 2 ð4h1 þ h2 þ 24g2 h1 þ 36g2 h1 Þ. lD2 4EI 2 ðh1 þ 4h2 þ 24g1 h2 þ 36g1 h2 Þ. The elements of mass matrix m are: m11 ¼ Àm13 ¼ m33 36EI 2 3 4 ¼ 3 3 ðg2 h2 þ 8g2 h2 þ 20g2 h2 þ 16g2 h2 1 1 1 1 l D g1 g2 2 2 À 4g1 g2 h1 h2 À 8g1 g2 h1 h2 À 8g1 g2 h1 h2 2 2 2 3 4 À 16g1 g2 h1 h2 þ g1 h2 þ 8g1 h2 þ 20g1 h2 þ 16g1 h2 Þ. ¼ 2 4/3 ða2 þ b2 Þ þ 4/4 ab þ þ g1 g2 lD k2 12 ¼ Àk2 23   EI ac bf . lD2 cjk ¼ ckj . l3 D EI ½6l/2 ðd þ eÞ þ 2l2 ð2/3 b þ /4 aފ. j ¼ À1.M. c ¼ g22 . l2 D2 k1 14 ¼ Àk1 34 ¼ À k1 24 EI ¼ À 3 2l2 ½2/3 ðe þ f Þ þ /43 ðd þ cފ. . . Sekulovic et al. ¼ 2 4/3 ðc2 þ f 2 Þ þ 4/4 cf þ þ g1 g2 lD   EI e2 d 2 . 2 2 2 2 k2 24 ¼ where a ¼ g21 ¼ Àg23 . lDà à k22 ¼ 4EI à ð1 þ 3g2 Þ. l2 Dà . 2 2 2 12EI à à ð1 þ g1 þ g2 Þ. i ¼ 1. kià ¼ ki þ jxci . l kià à à à à Dà ¼ 1 þ 4g1 þ 4g2 þ 12g1 g2 : EI 2 4l ð2/3 d þ /4 eÞ. 2. 4 can be found in Ref. l3 D EI ½6l/2 ðc þ f Þ þ 2l2 ð2/3 a þ /4 bފ. [35]. Analytical expressions for the functions /i . l3 D2 12EI 2 ð2h1 þ h2 þ 2g1 h2 þ 10g2 h1 þ 12g2 h1 Þ. l2 D2 12EI 2 ðh1 þ 2h2 þ 10g1 h2 þ 12g1 h2 þ 4g2 h1 Þ. ¼ 2 4/3 ðac þ bf Þ þ 2/4 ðaf þ bcÞ þ þ g1 g2 lD k2 14 ¼ Àk2 34   EI ae bd . / Computers and Structures 80 (2002) 935–955 953 à k44 ¼ The elements of matrix k1 according to the second order theory are: k1 11 ¼ Àk1 13 ¼ k1 33 ¼ À k1 22 ¼ À EI 12l/2 ða þ bÞ. b ¼ g41 ¼ Àg43 . c24 ¼ c44 ¼ where hi ¼ ðci EIÞ=ðlki2 Þ. l3 D The elements of damping matrix c are: c11 ¼ Àc13 ¼ c33 ¼ 36EI 2 2 ðh1 þ h2 þ 4g1 h2 þ 4g1 h2 þ 4g2 h1 þ 4g2 h1 Þ. e ¼ g24 . ¼ 2 4/3 ðd 2 þ e2 Þ þ 4/4 ed þ þ g1 g2 lD   EI ce df . The elements of complex dynamic stiffness matrix kà according to the first order analysis are: à à à k11 ¼ Àk13 ¼ k33 ¼ m12 ¼ Àm23 12EI 2 3 4 ¼ 2 3 ð2g2 h2 þ 18g2 h2 þ 52g2 h2 þ 48g2 h2 1 1 1 1 l D g1 g2 2 2 À 6g1 g2 h1 h2 À 8g1 g2 h1 h2 À 16g1 g2 h1 h2 2 2 2 3 À 24g1 g2 h1 h2 þ g1 h2 þ 6g1 h2 þ 8g1 h2 Þ.

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