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Efficiency CP

DDI 08
Culpepper Generic

Geothermal DA

Geothermal DA........................................................................................................................................ ...........1


1NC Shell – U/L.................................................................................................................................. .................2
1NC Shell mpx - Earthquakes........................................................................................................ .....................3
2NC mpx modual - econ................................................................................................................... ..................4
2NC mpx modual - War...................................................................................................... ................................6
2NC link/mpx modual - methane....................................................................................................... .................7
Uniqueness – general.................................................................................................................... .....................8
Uniqueness – squo barriers.................................................................................................. ..............................9
Link – releases gas................................................................................................................. ..........................10
Link – empirical.................................................................................................................... ............................11
I/L – violence.................................................................................................................... ................................12
Impacts – violence.................................................................................................................................... ........13
Neg- Defense ................................................................................................................................................. ..14
Neg - Defense................................................................................................................................................. ..15
Aff - Geothermal development inev................................................................................................. .................16
Aff - Disasters  cooperation.................................................................................................... .......................17
Aff – conflict turn....................................................................................................................... .......................18
Aff - earthquakes inev................................................................................................................................... ....19

1
Efficiency CP
DDI 08
Culpepper Generic

1NC Shell – U/L

1. Uniqueness- Geothermal energy isn’t being developed due to geographic and


economic barriers

[Larry Bell; staff writer; 7/16/08; Alternative energy opinions- getting a real grip on “green”; Energy
Tribune; http://www.energytribune.com/articles.cfm?aid=949]

In addition to its currently uncompetitive costs, relative to coal, natural gas, and nuclear for electricity and oil
for transportation, a major and long-term problem for the green-energy industry is its limited practical
expansion capacity. Consider that alternatives presently account for only about 6 percent of the total U.S.
electrical power production (half of that from hydropower). Wind power (about 0.77 percent of the total) is the
only alternative prospect for significant growth, and it has a long way to go in replacing fossils (about 71
percent) and nuclear (about 8 percent of the total, and about 19 percent of electricity). On the basis of cost
and capacity, solar power (about 0.07 percent of the total, and 0.01 percent of electricity), is not a contender
for a significant commercial market share. Geothermal expansion is even more economically and
geographically restricted.
In reducing dependence on coal and natural gas for heating and on petroleum for transportation, biofuels are
proving less advantageous than the public anticipated. Corn ethanol yields little more energy than required to
produce it, and puts food demand in direct competition with motor fuel demand. Much-touted cellulosic
ethanol from plant waste is not yet a commercial reality, and the term “hydrogen economy” is an oxymoron.
Hydrogen requires much more energy to produce than it yields, and its primary commercial source is natural
gas, which has more efficient and beneficial uses. Of course hydrogen can also be produced from water –
assuming that cheap and abundant energy is available from another source to electrolyze the water and
compress or liquefy the gas. A gallon of gasoline actually contains about 50 percent more hydrogen than a
gallon of liquid hydrogen.
But just how “green” are these alternatives? Over time, fossil and nuclear energy may look somewhat less
objectionable to many environmentalists. And perhaps others are simply more united in their opposition to
“brown power” than in their support for mischaracterized green power options.
Geothermal sites capable of producing electrical power are geographically limited. Located primarily in the
western half of the U.S., many are in protected federal parks and natural wilderness areas that are not open
for development. Heat extraction for power is expensive, often necessitating drilling a mile or more
underground and requiring extensive infrastructure and power lines along with large amounts of cooling
water. Processes often release groundwater contaminates (thermal and toxic), gas emissions (hydrogen
sulfide), and mineral-rich sludges containing mercury and other heavy metals.

2. Link - Geothermal drilling creates millions of tons of pressure- causing


earthquakes

[Bassfeld Technology Transfer; 1-16-2007, "Can GEOHIL geothermal energy extraction methods
generate earthquakes?"; http://www.bassfeld.ch/News/files/36665ed9c129840a93c017cfecbac582-8.html]

Why does fracturing rock cause earthquakes? Fracturing (or "fraccing" in industry colloquial terms) involves
creating and enlarging small fractures in the rock from about 0.3 millimeter in size to about 1mm in diameter
by using high pressure water injection. The fraccing is done at the bottom of the borehole; in the Basel project
this is at 5000 meters depth. Although the fractures are relatively small, millions of tons of rock are being
moved in the process. This creates stress and can result in the accumulated pressure suddenly being released
in the form of an earthquake. The Soultz-sous-Forêts geothermal drillings in France have also caused a series
of 93 earthquakes in the summer of the year 2000 ranging from 1.0 to 2.9 in magnitude on the Richter scale.

2
Efficiency CP
DDI 08
Culpepper Generic

1NC Shell mpx - Earthquakes

3. Impact –

a. Earthquakes spark resource competition which leads to violence

[Dawn Brancati; Academic Employment. Harvard University, Institute for Quantitative Social Science;
2007; "Political Aftershocks: The Impact
of Earthquakes on Intrastate Conflict", 51-5, http://jcr.sagepub.com/cgi/content/refs/51/5/715]

Earthquakes, I argue, promote intrastate conflict by increasing competition among groups for scarce
resources (e.g., food, water, housing, medicine, and relief aid). Scarcities, in turn, provoke frustrations, which
lead to anger and violence. Their effects are greater in economically developing countries than in developed
ones since earthquakes have more severe consequences in the former than in the latter. Earthquakes also
have larger effects in countries already experiencing conflict since rebels can capitalize on earthquakes to
attract popular support, recruit soldiers, and finance campaigns.

b. Earthquakes are uniquely bad because of the lack of warning and


prolonged effects

[Dawn Brancati; Academic Employment. Harvard University, Institute for Quantitative Social Science;
2007; "Political Aftershocks: The Impact
of Earthquakes on Intrastate Conflict", 51-5, http://jcr.sagepub.com/cgi/content/refs/51/5/715]

Why earthquakes? Earthquakes may provoke conflict more than any other type of natural disaster because
they have rapid onsets. In occurring quickly and without warning, earthquakes are more likely to stoke
feelings of frustration arising from relative deprivation than disasters with slow onsets, such as droughts.
Earthquakes, moreover, unlike some other disasters such as famine, are exogenous to conflict. Conflict, that
is, does not affect whether earthquakes occur or the magnitude with which they strike, although conflict may
increase the amount of damage that earthquakes inflict. Earthquakes do not occur, furthermore, in regions of
the world particularly prone to conflict, as do droughts, which dominate Africa. Additionally, while earthquakes
occur primarily along fault lines, earthquakes are not predictable.

c. Earthquakes have become a short term threat to human survival

[Al-Ahram Weekly; January 2005; "The post-earthquake world";


http://weekly.ahram.org.eg/2005/724/op3.htm]

Until recently, the threat Nature represented was perceived as likely to arise only in the long run, related for
instance to how global warming would affect life on our planet. Such a threat could take decades, even
centuries, to reach a critical level. This perception has changed following the devastating earthquake and
tsunamis that hit the coastal regions of South Asia and, less violently, of East Africa, on 26 December.
This cataclysmic event has underscored the vulnerability of our world before the wrath of Nature and shaken
the sanguine belief that the end of the world is a long way away. Gone are the days when we could comfort
ourselves with the notion that the extinction of the human race will not occur before a long-term future that
will only materialize after millions of years and not affect us directly in any way. We are now forced to live
with the possibility of an imminent demise of humankind.

3
Efficiency CP
DDI 08
Culpepper Generic

2NC mpx modual - econ


3. Impact –

a. Earthquakes permanently damage the national economy

[Commission on technical and engineering systems; The Economic Consequences of a


Catastrophic Earthquake: Proceedings of a Forum; 1992; Page 142, chapter 6; the ripple effect;
http://www.nap.edu/nap-cgi/skimit.cgi?isbn=0309046394&chap=141-155]

The disruption in the earthquake area could easily break critical supply lines in the economy. It is very well
known that gas and oil pipelines run through the New Madrid region and supply many businesses and
individuals throughout the Northeast. We are also very critically aware that the important semiconductor
industry is concentrated in California, and a catastrophic earthquake there would affect a wide array of other
businesses, because suppliers there would shut down.
In general, shutting down most activity in the earthquake area will spread beyond that area as customers or
suppliers are hit by the shutdown, and many businesses that are far away will suffer. There is a good chance
that many of those, which might have been marginal to begin with, will just never start up again.
The inability to supply, the inability to sell, and the multiplier effects that will spread from the area are what
many analysts are calling the ripple effect. Now, ripple connotes a less and less noticeable effect as the
earthquake is spread over time and over space. But it is important for us to keep in mind that there are going
to be more than just ripple effects, and they are not going to be orderly, spread over time and space. There
are going to be some immediate and large impacts on the national economy, and those are going to come
through the financial markets and through the insurance system.

b. US economy collapse would cause loss of faith in the dollar, leading to


global economy collapse

[Joseph Candel; 2-2003; Activated Magazine; “Signs of the Times: The Coming Economic Crash”]
In this era of Internet trading and globally linked economies and stock markets, a sudden and drastic
downturn in one major financial market could create a worldwide panic that would send the global economy
tumbling down like a house of cards.
In one possible scenario, if the American economy were to fail because of some international crisis like a
major war in the Middle East or a severe oil shortage, the rest of the world could rapidly lose faith in the U.S.
dollar. The dollar and other dollar-based currencies and international stocks would lose much of their value
and, as a result, banks and financial markets worldwide would likely fail. Such an economic crash would also
most likely lead to widespread political and civil chaos.

c. Economic decline causes a nuclear war

[Walter Russell Mead; NPQ’S Board of advisors, New perspectives quarterly, summer 1992, page 30]
Hundreds of millions - billions - of people have pinned their hopes on the international market economy. They
and their leaders have
embraced market principles -- and drawn closer to the west – because they believe that our system can work
for them. But what if it can't? What if the global economy stagnates - or even shrinks? In that case, we will
face a new period of international conflict: South against North, rich against poor. Russia, China, India - These
4
Efficiency CP
DDI 08
Culpepper Generic
countries with their billions of people and their nuclear weapons will pose a much greater danger to world
order than Germany and Japan did in the 30s.

5
Efficiency CP
DDI 08
Culpepper Generic

2NC mpx modual - War

Disagreements over who should respond to the post-disaster area causes civil
war

[Jason Enia. "Shaking the Foundations of Civil War: Institutions, Earthquakes & the Political Economies of
Interaction in Post-Tsunami Sri Lanka and Indonesia" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th
ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA,
3/26/2008 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2008-06-25 http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p254529_index.html]

The derived preferences of both the rebels and the state leaders regarding control over disaster relief
institutions are instructive as one considers how this interaction might lead to conflict and either new or
renewed civil war. Given their concern about future rebel challenges to their respective comprehensive
authorities, leaders of governments hope to resolve current challenges as well as send signals to other would-
be separatist groups and the citizens of the country that the government alone has the functional capability
to provide for the citizens in a time of crisis. The period of time after a natural disaster provides a window
through which to view the government’s attempt to achieve these strategic objectives.

Civil war escalates and involves other nations – causing a global war

[Adam B. Siegel is a member of the Northrop Grumman Analysis Center and formerly was affiliated with the
Center for Naval Analyses; winter 2002; International naval cooperation during the Spanish civil war;
http://www.ndu.edu/inss/Press/jfq_pages/1729.pdf]

Among ideologues on the left and the right, the Spanish civil war was perhaps the most controversial conflict
of the 20th century. Moreover, European powers could not ignore the fact that it posed the greatest threat to
peace since World War I. Spain’s strategic location, the rise of fascism as a military threat, and the presence
of over 100,000 foreign nationals drew international naval forces into Spanish waters. Thus the conflict
entangled foreign powers which, in addition to sparring with Republican and Nationalist forces, became
involved in ad hoc multinational operations from support to combatants to interdiction patrols, antisubmarine
operations, and noncombatant evacuation—portending what today is known as coalitions of the willing.

6
Efficiency CP
DDI 08
Culpepper Generic

2NC link/mpx modual - methane

3. Impact –
Geothermal drilling releases greenhouse gases, such as methane, into the
atmosphere, turning case

[David Wallechinsky & Irving Wallace, geothermal energy experts; 1981;Geothermal Energy
Arguments For and Against; Reproduced with permission from "The People's Almanac" series of books;
http://www.trivia-library.com/b/geothermal-energy-arguments-for-and-against.htm]

The development of geothermal reservoirs is often unfeasible because they are too far from major population
centers. Geothermal power plants release many pollutants (from processing mineral-laden steam and water),
including the dangerous and malodorous gaseous forms of ammonia, hydrogen sulfate, and methane. They
also release almost twice as much heat into the atmosphere as nuclear plants and are quite noisy. They are
not at all foolproof; well blowouts have been known to rage out of control for days. The pumping or reinjection
of thermal fluids may cause earthquakes. Lastly, geothermal drilling is expensive, costing two to three times
as much as oil drilling, and present technology limits bore hole depths to 30,000 ft.

7
Efficiency CP
DDI 08
Culpepper Generic

Uniqueness – general

Geothermal energy is not widely used

[Erick Simmelink et al.; researcher for the School of Ecology and Environment at Dreakin University;
11/9/2007; " Risk analysis for the development of geothermal energy"; http://conferences-
engine.brgm.fr/conferenceOtherViews.py?view=standard&confId=8]

Currently, Turkey’s rich geothermal resources are used only to a small degree for the generation of the
country’s electric energy needs. Turkey in this regard is a promising country to develop, test, and apply new
methodology for the exploration, development, and operation of geothermal low/medium-enthalpy reservoirs.
At the same time, all these three stages required for the conversion of geothermal energy into electric energy
are associated with uncertainty and risk.

Lack of direction means minimal geothermal use in the status quo

[Erick Simmelink et al.; researcher for the School of Ecology and Environment at Dreakin University;
11/9/2007; " Risk analysis for the development of geothermal energy"; http://conferences-
engine.brgm.fr/conferenceOtherViews.py?view=standard&confId=8]

It is widely accepted that the geothermal energy is a versatile renewable energy source that is among the
cleanest of the commercially viable technologies available today. Towards this direction, there has been a lot
of scientific substantiation. Regardless of this positive opinion the development of geothermal exploitation
has not followed the pace of the development as most other “alternative” energy sources have had. An
important reason is that many geothermal projects face strong opposition from politicians, neighbouring
communities or environmental pressure groups. This is the main reason which has led to a global tendency
for geothermal companies to develop their own policy and their own social responsibility.

8
Efficiency CP
DDI 08
Culpepper Generic

Uniqueness – squo barriers

Geothermal projects are facing budget cuts now

[Dana Childs; Leader of the Cleantech Group; 3/30/2007; More money on the way for geothermal power in
the U.S.; http://media.cleantech.com/965/more-money-on-the-way-for-geothermal-po]

The Bush administration has already proposed cutting federal funding of geothermal research in order to save
$25 million in the 2008 national budget. Policy makers argue that geothermal energy is a mature technology
that doesn’t require additional research.
A recent research study at MIT estimated that the U.S. could generate enough geothermal power for 80
million homes by 2050, or as much as 100,000 megawatts of electricity (see MIT report says geothermal
power not to be ignored.) But it called for between $300 and $400 million to be invested in geothermal plant
efficiency research.
While government geothermal funding may not be as forthcoming as it could be, the GEA's Gawell notes
there are other sources of money.
"There's been a real shift. We're starting to see real interest from financial communities like venture capital,
GE Capital and others. The interest has really been overwhelming. There are a lot of new projects people are
trying to put together."
Gawell says he's not daunted.
"I try not to listen to Washington. If you look at what people are doing in California, in Oregon, in Hawaii, in
Alaska and in Nevada, there are a lot of exciting things going on. Luckily I spend enough time outside of
Washington that I stay optimistic."
Geothermal power only supplies the U.S. with 2,828 megawatts of electricity, today, accounting for .36
percent of its power. Few geothermal plants have been developed to date because of their relative cost to
build and expense to operate.

9
Efficiency CP
DDI 08
Culpepper Generic

Link – releases gas

Geothermal drilling releases dangerous gases into the air and increases the risk
of earthquakes

[Alternative Energy: Information about alternative energy options, news, and discussion; powered by
wordpress; 10/2/2007; The disadvantages of geothermal energy";
http://www.yourenergyalternitives.com/2007/10/02/the-disadvantages-of-geothermal-energy/]

The biggest concern for environmentalists is the gases and materials released from deep within the earth’s
centre. The gases and minerals released are more often than not hazardous. The biggest concern is for
hydrogen sulfide. It is a very corrosive gas and is very difficult to dispose off properly. The minerals which
cause concern are: - arsenic, mercury, and ammonia. The danger or earthquakes is also increased when
drilling for geothermal energy.
Earthquakes: The geothermal energy harvesting can cause earthquakes in the region. The statistics clearly
say that there is a definite increase in the recurrence of earthquakes in the region of geothermal energy
harvesting.

10
Efficiency CP
DDI 08
Culpepper Generic

Link – empirical

Multiple earthquakes have been caused by the geothermal drilling at Basel

[Bassfeld Technology Transfer; 1-16-2007, "Can GEOHIL geothermal energy extraction methods
generate earthquakes?"; http://www.bassfeld.ch/News/files/36665ed9c129840a93c017cfecbac582-8.html]

Updated (16.01.07): a third earthquake with a magnitude of 3.2 on the Richter scale was measured in Basel
near the Hot-Dry-Rock drill site. On January 6, 2007 the news agency ap/sda had reported a second
earthquake in Basel, Switzerland with a magnitude of 3.1 on the Richter scale, whereas the previous
earthquake on December 8, 2006 had a magnitude of 3.4.
All three earthquakes have been caused by the high pressure water injections necessary to fracture the deep-
seated rock in Kleinhuenigen, Basel where the drilling for the "Deep Heat Mining" project from Geopower
Basel AG is taking place. The epicenter was near the borehole. The project uses the Hot-Dry-Rock (HDR)
geothermal energy extraction method.

11
Efficiency CP
DDI 08
Culpepper Generic

I/L – violence

Earthquakes provoke resources wars and interstate tensions

[Dawn Brancati; Academic Employment. Harvard University, Institute for Quantitative Social Science;
2007; "Political Aftershocks: The Impact
of Earthquakes on Intrastate Conflict", 51-5, http://jcr.sagepub.com/cgi/content/refs/51/5/715]

Although many scholars, policy makers, and relief organizations suggest that natural disasters bring groups
together and dampen conflicts, earthquakes can actually stimulate intrastate conflict by producing scarcities
in basic resources, particularly in developing countries where the competition for scarce resources is most
intense. Capitalizing on a natural experiment design, this study examines the impact of earthquakes on
intrastate conflict through a statistical analysis of 185 countries over the period from 1975 to 2002. The
analysis indicates that earthquakes not only increase the likelihood of conflict, but that their effects are
greater for higher magnitude earthquakes striking more densely populated areas of countries with lower gross
domestic products as well as preexisting conflicts. These results suggest that disaster recovery efforts must
pay greater attention to the conflict-producing potential of earthquakes and undertake certain measures,
including strengthening security procedures, to prevent this outcome from occurring.

Earthquakes and other natural disasters cause massive internal unrest and
violence – empirically proven

[Jason Enia. "Shaking the Foundations of Civil War: Institutions, Earthquakes & the Political Economies of
Interaction in Post-Tsunami Sri Lanka and Indonesia" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA's 49th
ANNUAL CONVENTION, BRIDGING MULTIPLE DIVIDES, Hilton San Francisco, SAN FRANCISCO, CA, USA,
3/26/2008 Online <APPLICATION/PDF>. 2008-06-25 http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p254529_index.html]

In the immediate aftermath of the disaster, both GAM and the Indonesian government made conciliatory
gestures toward one another. Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono lifted the state of emergency
in Aceh in order to facilitate the flow of aid and relief workers into the area. Rebel leaders from GAM offered a
tentative unilateral ceasefire. This rebel ceasefire was not matched by the Indonesian military, however, and
within a week, it appeared that the tsunami would do more to increase conflict between the Indonesian
government and GAM than to decrease it. The army’s presence in Aceh was based on conflicting roles: the
provision of disaster relief aid and the simultaneous pursuit of the Acehnese guerrillas. The Indonesian
government felt it important for the military to control the flow of aid to ensure that it not fall into the hands
of the rebel leaders.
During the following weeks, the rebels were never able to gain control of any of the aid distribution. In fact,
the Indonesian government, the military, and the GAM rebels all had radically different interpretations of what
was happening on the ground. Toward the middle of January, the chief of the Indonesian Army, Ryamizard
Ryucudu, announced that 208 rebels had been killed by the military in the three weeks following the tsunami.
Since May of 2003, the rate at which GAM rebels were being killed had been about 115 per month; so 208 in
three weeks represented a significant increase (Powell 2005). The military argued that the rebels had been
armed; the GAM countered that most of those killed were not rebels at all but unarmed civilians. The military
claimed that rebels had been attacking aid supply convoys; the GAM rebels claimed that this was not the case
and that the military had been attacking indiscriminately (Powell 2005).

12
Efficiency CP
DDI 08
Culpepper Generic

Impacts – violence

Resource competition leads to an endless cycle of violence

[Dawn Brancati; Academic Employment. Harvard University, Institute for Quantitative Social Science;
2007; "Political Aftershocks: The Impact
of Earthquakes on Intrastate Conflict", 51-5, http://jcr.sagepub.com/cgi/content/refs/51/5/715]

Competition for scarce resources can also result in violence as desperate groups fight to obtain resources
either with other individuals or governments responsible for distributing resources. Conditions that normally
induce cooperation, such as long time horizons and repeated play, are not present in cases of severe
scarcities since individuals may not survive unless they have certain resources. Resource competition often
evolves into violence at the point in which relief aid is distributed to victims who struggle to get provisions. At
other times, it occurs as people try to steal resources from others, breaking into stores, gas stations, supply
trucks, homes, and so forth, where they encounter resistance from property owners and police forces. Such
behavior was widespread in Muzaffarabad following last year’s earthquake in Pakistan, in Armenia after an
earthquake killed 25,000 in 1988, and
in Colombia after the coffee-zone earthquake of 1999. Frequently, competition for scarce resources also
results in violent protests or rebellion against governments, with groups seizing government offices and police
stations because they blame states for inadequately providing basic resources to victims. Maintaining the rule
of law following an earthquake is challenging because police and military forces needed to enforce order may
be preoccupied by relief and recovery efforts.

13
Efficiency CP
DDI 08
Culpepper Generic

Neg- Defense

Mineral deposition limits future development

[A. J. Ellis , J. Patrick Muffler, Thomas C. Hinrichs, 2008, "Geothermal power", in AccessScience@McGraw-
Hill, http://www.accessscience.com, DOI 10.1036/1097-8542.287600]

In some water-dominated fields there may be mineral deposition from boiling geothermal fluid. Silica
deposition in wells caused problems in the Salton Sea, California, field; more commonly, calcium carbonate
scale formation in wells or in the country rock may limit field developments, for example, in Turkey and the
Philippines. Fields with hot waters high in total carbonate are now regarded with suspicion for simple
development. In the disposal of hot wastewaters at the surface, silica deposition in flumes and waterways can
be troublesome.

Geothermal developments cause chemical changes that prevent long term


extraction

[A. J. Ellis , J. Patrick Muffler, Thomas C. Hinrichs, 2008, "Geothermal power", in AccessScience@McGraw-
Hill, http://www.accessscience.com, DOI 10.1036/1097-8542.287600]

Extensive production from wells changes the local hydrological conditions. Decreasing aquifer pressures may
cause boiling water in the rocks (leading to changes in well fluid characteristics), encroachment of cool water
from the outskirts of the field, or changes in water chemistry through lowered temperatures and gas
concentrations. After an extensive withdrawal of hot water from rocks of low strength, localized ground
subsidence may occur (up to several meters) and the original natural thermal activity may diminish in
intensity. Some changes occur in all fields, and a good understanding of the geology and hydrology of a
system is needed so that the well withdrawal rate can be matched to the well's long-term capacity to supply
fluid.

Geothermal water causes erosion

[A. J. Ellis , J. Patrick Muffler, Thomas C. Hinrichs, 2008, "Geothermal power", in AccessScience@McGraw-
Hill, http://www.accessscience.com, DOI 10.1036/1097-8542.287600]

Geothermal waters cause an accelerated corrosion of most metal alloys, but this is not a serious utilization
problem except, very rarely, in areas where wells tap high-temperature acidic waters (for example, in active
volcanic zones.) The usual deep geothermal water is of near-neutral pH. The principal metal corrosion effects
to be avoided are sulfide and chloride stress corrosion of certain stainless and high-strength steels and the
rapid corrosion of copper-based alloys. Hydrogen sulfide, or its oxidation products, also causes a more rapid
degradation than normal of building materials, such as concrete, plastics, and paints.

14
Efficiency CP
DDI 08
Culpepper Generic

Neg - Defense

Geothermal plants emit large amounts of hazardous waste

[A. J. Ellis , J. Patrick Muffler, Thomas C. Hinrichs, 2008, "Geothermal power", in AccessScience@McGraw-
Hill, http://www.accessscience.com, DOI 10.1036/1097-8542.287600]

A high noise level can arise from unsilenced discharging wells (up to 120 decibels adjusted), and well
discharges may spray saline and silica-containing fluids on vegetation and buildings. Good engineering
practice can reduce these effects to acceptable levels.
Because of the lower efficiency of geothermal power stations, they emit more water vapor per unit capacity
than fossil-fuel stations. Steam from wellhead silencers and power station cooling towers may cause an
increasing tendency for local fog and winter ice formation. Geothermal effluent waters liberated into
waterways may cause a thermal pollution problem unless diluted by at least 100:1.
Geothermal power stations may have four major effluent streams. Large volumes of hot saline effluent water
are produced in liquid-dominated fields. Impure water vapor rises from the station cooling towers, which also
produce a condensate stream containing varying concentrations of ammonia, sulfide, carbonate, and boron.
Waste gases flow from the gas extraction pump vent.

Geothermal drilling has adverse economy effects

[A. J. Ellis , J. Patrick Muffler, Thomas C. Hinrichs, 2008, "Geothermal power", in AccessScience@McGraw-
Hill, http://www.accessscience.com, DOI 10.1036/1097-8542.287600]

The compositions of geothermal waters vary widely. Those in recent volcanic areas are commonly dilute
(<0.5%) saline solutions, but waters in sedimentary basins or active volcanic areas range upward to
concentrated brines. In comparison with surface waters, most geothermal waters contain exceptional
concentrations of boron, fluoride, ammonia, silica, hydrogen sulfide, and arsenic. In the common dilute
geothermal waters, the concentrations of heavy metals such as iron, manganese, lead, zinc, cadmium, and
thallium seldom exceed the levels permissible in drinking waters. However, the concentrated brines may
contain appreciable levels of heavy metals (parts per million or greater).
Because of their composition, effluent geothermal waters or condensates may adversely affect potable or
irrigation water supplies and aquatic life. Ammonia can increase weed growth in waterways and promote
eutrophication, while the entry of boron to irrigation waters may affect sensitive plants such as citrus. Small
quantities of metal sulfide precipitates from waters, containing arsenic, antimony, and mercury, can
accumulate in stream sediments and cause fish to derive undesirably high (over 0.5 ppm) mercury
concentrations. See also: Water pollution

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Efficiency CP
DDI 08
Culpepper Generic

Aff - Geothermal development inev.

Development of geothermal energy is inevitable based on current trends

[Dana Childs; Leader of the Cleantech Group; 3/30/2007; More money on the way for geothermal power in
the U.S.; http://media.cleantech.com/965/more-money-on-the-way-for-geothermal-po]

Geothermal producers in the U.S. got all excited today about a tenth of a cent. It's just an inflation adjustment
in a tax credit, but multiplied across millions of kilowatt hours it becomes real money. And the industry's
association forecasts a real upswing in support for geothermal just around the corner. Today, the U.S. Treasury
and Internal Revenue Service released the 2006 Inflation Adjustment Factor (IAF) as it relates to Section 45 of
the Internal Revenue Code. Geothermal and other qualified energy projects can now claim 2.0 cents per kwh,
up from 1.9 cents per kwh. Geothermal developers were, unsurprisingly, pleased.
“We believe that this increase will help to further stimulate the development of geothermal resources in the
United States,” said Brent M. Cook, CEO of geothermal developer Raser Technologies.

16
Efficiency CP
DDI 08
Culpepper Generic

Aff - Disasters  cooperation

Disasters, such as earthquakes, foster cooperation

[Ministry of foreign affairs; Tokyo, Japan; Kasumigaseki; Coping with Natural disasters in Kobe and
Los Angeles; 2008; http://www.mofa.go.jp/region/n-america/us/q&a/agenda/b01.html]

Both Japan and the U.S. suffer earthquake damage from time to time. We need only remember serious quakes
that struck recently: the Northridge Earthquake that damaged Los Angeles in January 1994, and the Great
Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake that hit Kobe and its surroundings one year later in January 1995.
Disaster relief is another area where both countries coordinate their efforts. For example, we have conducted
joint studies of the damage caused by the two earthquakes mentioned above, and have held workshops to
discuss ways to construct earthquake-resistant bridges and other structures. Both countries also intend to
sponsor a Joint Earthquake Symposium. The knowledge gained from natural disasters must be shared with
people throughout the world.
U.S. military forces stationed in Japan participated in relief efforts in the area devastated by the Great
Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake. Their hard work, efficiency and capability created a very favorable impression
among Japanese people. As an expression of Japan's gratitude for their valuable service, at the June 1995 G-7
Summit Meeting in Halifax, Prime Minister Murayama presented President Clinton with messages of thanks
written by children in Kobe. After the Northridge Earthquake, the Japanese Government sent money to help
the victims.

Earthquakes create international cooperation – empirically proven


[Xinhua; 7/8/2008; People’s daily online; Chinese president meets representatives of Japanese rescue,
medical teams; http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90001/90776/6444391.html]

"Chinese people were deeply impressed by your outstanding rescue activities ... and your actions fully
exhibited the Japanese people's friendly sentiment toward the Chinese people," Chinese President Hu Jintao
told a group of Japanese rescue and medical workers on Tuesday.
President Hu met representatives of Japanese rescue and medical teams that participated in the rescue work
in the aftermath of the disastrous 8.0-magnitude earthquake in China's Sichuan province on May 12.
Tuesday's meeting was the first official activity in the three-day Japan tour of President Hu, who arrived here
Monday evening to attend the outreach session of the summit of the Group of Eight industrialized countries.
After shaking hands one by one with the 16 representatives and conveyed the Chinese government and
Chinese people's sincere regards, Hu sat down with them to watch a telefilm named "Great Love without
Borders," which was specially produced by China to record the Japanese assistance teams' impressive and
respectable performance in the quake-hit regions.
The Japanese rescue and disaster relief team was the first such foreign professional team to arrive in China
following the quake.

17
Efficiency CP
DDI 08
Culpepper Generic

Aff – conflict turn

Increased availability of resources prevents conflict

[Sharon McCarter; Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars; Improving local natural resource
management could prevent and mitigate conflict; 2/25/2008;
http://www.reuters.com/article/pressRelease/idUS200360+25-Feb-2008+PRN20080225]

Improving the management of natural resources can help enhance stability and prevent violent conflict, say
experts from Nepal and Botswana. At the Woodrow Wilson Center at noon on February 28th, they will present
case studies demonstrating how to design local governance structures -- such as community forest user
groups and wildlife conservancies -- that not only improve the environment, but also strengthen government
and reduce conflicts in communities.

18
Efficiency CP
DDI 08
Culpepper Generic

Aff - earthquakes inev.

Earthquakes are inevitable along fault lines

[Dr. Max Harry Weil; founding president of the Rancho Mirage based Weil Institute of Critical Care Medicine
and an emeritus professor at USC; 6/7/2008; Valley must prepare for an inevitable earthquake;
http://www.mydesert.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080607/COLUMNS26/806070305/1026/news12]

A major disaster, specifically earthquakes and fires, in Southern California and especially in the Coachella
Valley is almost a certainty during the lifetime of a most of its residents. The horrific injuries and loss of life
reported from China last month highlights the need for preparedness. As a physician who was chairman of
county Emergency Medical Services in Los Angeles, which included during the 1971 San Fernando
earthquake, I believe it to be essential to be ready.

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