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Summary of Respiratory System Nasal cavity nasopharynx oropharynx larynx trachea Bronchi Regular bronchioles Intrapulmonary bronchioles Extrapulmonary

ulmonary bronchioles Terminal bronchioles Respiratory bronchioles Aveolar ducts alveolar sacs alveoli Conducting portion: warms, humidifies, cleans and delivers O2. NO gas exchange Contains smooth muscle and cartilage Transitional portion: some gas exchange. Some smooth muscle but NO cartilage Respiratory portion: gas exchange Very little smooth muscle and NO cartilage General Plan of Respiratory System Mucosa Pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium Visible BM Lamina propria: loose CT, elastic fibers, capillaries, excretory ducts from the glands in the submucosa Submucosa: usually dense irregular CT (but sometimes its can be loose CT) Mucous and serous glands Hyaline cartilage (surrounded by perichondrium) Smooth muscle Adventitia: dense irregular CT Function: attach it to other organs ex. vena cavea, trachea, esophagus, etc. Continuous w/ the adventitia around other organs

Trachea
Mucosa Pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium Ciliated cells: long and ciliated Goblet cells: long and clear, not ciliated Brush cells: long and have microvilli. Not seen w/ LM. Small granule cells (aka Argentaffin cells aka DNES cells): release epinephrine and serotonin (toward the BM), which goes to regulate the blood vessel walls. Short cells: some are stem cells which can become goblet, brush or ciliated cells. Visible BM Lamina propria: loose CT, elastic fibers, capillaries, excretory ducts from the glands in the submucosa Submucosa: usually dense irregular CT (but sometimes its can be loose CT) Mucous and serous glands C-ring of hyaline cartilage (surrounded by perichondrium), open at the dorsal aspect Smooth muscle Adventitia: dense irregular CT Function: attach it to other organs ex. vena cavea, trachea, esophagus, etc. Continuous w/ the adventitia around other organs

Extrapulmonary Bronchioles: structure is the same


as the trachea

Intrapulmonary Bronchioles
Mucosa: some infoldings of the mucosa Epithelium Ciliated cells Goblet cells Lamina propria: loose CT, elastic fibers, capillaries, excretory ducts from the glands in the submucosa Submucosa: dense irregular CT

Mostly serous glands Random pieces of incomplete hyaline cartilage (surrounded by perichondrium) Smooth muscle cells go around the intrapulmonary bronchioles in an oblique way Adventitia: dense irregular CT Under the adventitia is the lung tissue Regular Bronchioles: 1-3 mm in diameter Mucosa: lots of infoldings of the mucosa Epithelium Ciliated cells: can see a dark purple line under the cilia. This is the basal bodies. NO goblet cells Lamina propria: very little LP. Its just whats squashed btw the infoldings of the epithelium. Submucosa: dense irregular CT NO hyaline cartilage Thick layer of smooth muscle cells (4-5 layers) Adventitia: dense irregular CT. small layer Under the adventitia is the lung tissue

Terminal Bronchioles: 0.5 mm or less in diameter


Mucosa: Epithelium Ciliated cells: can see a dark purple line under the cilia. This is the basal bodies. Clara cells Lamina propria: very thin layer Submucosa: dense irregular CT NO hyaline cartilage Thin layer of smooth muscle cells (1-2 layers) Adventitia: dense irregular CT. small layer

Respiratory Bronchioles
Mucosa: 3-4 interruptions in the mucosa. These interruptions are alveolar sacs. Epithelium: made exclusively of Clara cells NO lamina propria: very little LP. Submucosa: dense irregular CT There may be 1-2 layers of smooth muscle cells

Alveolar Ducts: look like fists


Mucosa: Wall is completely broken Epithelium: 1 layer of cuboidal or squamous Clara Submucosa: some smooth muscle cells cells

Alveolar Sacs
Simple squamous epithelium made up of pneumocyte type I cells on a BM In the corner of alveolar sacs are pneumocyte type II cells Composed of 1 or more alveoli The atrium is multiple alveolar sacs The septum separates 2 alveolar sacs. Alveolar pores btw atria