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5. The notion of a term.Its characteristics and st. fs.Scientific prose. T. are w-ds denoting various scientifical & techn.

Objects, phenomena & processes. They are found in techn. Texts where they are indespensible means of expressing ideas. They directly refer to the o-t they mean. They are emotionally neutral. They are: 1monosemantic; 2-m-ng doesnt depend on the context;3it remains constant until some new invention changes it(wireless set=radio); 4- no emotional colouring,but it can obtain it when taken out from techn. Sphere. St-c f-s: 1- to create a realistic background for the novel;2- ### a humorous effect if t. are used in lexical surrounding abs-ly foreign to them. T. gradually lose their quality of terms & pass into common literary or neutral vocabulary. T. are mainly used in scient. Prose. This style includes different articles, monographs, conference proceedings & other kinds of academic publications.the main ch-cs are precision,logical cohesion, repeated use of clichs.

6 newspaper st. var-s & pecul-s, distinction from pub-c st. includes informative materials: news in brief, headlines, ads, additional articles. But not everything published in the paper can be included in N.S. we mean publicist essays, feature articles, scient. Reviews are not N.S. to attract the readers attention special means are used by british & am. Papers ex: specific headlines, space ordering. We find here a large proportion of dates, personal names of countries, institutions, individuals. To achieve an effect of objectivity in rendering some fact or event most of info is published anonymously, without the name of newsman who supplied it, with little or no subjective modality. But the position of the paper becomes clear from the choice not only of subj. matter but also of words denoting international or domestic issues.

7 the style of official documents it is the most conservative. It preserves cast-iron forms of structuring& uses syntactical constr-s words known as archaic & not observed any more else. Addressing documents and official letters, signing them, expressing the reasons and considerations leading to the subject of the doc-t all this is strictly regulated both lexically & syntact. All emotiveness and subj. modality are completely banned out of this style. ( contracts, treaties, agreements etc.)

8. publicist style. (oratory, speeches, essays, articles) the style is a perfect ex. Of historical changeability of stylistic differentiation of discourses. In Greece it was practiced in oral form which was named P. in accordance with the name of its corresponding genre. PS is famouse for its explicit pragmatic function of persuasion directed at influencing the reader & shaping his views in accordance with the argumentation of the author. We find in PS a blend of the rigorous logical reasoning, reflecting the objective state of things & a strong subjectivity reflecting the authors personal feelings and emotions towards the discussed subject.

9. Peculiarities of belles-lettres style, its varieties & genres. Belle-letters style (the style of fiction) embraces:1)poetry; 2)drama; 3)emotive prose. B-l style or the style of imaginative literature may be called the richest register of communication: besides its own lange means which are not used in any other sphere of communication, b-l st. makes ample use of other styles too, for in numerous works of literary art we find elements of scientific, official and other functional types of speech. Besides informative and persuasive functions, also found in other functional styles, the b-l style has a unique task to impress the reader aesthetically. The form becomes meaningful and carries additional info. Boundless possibilities of expressing one's thoughts and feelings make the b-l style a highly attractive field of research for a linguist. The belles-lettres style, in each of its concrete representations, fulfils the aesthetic function, which fact singles this style out of others and gives grounds to recognize its systematic uniqueness, i.e. charges it with the status if an autonomous functional style.

10. Archaisms & their stylistic functions. Archaisms: a)obsolete () words; b) historical words; c)archaisms proper. a) obsolete are words which had fallen out of use completely as they have been replaced by syn-ms. Ex. dress (ModE) - habit (obsolete word), I think (ModE) methinks (ob.w). b) historical novelists make use of historical w. They are applied to concepts reflecting the past stages of the dev-nt of humankind. Ex. vassal . Such w-s are numerous in histirical novels as names of social relations, institutions & objects of material culture of the past. Ex. gonflat . The limited usage of hist. words isnt caused by linguistic factors but social ones. Stylistic function of h.w-s: to create a true to life background in the hist-al novels. c) archaic words proper havent dropped out of usage completely as they are used in poetry & some official doc-ts. Ex. hither (here) / thither (there)

11. Peculiarities of poetic & highly literary words. Poetic words form a rather insignificant layer of the special literary vocabulary. They are mostly archaic or very rarely used highly literary words which aim at producing an elevated effect. They have a marked tendency to detach themselves from the common literary word-stock and gradually assume the quality of terms denoting certain definite notions and calling forth poetic diction. Poetic words and expressions are called upon to sustain the special elevated atmosphere of poetry. This may be said to be the main function of poetic words. Poetical tradition has kept alive such archaic words and forms as quoth (to speak); eftsoons (eftsona, again, soon after), which are used even by modern balladmongers. The use of poetic words does not as a rule create the atmosphere of poetry in the true sense; it is a substitute for real art. Poetic words are not freely built in contrast to neutral, colloquial and common literary words, or terms. The commonest means is by compounding, e. g. 'youngeyed', 'rosy-fingered'.

12. Difference b/w foreign words & barbarisms, their stylistic functions. In the voc-ry of the E lan-e there is a considerable layer of words called bar-ms. These are words of foreign origin, which have not entirely been assimilated into the E lan-ge. They bear the appearance of a borrowing & are felt as smth alien to the native tongue. The role foreign borrowings played in the dev-nt of the E literary lan-ge is well known, & the great majority of these borrowed w-ds now form part of the rank & file of the E voc-ry. It is the science of ling-cs, in particular its branch etymology, that reveals the foreign nature of this or that word. But most of what were formerly foreign borrowings are now, from a purely stylistic position, not regarded as foreign. But still there are some words, which retain their foreign appearance to a greater, or lesser degree. These words, which are called bar-ms, are, like archaisms, also considered to be on the outskirts of the literary lan-ge. Most of them have corresponding E synonyms; e. g. chic (=stylish); en passant (= in passing); and many other w-s and phrases. It is very imp-nt for purely stylistic purposes to distinguish b/n bar-ms & foreign w-s proper. Bar-ms are w-s, which have already become facts of the E lan-ge. They are, as it were, part and parcel of the E word-stock, though they remain on the outskirts of the literary voc-ry. For-n w-s, though used for certain stylistic purposes, do not belong to the E voc-ry. They are not registered by E dictionaries, except in a kind of addenda which gives the meanings of the foreign w-s most frequently used in literary E. Bar-ms are generally given in the body of the dictionary. In printed works foreign w-s & phrases are generally italicized to indicate their alien nature or their stylistic value.

13.Main characteristics of slang. Slang-very ambiguous(.) & obscure(.).S. seems to mean everything that is below the standart usage of present day English.Its the lowest layer of E-sh voc-ry,the usage of which is regarded the violation of standart E-sh.S. is used in dialects(to reflect informal & emotional character of a conversation).S. serves to charac-ze the person who is using it.(E.g.:go mad=go nuts,shut up=belt up,boaster=big head.).Slang words are more emotive,inpoetic if compared to their neutral synonyms:nonsence=rot,money=bucks.S. can be used for those words,which are either mispronounced phonetically,morph-ly,lexically:leggo=let go. S. broad & embracing.It is regarded as the quintessence() of colloquial speech & therefore it stands above all laws of grammar.Some S. words loose their feature of novelty & become common literary words.(E.g.:(Br.)go to the pictures=go to the movies(Am).S. needs to translation. S. differs from ordinary lang-ge in its voc-ry.But the structure of the sentence and the morph-gy remains practically unchangeable

14.Proffesional & social jargonisms & their stylistic functions. Jargon-a term for a group of words that exist in almost every language and their aim is to preserve secrecy within 1 or another social group.Jargonismold words with entirely new meanings imposed on them(E.g.:greese=money,loaf=head).In Br. and USA almost every social group has its jargon.The Jargon of jazz,of army,of sportsment,of the youth. Groups of J.:1)social j-n;2)professional j-n.1)-is used by part. social classes & groups to conceal the subject of their conversation.2)-by prof. groups of people to give new,more expressive names to tools,machines,processes connected with the given occupation.Prof-s may be regarded as colloquial synonyms of terms but terms are supposed to be known to a wider audience and they devoid of emotional colouring.(E.g.:bulls=people who buy the shares,bears=p. who sell the shares,piper=who plays pipes & p. who decorate cakes).Such kind of words should be explained to foreign people-who dont belong to this prof./social gr.J. differs from ordinary lang-ge in its voc-ry.But the structure of the sentence and the morph-gy remains practically unchangeable. Ways of creating j-sms:1)foreign borrowings;2)phonetic deformations.(E.g.:manany=to sailor who puts off job till some other time;spainmanjana=tomorrow).Many non-lit-ry words become assimilated and enter the lit-ry lang-ge. They become dejargonized(kid,fun,bluff).

15.Place & role of dialectal words in the national langge & in a literary text. Dialectal words have come from dialects & still retain their dialectal character.Many D. words have become so familiar in good colloquial lang-ge,that they became universally accepted (E.g.:lass=girl,lad=a young man).Many of them are of Scottish origin.Of quite a dif. nature-D. words which are easily recognized as corruptions of standard English words,although etimologically they may have sprung the pecularities of certain dialects.(E.g.:hinny=honey,titty=sister).D. words create a realistic background (loc. colouring) when used in a novel.They show from which place the person came,characterize him(his personality) through the speech & are mostly used in emotive prose.Other dialects used for stylistic purposes:1)Southern D. of Britain(Sommersitshcher);2)initial [s],[th] are voiced & are written in literary speech of ch-s as z & v(e.g. folk=volk,see=zee).Some D. words are introduced by writer which are understandable to the intelligent reader(e.g. maister=master,weel=wheel,enengh=enough).

12 Bar-ms, on the contrary, are not made conspicuous in the text unless they bear a special load of stylistic info. There are foreign w-s in the E voc-ry, which fulfill a terminological function. It is evident that bar-ms are a historical category. Many foreign w-s & phrases which were once just foreign w-s used in literary E to express a concept non-existent in E reality, have little by little entered the class of words named bar-ms and many of these bar-ms have gradually lost their foreign peculiarities, become more or less naturalized and have merged with the native E stock of w-s. Another function of bar-ms and foreign w-s is, to build up the stylistic device of nonpersonal direct speech or represented speech. The use of a w-d, or a phrase, or a sentence in the reported speech of a local inhabitant helps to reproduce his actual w-s, manner of speech & the-environment as well.

16.Literary coinages & neologisms, ways of their formation & distinction. There are words which appear as names od new phenomena,presenting one of the ways of enriching the voc-ry.There exist dif-nt names e.g.-terminalogical coinages.A great number of words still remain individual creations & don appear at the pages of the book in which they have originated.Such words are called-individual(stylistic)coinages or neologisms.Their maim f-n-1)to help the writer to achieve laconism of style & expressivness;2)to create a humorous effect;Most of new words of the 16-17th cent.-mostly borrowings(Latin,Greek,French).They are easily understood by the community,they follow the existengword building patterns in structure.Most of literary bookish coinages-by means of affixation or word-compounding.New words built in this manner will be immediatlyperdeved because of their unexpectedness. Unexpectedness in the use of words-the natural device for those writers who sick to achieve the sensational effect.Conversation,derivation & change of meaning-the most productive in creating neologisms(e.g.-to bus children to school,cats mother tigers).Affixation remains the most popular & common(e.g.-Every man in the aura of success tests the goodhood).Affixes:-anty=antyhero,ize=villagize,moisturize,dom=wisdomgangdom,ship=showmanship,misessship,-ese=Johnsonese & Dickensian style,-un=to undo,thon=marathon,talkathon,dancethone(suffixsoid as it is part of a word).

17.Lexical meanings of a word & their components. Lexical m-gs are logical nominal & emotional m-gs. Logical m-g is an expression of the general features or concepts of a given thing or phenomenon through 1 of its qualities. Concept refers to a logical sphere. Corresponding ling. category is m-g. In the process of its development the word may acquire additional meanings & becomes polysemantic. A logical m-g may be subdivided into dependent & independent. Ind. log. m-g exists in a word irrespectively of the word combination where it is used(to grow-). Dependent log. m-g can be brought out only in context.(to grow older ). Nominal m-g names a thing or a being & marks it with a specific label. It conveys no thoughts, but simply gives name to an object to single it out. There r words where a nominal m-g prevails. These are proper names. Generally proper names have developed from common nouns. Emotive m-g expresses the feeling & emotions connected with the object r phenomenon denoted by a word. E. m-g generally coexist with the log m-g or prevails. So it is fixed in the dictionaries. There are words which have only emotive m-g - interjections & exclamatory words. Certain adj. & adv. tend to loose their log. mg & have a strong emotive coloring. She is terribly sweet ( an intensifier) These 3 lexical m-gs form the semantic str-re of the word. There exists 17

19.Graphical stylistic means, kinds of graphons. In modern advertising, mass media & creative prose sound is foregrounded through the change of its accepted graphical representation. The intentional violation of the graphical shape of word or word comb-n used to reflect its authentic pronunciation is called a graphon. Introduced into E. novels & journalisms in the 18 century graphon proved to be an extremely effective means of supplying info about speakers origin, social & educ. Background, physical & emot. condition, etc. (sellybrated, illygitmet). Graphons are also good at conveying atmosphere of authentic life communication. We have such clichs as in conversation as gotta, wonna, gimme, lemme, wille, nowaru.It becomes popular with advertisers. E.g.: Pikwik(pick quick). There also exist dif. Forms of foregrounding: 1)capitalization, 2)italics, 3)spacing of graphemes: - hyphenation(/ , ); multiplication(1 &the same letter written several times). A special trend- graphical imagism: e.g. the whole poem is written in form of a bird.

20. The notion of a metaphor, its peculiarities & varieties. M. is a stylistic device based on interaction b/w the logical & contextual m-gs of the word which is based on likeness b/w objects & implies analogy & comparison b/w them. Money burns a hole in my pocket( wants to send).The genuine metaphor is the expression of a writer's individual vision. It is through the metaphor that the writer reveals his emotional attitude towards the described. It implies analogy & likeness to concrete things, makes abstract ideas more complex, complex ideas more simple. E.g. there was no May morning in his cowardly heart. the stylistic functions of the M. r: 1) by evoking images & suggesting analogies it makes the author's thought more concrete definite & clear.2) it reveals the author's emotional attitude towards the described. It can be expressed with the help f n, adj, adv,v. The leaves fell sorrowfully.(adv) Metaphors expressed by adj adv are called metaphorical epithets. Sometimes M. is not confined to 1 word & the author uses a sustained or prolonged M. to prolong his image. This is done by adding a number of other images closely connected with the main central one. Varieties of metaphors: 1)personification - a special kind of metaphor in which abstract ideas or inanimate objects r identified with person. They r ascribed human characteristics. (Mother nature always blushes before disrobing)2)animalification - a special kind of M. in which abstract ideas or inanimate objects r identified with the bists. 20 They are ascribed animal characteristics or actions.

16 Nonce-words-coined to suit 1 particular occasion(e.g. importunity-opportunity,positutly-absolutely positive).Vogueish-blending( ),they are called telescoping words(e.g. motel=motorcar+hotel,botel=boat+hotel,brunch=breakfa st+lunch).Also there are words coined by contractions() & abbreviations(e.g. LOX=liquid oxygen explosive).

1 more lexical m-g which appears only within the given context. this is called the contextual m-g. The majority of stylistic devices are based on the interaction of different lexical m-gs of the word.

They are generally based on verbs & adj-s.( Words & words & words how they gallop+)

21.Oxymoron a combination of 2 words mostly an adj+ a noun or adv+adj expressing 2 contrasting ideas opposite in sense (A living copse, a low sky scarper, horribly beautiful) Ox-n m.b. expressed by verb+adv-s (to smear- pleasantly) //=//=// by adj+preposit.phrase(ugly in a pleasant way). In ox-n a logic m-g is surpressed by emotive m-g.In such a way this trope the complexity of things, contedectories of the wor(l)d. (She cried silently) Ox-n is often met within a simile(. .) (He was gentle as hell).Ox-n is practically never repeated in diff.context and doesnt become traid(you are awfully nice, pretty bad) The words have lost the primary logical m-g and are used only with emotive mg as intensifiers, they have lost their stylistic value.

22.Antonomasia-stylistic device based on interaction b/w logical and nominal m-g of a word. Types of ana:1)when a proper noun is used for a common noun.Proper name is this type of a-a expresses some quality which was a loading passion w char-r whose name is used. It describes a persons features and qualities through those commonly asso-ed with the name of some histor.figure or some mythological,religious,literary ch-r.Its stylistic f-n:to give concrete expression to abstract things.Ex:Some modern Samsons were walking by.(a really strong person) 2)when a common noun is used for a proper noun. Often they are used to create a humorous effect.In the 18-19c it was customary to provide literary char-rs with speaking names/telltale names.They styl.f-n:to char-ze a person through his nameMr.Scruge,Oliver Twist. Interesting are cases when contextual, nominal m-g is aquired by a word-comb-n or a whole phrase.Names phrases are usually spelled with hypons:b/w their components to stress their close syntactical and symentic relations.Mr.Facing-both-ways( )

23.Methonomy a device in which the name of a thing is replaced by the name of an associated thing.Unlike methaphor where the interaction b/w the m-gs of diff.words is based on resemblance,meth-my reflects the actually existing relations.Night was a friend(m-r)No eye to see no ear to listen(m-y)Those words have aquired contextual, logical m-gs that of people. The interaction b/w cont/log m-g is based on close relations objectively existing b/w the part of the body itself.

24.Zeugma a simultaneous realization of 2 m-gs of 1 polysem. word within the same context. The boys took their places and their books . Jane wasnt narrow woman in mend and body. Here we feelthe blending of 2/more semantically incompatible w-groups having an identical lexical item make a single construction in which this item is used only once.The resulting effect-strongly humorous/ ironical.The same effect is achieved when a word upon which this trope is based is repeated Pun() a play of words . The diff. b/w is very slight. For a pun the context m.b. of a more expanding chr. Sometimes the whole novel.(The importance of being honest(o.w-d))The same happens with ambiguous usage of prepositions which leads to mixing up of attribute with prepositional object. To hint the woman with a child Two homonyms have much less in common than 2 m-gs of a polysem words.Thus their realization within the same context brings force a pun. Puns are often used in riddles and joke.What is the diff. b/w a schoolmaster engine driver (one trains the mind and the other minds the train) We can observe a violation of phrasal units humorous effect

25.Epithets & their varieties.() E.-a styl. device based on the interplay of emotive & logical meanings in an attributive word,phrase or even a sentence used to charact-ze an object and disclose the individ.emot-lycoloured attitude of the writer to the object.(E.g:green meadows,white snow,round table-they describe real natural qualities).E. may be expressed by:1)adjective;2)adverb(He watched her sadly,eagerly);3)Participle I,II(The freightened movements of the wind);4)nouns(A brief season of happiness).Phrase or sent-ce E. can describe behaviour,manners,facial expression.They are charac-c of modern English prose.There exist a type of the E. based on illogical syntactical relationship between the modifier and the modified.Its calledthe reversed E. composed of 2 nouns linked in an off-phrase.The evaluating emotional element is emboarded not in the noun attribute but in the noun structurally described.E. can be regarded as:1)those stressing the existing qualities of the object(She was hopefully,sadly,lonely for smth. Better);2)those transferring the qualities of 1 object to its closest neighbour(Tobacco stained(=teeth) smile).Transferred E.-are ordinally logical attribute generally describing the state of a human being made to refer to inanimate(.) object(Sleepless pillow.An anbreakfasted mornings).Methaphorical E.-a new feature is revealed()(The moon looked lovingly).E.may become -traditional(Sweet smile.Deep feelings.Sweet words).It shouldnt be mixed up with logic.

25. Epithets and their varieties.() E.-a styl. device based on the interplay of emotive & logical meanings in an attributive word,phrase or even a sentence used to charact-ze an object and disclose the individ.emot-ly coloured attitude of the writer to the object.(E.g:green meadows,white snow,round table-they describe real natural qualities).E. expresses char-cs of an object, both existing and imaginary.E. basic feature-its emotiveness and subjectivity. E. can describe behaviour,manners,facial expression.E.may become -traditional(Sweet smile.Deep feelings.Sweet words).E.Through long and repeated use epithets become fixed. Many fixed epithets are closely connected with folklore and can be traced back to folk ballads (e.g. "true love", "merry Christmas", etc.). The structure and semantics of E. are extremely variable. Semantically, there are 2 main groups 1)affective (or emotive proper)- E. serve to convey the emotional evaluation of the object by the speaker(most of the qualifying words found in the dictionary,e.g. "gorgeous", "nasty", "magnificent", "atrocious".);2) figurative, or transferred, E. - is formed of metaphors, metonymies and similes expressed by adjectives(E.g. "the smiling sun", "the frowning cloud", "the sleepless pillow", ''the tobaccostained smile", "a ghost-like face", "a dreamlike experience".).E. are expressed by: 1)adjectives or 2)qualitative adverbs (e.g. "his triumphant look" = he looked triumphantly),3)nouns;4) participle I,II.

26.Simile,its difference from a traditional comparison. () Simile-expresses likeness between dif. objects.It shouldnt be confused between an ordinary comparison,as in ordinary comparison no imagination is involved since objects of the same class are compared.S. is based on the comparison of object of dif. spheres involves the element of imagination and exclude all the properties of 2 objects except 1 which is more common to them(as clever as his mother - ordinary comparison;as strong as an ox-S.).The properties of an objects may be viewed from dif. anglesits states,actions,manners.S. may be based on adj. attributed,adverb. Modifier,verb predicates.S. have a formal element in their structure,called connective wordlike,such as,as,asif,seem,mostly.The S. must not be confused with methaphor:My verses flow in streams(methaphor),My verses flow like streams(S.).The ling. nature of these 2 devices is different.The styl. func-n of a S. is the same as of methaphor:1)to eteiplete the object by comparing it with some other object of an entirely dif. nature, to make the description clear and more picturesqere.Hacknate S.:as strong as a lion.

26.Simile,its difference from a traditional comparison. () Simile -a structure of three components; is an imaginative comparison of two unlike objects belonging to two different classes. Link words "like", "as", "as though", "as like", "such as", "as...as", etc.S. should not be confused with simple (logical, ordinary) comparison. Structurally identical they are semantically different: objects belonging to the same class are likened in a simple comparison, while in a S. we deal with the likening of objects belonging to two different classes. So, "She is like her mother" is a simple comparison, used to state an evident fact. "She is like a rose" is a S. used for purposes of expressive evaluation, emotive explanation, highly individual description.The case of sustained expression of likeness is known as epic, or Homeric simile. In a S. two objects are compared on the grounds of similarity of some quality. This feature is called foundation of a S, may be explicitly mentioned as in: "He stood immovable like a rock in a torrent", or "His muscles are hard as rock".You see that the "rock in two different S. offers two different qualities as their foundation - "immovable" in the 1st case, and "hard" in the 2nd. When the foundation is not explicitly named, the S. is considered to be richer in possible associations.So "the rose" of the previous case allows to simultaneously foreground such features as "fresh, beautiful, fragrant, attractive", etc. Sometimes the foundation of the S. is not quite clear from the context, and the author supplies it with a key, where he explains which similarities led him to liken two different entities, and which in fact is an extended and detailed foundation.

25 () Attribute,with the same syntact. func-n but not convey the subjective attribute of author towards the object but show only objectively existing features of the object(He unlocked the iron gate easily).Logic. attributed carried in chains of attributes undergo a certain changer,being influenced by their emotionally coloured neighbours & also equire an emotive colouring(The money she had accepted was to soft,green,handsome 10-$ bills.(=a new thing).

25 () They are used as exclamatory sentences ("You, ostrich!") or as postpositive attributes ("Richard of the Lion Heart").E. are used singly, in pairs, in chains, in two-step structures, and in inverted constructions, also as phrase-attributes. All previous examples are single E..Pairs are-two E. joined by a conjunction or asyndetically as in "wonderful and incomparable beauty" or "a tired old town". Chains (strings) of E. present a group of homogeneous attributes varying in number from 3 up to smtimes 20 and more(E.g. "You're a scolding, unjust, abusive, aggravating, bad old creature."). Two-step E.-the process of qualifying seemingly passes two stages: the qualification of the object and the qualification of the qualification itself, as in "an unnaturally mild day", or "a pompously majestic female".Two-step E. have a fixed structure of Adv + Adj model.Phraseepithets always produce an original impression: "the sunshine-in-the-breakfast-room smell", or "a move-ifyou-dare expression". One more structural type of E.inverted E.- based on the contradiction between the logical and the syntactical: logically defining becomes syntactically defined and vice versa. E.g. instead of "this devilish woman", where "devilish" &"woman" are both logically and syntactically defining.W. Thackeray says "this devil of a woman".

28.Periphrasis and its kinds. Euphemistic periphrasis. () P.-word-combination that is used instead of a word,designating an object.Every P. contains a purely individ. Perseptionof a given phenomen.As a result of frequent repetition P. may become well-established in language as a synonymous expression for the word,generally used to signify the object.Such popular word-combinations-pariphrasic synonyms and can be easily understood without any context.(An internal city(Rome),A gentleman of a long robe(lawyer).P. may be:1)logical-is based on log. notions;a certain feature of an object is taken to denote the whole object or a wider notion is substituted for the concrete notion(The instruments of distrucktion(pistol)).2)figurative- may be based on the methaphor(back foolish tears;back to your native spring(=eyes)).May be based on metonomy(he married a good deal of money(=rich lady)).3)ephimistic-a word/phrase used to replace a rude word or expression by a mild,delecate and conventionally more acceptable one. (to die-pass away,expire,to be no more,join the majority).These E.P.-part of a l-ge as a system.They havent been freshly invented and are expressive means of a l-ge and are to be found in all good dictionaries.Thus they cant be regarded as a styl-c devie.E.P. may be divided into groups:according to the spheres of application:1)religious(God-Lord,Our Father);2)moral(to die); 3)medical(have a cold(greek terms);4)parliamentary(political);

26 () S., often repeated, becomes trite() and adds to the stock of language phraseology. Most of trite S. have the foundation mentioned and conjunctions "as", "as...as" used as connectives: "as brisk as a bee", "as strong as a horse", "as live as a bird".S. in which the link is expressed by notional verbs such as "to resemble", "to seem", "to recollect", "to remember", "to look like", "to appear", etc. are called disguised, because the realization of the comparison is somewhat suspended, as the likeness between the objects seems less evident:"The ball appeared to the batter to be a slow spinning planet looming toward the earth." .

27.Overstatement and understatement(hyperbole). Hyperbole - a styl-c device in which emphasis is achieved through deliberate exaggeration,relies on the foregrounding of the emotive meaning.H.-one of the most common expressive means of our everyday speech. When we describe our admiration or anger and say "a hundred times" - we use trite language hyperboles which, through long and repeated use, have lost their originality and remained signals of the speaker's roused emotions. H. may be the final effect of another SD - metaphor, simile, irony, as we have in the cases "The man was like the Rock of Gibraltar".H. can be expressed by all notional parts of speech.Words though which styl. device are used more often "all", ''every", "everybody"."Calpurnia was all angles and bones"; also numerical nouns ("a million", "a thousand"), as was shown above; and adverbs of time ("ever", "never").Was stressed the importance of both communicants clearly perceiving that the exaggeration, used by one of them is intended as such and serves not to denote actual quality or quantity but signals the emotional background of the utterance. If this reciprocal understanding of the intentional nature of the overstatement is absent, hyperbole turns into a mere lie.H. is aimed at exaggerating quantity or quality. When it is directed the opposite way, when the size, shape, dimensions, characteristic features of the object are hot overrated, but intentionally underrated, we deal with understatement. The mechanism of its creation and functioning is identical with that of H.,

25(2) () Here "of a woman" is syntactically an attribute, i.e. the defining, and "devil" the defined, while the logical relations between the two remain the same as in the previous example - "a woman" is defined by "the devil".All inverted E. are easily transformed into E. of a more habitual structure where there is no logico-syntactical contradiction.: "the giant of a man" (a gigantic man); "the prude of a woman" (a prudish woman), etc.Do not mix up an inverted E. with an ordinary off-phrase.The second noun will help you in doubtful cases: "the toy of the girl" (the toy belonging to the girl); "the toy of a girl" (a small, toylike girl).

28.Periphrasis and its kinds. Euphemistic periphrasis. () Periphrasis is a very peculiar stylistic device which basically consists of using a roundabout form of expression instead of a simpler one, i.e. of using a more or less complicated syntactical structure instead of a word. Depending on the mechanism of this substitution,P.are classified into 1)figurative (metonymic and metaphoric),2)logical.1)is made of phrase-metonymies and phrase-metaphors:"The hospital was crowded with the surgically interesting products of the fighting in Africa" where the extended metonymy stands for "the wounded".Logical P. are phrases synonymic with the words which were substituted by P.:"Mr. Du Pont was dressed in the conventional disguise with which Brooks Brothers cover the shame of American millionaires." "The conventional disguise" stands here for "the suit" and "the shame of American millionaires" for "the paunch (the belly)". Because the direct nomination of the not too elegant feature of appearance was substituted by a roundabout description this P. may be also considered 3)euphemistic, as it offers a more polite qualification instead of a coarser one.The main func-n of P. is to convey a purely individual perception of the described object. To achieve it the generally accepted nomination of the object is replaced by the description of one of its features or qualities, which seems to the author most important for the characteristic of the object, and which thus becomes foregrounded.

33. Stylistic usage of proverbs, sayings, allusions, citations. A proverb is a brief witty phrase of generalizing nature characterized by a completeness of thought & generally expressing the wisdom of people. Many of them have a verse-like shape(Early to bed early to rise makes a man healthy& wise).Brevity in proverbs manifests itself in the omission of connectives (First come first served). A saying is a common phrase dif. from a proverb in that the thought is not completely expressed. Proverbs & sayings used in fiction make it clearer & more emotional (which side his bread was buttoned not to be foolish, know how to behave) Allusion is a reference to a well-known historical, literary or mythological object. The use of allusions presupposes the knowledge of the fact, thing or person alluded to n the part of the reader or listener. As a rule no indication of thought is given.(Im going to clean Again stables means that u have a disorder. The last of the Mohican) Allusions like citations often show that the character is eager to display his education o wit. Citation is a repetition of a phrase or statement from a book, speech or the like used by the way of authority, illustration, proof. They r usually marked in the text by inverted commas, dashes, italics & other graphical means. This is a natural utterance made by a certain author.

27 and it does not signify the actual state' of affairs in reality, but presents the latter through the emotionally coloured perception and rendering of the speaker. It is not the actual diminishing or growing of the object that is conveyed by a H. or Underst-t.They differ only in the direction of the flow of roused emotions. English is well known for its preference for understatement in everyday speech - "I am rather annoyed" instead of "I'm infuriated.Some H. and U. (both used individually and as the final effect of some other styl. device) have become fixed, as we have in "Snow White", or "Liliput", or "Gargantua".

34. Stylistic peculiarities of oral speech, syntactical stylistic devices characteristic for it. Syntax deals with the arrangement of words into combinations. Stylistic study begins with the study of length & structure of a sent-ce. The human can receive & transmit info only if it is slit by pauses. Theoretically a sent-ce can be of any length, but psychologically no reader can receive info where a stop comes after 128 words.(James Ulysses-a stop after 45 pages). The lowest limit is 1 word.1-wod sent-s have a very strong emphatic impact. This word obtains both the word & sent-ce stress.(On.Off.)Word order, structure of a sent-ce, punctuation, intonation are an imp. part for perception of a text. Intonation m.create, add & reverse both logical & emotional info of an utterance. Punctuation is much poorer than int-n. It isnt used alone, but emphasizing & substantiating the lex/syntect m-g of the components of a sent-ce.( its marks- oints of exclamation(!), interogatin(?), dots(), dashes(-),commas, semicolon(;),full stop. Groups of syntactical devices:1)devices used within a s-ce;2)devices used within an ut-ce; 3)devices based on special use of connection b/w s-ces & phrases. D-ces used within a s-ce: 1)based on juxtaposition a)inversion(the violationof traditional wod order which doesnt alter the m-g of the s-ce,but gives it an addit./emotional colouring. I-n is used to single out some parts f the s-ce & heighten the emotional tension.

28() The often repeated P. become trite() and serve as universally accepted periphrastic synonyms: "the gentle / soft / weak sex" (women); "my better half (my spouse); "minions of Law" (police), etc.

35.stylistic use of the interrogative & negative constructions a)rhetorical ?-s(it is not supposed to be answered, since the only answer is implied within the boundaries of the ?n. They are often used in the form. Have I not suffered things to be forgiven? The discrepancy b/w the form(-) & the essence(the statement is positive) makes the rh? very emphatic & widely used in oratorical style(style of public speaking)It is widely used in modern fiction in informal dialogues, when in distress or anger with the phrases like: what have I dne to deserve it? what shall I do when? Such forms r further stressed by exclamation alongside with interrogation marks. The stylistic force of rh? is in the simultaneous realization of 2 syntactical m-ngs: the m-g of a ?, statement. b)Litotes(a statement in the form of a double negation, where 2 are joined to give a + evaluation. E.g. not unkindly means kindly, thus the + effect is weakened.the str-re of L. is rigid.Besides the not there is a 2-nd element negative in form or in m-g.Sometimes L. is used to create the effect of irony, but the main its function is to make the statement less categoric.

3. The notion of an idiolect, an individual style, registers of speech. Stylistics is a science which deals with the result of the act of communication. When we speak about individual style it means the individual manner of writing. The speach of an individ. which is ch-ed by peculiarities typical of that particular individual is called an idiolect. For a writer its marked by its uniques. We shall call an individual style a unique combination of language. Expressive means peculiar to a given writer, which makes his works easily recognized

34 b)isolated members of a s-ce(detachment)(based on singling out a secondary member of the s-ce with the help of inton-n & punct-n. The word order isnt violated,but second members obtain there own stress & inton-n as they are detached from the rest of the sce by: commas, dashes,full stops. I have to beg u for money. Daily. Detachment is used to give prominence to some words to help the author laconically draw the readers attention to a certain detail. 2)styl. use f the peculiarities of oral speech: ellipses a)ellipses(Omission of some part of a s-ce. It may occur due to a careless informal, careless char-r of speech.(Serve him right)El-s not only makes the s-ces laconic, but also creates the effect of implication. b)aposiopesis(-) A sudden break in speech,caused by strong emotion or by some reluctance to finish the s-ce. break is a result of seakers uncertainty as to what exactly he is to romise or threaten.Is graphically marked by a series of dots or a dash. Good impatience, but c)represented speech(representation of the actual utce by a second person usually the author as if it had been spoken, whereas it has not really been spoken, but is only represented in the authors words).

34(3) Stylistic devices used within an ut-ce: 1)d. based on repetition(the recurrence of the same word, w.-comb-n, phrase for 2 or more times(anaphora(a..,a), epiphora(a,a), framing(a,a),catch rep-n(a,a),chain r-n(a,a b,bc), ordinary r-n(has no cetain place a,a,a), successive r-n(a steam of closely fol-ing each other repeated units On her fathers being groundlessly suspective she felt sure,sure,sure).Stylistic f-n of r-n is to emphasize the most imp part of the ut-ce rendering emotions of the speaker.There r some d-s based on r-n of some idea(synonymical r-n:1)pleonasm(the use of more words in the s-ce then necessary to express the m-g),2)tautology-the r-n(the r-n of the same word/phrase or the same idea or statement in other words often in dif. gram.forms). 2)Devices based on parallelism. Parallel constructions are formed by the same syntactical pattern closely following one another. Par. c-s effect the rhythmical org-n of the paragraph.It is widely used in oratorical speech. 2 types of parallelism: a) complete(the str-re of the whole sent-ce is repeated),b)partial(some parts of the successive sces/clauses are repeated) - the reversed parallel constr-n(chiasmus)(I know the world the world knows me) The 2nd part of ch-s the inversion of the 1st construction. 34(4) 3)stylistic use of the interrogative & negative constructions a)rhetorical ?-s(it is not supposed to be answered, since the only answer is implied within the boundaries of the ?n. They are often used in the form. Have I not suffered things to be forgiven? The discrepancy b/w the form(-) & the essence(the statement is positive) makes the rh? very emphatic & widely used in oratorical style(style of public speaking)It is widely used in modern fiction in informal dialogues, when in distress or anger with the phrases like: what have I dne to deserve it? what shall I do when? Such forms r further stressed by exclamation alongside with interrogation marks. The stylistic force of rh? is in the simultaneous realization of 2 syntactical m-ngs: the m-g of a ?, statement. b)Litotes(a statement in the form of a double negation, where 2 are joined to give a + evaluation. E.g. not unkindly means kindly, thus the + effect is weakened.the str-re of L. is rigid.Besides the not there is a 2-nd element negative in form or in m-g.Sometimes L. is used to create the effect of irony, but the main its function is to make the statement less categoric.

36. Stylistic devices based on special arrangement of the arts f an utterance. 1)climax(gradation) a structure in which every successive s-ce is emotionally stronger r log-ly more imp. than the preceding one.E.g. For that one instant there was none else in the room, in the house in the world besides themselves. 3 types of climax: quantative, qualative(emotive), logical(every new concept is stronger, more imp. & valued)As counterpart to C. stands anti-C.(emotion or logical imp-ce is accumulated only to be unexpectedly broken & brught t a sudden cadence) This was appalling & soon forgot. 2)suspense( ) a deliberate slowing down of a thought postponing its completion till the end of the ut-ce. To hold the reader in suspense means to keep the final solution just out of the sight. Detective/adventure stories examples of suspense fiction. 3)antithesis a styl. device presenting 2 contrasting ideas in close neighborhood. Synt-ly it is another case of parallelism but unlike p-sm which is indifferent to the semantics, the 2 parts of antithesis must be semantically opposite to each other. Its styl .f-n is to create the effect of contrast.

34(2) 3)stylistic use of the interrogative & negative constructions a)rhetorical ?-s(it is not supposed to be answered, since the only answer is implied within the boundaries of the ?-n. They are often used in the form. Have I not suffered things to be forgiven? The discrepancy b/w the form(-) & the essence(the statement is positive) makes the rh? very emphatic & widely used in oratorical style(style of public speaking)It is widely used in modern fiction in informal dialogues, when in distress or anger with the phrases like: what have I dne to deserve it? what shall I do when? Such forms r further stressed by exclamation alongside with interrogation marks. The stylistic force of rh? is in the simultaneous realization of 2 syntactical m-ngs: the m-g of a ?, statement. b)Litotes(a statement in the form of a double negation, where 2 are joined to give a + evaluation. E.g. not unkindly means kindly, thus the + effect is weakened.the str-re of L. is rigid.Besides the not there is a 2-nd element negative in form or in mg.Sometimes L. is used to create the effect of irony, but the main its function is to make the statement less categoric.

31. SD based on parallelism. Parallel constructions are formed by the same syntactical pattern closely following one another. Par. cs effect the rhythmical org-n of the paragraph.It is widely used in oratorical speech. 2 types of parallelism: a) complete(the str-re of the whole sent-ce is repeated),b)partial(some parts of the successive sces/clauses are repeated) - the reversed parallel constr-n(chiasmus)(I know the world the world knows me) The 2nd part of ch-s the inversion of the 1st construction.

32. SD based on juxtaposition a)inversion(the violationof traditional wod order which doesnt alter the m-g of the s-ce,but gives it an addit./emotional colouring. I-n is used to single out some parts f the s-ce & heighten the emotional tension. b)isolated members of a s-ce(detachment)(based on singling out a secondary member of the s-ce with the help of inton-n & punct-n. The word order isnt violated,but second members obtain there own stress & inton-n as they are detached from the rest of the sce by: commas, dashes,full stops. I have to beg u for money. Daily. Detachment is used to give prominence to some words to help the author laconically draw the readers attention to a certain detail.

30. Types of syntactic repetition. repetition-the recurrence of the same word, w.-comb-n, phrase for 2 or more times:1)anaphora(a..,a)-when the beginning of some successive sent-ce(clauses) is repeated;styl. f-n:to create the bachground for the non repeated unit,which through its novelty becomes foregrounded;2)epiphora(a,a)-the last element is repeated,it adds stress to a final words in a sentce;3)framing(a,a)(ringing repet-n)-the 1st or the last element is repeat;it makes the whole ut-ce compact and complete,its most effective in singling out paragraphs & instances in a text; 4)catch rep-n(a,a)-rep-tionof the same word/phrase at the end of 1 clause& at the beginning of the following one;5)chain r-n(a,ab,bc)represents a series of anidiplosice;the effect is smoothly developing logical reasoning(Living is the art of loving.Loving is the art of carrying.Carying is the art of sharing.).6)ordinary r-n-has no certain place in the sentce,it emphesisis log. & emot. mean-gs of the repeated word or phrase, 7)successive r-n(a,a,a)-1 & the same element is repeated one after another;a steam of closely fol-ing each other repeated units;show the peak of emotions.(e.g. On her fathers being groundlessly suspective she felt sure,sure,sure).Stylistic f-n of r-n is to emphasize the most imp part of the ut-ce rendering emotions of the speaker.

29.Types of lexical repetitions. There are some devices based on r-n of some idea:synonymical r-n-the rep-on of the same idea by using synonymous words and phrases which by adding a slightly dif. shapes of m-g intensify the ut-ce;2 terms to show attitude to all kinds of synonymous r-n:1)pleonasm-the use of more words in the s-ce then necessary to express the m-g),2)tautology-the r-n of the same word/phrase or the same idea or statement in other words often in dif. gram.forms).

4. Stylistic Differentiation of the vocab. The word-stock of any given lang can be divided into 3 groups, differing each other by the sphere of use (1neutral, possessing no styl connotation & suitable for any communicative situation, 2-literary & 3- colloquial words) Lit-ry & col-al contain a number of subgroups having some common property. Lit-ry words are more or less stable. Col-l has a lively spoken character, is unstable and fleeting. The neutral has a universal ch-r.Its unrestricted in use. It can be employed in all spheresof human activity.it can be met at any style of speech. They have no local cvh-r, no emotive colouring.Lit-ry & col-l can be general & special. Special lit-ry:1 terms, words denoting objects, humanities, techniques,2 archaism-denoting historical phenomena ,which are no more in use(vassal)=historical words:poetic words(17-19 cen=steed =horse) & archaic words(nay=no) Special subgroups of col-l words: Slang-used by most speakers in informal com-n,are highly emotive & expressive( pretty girl) Jargonisms-are close to slang, also expressive & emotive, but used by limited groups of ppl Vulgarism-words with a strong emotive meaning, normally avoided in polite con-n Dialectal words are normative & of any stylistic meaning in regional dialects, but used outside of them, carry a strong flavour of the locality where they belong

2. The notion of the functional style.Classification. Fun style(by Galperin) is a system of coordinated, interrelated & interconditioned language means intended to fulfil a specific function of com-n & aiming at a definite effect. Classification: 1 official style, represented in all kinds of of documents. 2 scientific, found in articles, brochures, monographs & other academic publications 3 publicist, covering such genres as essay, public speeches. 4 newspaper style, observed in the majority of materials printed in newspapers 5 belles-lettres style, embracing numerous genres of creative writing. it fulfils the aesthetic function , which fact singles this style out of others & gives grounds to recognize its systematic uniqueness. Each of the style has 2 forms: written & oral. Only recently, most style class included: Poetic style- deals with verbal forms specific for poetry. Oratoric style- in ancient Greece was instrumental in the creation of Rhetoric. All the mentioned styles are specified within the literary type of the language. Their functioning is characterized by the international approach of the speaker towards the choice of lang-e means suitable for a particular com-ve situation & the official, formal nature of the latter.

37. Stylistics of the author & of the reader. The notions of encoding & decoding. Decoding stylistics (DS) the most recent trend in stylistics that employs the knowledge of such sciences as information theory, psychology, linguistics, literary theory, history of art, etc. DS tries to regard the esthetic value of a text based on the interaction of specific textual elements, stylistic devices & compositional structure in delivering the authors message. This method does not consider the styl. function of any styl. feature separately but as a part of a whole text. DS helps the reader in understanding of a lit. work by explaining (decoding) the info that may be hidden from immediate view. The term DS came from the application of the theory of information to ling-cs (Jackobson, Arnold, Lotman). The process is presented in the following way: the writer receives dif. Info from the outside world. He processes this info & recreates it in his own images. The process of internalizing of the outside info & translating it into his own imagery encoding. Encoder(writer) sends the info to recipient (addressee, reader) & the reader is supposed to decode the info. This process is not easy. A lit. work on its way to the reader encounters many obstacles social, historical, temporal, cultural Readers & authors may be separ-ed by hist.epoch, soc. conventions, religious & pol.views, cult. & national traditions. The author & the reader may be dif. in emotional, intellectual plan. Many lit.works are roo sophisticated, they require of the reader a wide educational background, knowledge of history, mythology, philosophy.

38. Main concepts of DS analisys and types of foregrounding. DS investigates the same levels as linguasty-cs phonetic, graphical, lexical, grammatical. The basic difference: it studies expressive means of each level not as isolated devices but as a part of the whole text on lengthy segments of text (from paragraph to the level of the whole work). Ideas, events, characters, authors attitudes are encoded in the text through the lan-ge. The reader is to perceive & encode these things by reading the text. DS is the reader's sty-cs that is engaged in recreating the author's vision of the world with the help of concrete text elements & their interaction through the text. One of the fundamental concepts of DS is foregrounding (F-g). The notion of it was suggested by scholars of the Prague linguistic circle at the beg. of the 20 th c-ry. Among its members were Trubetskoy, Jacobson, Skalichka, etc. F-g means a specific role that some lang-ge items play in a cert.context when the reader's attention cannot but be drawn to them. In a lit.text such items become styl-ly marked features that build up its stylistic func-n. There are cert.modes of lang-ge use & arrangement to achieve the effect of F-g.it may be based on dif types of deviation, redundancy, unexpected comb-n of lang-ge units. Arnold: the effect of F-g can be achieved in a peculiar way by the absence of any expressive or descriptive features when they are expected in cert.types of texts (e.g. the absence of rhythmical arrangement in verse)

39. The notions of convergence & defeated expectancy Convergence denotes a comb-n of stylistic devices promoting the same idea, emotion or motive. Any type of expr. means will make sense styl-ly when treated as a part of a bigger unit, the context, or the whole text. It means that there is no immediate dependence between a cert. styl. device and a definite stylistic fun-n. A stylistic device is not attached to this or that stylistic effect. Therefore a hyperbole, for ex., may provide any number of effects: tragic, comical, pathetic or grotesque. Inversion may give the narration a highly elevated tone or an ironic ring of parody. This chameleon quality of a stylistic device enables the author to apply dif. devices for the same purpose. The use of more than one type of expr. means in close succession is a powerful technique to support the idea that carries paramount importance in the author's view. Such redundancy ensures the delivery of the message to the reader. Defeated exp-cy (DE) is a principle considered by some linguists (Jacobson) as the basic principle of a styl. funcn. The linear org-n of the text mentally prepares the reader for the logical devel-t of ideas. The normal arrangement of the text both in form and content is based on its predict-y which means that the appearance of any element in the text is prepared by the preceding arrangement and choice of elements, e.g. the subject of the sentence will normally be foll. by the predicate, you can supply parts of certain set phrases or collocation after you see the first element, etc.

39 An example from O. Wilde's play The Importance of Being Earnest illustrates how predictability of the structure plays a joke on the speaker: Miss Fairfax, ever since I met you I have admired you more than any girl... I have met... since I met you. (Wilde) The speaker is compelled to unravel the structure almost against his will, and the pauses show he is caught in the trap of the structure unable either to stop or say anything new. Without predict-y there would be no coherence and no decoding. At the same time stylistically distinctive features are often based on the deviation from the norm and predict-y. An appearance of an unpred-le element may upset the process of decoding. Even though not completely unpred-le a styl. device is still a low expectancy element and it is sure to catch the reader's eye. The decoding process meets an obstacle, which is given the full force of the reader's attention DF may come up on any level of the lang-ge. It may be an author's coinage with an unusual suffix; it may be a case of semantic incongruity or gram.transposition. Devices that are based on DE : pun, zeugma, paradox, oxymoron, irony, anti-climax, etc. DE is partic-ly effective when the preceding narration has a high degree of orderly organized elements that create a maximum degree of predictability and logical arrangement of the contextual linguistic material.

37 All these factors preclude easy decoding & show how dif. it is to the message to reach the reader. The message encoded & sent may differ from the mes-ge received after decoding. So the result may be a failure on both sides. The reader may complain that he could not understand what the author wanted to say, while the author may resent being misinterpreted. So, the DS deals with the notions of stylistics of the author & stylistics of the reader.

38(1) DS laid down a few principle methods that ensure the effect of F-g. They are: convergence of expressive means, irradiation, defeated expectancy, coupling, semantic fields, semi-marked structures. Convergence denotes a combin-n of styl.devices promoting the same idea, emotion or motive; any type of exp.means will make sense styl-ly when treated as a part of the whole unit (the context, the whole text). The use of more than 1 type of exp.means in close succession a powerful technique to support the idea that is of particular imp-ce to the author. Defeated E-y. The linear org-n of the text mentally prepares the reader for the consequential & log-l devel-nt of ideas. The normal arrangement of the text is based on its predictability (the appearance of any element in the text is prepared by the producing arrangement & choice of elements). DE may be found on any ling.level. It may be expressed by unusual suffix, zeugma, oxymoron, paradox. Coupling is based on the affinity of elements that occupy similar position thoughtout the text. C. provides cohesion, consistency & unity of the text form & content. It may be found on any ling.level. The affinity may be phonetic (alliteration, assonance, rhyme, rhythm..) & semantic(use of synonyms, antonyms, root repetition, paraphrase..) & structural(all kinds of parallelism, syntactical repetitionanadiplosis, framing ).

38(2) Semantic field. It identifies lex. elements in text segments and the whole work that provide its thematic and compositional cohesion. Lex. ties relevant to this kind of analysis will include synonymous and antonymous relations, morphological derivation, relations of inclusion (various types of hyponymy and entailment), common semes in the denotative or connotative meanings of different words. Semi-marked structures is associated with the deviation from the grammatical and lexical norm. It's an extreme case of defeated expectancy much stronger than low expectancy encountered in a paradox or anti-climax, the unpredictable element is used contrary to the norm so it produces a very strong emphatic impact.

40. The notions of coupling, sem.field, semi-marked structures While convergence and defeated expectancy both focus the reader's attention on the particularly signif. parts of the text coupling (C) deals with the arrangement of textual elements that provide the unity & cohesion of the whole structure. C. is more than many other devices connected with the level of the text. This method of text analysis helps to decode ideas, their interaction, inner semantic & structural links of the text. C. is based on the affinity of elements that occupy similar positions throughout the text. C. provides cohesion & unity of the text form and content.C. can be found on any level of the language, so the affinity may be different in nature: it may be phonetic (alliteration, assonance, paronomasia, rhyme, rhythm, meter), structural (all kinds of parallelism and syntactical repetition-anadiplosis, anaphora, framing, chiasmus, epiphora,etc.) & semantic (the use of synonyms and antonyms, both direct and contextual, root repetition, paraphrase, sustained metaphor, semantic fields, recurrence of images, connotations or symbols). Semantic field (SF) is a method of decoding stylistics closely connected with coupling. It identifies lex.l elements in text segments and the whole work that provide its thematic and compositional cohesion. To reveal this sort of cohesion decoding must carefully observe not only lex. and synonymous repet-n but sem. affinity which finds expression in cases of lexicosemantic variants, connotations and associations aroused by a specific use or distribution of lexical units, thematic pertinence of seemingly unrelated words.

40(1) SF shows how cohesion is achieved on a less explicit level sometimes called the vertical context. Lex.l elements of this sort are charged with implications and adherent meanings that establish invisible links throughout the text and create a kind of semantic background so that the work is laced with certain kind of imagery. Lex. ties relevant to SF will include synonymous and antonymous relations, morphological derivation, relations of inclusion (various types of hyponymy and entailment), common semes in the denotative or connotative meanings of different words. Semi-marked structures (SS) are a variety of defeated expectancy associated with the deviation from the gram.l and lex. norm. It's an extreme case of defeated expectancy much stronger than low expectancy encountered in a paradox or anti-climax, the unpredictable element is used contrary to the norm so it produces a very strong emphatic impact. For ex., The stupid heart that will not learn The everywhere of grief. The word everywhere is not a noun, but an adverb and cannot be used with an article and a preposition, besides grief is an abstract noun that cannot be used as an object with a noun denoting location. However the lines make sense for the poet & readers who interpret them as the poetic equivalent of the author's overwhelming feeling of sadness and dejection. .

40(2) Lex. deviation from the norm usually means breaking the laws of sem. compatibility and lex. valency. Arnold considers SS as a part of tropes based on the unexpected or unpredictable relations established between objects & phenomena by the author If you had to predict what elements would combine well with such words and expressions as to try one's best to..., to like ... you would hardly come up with such incompatible combinations: She ... tried her best to spoil the party. (Erdrich) I liked the ugly little college... (Wnugh) Such combination of lex. units in our everyday speech is rare. However in spite of their apparent incongrtiily SS of both types arc widely used in lit-ry texts that arc full of sophisticated correlations which help to read sense into most unpredictable combinations of lex. units.

1.St-s is a The subject of stylistics. Its


connection with other disciplines. branch of general linguistics. It has mainly with two tasks: St-s is regarded as a lang-ge science which deals with the results of the act of communication. There are 2 basic objects of st-s: - stylistic devices and figures of speech; - functional styles. Branches of st-s: - Lexical st-s studies functions of direct and figurative meanings, also the way contextual meaning of a word is realized in the text. L.S. deals with various types of connotations expressive, evaluative, emotive; neologisms, dialectal words and their behavior in the text. - Grammatical st-s is subdivided into morphological and syntactical. Morph-l s. views stylistic potential of gram-l categories of dif-t parts of speech. Potential of the number, pronouns - Syntactical s. studies syntactic, expressive means, word order and word combinations, dif-t types of sentences and types of syntactic connections. Also deals with origin of the text, its division on the paragraphs, dialogs, direct and indirect speech, the connection of the sentences, types of sentences. - Phonostylistics phonetical organization of prose and poetic texts. Here are included rhythm, rhythmical structure, rhyme, alliteration, assonance and correlation of the sound form and meaning. Also studies deviation in normative pronunciation. - Functional S (s. of decoding) deals with all subdivisions of the language and its possible use (newspaper, colloquial style). Its object - correlation of the message and communicative situation.

1(1) - Individual style study studies the style of the author. It looks for correlations between the creative concepts of the author and the language of his work. - st-s of encoding - The shape of the info (message) is coded and the addressee plays the part of decoder of the information which is contained in message. The problems which are connected with adequate reception of the message without any loses (deformation) are the problems of st-s of encoding. St-s is not equal to linguistics science, such as phonetics, linguistics disciplines lexicology, morphology, syntax because they are level disciplines as they treat only one linguistic level and st-s investigates the questions on all the levels and dif-t aspects of the texts in general. The smallest unit of lang-ge is the phoneme. Several phonemes combined make a unit of a higher level morpheme (morphemic level). One or more morphemes makes a word, a lexeme (lexical level). One or more than one words make an utterance, a sentence (sentence level). St-s must be subdivided into separate, independent branches stylistic phonetics, Stylistic morphology, Stylistic lexicology, Stylistic syntax Whatever level we take, st-s is describes not what is in common use, but what is specific in this or that respect, what differentiates one sublanguage from others. General (non-stylistic) phonetics investigates the whole articulatory - audial system of language. Stylistic ph-cs describes variants of pronunciation occuring in dif-t types of speech. Special attention is also paid to prosodic features of prose and poetry.

1(2) General (non-stylistic) morphology treats morphemes and gram-l meanings expressed by them in lan-ge in general, without regard to their stylistic value. Stylistic mor-gy is interested in gram-l forms and gram-l meanings that are peculiar to particular sublanguages, explicity or implicity comparing them with the neutral ones common to all the sublanguages. Lexicology deals with stylistic classification (differentiation) of the vocabulary that form a part of st-s (stylistics lexicology). In stylistic lexicology each units are studied separately, instead of as a whole text (group of words, word classification). General syntax treats word combinations and sentences, analyzing their str-res and stating what is permissible and what is inadmissible in constructing correct utterances in the given lan-ge. Stylistic syntax shows what particular constructions are met with in various types of speech, what syntactical str-res are style forming (specific) in the sublanguages in question. Semantic level connected with meaning

18. Phonetic expressive means and stylistic devices. The notion of harmony, euphony, rhythm and some other sound phenomena contribute to some general acoustic sound. Onomatopoeia ()- is a combination of speech sounds which aims at imitating sounds produced in nature. E.g.: hiss, grumble, sizzle, murmur, bump.wind, sea, thunder,by things like machines tools,by people (laughter, cough),by animal. There exist: 1) Direct onomatopoeia: in words that imitate natural sound (ding-dong, buzz, hiss, roar, pingpong, mew, cock-a-doodle-doo)2) Indirect: a combination of sounds, the aim of which is to make the sound of the utterance an echo of its sense (And the silken sat uncertain, rusting of each purple curtain). Poetry abounds in some specif. devices of sound instrument. The most frequent of them are: Alliteration the repetition of the same construction at the beginning of words.Its often used in newspaper headlines, proverbs, set expressions. (As blind as bat; Pride and prejudice. Sense and sensibility. The school of scandal. Silken set uncertain, rustling of each purple curtain.)The Assonance the repetition of similar vowels usually in stressed syllables. (Nor soul flesh now more than flesh helps soul).They both produce the effect of euphony () a sense of ease and comfort, a pleasing effect of pronouncing and hearing. The opposite process is cacophony a sense of strain and discomfort in pronouncing and hearing.Rhyme one of the properties of poetry, which is the repetition of the same sound, identical/similar, usually at the end of 2 or more lines. We normally distinguish b/n:full rhyme (I-sky, night-right),incomplete rhyme (freshpress),compound rhymes (spirit- ?),eye-rhymes (visible, but not pronounced): (love-

18(1) prove),masculine rhymes (monosyllabic words): e.g. down-town and are standing on the last line or , or bisyllabic words accented on the last syllables: domain-remain; mouth-south. ,feminine rhyme (words are accented on the last but one syllable: error-terror) 1.The rhyming patterns are shown with the help of letters, e.g. couplets. When the last word of the 2 successive lines are rhymea: a a b b 2.Triple (dactylic) rhymes: a a a, based on 3-syllable words. 1 syllable stressed, 2 unstressed 3.There exist cross (quatrain) rhymes: a b a b 4.framing (rheme) rhymes: abba frame 5.internal rhyme: the rhyming word is placed not at the end of the line, but within rhymes. Functions of rhyme:1) to signalize the end of line and mark the arrangement of lines into stanzas (4) 2) rhythm becomes evident because of rhyme3) the ends receive greater prominent Poetic rhythm r. is created by the regular recurrence of (un)stressed syllables of equal poetic lines. The regular alterations of (un)stressed syllables from a unit which is a foot. There are 5 basic metrical feet:1)iambus (): the 2nd syllable is stressed (The flower / that smiles / today / tomorrow / dies.),2)Trochee (): every first syllable of the two is stressed. (Who shall that fortune 3)dactyl (): the 1st of the 3 is stressed.4) amphibrach (): the middle of the 3 is stressed.5)anapaest (): the last of the 3 is stressed (There is guilt in the sound, theres

18(2) guilt in )The repetition of the units of the meter or feet makes verse. The number of feet in a line is different in different poetic words. The length of line is usually indicated in the Greek terms: a 2-foot line dimeter a 3 foot line trimester, 4 tetrameter, 5 - pentameter, 6 -nexameter,7- hectometer.8 octometer Sonnets were all written in 14 lines (first by Ptrarka) iambic pentameter,ababcdcdefef 99 Ballads are usually written in iambic tetrameter (4. ) In the modern advertising, mass media and creative prose sound is foregrouded through the change its accepted graphical representation. The international violation of the graphical shape of word or word combination used to reflect its authentic pronunciation is called a graphon. Introduced into E. novels and journalism in the 18 c. means of supplying info about speakers orogin , social and educational background, physical and emotional conduction, etc.sellybrated,,illygitment Graphons are also good at conveing atmosphere of authentic life communication. We have such clichs in communication as: gotta, wonna, gimme, lemme, willi. It becomes popular with advertisers (Pik-wik Pick quick; Rite Aid) There also exist, different forms of foreground :capitalization,italics,spacing of graphemes: hyphenation ( , ) ,multiplication ( 1 and the same letter is written sev. times)A special trend graphical imagism (help.hepl.help)

Stylistics 1.The subject of stylistics,other disciplines. 2. The notion of a functional style. Classification of functional style. 3. The notion of an idiolect, an individual style, registers of speech. 4. Stylistic differentiation of the English voc. 5.The notion of a term , its characteristics and stylistic functions.cientific prose. 6.The newspaper style, its varieties, its distinction from the publicist style. 7.The style of official documents. 8.Main peculiarities of the publicist style. 9.Peculiarities of belle-lettres style, . 10.Archaisms and their stylistic functions. 11 .Peculiarities of poetic and highly literary words. 12.Differences between foreign words and barb. 13.Main characteristics of slang. 14.Professional and social jargonisms . 15.Place and role of dialectal words. 16.Literary coinages and neologisms. 17.Lexical meanings of a word. 18.Phonetic expressive means and SD. 19.Graphical stylistic means, graphons. 20.The notion of a metaphor, . 21.Oxymoron and its types. 22.Antonomasia and its kinds. 23.Metonymy and varieties. 24. Stylistic usage of polysemy.pun and zeugma. 25.Epithets and their varieties. 26.Simile, its difference from a traditional comparison. 27.Overstatement and understatement 28.Periphrasis and its kinds. Euphemistic periphrasis 29.Types of lexical repetitions 30.Types of syntactic repetitions 31.Syntactic stylistic devices based on parallelism. 32.Stylistic devices based on juxtaposition. 33.Stylistic usage of proverbs, sayings, allusions, citations. 34.Stylistic peculiarities of oral speech, syntactical SD. 35.Stylistic use of interrogative and negative constructions. 36. SD based on special arrangement of the parts of an utterance. 37.Stylistics of the author and of the reader.encoding and decoding. 38.Main concepts of decoding stylistic analysis and types of foregrounding. 39.The notions of convergence, and defeated expectancy. 40.The notions of coupling, semantic field , semi-marked structures.