Decision Making in Next Generation Networks Using Fuzzy Systems

Abstract

In this paper we discuss on multi-criteria
vertical handover decision algorithms in Next
Generation Networks such as Wireless WAN and
Wireless LAN. Vertical handover is performed
according to several parameters and user
preferences. User can select the most
appropriate network based on several attributes
and switch to the selected network without any
interruption in running applications and
established sessions. Therefore, handover is
performed seamlessly. There are several
algorithms for network selection, in this paper
we use fuzzy inference system for parameter
comparison and hence network selection.


Keywords: Vertical handover, seamless
handover, Next Generation Networks (NGN),
fuzzy inference engine, fuzzifier, defuzzifier

1. Introduction

Main purposes in NGN are global access to
heterogeneous networks and mobility through
them in a seamless manner. There is an emerging
trend that some of the mobile devices are
equipped with multiple network interface cards,
which are capable of connecting to different
wireless access networks. Users with
multimedia-enabled wireless devices are
expected to obtain both real-time services (e.g.,
voice, video conferencing), and non-real time
services (e.g., Simple Message Service (SMS),
Multimedia Message Service (MMS)).
There are several challenging issues on
vertical handover support [1]. The vertical
handover decision may depend on the bandwidth
available for each wireless access network, the
ISP (Internet Service Provider) charge for the










Network connection, the power usage
requirements, the current battery status of the
mobile device, services offered by each available
network, quality of the services offered user
preferences and received signal strength. In
general, the vertical handover process can be
divided into three main steps [2], [3], namely
system discovery, handover decision, and
handover execution. During the system
discovery phase, mobile terminals equipped with
multiple interfaces have to determine which
networks are available and the services available
in each network. Some available networks may
also broadcast the services provided by them and
supported data rates for these different services.
A wireless network is available if its service
advertisements can be heard by the mobile
terminal. It is critical to avoid keeping idle
interfaces always on in order to avoid excessive
consumption of battery power. The system
discovery time should be short so that the mobile
terminal can benefit from the new wireless
network. During the handover decision phase,
the mobile device determines which network it
should connect to. In this phase a decision
algorithm is used to select most suitable network
by taking into account several parameters and
user preferences. Several decision algorithms are
discussed in [4-7] during the handover execution
phase, connections need to be re-routed from the
existing network to the new network in a
seamless manner.
In horizontal handover, received signal
strength (RSS) is almost the only criterion being
considered whereas in vertical handover (VHO)
other factors such as quality of services offered
by the networks are also important.
In [4] decision making is considered as an
optimization problem. A cost function is
assigned for each available network, and selected
network is the one with the lowest cost function.
Multiple attributes such as band width, delay
Soroush M. Mirzaei
Zarandi*
soroush_mirzaie
@comp.iust.ac.ir

Hormoz Parsian*
hormozparsian
@gmail.com
Reza Berangi*
rberangi@iust.ac.ir
* Computer Engineering Department, Iran University of Science & Technology
Omid Abedi*
oabedi@iust.ac.ir

This work was sponsored by Iranian Telecommunication Research Center
time and consumed power are involved, and
weights are assigned to them according to their
importance for the user and quality of service
provided by the network. In [8] the proposed
algorithm is based on fuzzy logic taking received
signal strength threshold and other factors into
account as input parameters. In [9] a proposal for
mobility management in a packet-oriented multi-
segment using Mobile IP and fuzzy logic
concepts was proposed. However, no results on
the handoff decision algorithm were provided.
The rest of the paper is organized as follows.
A fuzzy decision algorithm based on multiple
attributes decision making algorithms is given in
section 2. Fuzzy inference systems are presented
in Section 3. A fuzzy decision algorithm based
on fuzzy concepts and MATLAB simulations are
demonstrated in Section 4. Conclusions are
presented in section 5.

2. MADM Fuzzy Method

In [6], fuzzy decision algorithm is based on
several attributes such as band width, tariff, and
seamless handover. Since some of criteria and
user preferences are fuzzy and imprecise, fuzzy
logic is used for comparison among several
attributes. Multiple Attribute Decision Making
consists of two steps: 1- converting fuzzy
numbers into real numbers 2- utilizing classic
MADM methods such as SAW (Simple Additive
Weighting) and TOPSIS ( Technique for Order
Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) for
ranking of available networks.
SAW determines score of each available
network by weighted sum of all the attribute
values [6]. Score of network і is calculated as
follows:


ij
N
j
j i
r w A × =
¿
=1
M i e (1)
where
ij
r is the normalized value of
th
j attribute
in
th
i network, and
j
w is weight of
th
j
attribute in
th
i network. N is number of
attributes, and M is number of available
networks. The desired network is selected by
comparison of values obtained from equation (1)
as following:

Max A =
-
i
A M i e (2)
In TOPSIS, the selected available network is the
closest one to the ideal solution (and the farthest
from the worst case solution). The ideal solution
is obtained by using the best values for each
parameter. Let
i
c denote the relative closeness
(or similarity) of the candidate network i to the
ideal solution. The selected network
-
TOP
A is:
Max A
TOP
=
-

i
c M i e
(3)
3. Fuzzy Logic
Fuzzy logic is a tool for modeling complex,
imprecise and ambiguous systems. Fuzzy logic
has two objectives:
1- Establishing computational methods for
reasoning and solving problems which require
human intelligence.
2- Maintain an effective trade-off between
precision and the cost in developing an
approximate model of a complex system [10,
11].

3.1. Fuzzy Inference System

Inference system is a computing framework
based on the concepts of fuzzy set theory, fuzzy
if-then rules, and fuzzy reasoning. Two types of
fuzzy inference systems that can be implemented
are the Mamdani-type and the Sugeno-type [13].
The differences between these fuzzy inference
systems lie in the consequents of their fuzzy
rules, and therefore their aggregation and
defuzzification processes differ accordingly. A
Mamdani fuzzy inference system consists of
following blocks:

3.1.1. Fuzzifier. Fuzzifier converts crisp inputs
into linguistic values. The fuzzifier maps a crisp
point,
| | u x x x x
T
n
e = ,..., ,
2 1
into a fuzzy set
( ) ( ) { } ,... ( , , ( ,
2 2 1 1
x x x x A
A A
µ µ = in U .
Where | | 1 , 0 : ÷ U
A
µ is the membership
function of the fuzzy set A, and ( )
i A
x µ is the
membership degree of
i
x in A.

3.1.2. Fuzzy rule base. It contains a number of
fuzzy IF-THEN rules. If a fuzzy system has n
inputs and a single output, its fuzzy rule
j
R is of
the general form:

IF x
1
is A
1j
and x
2
is A
2j
and … and x
n
is A
nj
,
THEN y is B
j
.
ij
A

and
j
B

are fuzzy sets in R U
i
c and
R V c , respectively. The variables
| |
n
T
n
U U U x x x x
x
× × × e =
÷
... ,... , ,
2 1 3 2 1

and
V y e are called the input and the output
linguistic variables, respectively.

3.1.3. Fuzzy inference engine. The fuzzy
inference engine performs the inference
operations on the fuzzy rules. Fuzzy logic
principles are used to combine fuzzy IF-THEN
rules in the rule base and fuzzy sets in
n
U U U U × × × = ...
2 1

are mapped into fuzzy
sets inV . Let U Ae be the input to the fuzzy
inference engine, and let the fuzzy rule be
represented as the fuzzy implication
C Gj j R j R j R j R R
n
= ÷ × × × × = ...
3 2 1

in V U × . Then, each fuzzy IF-THEN rule
determines a fuzzy set V Bj D e = using the
composition:

( ) ( ) | | ) ( , sup , x y x w u
A c R U x D
µ µ µ A =
÷ e
(4)

3.1.3. Defuzzifier. A defuzzifier transforms the
fuzzy results of the inference into a crisp output.
It maps fuzzy sets in V into a crisp output y ∈ V.
A popular defuzzification method is the centroid
calculation which returns the centre of area under
the curve given by:

( ) ( ) ( )
¿ ¿
= ) ( / ) ( y y y y
B B
µ µ (5)

where y is the centre of the fuzzy set C. The
bisector, middle of maximum, largest of
maximum, and smallest of maximum are other
defuzzification methods.

A fuzzy inference system is shown in Figure
1, where the input and output of the fuzzy system
are
N
R xe and R y e , respectively.

4. Decision Algorithm

A handoff algorithm must be capable of
making a decision based on incomplete
information and in a region of uncertainty. We
are designing an adaptive multi-criteria handoff

Figure1. Fuzzy inference system

decision algorithm using fuzzy logic because of
inherent strength of fuzzy logic in solving
problems exhibiting imprecision. Also, the fact
that many of terms used for describing radio
signals are fuzzy in nature [9]. The algorithm
provides option to influence the handoff result
by specifying user preferences such as preferred
user wireless network and QoS required. Fuzzy
logic can be exploited to develop approximate
solutions that are both cost-effective and highly
useful. Furthermore, we consider two handoff
scenarios: handoff from WWAN to WLAN, and
handoff from WLAN to WWAN.

4.1. Handover from WWAN to WLAN

Wireless WANs (slower, Costlier, broader
coverage area and global access) and Wireless
LANs (faster, larger bandwidth, less expensive
and lesser coverage area) possess complementary
characteristics; hence mobility between these
two networks for users with multi interface
mobile terminals provides a seamless global
access. In general using WLAN is preferable
where the quality of service and coverage area is
salient. Handover from WLAN to WWAN is
desired when a user is leaving WLAN coverage
area. VHO between WLAN and WWAN
provides a seamless movement without any
interruption in running applications and
established sessions. WWAN is always
available, and WLAN is an optional choice.
Therefore, handover from WWAN to WLAN
improves quality of service.

4.1.1 Handover Decision Using Fuzzy Logic.
The multi interface mobile terminal associated
with the WWAN monitors at repeated intervals
and measures the RSS of nearby WLANs to see
whether or not a better high data rate WLAN
service is available. Input data from both user
and system are required for the handoff decision
algorithm whose main purpose is selecting an
optimum wireless network for a particular
service that can satisfy the following objectives:
preferred user wireless network, proper signal
Fuzzy
Rules
Fuzzifier





Inference
Engine
Defuzzifier
y
x
strength, suitable network coverage, optimum
bandwidth, low cost, high reliability and
seamless connection. The priority order of the
preferred user wireless network could be office
WLAN, residential WLAN and then public
WLAN where the priority order is based on
security, throughput, cost, and routing
performance. The RSS of the target network
must be larger than the RSS threshold (say, -76
dBm) which enables quality WLAN
communication service for a period of time.
Fuzzy logic algorithms can be implemented in
the mobile terminal as a Handoff Decision
Engine to provide rules for decision making. The
input parameters (preferred user wireless
network, available bandwidth, RSS, and network
coverage area of the target WLAN network) are
fed into a fuzzifier transforming them into fuzzy
sets by determining the degree to which they
belong to each of the appropriate fuzzy sets via
membership functions. Next, the fuzzy sets are
fed into a fuzzy inference engine where a set of
fuzzy IF-THEN rules is applied to obtain fuzzy
decision sets. The output fuzzy decision sets are
aggregated into a single fuzzy set and passed to
the defuzzifier to be converted into a precise
quantity during the final stage of the handoff
decision.

4.1.2. Simulation Using MATLAB. Each of the
input parameters is assigned to one of three
fuzzy sets; for example, the fuzzy set values for
the RSS consist of the linguistic terms: Strong
(S), Medium (M), and Weak (W). These sets are
mapped to corresponding Gaussian membership
functions. The universe of discourse for the
fuzzy variable RSS is defined from -78 dBm to -
66 dBm. The fuzzy set “Strong” is defined from
-72 dBm to -66 dBm with the maximum
membership at -66 dBm. Similarly, the fuzzy set
“Medium” for the RSS is defined from -78 dBm
to -66 dBm with the maximum membership at -
72 dBm, and the fuzzy set “Weak” for the RSS is
defined from -78 dBm to -72 dBm with the
maximum membership at -78 dBm. The universe
of discourse for the variable available Bandwidth
(BW) is defined from 0 Mbps to 56 Mbps, the
universe of discourse for the variable Network
Coverage area is defined from 0 m to 300 m, and
the universe of discourse for the variable
Preferred User Wireless Network is defined from
0 to 10. The fuzzy set values for the output
decision variable Vertical Handover (VHO) are
{Yes (Y), Probably Yes (PY), Uncertain (U),
Probably No (PN), and No (N)}. The universe of
discourse for the variable Handover is defined
from 0 to 4, with the maximum membership of
the sets “No” and “Yes” at 0 and 4, respectively.
The membership functions for the inputs and
output fuzzy variables are shown in Figures 2 to
6.


Figure 2. Received signal strength input


Figure 3. Bandwidth input


Figure 4. Network coverage input

Figure 5. User preferred network input

Figure 6. Handover output

Since there are four fuzzy variables and 3
fuzzy sets for each of these variables, there are 3
4

(81) rules in fuzzy rule base such as:
1. IF user preferred network is Public WLAN,
and BW is low, and RSS is weak, and Coverage
area small, THEN VHO is N.
2. IF user preferred network is Residential
WLAN, and BW is low, and RSS is weak, and
Coverage area is medium, THEN VHO is PN
3. IF user preferred network is Residential
WLAN, and BW is low, RSS is weak, and
Coverage area is good, THEN VHO is U.
4. IF user preferred network is Office WLAN,
and BW is medium, and RSS is medium, and
Coverage area is medium, THEN VHO is PY.
5. IF user preferred network is Office WLAN,
BW is medium, and RSS is medium, and
Coverage area is large, THEN VHO is PY.
6. IF user preferred network is Office WLAN,
and BW is high, RSS is medium, and Coverage
area is large, THEN VHO is Y.
7. IF user preferred network is Public WLAN,
and BW is low, and RSS is medium, and
Coverage area is medium, THEN VHO is U.
8. IF user preferred network is Office WLAN,
and BW is high, and RSS is strong, and
Coverage area is large, THEN VHO is Y.
9. IF user preferred network is Residential
WLAN, and BW is medium, and RSS is strong,
and Coverage area is medium, THEN VHO is
PY.
10. IF user preferred network is Office WLAN,
and BW is medium, and RSS is medium, and
Coverage area is small, THEN VHO is U.
11. IF user preference network is Residential
WLAN, and BW is medium, and RSS is
medium, and Coverage area is small, THEN
VHO is PN.
12. IF user preferred network is Public WLAN,
and BW is low, and RSS is medium, and
Coverage area is small, THEN VHO is N.
Figure 7 represents MATLAB simulation of
above fuzzy IF - THEN rules.




Figure 7. Handover from WWAN to WLAN

4.2. Handover from WLAN to WWAN

WLAN has smaller coverage area as compare
with WWAN. When a user is moving away from
WLAN`s coverage area, decision for VHO must
be made at the right time and very precisely so
that the user stays connected without any
interruption.

4.2.1. Simulation Using MATLAB. Parameters
considered for VHO from WLAN to WWAN
are: RSS, BW, coverage area and received
quality of service from the current WLAN.
Design and implementation of this case is the
same as previous one. However, in this case
quality of service (QoS) for the current network
is an input parameter which must be taken into
consideration, and its membership function is
shown in figure 8.


Figure 8. Quality of service input


Seven fuzzy IF-THEN rules are considered
and shown in figure 9 (simulation with
MATLAB).
1. IF received QoS is undesirable, and BW is
low, and RSS is weak, and Coverage area is
small, then VHO is Y.
2. IF received QoS is undesirable, and BW is
low, and RSS is weak, and coverage area is
medium, then VHO is PY.
3. IF received QoS is undesirable, and BW is
medium, and RSS is weak, and coverage area is
medium, then VHO is U.
4. IF received QoS is desirable, and BW is
medium, and RSS is medium, and Coverage area
is medium, then VHO is PN.
5. IF received QoS is desirable, and BW is high,
and RSS is strong, and coverage area is large,
then VHO is N.
6. IF received QoS is undesirable, BW is
medium, and RSS is strong, and coverage area is
medium, then VHO is U.
7. IF received QoS is desirable, and BW is high,
and RSS is strong, and coverage area is medium,
then VHO is N.





Figure 9. Handover from WLAN to WWAN




5. CONCLUSION

In this paper, we used fuzzy logic for decision
making in VHO. Since there are several network
attributes and parameters involved in decision
making, fuzzy logic is used for selection of
optimal network. This algorithm considers
effective parameters and user's preferences in
network selection with regarding rules in fuzzy
rule base. Classical fuzzy MADM methods such
as SAW and TOPSIS which require lengthy
calculations are very time consuming and
difficult to implement. In contrast, proposed
algorithm using simple fuzzy concepts is easy to
implement and cost effective. It requires four
basic elements: Fuzzifier, defuzzier, fuzzy base
rule and fuzzy inference engine. Later is the
main part of this system and performs the
network evaluation and network selection.

6. Acknowledgement

This work was sponsored by Iran
Telecommunication Research Center.

6.References

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[4] F. Zhu and J. MacNair, “Optimizations for Vertical
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[5] W. Chen and Y. Shu, “Active Application
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[6] W. Zhang, “Handover Decision Using Fuzzy
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[7] Q. Song and A. Jamalipour, “A Network Selection
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[8] N. D. Tripathi et al., “Adaptive Handoff Algorithm
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[9] P. M. L. Chan et al., “Mobility Management
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[10] L. A. Zadeh, “Soft Computing and Fuzzy Logic”,
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If a fuzzy system has n inputs and a single output. 3. Fuzzy logic has two objectives: 1.1. Fuzzy inference systems are presented in Section 3. A fuzzy decision algorithm based on fuzzy concepts and MATLAB simulations are demonstrated in Section 4. and th w j is weight of jth attribute in i network. fuzzy logic is used for comparison among several attributes. Fuzzy Logic Fuzzy logic is a tool for modeling complex.utilizing classic MADM methods such as SAW (Simple Additive Weighting) and TOPSIS ( Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) for ranking of available networks. Multiple Attribute Decision Making consists of two steps: 1. 2. fuzzy if-then rules. and weights are assigned to them according to their importance for the user and quality of service provided by the network. and therefore their aggregation and defuzzification processes differ accordingly. j . from the worst case solution).1. Fuzzifier. xn   u into a fuzzy set A  x1 . The fuzzifier maps a crisp point. tariff. SAW determines score of each available network by weighted sum of all the attribute values [6].. and M is number of available networks. Where  A : U  0. Let ci denote the relative closeness (or similarity) of the candidate network i to the ideal solution. fuzzy decision algorithm is based on several attributes such as band width. and  A xi  is the membership degree of xi in A . Fuzzifier converts crisp inputs into linguistic values.2. Score of network і is calculated as follows: Inference system is a computing framework based on the concepts of fuzzy set theory..Maintain an effective trade-off between precision and the cost in developing an approximate model of a complex system [10.. Since some of criteria and user preferences are fuzzy and imprecise. In [8] the proposed algorithm is based on fuzzy logic taking received signal strength threshold and other factors into account as input parameters. T Ai   w j  rij j 1 N iM (1) where rij is the normalized value of in jth attribute i th network..1 is the membership function of the fuzzy set A . no results on the handoff decision algorithm were provided. Fuzzy rule base. 11].Establishing computational methods for reasoning and solving problems which require human intelligence.  A ( x2 .. N is number of attributes. It contains a number of fuzzy IF-THEN rules.time and consumed power are involved. The selected network ATOP is:  ATOP  Max ci  iM (3) 3.. Conclusions are presented in section 5. imprecise and ambiguous systems. and fuzzy reasoning.1.  A ( x1 . The differences between these fuzzy inference systems lie in the consequents of their fuzzy rules. x2 . x2 . Two types of fuzzy inference systems that can be implemented are the Mamdani-type and the Sugeno-type [13].. MADM Fuzzy Method 3. The desired network is selected by comparison of values obtained from equation (1) as following: x  x1 . A Mamdani fuzzy inference system consists of following blocks: 3.1.converting fuzzy numbers into real numbers 2. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. and seamless handover. its fuzzy rule R j is of the general form: A  Max Ai  iM (2) IF x is A and x is A and … and x is A . 2. The ideal solution is obtained by using the best values for each parameter. Fuzzy Inference System In [6]. the selected available network is the closest one to the ideal solution (and the farthest THEN y is B . 1 1j 2 2j n nj In TOPSIS. However. A fuzzy decision algorithm based on multiple attributes decision making algorithms is given in section 2. In [9] a proposal for mobility management in a packet-oriented multisegment using Mobile IP and fuzzy logic concepts was proposed. in U .

 Rn j  Gj  C in U  V . It maps fuzzy sets in V into a crisp output y ∈ V. In general using WLAN is preferable where the quality of service and coverage area is salient. broader coverage area and global access) and Wireless LANs (faster. 4.. and WLAN is an optional choice.. middle of maximum.1.1 Handover Decision Using Fuzzy Logic. A fuzzy inference system is shown in Figure 1.. x2 . and handoff from WLAN to WWAN. Defuzzifier. A popular defuzzification method is the centroid calculation which returns the centre of area under the curve given by: 4.  U n are mapped into fuzzy sets in V .1.. respectively. Then. The multi interface mobile terminal associated with the WWAN monitors at repeated intervals and measures the RSS of nearby WLANs to see whether or not a better high data rate WLAN service is available. 4. VHO between WLAN and WWAN provides a seamless movement without any interruption in running applications and established sessions. Let A U be the input to the fuzzy inference engine. where the input and output of the fuzzy system are x  R N and y  R .Aij and B j are fuzzy sets in Ui  R and V  R. Input data from both user and system are required for the handoff decision algorithm whose main purpose is selecting an optimum wireless network for a particular service that can satisfy the following objectives: preferred user wireless network. The fuzzy inference engine performs the inference operations on the fuzzy rules. and let the fuzzy rule be represented as the fuzzy implication Inference Engine Defuzzifier Figure1. respectively. we consider two handoff scenarios: handoff from WWAN to WLAN. Costlier. handover from WWAN to WLAN improves quality of service.3. w  sup xU  R c x. hence mobility between these two networks for users with multi interface mobile terminals provides a seamless global access.xn   U1  U 2  . WWAN is always available. and smallest of maximum are other defuzzification methods. Fuzzy logic can be exploited to develop approximate solutions that are both cost-effective and highly useful. largest of maximum. proper signal y   yB ( y)/  B ( y) (5) where y is the centre of the fuzzy set C. Handover from WLAN to WWAN is desired when a user is leaving WLAN coverage area.1. R  R1 j  R2 j  R3 j  . The bisector. the fact that many of terms used for describing radio signals are fuzzy in nature [9].. less expensive and lesser coverage area) possess complementary characteristics. Furthermore.. Therefore. respectively.3. The algorithm provides option to influence the handoff result by specifying user preferences such as preferred user wireless network and QoS required. Fuzzy inference system decision algorithm using fuzzy logic because of inherent strength of fuzzy logic in solving problems exhibiting imprecision. Decision Algorithm A handoff algorithm must be capable of making a decision based on incomplete information and in a region of uncertainty. 3.. We are designing an adaptive multi-criteria handoff . x3 . Also.. The variables T x  x1 . Handover from WWAN to WLAN Wireless WANs (slower. y  A ( x) (4) 3. Fuzzy inference engine. U n and  Fuzzy Rules x y Fuzzifier y  V are called the input and the output linguistic variables.. Fuzzy logic principles are used to combine fuzzy IF-THEN rules in the rule base and fuzzy sets in U  U1  U 2  . each fuzzy IF-THEN rule determines a fuzzy set D  Bj  V using the composition:  D u. A defuzzifier transforms the fuzzy results of the inference into a crisp output. larger bandwidth.1.

suitable network coverage. Probably No (PN). Fuzzy logic algorithms can be implemented in the mobile terminal as a Handoff Decision Engine to provide rules for decision making. 4. Probably Yes (PY). and network coverage area of the target WLAN network) are fed into a fuzzifier transforming them into fuzzy sets by determining the degree to which they belong to each of the appropriate fuzzy sets via membership functions. The universe of discourse for the fuzzy variable RSS is defined from -78 dBm to 66 dBm. Figure 2. with the maximum membership of the sets “No” and “Yes” at 0 and 4. the fuzzy set values for the RSS consist of the linguistic terms: Strong (S). respectively. Bandwidth input Figure 4. User preferred network input .strength. The input parameters (preferred user wireless network. The priority order of the preferred user wireless network could be office WLAN. Each of the input parameters is assigned to one of three fuzzy sets. cost. throughput. the universe of discourse for the variable Network Coverage area is defined from 0 m to 300 m. and Weak (W). Uncertain (U). The fuzzy set “Strong” is defined from -72 dBm to -66 dBm with the maximum membership at -66 dBm. Next. The universe of discourse for the variable Handover is defined from 0 to 4. These sets are mapped to corresponding Gaussian membership functions. The RSS of the target network must be larger than the RSS threshold (say. optimum bandwidth. the fuzzy sets are fed into a fuzzy inference engine where a set of fuzzy IF-THEN rules is applied to obtain fuzzy decision sets. the fuzzy set “Medium” for the RSS is defined from -78 dBm to -66 dBm with the maximum membership at 72 dBm.1. high reliability and seamless connection. for example. Network coverage input Figure 5. Received signal strength input Figure 3. and routing performance.2. Simulation Using MATLAB. and No (N)}. The output fuzzy decision sets are aggregated into a single fuzzy set and passed to the defuzzifier to be converted into a precise quantity during the final stage of the handoff decision. available bandwidth. The membership functions for the inputs and output fuzzy variables are shown in Figures 2 to 6. residential WLAN and then public WLAN where the priority order is based on security. and the universe of discourse for the variable Preferred User Wireless Network is defined from 0 to 10. Medium (M). and the fuzzy set “Weak” for the RSS is defined from -78 dBm to -72 dBm with the maximum membership at -78 dBm. low cost. -76 dBm) which enables quality WLAN communication service for a period of time. RSS. Similarly. The universe of discourse for the variable available Bandwidth (BW) is defined from 0 Mbps to 56 Mbps. The fuzzy set values for the output decision variable Vertical Handover (VHO) are {Yes (Y).

and RSS is medium. Quality of service input . and RSS is medium. Parameters considered for VHO from WLAN to WWAN are: RSS.2. 5. and BW is high. IF user preferred network is Residential WLAN. IF user preferred network is Office WLAN. 10. and RSS is medium. 8. THEN VHO is U. and BW is low.1. Figure 7. IF user preferred network is Public WLAN. there are 34 (81) rules in fuzzy rule base such as: 1. THEN VHO is U. and Coverage area is good. and BW is medium. IF user preferred network is Residential WLAN. BW. Handover output Since there are four fuzzy variables and 3 fuzzy sets for each of these variables. THEN VHO is U. and RSS is medium. 7. and RSS is strong. 12. THEN VHO is N. and Coverage area is large. coverage area and received quality of service from the current WLAN. THEN VHO is PN. THEN VHO is PN 3. 11. THEN VHO is N. IF user preferred network is Public WLAN. 4. 2. and BW is low. BW is medium. IF user preferred network is Office WLAN. IF user preferred network is Public WLAN. 4.Figure 6. in this case quality of service (QoS) for the current network is an input parameter which must be taken into consideration. and RSS is weak. and BW is high. and RSS is strong. and Coverage area is large. 6. and Coverage area is small. THEN VHO is PY. and Coverage area is large. and its membership function is shown in figure 8. and RSS is medium. IF user preferred network is Office WLAN. 9. and BW is low. and BW is medium. RSS is weak. and Coverage area is small. and Coverage area is small. and Coverage area small. and BW is medium. Handover from WWAN to WLAN 4. and Coverage area is medium. THEN VHO is PY. and RSS is weak. and RSS is medium. IF user preferred network is Office WLAN. Figure 8. decision for VHO must be made at the right time and very precisely so that the user stays connected without any interruption. THEN VHO is Y. Handover from WLAN to WWAN WLAN has smaller coverage area as compare with WWAN. IF user preference network is Residential WLAN. IF user preferred network is Office WLAN. Design and implementation of this case is the same as previous one. IF user preferred network is Residential WLAN. and BW is medium. and Coverage area is medium. When a user is moving away from WLAN`s coverage area. and BW is low. However. Figure 7 represents MATLAB simulation of above fuzzy IF . THEN VHO is Y. Simulation Using MATLAB. and Coverage area is medium.2. and BW is low. THEN VHO is PY. RSS is medium.THEN rules. and Coverage area is medium.

Song and A. CA. Zhu. IEEE WCNC’05. Chen and Y. 6.” in Proc. and coverage area is medium. IF received QoS is undesirable. 1. . New Orleans. Liu.. of ICPADS’04. BW is medium. IF received QoS is undesirable. Iran 6. Since there are several network attributes and parameters involved in decision making. March 2005. [7] Q. LA. March 2004. March 2004. then VHO is N. “Active Application Oriented Vertical Handoff in Next Generation Wireless Networks. and coverage area is medium. proposed algorithm using simple fuzzy concepts is easy to implement and cost effective. then VHO is PN. August 2004. IF received QoS is undesirable. then VHO is U. “Handover Decision Using Fuzzy MADM in Heterogeneous Networks. [5] W. It requires four basic elements: Fuzzifier. Shu. “Vertical Handoffs in Fourth generation Multi network Environments. Atlanta. and H. IF received QoS is desirable. no. May 2005. [4] F.” IEEE Wireless Comm. 6. CONCLUSION In this paper. and BW is high. Akyildiz. Figure 9. Jamalipour.” in Proc. and coverage area is large. Mohanty. and RSS is strong. Zhang. July 2004. [2] J.References [1] I. and Coverage area is small.” in Proc. 3. and RSS is medium. Newport Beach. GA. IEEE WCNC’04.Seven fuzzy IF-THEN rules are considered and shown in figure 9 (simulation with MATLAB). MacNair. J. Huang. “Optimizations for Vertical Handoff Decision Algorithms. we used fuzzy logic for decision making in VHO. Korea. then VHO is PY. then VHO is Y. Zhu and J. and RSS is strong. and BW is high. “An Adaptive Scheme for Vertical Handoff in Wireless Overlay Networks. and RSS is weak. no. IF received QoS is desirable.“A Survey of Mobility Management in Next-Generation All-IPBased Wireless Systems. and coverage area is medium. IEEE ICC’05. and Coverage area is medium. 11. and BW is low. 2. and BW is medium. 3. 4.” in Proc. 7. fuzzy logic is used for selection of optimal network. GA. “A Network Selection Mechanism for Next Generation Networks. and BW is medium. Classical fuzzy MADM methods such as SAW and TOPSIS which require lengthy calculations are very time consuming and difficult to implement. [3] W. Xie. IEEE WCNC’04. and RSS is strong. and coverage area is medium. vol. June 2004. 5. and RSS is weak. Later is the main part of this system and performs the network evaluation and network selection. Chen. 5. 11. Atlanta. J. Acknowledgement This work was sponsored by Telecommunication Research Center. McNair and F. and BW is low. IF received QoS is desirable. and RSS is weak. vol. This algorithm considers effective parameters and user's preferences in network selection with regarding rules in fuzzy rule base. fuzzy base rule and fuzzy inference engine. Seoul. In contrast. and S. IF received QoS is undesirable. 4. Handover from WLAN to WWAN [6] W.” in Proc. then VHO is N. then VHO is U.” IEEE Wireless Communications. defuzzier.

Zadeh. IEEE Communications Magazine. 48-54. D.. [10] L. “Neuro-Fuzzy Modeling and Control”. IEEE Software. December 2001. pp.. 1413-1418. 153-165. Sun. A. Jang and C-T. 1994. [11] J. “Fuzzy Logic – A Modern Perspective”. pp. Proceedings of the IEEE. Yen. pp. [9] P. Tripathi et al. March 1995. May 1999. pp.[8] N. 42-51. M. “Soft Computing and Fuzzy Logic”. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering. “Adaptive Handoff Algorithm for Cellular Overlay Systems Using Fuzzy Logic”. R. “Mobility Management Incorporating Fuzzy Logic for a Heterogeneous IP Environment”. Chan et al. IEEE 49th VTC. L. January 1999. . [12] J-S.

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