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Warming Counterplan

DDI 2008 Turnstein
Valerie

Sequestration Counterplan/SO2 DA
COUNTERPLAN/SO2 DA 1NC...........................................................................................................................3
.................................................................................................................................................................................3
**CARBON SEQUESTRATION COUNTERPLAN**.....................................................................................4
Sequestration is tight – 4 reasons.........................................................................................................................5
Offsets fossil fuel emissions...................................................................................................................................6
Solves climate change – stores 90% of emissions................................................................................................7
Solves climate change............................................................................................................................................8
Solves climate change/productivity......................................................................................................................9
Solves climate change – 100’s of years...............................................................................................................10
Solves better than nuke/wind/solar.....................................................................................................................11
TIMEFRAME – tech ready now........................................................................................................................12
Storage feasible ....................................................................................................................................................13
Storage feasible: aquifers = best option.............................................................................................................14
Storage feasible: aquifers = longterm................................................................................................................15
Storage feasible: works for 1,000 years.............................................................................................................16
Ocean = best place for storage............................................................................................................................17
Oceans = best place for storage...........................................................................................................................18
Deep lakes minimize leakage...............................................................................................................................19
A2: no tech – Norway proves..............................................................................................................................20
A2: no experience with tech................................................................................................................................21
A2: CO2 screws the ocean...................................................................................................................................22
A2: leakages irrevocably suck (pH levels).........................................................................................................23
A2: ocean injections kill deep-sea ecosystems...................................................................................................24
A2: ocean injections  leakage/eco disasters...................................................................................................25
**SO2 DA**.........................................................................................................................................................26
UX: SO2 emissions low now................................................................................................................................27
UX: SO2 emissions down 70%...........................................................................................................................28
UX: emissions decreasing now............................................................................................................................29
Link: Military.......................................................................................................................................................30
Link: Military.......................................................................................................................................................31
Link: Cap and Trade...........................................................................................................................................32
West Coast Love 1

Warming Counterplan
DDI 2008 Turnstein
Valerie

Link: hydrogen.....................................................................................................................................................33
SO2  cooling......................................................................................................................................................34
SO2  cooling......................................................................................................................................................35
SO2  cooling......................................................................................................................................................36
SO2  cooling......................................................................................................................................................37
SO2  dimming...................................................................................................................................................38
SO2  dimming...................................................................................................................................................39
A2: SO2 causes acid rain....................................................................................................................................40
A2: SO2 hurts plants...........................................................................................................................................41
**AFF COUNTERPLAN ANSWERS**...........................................................................................................42
Accident  asphyxiation....................................................................................................................................43
Accident kills marine life.....................................................................................................................................44
pH changes  destruction of deep-sea ecosystems..........................................................................................45
Sequestration sucks – 4 reasons..........................................................................................................................46
Tech not developed...............................................................................................................................................47
**AFF SO2 DA ANSWERS**............................................................................................................................48
SO2 causes acid rain............................................................................................................................................49
SO2 causes acid rain............................................................................................................................................50
Acid rain bad........................................................................................................................................................51
Dimming bad – causes drought..........................................................................................................................52
Dimming bad – causes drought..........................................................................................................................53

West Coast Love 2

Warming Counterplan
DDI 2008 Turnstein
Valerie

COUNTERPLAN/SO2 DA 1NC
Observation 1 – Counterplan Text: The United States federal government
should mandate the extraction of carbon dioxide from factory emissions
through carbon capture and storage. The United States federal government
should mandate the disposal of the removed carbon dioxide into the ocean.

Observation 2 – the counterplan competes via the net benefit

a. The plan drastically decreases SO2 emissions
Seth Dunn, 7/2k. Micropower: The Next Electrical Era. WORLDWAT C H A P E R
151.http://www.worldwatch.org/system/files/EWP151.pdf</span>.

Micropower’s carbon-saving benefits could be sizable. Studies indicate that the United States could cut power plant carbon
emissions by half or more by meeting new demand with microturbines, renewable energy, and fuel cells. In the developing
world, where half of new power generation over the next 20 years is projected to be built, comprising some $1.7 trillion in
capital investments, power sector carbon emissions are projected to triple under a business-as-usual scenario. RAND
Corporation reports suggest that widescale adoption of distributed power could help lower this trajectory by as much as 42
percent. These steps would also cut emissions of sulfur oxides by as much as 72 percent and nitrogen oxides by up to 46
percent, while lowering electricity prices by as much as 5 percent.81

b. SO2 solves warming – its atmospheric particles reflect harmful solar
radiation back into space
NASA, NO DATE, “Volcanoes and Global Cooling”, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center,
http://www.gsfc.nasa.gov/gsfc/service/gallery/fact_sheets/earthsci/volcano.htm

Volcanic eruptions are thought to be responsible for the global cooling that has been observed for a few years after a
major eruption. The amount and global extent of the cooling depend on the force of the eruption and, possibly, its latitude.
When large masses of gases from the eruption reach the stratosphere, they can produce a large, widespread cooling effect. As a
prime example, the effects of Mount Pinatubo, which erupted in June 1991, may have lasted a few years, serving to offset
temporarily the predicted greenhouse effect.
As volcanoes erupt, they blast huge clouds into the atmosphere. These clouds are made up of particles and gases, including
sulfur dioxide. Millions of tons of sulfur dioxide gas can reach the stratosphere from a major volcano. There, the sulfur dioxide
converts to tiny persistent sulfuric acid (sulfate) particles, referred to as aerosols. These sulfate particles reflect energy
coming from the sun, thereby preventing the sun's rays from heating the Earth.
Global cooling often has been linked with major volcanic eruptions. The year 1816 often has been referred to as "the year
without a summer." It was a time of significant weather-related disruptions in New England and in Western Europe with killing
summer frosts in the United States and Canada. These strange phenomena were attributed to a major eruption of the Tambora
volcano in 1815 in Indonesia. The volcano threw sulfur dioxide gas into the stratosphere, and the aerosol layer that formed led to
brilliant sunsets seen around the world for several years.

West Coast Love 3

Warming Counterplan
DDI 2008 Turnstein
Valerie

**CARBON SEQUESTRATION COUNTERPLAN**

West Coast Love 4

Warming Counterplan
DDI 2008 Turnstein
Valerie

Sequestration is tight – 4 reasons

Sequestration restores degraded soils, enhances biomass production, purifies
water, and offsets fossil fuel emissions
Rattan Lal, School of Natural Resources at the College of Food, Agriculture and Environmental Science and Director of the Carbon
Management and Sequestration Center, Nov 2004, “Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change”, Carbon Management and
Sequestration Center, Geoderma, Volume 123, Issues 1-2, pgs 1-22,
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V67-4C5PVX0-
1&_user=4257664&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000022698&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4
257664&md5=96872213ffeafb81a441dd8c7eeed737

The increase in atmospheric concentration of CO2 by 31% since 1750 from fossil fuel combustion and land use change
necessitates identification of strategies for mitigating the threat of the attendant global warming. Since the industrial revolution,
global emissions of carbon (C) are estimated at 270±30 Pg (Pg=petagram=1015 G=1 billion ton) due to fossil fuel combustion
and 136±55 Pg due to land use change and soil cultivation. Emissions due to land use change include those by deforestation,
biomass burning, conversion of natural to agricultural ecosystems, drainage of wetlands and soil cultivation. Depletion of soil
organic C (SOC) pool have contributed 78±12 Pg of C to the atmosphere. Some cultivated soils have lost one-half to two-thirds
of the original SOC pool with a cumulative loss of 30–40 Mg C/ha (Mg=megagram=106 G=1 ton). The depletion of soil C is
accentuated by soil degradation and exacerbated by land misuse and soil mismanagement. Thus, adoption of a restorative land
use and recommended management practices (RMPs) on agricultural soils can reduce the rate of enrichment of atmospheric CO2
while having positive impacts on food security, agro-industries, water quality and the environment. A considerable part of the
depleted SOC pool can be restored through conversion of marginal lands into restorative land uses, adoption of conservation
tillage with cover crops and crop residue mulch, nutrient cycling including the use of compost and manure, and other systems of
sustainable management of soil and water resources. Measured rates of soil C sequestration through adoption of RMPs range
from 50 to 1000 kg/ha/year. The global potential of SOC sequestration through these practices is 0.9±0.3 Pg C/year, which
may offset one-fourth to one-third of the annual increase in atmospheric CO2 estimated at 3.3 Pg C/year. The cumulative
potential of soil C sequestration over 25–50 years is 30–60 Pg. The soil C sequestration is a truly win–win strategy. It
restores degraded soils, enhances biomass production, purifies surface and ground waters, and reduces the rate of
enrichment of atmospheric CO2 by offsetting emissions due to fossil fuel.

West Coast Love 5

there is a strong case that enhancing SOC pool could substantially offset fossil fuel emissions (Kauppi et al. “Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change”. Geoderma. along with adoption of RMPs. Nov 2004.Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie Offsets fossil fuel emissions Sequestration offsets fossil fuel emissions Rattan Lal. Carbon Management and Sequestration Center. managing agroecosystems is an important strategy for SOC/terrestrial sequestration. In this context. pgs 1-22. improve depth distribution of SOC and stabilize SOC by encapsulating it within stable micro-aggregates so that C is protected from microbial processes or as recalcitrant C with long turnover time. land use change. Thus. Agriculture is defined as an anthropogenic manipulation of C through uptake. http://www. emission and transfer of C among different pools. West Coast Love 6 . 2000). Agriculture and Environmental Science and Director of the Carbon Management and Sequestration Center. School of Natural Resources at the College of Food. 2001). climate.. Issues 1-2. The strategy is to increase SOC density in the soil. profile characteristics and management. fixation.sciencedirect. Volume 123. the SOC sink capacity depends on the antecedent level of SOM. However. can be an important instrument of SOC sequestration (Post and Kwon.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V67-4C5PVX0- 1&_user=4257664&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000022698&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4 257664&md5=96872213ffeafb81a441dd8c7eeed737 The term “soil C sequestration” implies removal of atmospheric CO2 by plants and storage of fixed C as soil organic matter. Whereas land misuse and soil mismanagement have caused depletion of SOC with an attendant emission of CO2 and other GHGs into the atmosphere.

would be more difficult. but the Earth's capacity to store it is also vast. he said. he added. The practice could transform heavy carbon spewers. traps carbon dioxide after it is produced and injects it underground. according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in its report on carbon capture and storage. mobile sources. such as coal power plants. and a good pathway is to find ways to use them that don't create a problem for the climate. But with power plants comprising 40 percent of the world's fossil fuel-derived carbon emissions." Carbon capture has the potential to reduce more than 90 percent of an individual plant's carbon emissions. according to the U. the sooner we'll be able to tackle the climate problem. Stationary facilities that burn fossil fuels-such as power plants or cement factories-would be candidates for the technology. Global emissions in 2004 totaled 27 billion tons. according to Benson." said Sally Benson. West Coast Love 7 .Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie Solves climate change – stores 90% of emissions Simply reducing fossil fuel usage fails – carbon capture has the potential to reduce plant carbon emissions by 90% The Standford News. director of GCEP and professor of energy resources engineering. Capturing carbon dioxide from small. Lexis While solar power and hybrid cars have become popular symbols of green technology. the leading greenhouse gas that causes global warming. Estimates of worldwide storage capacity range from 2 trillion to 10 trillion tons of carbon dioxide. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration. also called carbon sequestration. "But the idea that we can take fossil fuels out of the mix very quickly is unrealistic. Stanford researchers are exploring another path for cutting emissions of carbon dioxide. enough capacity would exist to accommodate more than 100 years' worth of emissions.S. Not only can a lot of carbon dioxide be captured. coordinating lead author of the IPCC chapter on underground geological storage. the potential for reductions is significant. he added. executive director of the Global Climate and Energy Project (GCEP) and professor of energy resources engineering. “Researchers Examine Carbon Capture And Storage To Combat Global Warming”. Carbon capture and storage. Orr said. The gas never enters the atmosphere. into relatively clean machines with regard to global warming. We're reliant on fossil fuels. said Lynn Orr. 2007. "The notion is that the sooner we wean ourselves off fossil fuels. such as cars. If all human-induced emissions were sequestered.

“Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change”. 1995 and Houghton. more C was emitted into the atmosphere from the land use change and soil cultivation than from fossil fuel combustion.. 270±30 Pg of C were emitted from fossil fuel burning and cement production (Marland et al. it is important to realize that the process of SOC depletion can be reversed. 2000). pgs 1-22 There are some estimates of the historic loss of C from geologic and terrestrial pools and transfer to the atmospheric pool. Nov 2004.” The historic SOC loss has been estimated at 40 Pg by Houghton (1999). improvements in quality and quantity of the SOC pool can increase biomass/agronomic production. reduces sedimentation. 55 Pg by IPCC (1996) and Schimel (1995). School of Natural Resources at the College of Food. Of this. highest ranks are accorded to the continuing burning of fossil fuels and the cutting of forests. enhances water quality. From 1850 to 1998. West Coast Love 8 . 1999). 1999). There are no systematic estimates of the historic loss of SOC upon conversion from natural to managed ecosystems. Jenny (1980) observed that “among the causes held responsible for CO2 enrichment. Until the 1950s. There are two components of estimated emissions of 136±55 Pg C from land use change: decomposition of vegetation and mineralization/oxidation of humus or SOC. 176±10 Pg C were absorbed by the atmosphere (Etheridge et al. The contributions of soil organic matter appear underestimated. 537 Pg by Buringh (1984) and 60–90 Pg by Lal (1999). Further. Carbon Management and Sequestration Center. Geoderma. 1999 and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. During the same period. Agriculture and Environmental Science and Director of the Carbon Management and Sequestration Center. 500 Pg by Wallace (1994). enhance water quality.. 1996 and Keeling and Whorf. Whereas the exact magnitude of the historic loss of SOC may be debatable.Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie Solves climate change Sequestration increases agronomic production. and the remainder by the ocean and the terrestrial sinks. reduce sedimentation of reservoirs and waterways. Volume 123. and mitigate risks of global warming. and solves global warming Rattan Lal. Issues 1-2. emissions from land use change are estimated at 136±55 Pg C (Houghton.

pgs 1-22. developing countries concerned with food security (e. and increasing the SOC pool represent an enormous opportunity that cannot be ignored. “Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change”. Australia) join forces and implement comprehensive programs to restore degraded soils to sequester C and enhance productivity. sub-Saharan Africa. Volume 123. it is equally important to recognize that restoration of degraded soils and ecosystems. Agriculture and Environmental Science and Director of the Carbon Management and Sequestration Center. Japan.. Carbon Management and Sequestration Center. and mitigate climate change. World Bank). School of Natural Resources at the College of Food. It is thus important that international organizations (e. A coordinated SOC sequestration program implemented at a global scale could at the same time increase agricultural productivity especially in developing countries. Article 12). http://www. South Asia).sciencedirect. Canada.S. U..g. Nov 2004. UNDP. Geoderma. West Coast Love 9 .g.Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie Solves climate change/productivity Increases agricultural productivity and mitigates climate change Rattan Lal. and industrialized countries concerned with climate change and environment pollution (e.g.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V67-4C5PVX0- 1&_user=4257664&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000022698&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4 257664&md5=96872213ffeafb81a441dd8c7eeed737 The SOC sequestration is a viable strategy both for countries that have signed the Kyoto Protocol and those that have sought voluntary alternatives. The SOC sequestration may also be credited under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM.. FAO.. From a global policy perspective. Issues 1-2. Where land use/land use changes and soil management are a net sink for C. emission trading (Article 17) or joint implementation activities (Article 6) of the Kyoto Protocol. it is important to identify and implement policy instruments that facilitate realization of this sink. Europe.

and direct environmental impact.edu/~cmi/research/Integration/Papers/decarbonization. co- principal investigator of Princeton University’s Carbon Mitigation Initiative. The carbon dioxide could be pumped into saline aquifers a kilometer or more below ground or into the deep ocean. academia. Sept. BA in physics from Harvard. The core idea is to separate the energy function from the carbon content of fossil fuels.Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie Solves climate change – 100’s of years Deep aquifers solve – they have the capacity to hold CO2 for centuries Robert Socolow. Such a broad use of fossil fuels in ways compatible with the sequestration of their carbon could permit a significant fraction of the carbon in the fossil fuels used over the next several centuries not to be emitted directly to the atmosphere. and coal to assume a lead role. For example. although in both cases there are important unresolved questions related to integrity of storage. “Fuels Decarbonization and Carbon Sequestration: Report of a Workshop”. This report expands the objective to include the sequestration of carbon dioxide that would ordinarily be produced at dispersed sites. West Coast Love 10 . Climate concerns would be directly addressed. published author. Princeton University. government. natural gas could be “steam reformed” into hydrogen and carbon dioxide.pdf A plausible technological approach is beginning to emerge for the successful human management of carbon on a global scale indefinitely—without requiring. gas.” that is.princeton. accident hazard. Using the vast quantities of carbon in fossil fuels in new ways could significantly reduce the rate of increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Earlier studies have explored the sequestration of carbon dioxide produced at point sources. http://www. the interaction of deep and surface waters. Fuels would be “decarbonized” and used efficiently. 1997. The hydrogen could provide the fuel for fuel cells and combustion systems where hydrogen has a comparative advantage as a fuel. as a result of combustion in vehicle engines and at industrial and commercial facilities. especially power plants. Effective partnerships will require the involvement of industry. Implementing this “safer fossil” concept will require the traditional industries of oil. disposed of at a high concentration in such a way that the carbon does not reach the atmosphere for centuries or longer. the sacrifice of the energy value of oil. and coal. PhD in Theoretical High Energy Physics from Harvard. The removed carbon would be deliberately “sequestered. The sequestration capacity in the deep ocean and in deep aquifers appears to be adequate for at least several centuries of carbon disposal. and non- governmental organizations. national laboratories. gas. a priori.

pg 1677-1678. in enhanced oil recovery) would keep disposal costs low. but the costs of disposal would rise as cheap sites fill up and demands on permanence and safety tighten. Lackner. in vehicles and airplanes--could accommodate the higher price of CO2 capture from air.org/cgi/content/summary/300/5626/1677 Cost predictions for sequestration are uncertain.Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie Solves better than nuke/wind/solar Sequestration technology is better than a transition to nuke. wind or solar energy. wind or solar energy Klaus S. eliminating CO2 transport and opening up remote disposal sites. Vol 300. 6/13/03. Some applications--for example. West Coast Love 11 . Initially. with capture at retrofitted power plants dominating costs. new power plant designs could reduce capture costs. niche markets (for example. Further development of sequestration would assure plentiful. Today's urgent need for substantive CO2 emission reductions could be satisfied more cheaply by available sequestration technology than by an immediate transition to nuclear.sciencemag. no 5626. giving better alternatives ample time to mature. Over time. “Climate Change: A Guide to CO2 Sequestration”. but $30 per ton of CO2 (equivalent to $13 per barrel of oil or 25¢ per gallon of gas) appears achievable in the long term. low-cost energy for the century. http://www.

" he said. for one. said Socolow . Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is ready right now for full-scale deployment. a professor at Princeton University . More importantly.500 tons per day of petcoke . asserted Robert Socolow . BP's Carson refinery. “US Lawmakers Craft Policies To Spur Alternative Energy” Lexis With the Democratic-controlled Congress granting high priority to mitigating climate change and reducing oil dependence. calling for policies to make the oil and gas industry and the coal industry work together. Since a move to alternative energy from traditional fuels like oil and gas would help alleviate climate change. 2007. he said. the captured carbon can be used for enhanced oil recovery. Socolow suggested that coal-to-liquids (CTL) facilities that are increasingly gaining support in Congress should not be given tax credits unless they deploy CCS. "If you want to leverage private-sector investments. is the best evidence for the readiness of CCS for full-scale deployment. Reicher said a price on carbon dioxide emissions would send a message to investors to seek out cleaner technologies. West Coast Love 12 . "Coal won't be a future unless there is carbon sequestration. alternative energy policies are gaining momentum. you need federal policies to stimulate clean technologies. Further. Montana Governor Brian Schweitzer.Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie TIMEFRAME – tech ready now Solvency is immediate – sequestration infrastructure is established now Jet Fuel Intelligence." said Reicher . wants to keep tapping the abundant coal in his state and at the same time address climate change through carbon sequestration. which is expected to gasify 4. He said policies supportive of CCS have to supplement a cap-and-trade policy to reduce carbon dioxide and other climate change-causing greenhouse gas emissions.

princeton. West Coast Love 13 .pdf “Carbon sequestration. for example. subsequently. BA in physics from Harvard.edu/~cmi/research/Integration/Papers/decarbonization.Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie Storage feasible Aquifers solve Robert Socolow. at least partially.For example. co- principal investigator of Princeton University’s Carbon Mitigation Initiative. PhD in Theoretical High Energy Physics from Harvard. “Fuels Decarbonization and Carbon Sequestration: Report of a Workshop”. while the carbon dioxide is sequestered. the hydrogen can provide the fuel for fuel cells or combustion systems where hydrogen has a comparative advantage as a fuel. 1997. The carbon dioxide waste stream resulting from the processing of fossil fuel into hydrogen is injected into deep underground aquifers or into the ocean in massive quantities. a strategy where they are opposite sides of the same coin. means deliberately modifying today’s dominant energy technologies so that carbon that would normally end up in the atmosphere is instead isolated from the atmosphere for a period of time measured in centuries or longer. Several sequestration strategies appear feasible. http://www. Sept. part-philosophical issues related to sequestration include the “permissible” level of impact on the present-day environment and public health. the fossil fuel industries are transformed. Princeton University. the carbon removed from a fossil fuel could be sequestered as carbon dioxide deep in the ocean or deep underground in saline aquifers. If the carbon intensity of a fuel is diminished by decarbonization.” in this context. the sequestered carbon gradually finds its way to the atmosphere. For example. the byproduct will be a carbon-rich waste stream. Juxtaposing “fuels decarbonization” and “carbon sequestration. published author. as well as on future generations—if.” emphasizes that the two concepts have the potential to be joined symbiotically in a new energy strategy. natural gas can be processed to yield separate streams of hydrogen and carbon dioxide. into hydrogen production and distribution industries. Vexing part-scientific. In response to a heightened concern for greenhouse issues. The carbon in the waste stream can be sequestered instead of going directly to the atmosphere. A novel world energy system emerges.

    West Coast Love 14 . based on new geological insights. and thousands of other intermediate and final goods). accident hazards. however.princeton. plastics. biomass energy. Princeton University. published author. direct sequestration seems to be the most climate-responsive option. http://www. PhD in Theoretical High Energy Physics from Harvard. BA in physics from Harvard. The concept of fuels decarbonization and carbon sequestration has taken on new plausibility for two reasons: (1) hydrogen fuel cells are developing rapidly and could become one of the principal energy conversion devices of the 21st century. and environmental impacts are among the many unresolved issues at this time. and (2) estimates of the storage capacity available underground for the sequestration of carbon dioxide have been revised upward. at least in the near future. but rather to find a second use with economic value. only a small fraction of the fossil-fuel carbon used to provide energy can be used again. fuel switching. and biological sequestration of carbon dioxide. There is an evident need for a coordinated global research and development effort within which all will receive increased attention. carbon-free renewable and nuclear energy sources. Other approaches include efficiency improvements. although leakage rates. Fuels decarbonization with carbon sequestration is just one of several complementary approaches to reducing the rate of increase of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Thus.edu/~cmi/research/Integration/Papers/decarbonization. Sept. while also providing for its sequestration. or even food constituents. The quantity of carbon in the carbon dioxide produced by fossil fuel combustion. and some of these uses may also be compatible with sequestration. New uses of carbon dioxide in the fossil fuel industries may augment its current role in enhanced oil recovery. co- principal investigator of Princeton University’s Carbon Mitigation Initiative. 1997.Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie Storage feasible: aquifers = best option Sequestration is the most climate-responsive option – aquifers have the capacity to contain millennia-worth of CO2 Robert Socolow. ofcarbon dioxide released to the environment by fossil fuels used at current rates. materials. solvents.pdf It would be preferable for the carbon in a fuel not to become a waste stream at all after the fuel is used. For the rest. Discoveries in chemistry and bioprocessing could lead to productive uses of carbon dioxide or carbon to produce chemicals. “Fuels Decarbonization and Carbon Sequestration: Report of a Workshop”. Both the ocean and deep saline aquifers appear to have the capacity to contain centuries. is currently many times larger than the quantity of carbon used in all industrial processes and products (a list that includes asphalt. if not millennia.

co- principal investigator of Princeton University’s Carbon Mitigation Initiative.Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie Storage feasible: aquifers = longterm Aquifers are hella big and are the best long-term option Robert Socolow. it has led to an increase in confidence that long-term sequestration of a significant fraction of the next several centuries of carbon dioxide production from human activity may be feasible. (“Deep” is defined to be deeper than 800 meters. http://www. The idea that large horizontal reservoirs will provide secure sequestration is relatively new. Sept. corresponding to as much as a thousand years of carbon production from fossil fuels at current rates of use. PhD in Theoretical High Energy Physics from Harvard. or 2500 feet. The judgment that many of the world’s abundant large horizontal reservoirs will confine carbon dioxide is based on the expectation that the carbon dioxide will dissolve into the surrounding formation water before migrating more than a few kilometers toward the basin margins. Princeton University. Their potential sequestration capacity may be thousands of gigatons of carbon.) Such aquifers are saline. 1997. and usually they are hydraulically separated from the shallower “sweet water” aquifers and surface water supplies used by people. West Coast Love 15 . “Fuels Decarbonization and Carbon Sequestration: Report of a Workshop”. published author. Deep aquifers are widely distributed below both the continents and the ocean floor. BA in physics from Harvard.edu/~cmi/research/Integration/Papers/decarbonization. The sequestration capacity available in deep aquifers is many times larger if carbon dioxide can be sequestered in large horizontal reservoirs instead of being limited to reservoirs that are analogous to the structural or stratigraphic traps in which oil and gas are found. the depth at which carbon dioxide in hydrostatic equilibrium reaches its critical pressure.pdf Deep aquifers may be the largest long-term underground sequestration option.princeton. at its critical point the density of carbon dioxide is about half the density of water.

000 years Aquifers can hold 2.000 and 1. roughly. As a result of the buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere over. currently at a rate of about 2 gigatons of carbon per year. 1997. They already contain about 40. The best injection option in the near-term appears to be dissolution at depths between 1. there is a net flow of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to the upper layer of the ocean. Princeton University.000 to 5.000 gigatons of carbon.000 years of CO2 emissions for up to 1.500 meters (2.000 years can be anticipated. If the injected carbon dioxide can be incorporated in the general oceanic deep water circulation. published author. For the longer-term. Laboratory measurements reveal that the density of carbon dioxide exceeds the density of seawater beginning at a depth of 3.000 gigatons (billions of metric tons) of carbon. a residence time of up to 1. Sept. PhD in Theoretical High Energy Physics from Harvard. “Fuels Decarbonization and Carbon Sequestration: Report of a Workshop”.princeton.” West Coast Love 16 . http://www.500 meters (3. the first 100 meters) contains some water that has come up from a great depth after being below the surface for centuries.edu/~cmi/research/Integration/Papers/decarbonization.pdf The world’s oceans represent the largest potential sink for anthropogenic carbon dioxide. however. Carbon dioxide placed on the ocean bottom at that depth or greater may form a relatively immobile “lake. The ocean will eventually absorb roughly 90% of present-day atmospheric emissions.000 years of current carbon emissions from fossil fuels.Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie Storage feasible: works for 1. very deep injection may be desirable. co- principal investigator of Princeton University’s Carbon Mitigation Initiative. the past century. largely as bicarbonate and carbonate ions.industrial times. Estimates of ultimate sequestration capacity in the world’s oceans can be derived by choosing a nominal allowable change in the average acidity of all ocean water: such estimates are in the range of 1.000 feet) by pipeline or towed pipe. Instead. these flows are no longer in balance. discharging carbon dioxide directly into the ocean would accelerate a slow natural process by which anthropogenic carbon dioxide already enters the ocean indirectly. the equivalent of 200 to 2. Thus.000-10.2 miles).000 years Robert Socolow. In pre. BA in physics from Harvard. with no net flow between the atmosphere and the ocean. the upwelling carbon dioxide brought the same amount of carbon dioxide into the surface ocean as the downwelling carbon dioxide removed. The surface layer of the ocean (roughly.

Apart from the surface layer. therefore it would ascend by buoyancy.pdf By far. In order to understand ocean storage of CO2. that is at a hydrostatic pressure less than 50 atm.Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie Ocean = best place for storage The ocean is a safe place to store CO2 – it already contains CO2. For efficiency and economics of transport. liquid CO2 would immediately flash into a vapor. 2004. only a thin film of hydrate forms around the droplets. a solid hydrate is formed in which a CO2 molecule occupies the center of a cage surrounded by water molecules. Eventually. For droplets injected into seawater. would descend to greater depths. liquid CO2 is less dense than seawater. MA and PhD in Chemical Engineering from MIT and program manager for the Carbon Sequestration Initiative. meaning injections won’t change the carbon concentration drastically Howard Herzog. Encyclopedia of Energy.15 units. it would change the ocean carbon concentration by less than 2%. Vol 1. Furthermore.mit. over 80% of today’s anthropogenic emissions of CO2 will be transferred to the ocean. and if released there. Discharging CO2 directly to the ocean would accelerate this ongoing but slow natural process and would reduce both peak atmospheric CO2 concentrations and their rate of increase. the deep waters of the ocean are not hermetically separated from the atmosphere.000 GtC (billion metric tons of carbon) compared with only 750 GtC in the atmosphere and 2200 GtC in the terrestrial biosphere. below about 3000 m liquid CO2 becomes denser than seawater. http://sequestration. Between 500 and about 3000 m. deep ocean water is unsaturated with respect to CO2. and Dan Golomb. the ocean represents the largest potential sink for anthropogenic CO2. and bubble up back into the atmosphere. CO2 would be discharged in its liquid phase. If discharged above about 500 m depth. and lower its pH by less than 0. Because of the higher compressibility of CO2 compared to seawater. “Carbon Capture and Storage from Fossil Fuel Use”. some properties of CO2 and seawater need to be elucidated. It has been shown by hydrodynamic modeling that if liquid CO2 were released in these depths through a diffuser such that the bulk liquid breaks up into droplets less than about 1 cm in diameter.edu/pdf/enclyclopedia_of_energy_article. When liquid CO2 is in contact with water at temperatures less than 10oC and pressures greater than 44. on a time scale of 1000 years.   West Coast Love 17 .4 atm. It already contains an estimated 40. It is estimated that if all the anthropogenic CO2 that would double the atmospheric concentration were injected into the deep ocean. the ascending droplets would completely dissolve before rising 100 m. PhD from Hebrew University in Jerusalem and Professor at University of Massachusetts Lowell in air pollution and control.

5 times as dense as surface-level seawater and blocks of it could be dropped into the ocean and sink to depths sufficient for long-term storage (12. and have a virtually unlimited capacity to absorb even more (14). Direct injection of captured CO2 into the ocean would greatly accelerate the process. 73). “Prospects for Carbon Capture and Storage Technologies”. Energy and Natural Resources Division in the District of Columbia. Alternatively. By applying what they deem an acceptable increase in average ocean-water acidity.000 GtC (14).000 GtC of carbon. department of Economics at the University of Michigan. 74). They already contain some 40. There are several potential methods for ensuring that injected CO2 reaches these depths (12. and there is currently an estimated net flow of 2 GtC per year from the atmosphere to ocean surface waters.energy. direct injection of CO2 increases the acidity of the ocean—but at a rate that may not give marine organisms time to adapt. Vol 29. it would. 15. especially if aided by a natural sinking current—where salty Mediterranean enters the Atlantic Ocean.Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie Oceans = best place for storage Oceans are the bestest places for CO2 storage – they have an unlimited capacity to absorb carbon. Annual Review of Environment and Resources.145619 Oceans have by far the largest potential capacity for storage of captured CO2. Anthropogenic emissions of carbon have upset this balance. The most practical near- term option appears to be injection at depths of 1000 to 1500 meters by a pipeline or towed pipeline. refrigeration and compression of CO2 are quite costly. a carefully controlled shallow release of dense seawater and absorbed CO2 would sink to the deeper ocean. West Coast Love 18 . which would create a rising stream of CO2 that would be absorbed into surrounding waters. which are eventually transferred to the deeper ocean.1 GtC per year. http://arjournals. this would imply roughly 200 to 2000 years of emissions storage at the current global emissions rate of 6.annualreviews. 29). Indeed. sink to the ocean floor to form a stable. 15. roughly 90% of present- day emissions will eventually end up in the ocean. If CO2 is injected at these depths. pg 109-142. and Richard Newell.org/doi/full/10. As with natural absorption. solid CO2.082703. but we know little about the effect on marine organisms and ecosystems (14). Natural ocean uptake of CO2 is a slow process that works over millennia to balance atmospheric and oceanic concentrations. isolated lake.1146/annurev. Finally. mainly as stable carbonate ions. provided it is injected initially at depths of 1000 meters or more (15. Storage times of up to 500 years for two thirds of the CO2 may be possible. scientists have estimated the storage capacity of the ocean at roughly 1000 to 10. Unfortunately.” is 1. If 100% of global carbon emissions were captured and stored in the ocean. in theory. 6/8/04. or “dry ice. creating conditions that would support a stable lake Soren Anderson.29. bypassing the potentially damaging atmospheric concentrations of CO2 but generating certain new risks. Other experiments show that CO2 exceeds the density of seawater at 3000 meters and deeper (29).

and Dan Golomb. One involves dissolution of CO2 at mid-depths (1500-3000 m) by injecting it from a bottom mounted pipe from shore or from a pipe towed by a moving CO2 tanker. Drawbacks are the need for large amounts of water and carbonate minerals. where it will form a "deep lake".pdf There are two primary methods under serious consideration for injecting CO2 into the ocean. seawater could be brought into contact with flue gases in a reactor vessel at a power plant.edu/pdf/enclyclopedia_of_energy_article.mit. West Coast Love 19 . 2004. which would then dissolve and form bicarbonate ions. The other is to inject CO2 below 3000 m. Research is also looking at an alternate option of injecting the CO2 in the form of bicarbonate ions in solution. “Carbon Capture and Storage from Fossil Fuel Use”. http://sequestration. Encyclopedia of Energy. Benefits of the dissolution method are that it relies on commercially available technology and the resulting plumes can be made to have high dilution to minimize any local environmental impacts due to increased CO2 concentration or reduced pH. The concept of a CO2 lake is based on a desire to minimize leakage to the atmosphere.Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie Deep lakes minimize leakage CO2 lakes minimize risk of leakage into the atmosphere Howard Herzog. and that CO2-rich water could be brought into contact with crushed carbonate minerals. MA and PhD in Chemical Engineering from MIT and program manager for the Carbon Sequestration Initiative. For example. PhD from Hebrew University in Jerusalem and Professor at University of Massachusetts Lowell in air pollution and control. Vol 1. Advantages of this scheme are that only shallow injection is required (>200 m) and no pH changes will result.

Quantitatively. a gas reservoir in Norwegian waters in the North Sea. But one can conclude that at least one relevant sequestration technology is already at hand. (Throughout this report. the largest Norwegian oil company. BA in physics from Harvard. is separating carbon dioxide originally present in the natural gas produced at Sleipner West. the magnitudes of the point sources of carbon dioxide associated with today’s large hydrogen production units are well matched to the magnitudes of carbon dioxide managed by today’s sequestration technology. about 1. is 1 million metric tons of carbon dioxide per year. It would seem worth exploring whether some of the carbon dioxide point sources associated with industrial-scale hydrogen production at ammonia plants and oil refineries could be the targets of pilot experiments designed to co-optimize hydrogen production and carbon sequestration. one cannot conclude from this calculation alone that carbon dioxide capture from centralized hydrogen production is a viable idea. Of course. Also imposed as a portion of the tax on gasoline.000 feet) below the sea floor. both large providers of hydrogen and large point sources of carbon dioxide. three times as much hydrogen as carbon dioxide is produced (an approximately energy-based balanced reaction—see technical appendix . West Coast Love 20 . the equivalent of $200 per metric ton of carbon. see the Technical Appendix for unit conversions and definitions. even when the distance between a current fuel decarbonization site and a potential carbon sequestration site is small. and is reinjecting the carbon dioxide into a nearby reservoir. at the same time. they might be combined effectively in pilot programs. “Fuels Decarbonization and Carbon Sequestration: Report of a Workshop”.000 meters (3. published author.The steam reformers being built for oil refineries and chemical plants today are. The typical hydrogen production capacity of the large steam methane reformers currently being built is 1 billion Nm3 per year (100 million standard cubic feet per day). At today’s scale of deployment in industry. Statoil.000 metric tons of carbon dioxide per year (30 million cubic feet of carbon dioxide per day). Statoil is conducting this project in response to a decision by the government of Norway to extend its carbon dioxide emissions tax to emissions associated with oil and gas production. Princeton University. In this first-of-a-kind demonstration. Statoil is adapting existing technology and learning how to lower costs. fuel decarbonization and carbon sequestration are well matched. The tax is $55 per metric ton of carbon dioxide.pdf Within the past year a carbon dioxide sequestration project was begun whose sole purpose is to prevent carbon dioxide from reaching the atmosphere. we report numerical results in multiple units.edu/~cmi/research/Integration/Papers/decarbonization. Sept. co- principal investigator of Princeton University’s Carbon Mitigation Initiative. and now being sequestered.princeton. measured by volume.) B. Norway’s tax is equivalent to about 50 cents per U. gallon. 1997. PhD in Theoretical High Energy Physics from Harvard.S.Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie A2: no tech – Norway proves Sequestration works – Norway proves Robert Socolow. Thus. http://www. Assuming that. By comparison the carbon dioxide point source arising from natural gas production at Norway’s Sleipner West field. Consider the following calculation. the same plant is a source of 600. the two carbon dioxide point sources are of comparable size.

1146/annurev. We also describe remaining environmental uncertainties and risks. and other industries (28).Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie A2: no experience with tech Extraction and storage technology is 60 years old – it’s efficient. In this review. Annual Review of Environment and Resources. which facilitates the extraction of additional oil but can also store the injected CO2. It accounts for 9 million (metric) tons of carbon (MtC).145619 Many view CCS as a promising third alternative to relying solely on increasing energy efficiency and switching to less carbon- intensive energy sources. department of Economics at the University of Michigan. Most injected CO2 is currently extracted from natural formations. U. Falling energy prices caused these particular capture operations to shut down. Carbon capture technologies themselves are not new. considering issues of cost and timing. we examine opportunities for applying CCS technologies on a much larger scale. but the use of EOR methods continues. some believe that substantial technical improvements and cost reductions could be realized if applied on a large scale (15).S. particularly in the section on transportation and storage. Although capture technologies are considered relatively mature. pg 109-142. and does not represent a net reduction in emissions. and there’s no risk of accidents Soren Anderson. “Prospects for Carbon Capture and Storage Technologies”.å Oil producers have significant experience with some carbon storage technologies. 6/8/04. Scientific monitoring of the site indicates that the aquifer is indeed holding the injected CO2. we have already seen that it is technically feasible to capture CO2 from flue gases and store it in geologic formations. Energy and Natural Resources Division in the District of Columbia. http://arjournals.energy. at a cost of approximately $55/tC (30). These solvents are still in use. producers found it profitable to extract oil from previously depleted fields by means of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) methods.annualreviews. though continuing observation will provide a better indication of storage stability (31). Statoil has been compressing and injecting the captured CO2 into an aquifer below the ocean floor since 1996. use the same or similar solvents to recover CO2 from their flue gases.org/doi/full/10. ammonia production. such as food-processing and power plants. and Richard Newell. The project incurred an incremental investment cost of $80 million dollars. however. Worldwide. These methods involve injecting liquefied CO2 to repressurize the field. Vol 29.29. West Coast Love 21 . a variety of alternative methods are used to separate CO2 from gas mixtures during the production of hydrogen for petroleum refining. industry every year (14. with an annual tax savings of $55 million dollars. Rather than pay Norway's hefty carbon emissions tax of $140/tC in 2000 (20). Specialized chemical solvents were developed more than 60 years ago to remove CO2 from impure natural gas. the only known industrial operation engaged in CCS for the explicit purpose of avoiding carbon emissions is Statoil's natural gas mining operation off the shore of Norway. about 80% of the CO2 used by U. Although CCS technologies are currently not widely used as a way to avoid carbon emissions.S. 29).082703. As prices rose in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Finally. Several industries.

Encyclopedia of Energy. http://sequestration.edu/pdf/enclyclopedia_of_energy_article. Because of the higher compressibility of CO2 compared to seawater. the ascending droplets would completely dissolve before rising 100 m. For droplets injected into seawater. deep ocean water is unsaturated with respect to CO2. Discharging CO2 directly to the ocean would accelerate this ongoing but slow natural process and would reduce both peak atmospheric CO2 concentrations and their rate of increase. Between 500 and about 3000 m. below about 3000 m liquid CO2 becomes denser than seawater. it would change the ocean carbon concentration by less than 2%. Eventually. the ocean represents the largest potential sink for anthropogenic CO2.Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie A2: CO2 screws the ocean Released liquid CO2 droplets would dissolve in ocean water before they were released into atmosphere Howard Herzog. liquid CO2 is less dense than seawater. 2004.000 GtC (billion metric tons of carbon) compared with only 750 GtC in the atmosphere and 2200 GtC in the terrestrial biosphere. only a thin film of hydrate forms around the droplets. “Carbon Capture and Storage from Fossil Fuel Use”. For efficiency and economics of transport. Apart from the surface layer. Furthermore. liquid CO2 would immediately flash into a vapor. PhD from Hebrew University in Jerusalem and Professor at University of Massachusetts Lowell in air pollution and control. over 80% of today’s anthropogenic emissions of CO2 will be transferred to the ocean. and lower its pH by less than 0. and bubble up back into the atmosphere. would descend to greater depths. MA and PhD in Chemical Engineering from MIT and program manager for the Carbon Sequestration Initiative. CO2 would be discharged in its liquid phase. It is estimated that if all the anthropogenic CO2 that would double the atmospheric concentration were injected into the deep ocean. It already contains an estimated 40. It has been shown by hydrodynamic modeling that if liquid CO2 were released in these depths through a diffuser such that the bulk liquid breaks up into droplets less than about 1 cm in diameter.4 atm.15 units. and if released there. the deep waters of the ocean are not hermetically separated from the atmosphere. In order to understand ocean storage of CO2.   West Coast Love 22 . If discharged above about 500 m depth. on a time scale of 1000 years. that is at a hydrostatic pressure less than 50 atm. and Dan Golomb. Vol 1. a solid hydrate is formed in which a CO2 molecule occupies the center of a cage surrounded by water molecules.mit. some properties of CO2 and seawater need to be elucidated.pdf By far. therefore it would ascend by buoyancy. When liquid CO2 is in contact with water at temperatures less than 10oC and pressures greater than 44.

atmospheric CO2 will eventually penetrate into deep water anyway. especially by some environmental groups. ignoring that CO2 is not toxic. Often. This impact can be mitigated by the method of CO2 injection. http://sequestration.Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie A2: leakages irrevocably suck (pH levels) No risk of fluctuations in pH levels – dispersal of CO2 injections means marine organisms won’t be exposed to lethal conditions Howard Herzog. Vol 1. and Dan Golomb. Encyclopedia of Energy.g. MA and PhD in Chemical Engineering from MIT and program manager for the Carbon Sequestration Initiative. 2004. This is not to say that seawater would not be acidified by injecting CO2. The magnitude of the impact on marine organisms depends on the extent of pH change and the duration of exposure.mit. PhD from Hebrew University in Jerusalem and Professor at University of Massachusetts Lowell in air pollution and control. or adding pulverized limestone to the injected CO in order to buffer the carbonic acid.edu/pdf/enclyclopedia_of_energy_article. dispersing the injected CO2 by an array of diffusers. and as stated before. “Carbon Capture and Storage from Fossil Fuel Use”. e. that dissolved carbon dioxide and carbonates are natural ingredients of seawater. West Coast Love 23 . discharging CO2 is equated with dumping toxic materials into the ocean.pdf Discharging CO2 into the deep ocean appears to elicit significant opposition.

145619 Despite the large potential capacity.082703. The primary issue would be the increased acidity of the ocean. also leading to increased acidity. the negative environmental effects of ocean storage are the most uncertain of the storage options and seem likely to be the highest. department of Economics at the University of Michigan.1146/annurev. however. One should keep in mind. as could occur from a deeply towed pipeline. however. If injected CO2 is sufficiently dispersed. Annual Review of Environment and Resources.Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie A2: ocean injections kill deep-sea ecosystems Ocean acidity is inevitable – dispersal of injected CO2 avoids catastrophic consequences for sea life Soren Anderson. in principle. Energy and Natural Resources Division in the District of Columbia. pg 109-142. West Coast Love 24 .energy. be largely avoided. The high concentrations of CO2 needed for shallow-water injection could lead to significant increases in acidity over several kilometers (12) and could have serious adverse impacts on marine organisms. But direct injection would also lead to more rapid and localized effects.org/doi/full/10. with potential effects such as corrosion of organisms with calcium carbonate shells or skeletal structures. 6/8/04. and Richard Newell.29. Vol 29. “Prospects for Carbon Capture and Storage Technologies”. then mortality of marine organisms could. For most methods. Nonetheless. http://arjournals. indicating that small perturbations in CO2 or pH may have important consequences for the ecology of the deep sea and for the global biogeochemical cycles dependent on deep-sea ecosystems. with potentially less serious environmental effects if the CO2 remains in the deep ocean where there is a lower abundance of marine organisms.annualreviews. that the ocean will eventually absorb about 90% of present-day atmospheric emissions anyway. acidity would increase primarily at depths of 1000 meters or greater. Siebel & Walsh (75) find evidence that deep-sea organisms are highly sensitive to even modest pH changes.

with a base case estimate of about $10/tC (64). Although there is uncertainty regarding the environmental effects of CO2 storage in aquifers. pg 109-142. Energy and Natural Resources Division in the District of Columbia.29. which may result in longer storage times (52). as shown in Table 3. whose locations are mapped in Figure 1. and Richard Newell.annualreviews. deep aquifers may represent a better option in the longer term. there is the potential for leakage into groundwater drinking supplies. Vol 29.145619 Although depleted oil and gas reservoirs represent the best near-term storage option. Suitable aquifers will have an impermeable cap.Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie A2: ocean injections  leakage/eco disasters Risk of leakage is small – CO2 would dissolve in ocean water Soren Anderson. but the risk is small. are generally better matched to sources of emissions than oil and gas reservoirs. chemical reactions between absorbed CO2 and surrounding rock would lead to the formation of highly stable carbonates.energy. ranging from 1 GtC to 150 GtC (68) and providing storage for up to 100 years of emissions. West Coast Love 25 . implying lower transport costs.org/doi/full/10.1146/annurev. Estimated costs are about $5/tC to $45/tC stored. Deep aquifers. Whereas the specific properties of oil and gas reservoirs are better understood. Several states have in fact permitted the limited storage of various liquid and gaseous wastes in deep aquifers. Theoretically.S. Under ideal circumstances. most studies suggest that adverse effects can be mitigated by choosing suitable locations (69). “Prospects for Carbon Capture and Storage Technologies”. the potential U. Injected CO2 would likely displace formation water at first but would eventually dissolve into pore fluids. storage capacity of aquifers is much larger. Most such aquifers are saline and separated geologically from shallower freshwater aquifers and surface water supplies used by humans. Annual Review of Environment and Resources. allowing large quantities of injected CO2 to be distributed uniformly (15). http://arjournals. and high permeability and porosity below. prohibiting the release of injected CO2.082703. 6/8/04. department of Economics at the University of Michigan.

Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie **SO2 DA** West Coast Love 26 .

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. the year in which Title IV became effective. called allowances. particularly2 with rising coal use. actual costs would be lower than predicted and vice versa.3 These permits.4 Some early bilateral allowance trades were reported at prices within this range. Department of Industrial Engineering. however. in March 1993.2 This legislation imposed a 50% reduction of acid rain precursor emissions. convey the right to emit 1 ton of SO in the year of issuance or any subsequent year. Santiago. http://www. West Coast Love 27 . “The Declining Trend in Sulfur Dioxide Emissions: Implications for Allowance Prices”. An unanticipated decline in SO emissions would have2 implications for allowance prices: they would be lower because the reduction in SO emissions imposed by Title IV is less than had been expected. and the marginal cost of compliance. the emission constraint imposed by Title IV is less binding. At the time. not from some earlier year nor from earlier forecasts of expected emissions. As a result. Catholic University of Chile. but subsequent auctions and the development of a sizeable private market for allowances continue to indicate an early Phase I price at or below this figure. we conclude that SO emissions have declined mostly for2 reasons unrelated to Title IV.Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie UX: SO2 emissions low now SO2 emissions low now – the Clean Air Act imposed strict regulations A. SO emissions were not expected to fall. Sloan School of Management and Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. When2 Title IV was enacted in 1990. and Juan-Pablo Montero. the first annual auction. this price was viewed as too low. In this paper. primarily sulfur dioxide by what is the largest public policy experiment in the use of fully tradable emission permits. Denny Ellerman.7 In particular.sciencedirect. 6 This paper contributes to the ongoing discussion and growing literature on the reasons for low allowance prices. cleared at a price of $131.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WJ6-45J59WG- J&_user=4257664&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000022698&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=4 257664&md5=b847aaf63469e3285c39e115bccbd46f The low price of allowances has been a frequently noted feature of the implementation of Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. can be expected to be lower than had been initially predicted. The effectively2 constrained and economically meaningful reduction in emissions is to be measured from what would have occurred absent the cap. Chile and Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research. we draw attention to the decline in SO emissions prior to 1995. as well as the price of allowances. 2/26/98. If earlier estimates of counterfactual emissions erred on the high side. Early estimates of allowance prices ranged from $250 to 400.5.

such as the one that went into effect on July 20. reported Xinhua. motor vehicles. The Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games”.shtml (BEIJING. motor vehicles in Beijing will be restricted from being on the roads on days that they are not pre-approved for. according to their license plate numbers.4% and nitrogen dioxide by 10.4 billion yuan to control pollution in the city. Beijingers are breathing fresher air and seeing clearer skies. or 118. July 20) –246 "blue sky" days were reported in 2007 in Beijing. Thanks to measures regarding environmental protection. West Coast Love 28 . 7/20/08. The emissions from motor vehicles in Beijing are blamed as one of the major sources of the city's pollution.beijing2008. and factories. an increase of over one and a half fold over the number of "blue sky" days in 1998.8%. following Olympic regulations. This. Beijing has invested 1. Starting on Sunday.Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie UX: SO2 emissions down 70% SO2 emissions on the decline – China decreased its emissions by 70% in the past 9 years Beijing 2008.cn/news/olympiccities/beijing/n214464457. Since Beijing declared its intention of hosting the Games of the XXIX Olympiad in 1998. the city's residents have seen marked improvement in their daily lives. sulfur dioxide has decreased by 69.000 tons of floating pollutants. concentrating on limiting the contamination coming from coal production. Comparing data between 1998 and 2007. these restrictions can decrease motor vehicle pollution by 63%. means a decrease of about 2 million motor vehicles on the roads every day. limiting the number of cars on the roads. http://en. carbon monoxide by 39.8%. Since 1998. along with other regulations already in place in the capital city. “Beijing minus 2 million cars”. Experts estimate that during the Games.

Appalachian's plant will achieve the reduction by burning more low-sulfur coal. Shepelwich said. the consent order calls for four monitors to be placed in the area to monitor the sulfur dioxide emissions. The company plans to achieve that limit by Jan. 2015. A mixer will be installed at the 50- year-old plant to monitor and blend the types of coal burned to achieve the lower sulfur level. Environmental Protection Agency.8 billion Dominion Virginia Power plant resulted in a discovery that Appalachian Power's Clinch River plant could exceed its permitted sulfur dioxide emissions. then to 16. the plant will cut back on generation of electricity at the 705-megawatt plant. 1. In addition. The process for approving air permits for the $1. “1 power plant to add. 2010. .000 tons at the Russell County plant. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide contribute to acid rain. Under that settlement. meaning a net decrease in emissions of that pollutant allowed in the region. Under a consent order between the utility and the state Department of Environmental Quality. Va. American Electric Power.Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie UX: emissions decreasing now SO2 emissions decreasing now – power plants are reducing emissions by one- third Associated Press.dailypress. Shepelwich said. "We haven't ever been in noncompliance. http://www.S. Appalachian also is required to cut nitrogen dioxide emissions at the plant.300 by Jan. Dominion's 585-megawatt Virginia City Hybrid Energy Center will be allowed to emit just over 600 tons of sulfur dioxide a year. but "under the worst case.com/news/local/virginia/dp-va-- appalachian-emiss0713jul13. That agreement requires the Clinch River plant to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions to 21.0.3719715. 1. and the U. but an existing generating station nearby will reduce some of its emissions.A coal-fired power plant under construction in Wise County will add to southwest Virginia's air pollution. but the consent order issued last month will cut the maximum to about 19. another to lower pollution”." Appalachian has a current limit of 28. The limit on sulfur dioxide exceeds one requirement of a nearly $80 million settlement reached last fall between Appalachian's parent. Appalachian will reduce its emissions by about one-third.700 tons a year by Jan. If they reach a certain level.story ABINGDON. 1. Shepelwich said. West Coast Love 29 . 7/13/08. company spokesman John Shepelwich said Friday.000 tons per year of sulfur dioxide. we could exceed the standards.

this is their 1AC evidence Seth Dunn.worldwatch. including sulfur oxides.Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie Link: Military A transition to commercial fuel cells would cut US emissions. where half of new power generation over the next 20 years is projected to be built. by 72% . while lowering electricity prices by as much as 5 percent. and fuel cells. Micropower’s carbon-saving benefits could be sizable. These steps would also cut emissions of sulfur oxides by as much as 72 percent and nitrogen oxides by up to 46 percent. Studies indicate that the United States could cut power plant carbon emissions by half or more by meeting new demand with microturbines. RAND Corporation reports suggest that widescale adoption of distributed power could help lower this trajectory by as much as 42 percent.81 West Coast Love 30 . renewable energy.http://www.org/system/files/EWP151.7 trillion in capital investments. WORLDWAT C H A P E R 151. comprising some $1. power sector carbon emissions are projected to triple under a business-as-usual scenario. 7/2k. In the developing world.pdf</span>. Micropower: The Next Electrical Era.

Micropower: The Next Electrical Era.Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie Link: Military The plan drastically decreases SO2 emissions Seth Dunn. WORLDWAT C H A P E R 151. renewable energy. In the developing world. and fuel cells. These steps would also cut emissions of sulfur oxides by as much as 72 percent and nitrogen oxides by up to 46 percent. where half of new power generation over the next 20 years is projected to be built. comprising some $1. while lowering electricity prices by as much as 5 percent. Studies indicate that the United States could cut power plant carbon emissions by half or more by meeting new demand with microturbines. Micropower’s carbon-saving benefits could be sizable.7 trillion in capital investments.worldwatch. RAND Corporation reports suggest that widescale adoption of distributed power could help lower this trajectory by as much as 42 percent.81 West Coast Love 31 .org/system/files/EWP151. power sector carbon emissions are projected to triple under a business-as-usual scenario.pdf</span>. 7/2k.http://www.

The rules would have required power plants. to use two allowances instead of one to emit a ton of sulfur dioxide. nearly cutting the supply of allowances in half. West Coast Love 32 . The ruling went in favor of the power industry. http://online. "Supply and demand shifted with the stroke of pen here.Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie Link: Cap and Trade Cap and trade programs mandate decreased SO2 emissions Mark Peters. challenging in federal court the regulations finalized in 2005. The court decision had an immediate effect on environmental markets established more than a decade ago to reduce acid rain. The EPA rule aimed to make additional improvements in air quality through an existing cap-and-trade system established for sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. 7/11/08." said Peter Zaborowsky. saying the decision eliminated an EPA program that failed to adequately address the issue of air pollution. (DUK) and other utilities saying the EPA regulations would have increased costs because allowances would have been allocated unfairly. states applauded the ruling.html?mod=googlenews_wsj The EPA program faced opposition from states and the power industry. Their concerns ranged from the costs of compliance to the speed at which the rules addressed pollution carried by winds across state lines. The EPA rule was to combat the movement of particulate matter from power plants in the Midwest to the East Coast by tightening the cap on sulfur dioxide emissions and establishing a new cap on emissions of nitrogen oxides. Zaborowsky said. an advisory and brokerage for coal and environmental markets. with Duke Energy Co. At the same time.com/article/SB121581135469946937. In Blow to Bush Administration”.wsj. with sulfur dioxide allowance prices trading as low as $102. Prices dropped sharply in response to the ruling. a managing director at Evolution Markets. Wall Street Journal.50 apiece Friday after closing around $300 on Thursday. starting in 2010. staff writer for the Wall Street Journal. “Court Strikes Down Emission Rule. according to Evolution Markets.

and natural gas to remain viable energy resources. hydrogen is one path for coal. Although international efforts to address global climate change have not yet resulted in policies that all nations have accepted. Hydrogen produced from renewable resources or nuclear energy results in no net carbon emissions.google. should strong constraints on carbon emissions be required. many of which have multi-national operations. as its only byproduct is water. West Coast Love 33 . and many countries are adopting policies to accomplish that end. With the capture and sequestration of carbon from fossil fuels. oil. there is growing recognition that steps to reduce greenhouse gases are needed. February 2002. Energy and transportation companies. http://books. are actively evaluating alternative sources of energy.com/books?id=DJpz2yleougC&pg=PA257&lpg=PA257&dq=%22The+combustion+of+fossil+fuels+accounts+for +the+majority%22&source=web&ots=_ipV5QUC_h&sig=wUbkwUvHZCQhlUb3VUbbGFQ9CLY&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result& resnum=1&ct=result The combustion of fossil fuels accounts for the majority of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions released into the atmosphere. Hydrogen can play an important role in a low-carbon global economy. “A National Vision of America’s Transition to a Hydrogen Economy – to 2030 and beyond”.Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie Link: hydrogen A hydrogen economy would eliminate SO2 emissions United States Department of Energy.

and planetary in scale. Meanwhile. most recently Wood and Caldeira in a yet- unpublished paper. of course. we could design particles to do an even better job at scattering sunlight. Of course. Over the following months. that got scientists thinking. balloons. There are different elevations to consider. and researchers observed less summer melt atop the Greenland ice sheet. Not only could we mimic volcanoes by seeding the stratosphere with extra sulfur. “Can a Million Tons of Sulfur Dioxide Combat Climate Change?”. injecting 20 million tons of sulfur dioxide into the stratosphere. The climatic effect of this volcanic eruption was rapid. Wired Magazine. 6/23/08. the sulfur dioxide component underwent chemical reactions to form a particulate known as sulfate aerosol (in essence. Then there is the question of where to deposit the sulfur. Furthermore.) The next question. 10 times the size of the Mount Saint Helens explosion in 1980 and the first of its scale to occur with modern scientific technologies in place — especially satellites — to measure the global environmental and climatic effect. A number of scientists. University of Calgary climate scientist and geoengineering expert David Keith has suggested that we might ultimately find a particle that can be placed still higher up in the atmosphere. above the ozone layer. as well as planetary location. things warm back up more quickly than before. the global average temperature declined by half a degree Celsius. military jets. or even converted 747s. Mount Pinatubo. that's where global warming is felt most powerfully and where cooler temperatures would help restore sea ice and stabilize Greenland. it also fired an ash stream 22 miles into the air. Pinatubo's eruption didn't just unleash huge mud slides and lava flows. Various proposals have suggested using artillery. (Though this could also be seen as a drawback: If you cool the planet artificially by injecting sulfur and then stop suddenly. suspended hoses. a massive haze gradually dispersed across the globe. which for months had been rumbling. where it would cause fewer problems. but if we were really clever. stratospheric sulfate aerosol will stay in the atmosphere for only a year or two. West Coast Love 34 . 1991. and terrorizing the main Philippine island of Luzon. http://www. In a year.com/science/planetearth/magazine/16- 07/ff_geoengineering?currentPage=all The stratospheric sulfate experiment has already had its proof of concept — courtesy of planet Earth. It was the second-largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century. it would work quickly and wouldn't alter the atmosphere permanently: Depending upon the starting elevation. in the region called the mesosphere. which absorbs sunlight and reflects some of it back into space. dramatic.wired. is how to get the particles up there.Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie SO2  cooling Sulfur dioxide causes cooling – it absorbs sunlight and reflects radiation back into space – volcanic eruption at Pinatubo proves Chris Mooney. On June 15. belching. droplets of water and sulfuric acid). The evidence from Pinatubo showed that such an intervention will definitely cool the planet. senior correspondent for The American Prospect and published author focusing on science in politics. finally blew its top in an explosion so powerful that it carried 500 feet of the mountain's peak along with it. propose dispensing the gas over the Arctic — after all.

\ noted that the water samples collected from the clouds they sampled were actually dark in color. This is by virtue of the SO2 molecules' contribution to CCN production and enhanced cloud albedo. it also reduces the outgoing infrared radiation. In contrast. We thus ask.pdf Clouds. Kondrat'yev et al. being restricted to over and immediately downwind of major urban areas. are already very bright. 1981. make thin clouds brighter and thick clouds darker. In Twomey's words: ``it an increase in global pollution could. clouds having shallow depths or littlecolumn integrated liquid water content. the crossover in behavioroccurring at a cloud thickness which depends on the ratio of absorption to the cube root of drop nucleus concentration.us/docs/change/aerosols. Twomey et al. were raised to continental atmospheric values. we have seen. West Coast Love 35 . and are therefore susceptible to increased absorption by the presence of dirty aerosol. “Human Impacts on Weather And Climate. 1984 presented observational and theoretical evidence indicating that the absorption effect of aerosols is small and the enhanced albedo effect plays a dominate role on global climate. A potentially more important impact of aerosol on clouds and climate is that they can serve as a source of cloud condensation nuclei CCN and thereby alter the concentration of cloud droplets. Twomey 1974 first pointed out that increasing pollution results in greater CCN concentrations and greater numbers of cloud droplets. such as the oceanic regions. Cambridge Press. are good reflectors of solar radiation and therefore contribute significantly to the net albedo of the Earth system.}"Subsequently. Optically thicker clouds. 2nd edition. The sign of the net global effect. http://icecap. an increase in cloud reflectance due to enhanced CCN concentration does not appreciably affect infrared radiation but does reflect more incoming solar radiation which results in a net cooling effect.Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie SO2  cooling Aerosols promote cooling by increasing cloud absorption. Subsequently. he argued. Thus both cooling and heating effects occur when global cloudiness increases. increase the reflectance of clouds. This effect appears to be quite localized. warming or cooling.Twomey suggests that if the CCN concentration in the cleaner parts of the atmosphere. there are indications that in urban areas aerosols make clouds `dirty' andthereby decrease the albedo of the cloud aerosol layer and increase the absorptance of the clouds Kondrat'yev et al. Kaufman et al. This is because while an increase in cloudiness reduces the incoming solar radiation. which. in turn. at the same time.1991 concluded that although coal and oil emit 120 times as many CO2 molecules as SO2 molecules. each SO2 molecule is 50-1100 times as effective in cooling the atmosphere than each CO2 molecule is in warming it. They argued that the enhanced cloud albedo has a magnitude comparable to that of greenhouse warming see Chapter 11 and acts to coolthe atmosphere. about 10%more energy would be reflected to space by relatively thin cloud layers. Twomey 1977 showed that this effectwas most influential for optically thin clouds. how might aerosol particles originating through anthropogenic activity influence the radiative properties ofclouds and thereby affect climate? First of all.therefore involves both the distribution of cloud thickness and the relative magnitude ofthe rate of increase of cloud-nucleating particles vis-a-vis particulate absorption. allowing them to reflect solar radiation away from Earth William Cotton. 4/9/07. particularly cities emitting large quantities of black soot particles. He also points out that an increase in cloud reflectivity by 10% is of greater consequence than a similar increase in global cloudiness. Professor of Atmospheric Science at Colorado State University..

West Coast Love 36 . may have lasted a few years. they can produce a large. The amount and global extent of the cooling depend on the force of the eruption and.nasa. serving to offset temporarily the predicted greenhouse effect. referred to as aerosols. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. widespread cooling effect.Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie SO2  cooling SO2 causes cooling – it converts into sulfuric acid particles that reflect the sun’s rays and prevent them from heating the Earth NASA. These strange phenomena were attributed to a major eruption of the Tambora volcano in 1815 in Indonesia. The volcano threw sulfur dioxide gas into the stratosphere. thereby preventing the sun's rays from heating the Earth.htm Volcanic eruptions are thought to be responsible for the global cooling that has been observed for a few years after a major eruption. These clouds are made up of particles and gases. As volcanoes erupt. its latitude. and the aerosol layer that formed led to brilliant sunsets seen around the world for several years. the effects of Mount Pinatubo. The year 1816 often has been referred to as "the year without a summer. they blast huge clouds into the atmosphere. “Volcanoes and Global Cooling”. which erupted in June 1991. NO DATE. As a prime example. These sulfate particles reflect energy coming from the sun. Millions of tons of sulfur dioxide gas can reach the stratosphere from a major volcano. Global cooling often has been linked with major volcanic eruptions. There. http://www. possibly. When large masses of gases from the eruption reach the stratosphere. the sulfur dioxide converts to tiny persistent sulfuric acid (sulfate) particles. including sulfur dioxide.gov/gsfc/service/gallery/fact_sheets/earthsci/volcano.gsfc." It was a time of significant weather-related disruptions in New England and in Western Europe with killing summer frosts in the United States and Canada.

IPCC scientists have long suspected aerosols. Now the news out of the Berlin workshop is the aerosols thwart 75 percent of the warming effect. Berlin.worldnetdaily. West Coast Love 37 . 6-10-03. According to New Scientist. "You could say the cooling has done us a big favor." Crutzen told New Scientist.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=32992 It turns out there's a silver lining to the cloud of smog that drapes large cities around the world. violent storms and spark outbreaks of cholera and malaria. reported by New Scientist.com." The revelation. or IPCC. the IPCC predicts this global warming could amount to an increase in the earth's average temperature by as much as 10. came out of a workshop in Dahlem.Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie SO2  cooling Aerosols counteract at least 75% of CO2 effects WorldNetDaily. Using computer models. crop waste and fossil fuels that block sunlight counteract the warming effect of carbon dioxide emissions by about 25 percent. the former chairman of the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The panel has warned the long term consequences of this warming range from warmer winters and hotter summers to the melting of the polar icecaps and a rise in mean sea level that will inundate coastal cities and cause devastating droughts." The IPCC and other proponents of global warming believe the past century of human economic activities – especially the burning of fossil fuels such as oil and coal – have vastly increased the amount of carbon dioxide. which traps heat in the Earth's atmosphere. http://www.6 degrees Celsius. "It looks like the warming today may be only about a quarter of what we would have got without aerosols. particles from burning rainforests. Proponents say this acceleration of the "greenhouse effect. That would mean they prevented the planet from becoming almost two degrees warmer than it is now. Earlier calculations only had been inferred from "missing" global warming predicted by climate models.4 degrees over the next century." has caused an estimated increase in the Earth's temperature of 0. Scientists examined direct measurements of the cooling effect of aerosols reported in the May issue of Science by Theodore Anderson of the University of Washington in Seattle. floods. earlier this month that was attended by the likes of Nobel laureate Paul Crutzen and Swedish meteorologist Bert Bolin. as an international team of atmospheric scientists conclude pollution protects the planet from "global warming.

cooling the planet American Meteorogical Society. The hypothesis is examined that the different responses between the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and the Southern Hemisphere (SH) can be used to validate the presence of the SO2-induced cooling. Although there are large gaps in our knowledge of the atmospheric sources and sinks of sulfate aerosol. The model predicts that by the year 2060 the SO2 cooling reduces climate warming by 0.5°C or 25% for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) business as usual (BAU) scenario and 0.0.2°C or 20% for scenario D (for a slow pace of fossil fuel burning). A detailed treatment of the relationship between fossil fuel burning and the SO2 effect on cloud albedo is implemented in a two-dimensional model for assessing the climate impact. Using a conservative approach. http://ams. the model-predicted difference in the temperature response between the NH and the SH of −0. thereby cooling the planet. This effect might counteract the global warming expected from enhanced greenhouse gases. The climatic response to a complete filtering of SO2 from the emission products in order to reduce acid rain is also examined. 7/13/92. results show that the cooling induced by the SO2 emission can presently counteract 50% of the CO2 greenhouse warming. 0. This result is a combined effect of the much faster response of the continents than the oceans and of the larger forcing due to CO2 than due to the SO2.1175%2F1520- 0442(1993)006%3C1241%3AMSOTCC%3E2. it is possible to reach some general conclusions. Despite the fact that most of the SO2-induced cooling takes place in the Northern Hemispheric continents. West Coast Love 38 .com/perlserv/?request=get-abstract&doi=10.Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie SO2  dimming SO2 condensation enhances the planetary albedo.CO%3B2&ct=1 Sulfur dioxide-derived cloud condensation nuclei are expected to enhance the planetary albedo.2°C in 1980 is expected to remain about the same at least until 2060.15°C. Since 1980.4°C in the first few years after the elimination of the SO2 emission.allenpress. The result is a warming surge of 0. during the 1980–1990 period alone. a strong warming trend has been predicted by the model. “Model Simulations of the Competing Climatic Effects of SO2 and CO2”.

3p But that is not all. Vol. reflective cloud cover Dr. p6-8. University of Sydney. there was lower or nil precipitation within them (Ramanathan. Studies comparing clouds over pollution tracks with adjacent less-polluted zones have shown that clouds in both zones were of similar size and contained similar amounts of water. 2001). “Global Warming. et al. The small cloud droplets do not form into raindrops as readily as do the larger natural droplets.Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie SO2  dimming Aerosols create more. but average droplet size in the polluted clouds was much smaller. 19 Issue 2. Aerosols provide the condensation nuclei for most cloud droplets and studies have shown that aerosols of human origin increase the density of cloud droplets. May 2006. but result in smaller-sized droplets. leading to further reductions in global irradiance. David M. It is also true that clouds of smaller droplets have higher albedo or reflectivity. Honorary Associate. West Coast Love 39 . Chapman. when precipitation was observed outside pollution tracks. are we hiding behind a smokescreen?” Geodate. School of Geosciences.

Eugene Rozanov. Germany. atmospheric scientist. Another possible side effect is acid rain. colleagues -. Europe and Asia.com/science/planetearth/magazine/16- 07/ff_geoengineering?currentPage=all Caldeira's response is that it's hard to see how those consequences would be anywhere near as nasty as simply letting global warming go unchecked. Schlesinger presented the group's findings in Bonn.sciencedaily. the troposphere. never reaches the stratosphere — it remains in the atmosphere's lowest layer. and rains out quickly as a result. To explore the potential effects. in part as background for the IPCC Third Assessment Report scheduled to be completed in 2001. both individually and jointly from six geographical regions. thereby tending to cool Earth's surface.first used a simple climate/ocean model to calculate the change in global-mean surface temperature for the sulfur dioxide emissions of the four Special Report scenarios. 7/8/99.Sergey Malyshev. Schlesinger said." Schlesinger said. sulfur dioxide gas emitted by burning coal and oil is converted into sulfate aerosols that enhance the reflection of solar radiation. which also declined markedly after Pinatubo. Schlesinger and his U. 6/23/08. one of the prime causes of acid rain in the past. “Price for Decreased Acid Rain Could May Be Increased Global Warming”. "In recent studies. as well as for the non-interventionist IS92a scenario of the IPCC Second Assessment Report. In the special report there are four scenario families for the future emissions of greenhouse gases and sulfur dioxide. of I. Acid rain is good – mitigation of it leads to warming – studies prove Science Daily. West Coast Love 40 . The IPCC is producing a Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. Fanglin Yang and Natalia Andronova -. there's the fear that injecting sulfate into the stratosphere could destroy much-needed ozone. Europe and the North Atlantic. but the decreasing sulfur dioxide emissions of the four SRES scenarios result in the opposite: a significant warming of portions of North America. But the more geoengineering becomes a matter of public debate and concern. of I. Wired Magazine.htm "In the atmosphere. senior correspondent for The American Prospect and published author focusing on science in politics.wired. 2. a U. at a joint meeting of the IPCC and the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technical Advice of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie A2: SO2 causes acid rain 1. "These global-mean temperatures were then used to scale the geographical distributions of temperature change simulated by our atmospheric general circulation/mixed-layer-ocean model for a tenfold increase in present-day sulfur dioxide emissions. so we would need less of it to begin with." The studies were based on provisional greenhouse-gas and sulfur dioxide emissions developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. the more the downsides of a remade world come under scrutiny. http://www. First. and Siberia. http://www. which somewhat weakens the acid rain argument. SO2 doesn’t cause acid rain – it never reaches the atmosphere and rains out quickly Chris Mooney. "Thus it appears that mitigation of the acid-rain problem by future reductions in sulfur dioxide emissions exacerbates the greenhouse-warming problem by enhancing the warming in and near the regions where the sulfur dioxide emissions are reduced. But sulfur dioxide pollution from coal-burning power plants. The increasing sulfur dioxide emissions of the IS92a scenario result in a cooling contribution that helps to offset some of the greenhouse gas-induced warming. “Can a Million Tons of Sulfur Dioxide Combat Climate Change?”. we found that decreasing the sulfur dioxide emissions led to significant regional warming in North America." Schlesinger said. The stratospheric sulfate from geoengineering would stay up longer and be more stable." said Michael Schlesinger.com/releases/1999/07/990708075951.

but when it is hazy or cloudy much or all of the incoming radiation is bounced off cloud droplets or atmospheric particles. "In the northern climate everything becomes light limiting and a reduction in solar radiation becomes a reduction in productivity. it's a different story and if you grow tomatoes in a greenhouse you could be seeing the effects of global dimming already.uk/science/2003/dec/18/science. photosynthesis is likely to be limited by carbon dioxide or water. The Guardian. “Global Warming: are we hiding behind a smokescreen?” Geodate. In equatorial regions and parts of the southern hemisphere regularly flooded with light.Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie A2: SO2 hurts plants 1. Because they're light limited they're always very busy cleaning the tops of their greenhouses. Most plant canopies usually consist of several leaf layers in which the incoming solar radiation decreases exponentially from layer to layer. However. in some cases photosynthesis could paradoxically increase slightly with global dimming as the broken. staff writer for the Gaurdian. In fact. not sunshine. “Goodbye Sunshine”. The impact of global dimming on agriculture is largely via photosynthesis and the principal limitation on this process in full sunlight is the concentration of CO2. Aerosols enhance plant productivity – Pinatubo proves David M.research1 More importantly. cloudier skies will reduce its meagre efficiency still further.guardian. like Britain." 2. On sunny days the rays of the sun shine directly on the plants. it may seem that they would help to enhance plant productivity. Honorary Associate at the School of Geosciences at the University of Sydney. but light is not the only limiting factor: there is also water.co. Issue 2. The effect on photosynthesis. But in the cloudy parts of the northern hemisphere. and Roderick et al (2001) concluded that an unexpected decline in atmospheric CO2 observed following the Mt. Vol. shade within vegetation canopies is greatly reduced on cloudy and/or very hazy days. at least in part. diffuse light that emerges from clouds can penetrate deep into forest canopies more easily than direct beams of sunlight from a clear blue sky. therefore low light levels at which photosynthesis is light-limited are common within crop canopies. 5/06. 19. Pinatubo eruption in 1991 was." Cohen says. Chapman. 12/18/03. the rule of thumb is that a 1% decrease in solar radiation equals a 1% drop in productivity. caused by increased vegetation uptake of CO2 as a response to enhancement of the diffuse fraction by volcanic aerosols. as darker. Vegetation is sensitive to changes in the diffuse fraction. and light levels would have to fall much further to force a change. forming what is called the diffuse fraction of solar radiance. is more complicated and will probably be different in various parts of the world. "In greenhouses in Holland. and Farquhar (mentioned in the article) is a climate scientist at the Australian National University in Canberra. Dimming makes plants healthier – it promotes photosynthesis David Adam. Because aerosols in the atmosphere increase the diffuse fraction. and so on plant and tree growth. http://www. West Coast Love 41 . compared to clear sunny days. what impact could global dimming have? If the effect continues then it's certainly bad news for solar power. p6-8.

Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie **AFF COUNTERPLAN ANSWERS** West Coast Love 42 .

1997. As with hydrogen safety. causing widespread asphyxiation Robert Socolow. Because carbon dioxide gas is heavier than air.princeton. but also to prevent catastrophic releases. Much experience resides in the oil and gas industry to prevent catastrophic releases.edu/~cmi/research/Integration/Papers/decarbonization. a large release at ground level could displace air locally in valleys and home basements and cause asphyxiation.pdf The integrity of carbon dioxide sequestration is important not only to prevent the adverse climate impacts of carbon dioxide leaking too rapidly into the atmosphere. “Fuels Decarbonization and Carbon Sequestration: Report of a Workshop”. Sept. They recommend choosing pilot projects with no foreseeable adverse consequences of containment failure. published author. Air with only 25% carbon dioxide is lethal. Princeton University. PhD in Theoretical High Energy Physics from Harvard. West Coast Love 43 . such as projects where sequestration is in aquifers near the coast but below the sea floor. http://www.Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie Accident  asphyxiation A CO2 release would be lethal. BA in physics from Harvard. those most involved are risk averse. co- principal investigator of Princeton University’s Carbon Mitigation Initiative. both from reservoirs and pipelines.

Depending on the method of release. BA in physics from Harvard. bacteria. Princeton University. 1997. and bottom-dwelling plants Robert Socolow. PhD in Theoretical High Energy Physics from Harvard. from the lowered pH that results when additional carbon dioxide is added to seawater. Sept. to its ambient value of about 8.Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie Accident kills marine life A CO2 leakage would kill marine life – pH fluctuation wipes out plankton. “Fuels Decarbonization and Carbon Sequestration: Report of a Workshop”. published author. West Coast Love 44 .edu/~cmi/research/Integration/Papers/decarbonization. bacteria. http://www.pdf Effects on marine organisms and marine ecosystems of injection of carbon dioxide into the deep ocean have been little studied. The most significant impacts will come indirectly. co- principal investigator of Princeton University’s Carbon Mitigation Initiative. pH can be expected to vary from as low as 4 very near the injection point. and bottom-dwelling plants and animals living at the depth of injection would be the principal organisms affected.princeton. Zooplankton.

Nonetheless. that the ocean will eventually absorb about 90% of present-day atmospheric emissions anyway. 6/8/04. The primary issue would be the increased acidity of the ocean. For most methods. in principle. indicating that small perturbations in CO2 or pH may have important consequences for the ecology of the deep sea and for the global biogeochemical cycles dependent on deep-sea ecosystems. also leading to increased acidity.Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie pH changes  destruction of deep-sea ecosystems The effects of ocean storage could be disastrous – injections of CO2 lead to acidity and pH changes that would threaten deep-sea ecosystems Soren Anderson. with potential effects such as corrosion of organisms with calcium carbonate shells or skeletal structures. as could occur from a deeply towed pipeline. pg 109-142.29. the negative environmental effects of ocean storage are the most uncertain of the storage options and seem likely to be the highest.org/doi/full/10. Annual Review of Environment and Resources. with potentially less serious environmental effects if the CO2 remains in the deep ocean where there is a lower abundance of marine organisms. West Coast Love 45 . The high concentrations of CO2 needed for shallow-water injection could lead to significant increases in acidity over several kilometers (12) and could have serious adverse impacts on marine organisms. Vol 29. But direct injection would also lead to more rapid and localized effects.annualreviews. acidity would increase primarily at depths of 1000 meters or greater. however.energy. http://arjournals. however.1146/annurev. “Prospects for Carbon Capture and Storage Technologies”.082703. If injected CO2 is sufficiently dispersed. then mortality of marine organisms could. Energy and Natural Resources Division in the District of Columbia. Siebel & Walsh (75) find evidence that deep-sea organisms are highly sensitive to even modest pH changes.145619 Despite the large potential capacity. One should keep in mind. be largely avoided. department of Economics at the University of Michigan. and Richard Newell.

West Coast Love 46 . http://arjournals. Nonetheless. For most methods. Energy and Natural Resources Division in the District of Columbia. Siebel & Walsh (75) find evidence that deep-sea organisms are highly sensitive to even modest pH changes.annualreviews. be largely avoided. pH fluctuates. in principle. but not permanent and not without ecological consequences of hydrate volume expansion and dissolution. Annual Review of Environment and Resources. (76) suggest that deep-ocean sequestration may be a solution with long residence time. and unknown consequences on marine organisms of elevated CO2 concentrations. The high concentrations of CO2 needed for shallow-water injection could lead to significant increases in acidity over several kilometers (12) and could have serious adverse impacts on marine organisms. acidity would increase primarily at depths of 1000 meters or greater. as could occur from a deeply towed pipeline. then mortality of marine organisms could. Huessemann et al.Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie Sequestration sucks – 4 reasons Sequestration sucks in 4 ways – CO2 could leak back into the atmosphere. and pollutants are injected along with CO2 – all lead to eutrophication Soren Anderson.29. marine organisms die. But direct injection would also lead to more rapid and localized effects.org/doi/full/10. which would cause accumulation of ammonia that could change phytoplankton abundance and community structure and cause unpredictable eutrophication.1146/annurev. with potential effects such as corrosion of organisms with calcium carbonate shells or skeletal structures.energy. and Richard Newell. department of Economics at the University of Michigan. The primary issue would be the increased acidity of the ocean. 6/8/04. the negative environmental effects of ocean storage are the most uncertain of the storage options and seem likely to be the highest. (78) evaluate the potential effects of ocean CO2 storage on marine nitrogen chemistry. pg 109-142. reduced ocean pH. suggesting that lower pH would inhibit nitrification and ammonia oxidation. also leading to increased acidity. Brewer et al. and trace pollutants injected along with industrial CO2. Vol 29. Caldeira (77) and Johnston & Santillo (60) identify two primary concerns with ocean sequestration: leakage of stored carbon into the atmosphere. indicating that small perturbations in CO2 or pH may have important consequences for the ecology of the deep sea and for the global biogeochemical cycles dependent on deep-sea ecosystems. If injected CO2 is sufficiently dispersed.082703. “Prospects for Carbon Capture and Storage Technologies”. that the ocean will eventually absorb about 90% of present-day atmospheric emissions anyway. however. One should keep in mind. however.145619 Despite the large potential capacity. with potentially less serious environmental effects if the CO2 remains in the deep ocean where there is a lower abundance of marine organisms.

Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie Tech not developed Possible impacts of sequestration aren’t yet understood – leakages could be lethal Robert Socolow. the basic physical and chemical processes determining how long carbon dioxide sequestered in large horizontal aquifers will stay isolated from the atmosphere needs to be better understood. Accordingly. One goal is to predict retention times accurately. Princeton University.pdf The capacity of aquifers to sequester carbon is many times larger if large horizontal aquifers are available for sequestration. West Coast Love 47 . “Fuels Decarbonization and Carbon Sequestration: Report of a Workshop”. published author. http://www. 1997. co- principal investigator of Princeton University’s Carbon Mitigation Initiative. Sept. relative to the situation where only aquifers analogous to those in which oil and gas are found can be used. And there is a need to be assured that leaks do not result in a buildup of lethal pockets of carbon dioxide in valleys or in individual basements. BA in physics from Harvard.edu/~cmi/research/Integration/Papers/decarbonization.princeton. There is also a need to understand leakage of carbon dioxide from deep saline aquifers from the point of view of avoiding the contamination of overlying sweet-water aquifers. PhD in Theoretical High Energy Physics from Harvard.

Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie **AFF SO2 DA ANSWERS** West Coast Love 48 .

last updated 4/8/08. plankton. 69. nickel. the smelting of metal sulfate ore.6. prudent gas released as a by-product of combusted fossil fuels containing sulfur. This causes the release of sulfur dioxide.4 percent of sulfur dioxide is produced by industrial combustion. and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Sulfur dioxide is a colourless. and parts of Europe. and rotting vegetation. The two primary sources of acid rain are sulfur dioxide (SO2). is the word used to describe rainfall that has a pH level of less than 5. utility factories. This form of air pollution is currently a subject of great controversy because of it's worldwide environmental damages. “Causes. quals unknown. In iron and steel production. effects. Overall. Only 3. and crude oil processing produce this gas. sea spray. produces pure metal." or more precisely acid precipitation. originally created 1/15/08. A variety of industrial processes. Metals such as zinc. This report contains the causes. Effects and Solutions of Acid Rain”.7 percent is caused by transportation. This ten percent of all sulfur dioxide emission comes from volcanoes. http://www. Canada. and copper are commonly obtained by this process.HTML "Acid Rain. West Coast Love 49 . These acids can be carried away far from its origin.com/capecanaveral/hall/9111/DOC. this phenomenon has brought destruction to thousands of lakes and streams in the United States. and solutions to acid rain. Acid rain is formed when oxides of nitrogen and sulfite combine with moisture in the atmosphere to make nitric and sulfuric acids. such as the production of iron and steel.Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie SO2 causes acid rain SO2 causes acid rain Sam Phamornsuwana. Sulfur dioxide can also be emitted into the atmosphere by natural disasters or means.geocities. For the last ten years.

In the US. The wind blows these acidic particles and gases onto buildings. Sunlight increases the rate of most of these reactions. cars.shtml Dry deposition refers to acidic gases and particles.policyalmanac. “What is Acid Rain and What Causes It?”. Acid rain occurs when these gases react in the atmosphere with water. Prevailing winds blow the compounds that cause both wet and dry acid deposition across state and national borders. West Coast Love 50 . making the combination more acidic than the falling rain alone. homes. and have confirmed. the runoff water adds those acids to the acid rain. The result is a mild solution of sulfuric acid and nitric acid. Dry deposited gases and particles can also be washed from trees and other surfaces by rainstorms. and other chemicals to form various acidic compounds.org/environment/archive/acid_rain. Scientists discovered. and trees. When that happens. About half of the acidity in the atmosphere falls back to earth through dry deposition. 8/6/02. About 2/3 of all SO2 and 1/4 of all NOx comes from electric power generation that relies on burning fossil fuels like coal.Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie SO2 causes acid rain SO2 causes acid rain Almanac of Policy Issues. oxygen. that sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) are the primary causes of acid rain. and sometimes over hundreds of miles. http://www.

“The Harmful Effects of Acid Rain”. Costly repairs and maintainence is required to clean acidic compounds resulting from dry deposition collecting on buildings. Acid rain is not directly harmful to humans. such as those made of stone and metal. Yet. Bronze statutes and marble monuments are deteriorated by acid rain. without odor or taste. West Coast Love 51 . These gases cause harmful particles that can be inhaled by humans. The National Surface Water Survey (NSWS) identified over a thousand lakes and thousands of streams in the United States. sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide are harmful pollutants before they combine with water and oxygen to form acid rain. BA from the University of Oregon. plants and animals living in or near the water. 2/22/08.cfm/the_harmful_effects_of_acid_rain Acid rain has a negative effect on plants and animals. where some form of acidification has taken place. Snails. Acid rain can also have a devastating effect on man-made structures. causing lung and heart disorders. clams and bass are examples of animals that can only tolerate a small increase in acidity. Acid rain falls from the sky just like regular rain. Changes in the pH of lakes and streams affected by acid rain can result in a decrease in the variety of fish. Suite101. Acid rain destroys trees and plants by causing damage to leaves and dissolving nutrients in the surrounding soil. trees. plants and causes heart and lung disease in humans Aurae Beidler. One important misconception to clear up about acid rain is its direct harm to humans. http://climate- change. Of these lakes and streams.com/article.Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie Acid rain bad Acid rain kills fish. Once the acid gets into the water cycle it can cause the acidification of lakes and streams.suite101. Some animals and plants cannot tolerate the higher levels of acid. Trees in higher elevations. Many areas of the Northeastern United States and Eastern Canada contain lakes and streams affected by acidification from acid rain. have a greater risk for damage due to acid rain because they have greater exposure to clouds carrying sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide. 75 percent of the acidity in the lakes was directly due to acid rain. 50 percent of the streams had been affected by acid rain.

com/user/6305/jennifer_akina. is no longer filling lakes and rivers. “Drought: Effect of Global Dimming”. Recent research has shown that global dimming is likely to be the main cause behind the devastating droughts that have killed millions of people in so little as the past three decades. thus. along with the more recent European heat wave in 2003 left thousands dead. Sun rays which play a crucial role in making the earth a living.CA news quote. BA from the Metropolitan State College of Denver. While we all do not experience first hand the devastation of drought. lack of water. clouds are formed with a much larger number of water droplets making the clouds "thicker" and more reflective of sun's rays. If these people aren't able to do all of the normal day to day tasks such as: cooking. Although global dimming may sound like a perfect counter measure to global warming. http://www. washing and drinking.html Air pollutants such as soot. the quality of life increases for everyone who shares this fragile planet. 3/23/07. But. life becomes dreary and starts to deteriorate. In short.of human life as well as plants and animals within our brittle ecosystem. "People cannot survive on just three glasses of water a day when the temperature is hitting 40 [Celsius] degrees. ash and sulfur dioxide are created from the use of fossil fuels which contribute to what scientists call global dimming. Crucial moisture once keeping areas livable. the amount of exertion used is likely to kill them. working ecosystem. such as purchasing hybrid cars or cutting back on water usage and so on. West Coast Love 52 . starving and are growing very weary. when these air-borne particles become polluted by soot and ash. A way to help would be to play a larger role in decreasing the harmful air-pollutants that contribute to global dimming and. less rain has formed across the planet because of less evaporation leading to clouds and rain. a manger of the aid agency regional program in a recent Canadian based CBC. it is in fact the cause behind such global catastrophe's as the Ethiopian droughts in the 1970s and 1980s.associatedcontent. that doesn't mean that what is happening halfway across the globe couldn't someday affect America. Drinking water is being limited to a few glasses per day. According to Mohamed Elmi. normal clouds are created when water droplets combine with natural air-borne particles like pollen. anything which perpetuates the decay of earth. (Horizon) Most recently in Somalia these water shortages are once again proving to be devastating. For those lucky enough to find drinkable water.Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie Dimming bad – causes drought Dimming causes drought and famine – cooling means less rain formation. By taking action. like that of Africa and other countries. As a result. Scientists who have been studying this meteorological phenomenon believe that the reflection of the sun's heat has caused the oceans in the northern hemisphere to become cooler. Those affected have to walk for hours just to find bone dry riverbeds. There are small things which can affect and benefit our future. global dimming occurs when clouds reflect more of the sun's rays back into space than they normally would." Some children there have been forced to drink their own urine because they are so thirsty and are becoming delirious. The water they are able to salvage after many labor intensive hours is muddy and full of harmful microbes that are further contributing to the growing death tolls. To better explain the process of global dimming. for that matter. We are learning how global dimming can be the cause behind mass destruction . killing millions of helpless villagers. allowing less heat and energy to reach the earth's surface. Within those three or four glasses are the cooking and washing water. crop failure Jennifer Akina. The people of Somalia are thirsty.

At the time some scientists blamed overgrazing and poor land management. But every summer. Ramanathan found the same thing was happening all over the world. This place say workers here is the closest thing to hell on earth. So the life giving rain belt never made it to the Sahel.and the African monsoon failed. Over the British Isles.bbc. it was contributed on the one hand by the particles themselves shielding the ocean from the sunlight. http://www. nitrates. Over India. If his model is correct. and as the sun breaks through the piercing chill of night on the plain outside Korum it lights up a biblical famine. if not eliminate it altogether. NARRATOR: The 1984 Ethiopian famine shocked the world. Over Western Europe. Chief Scientist chief scientist for the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment. My main concern is this air pollution and the Global Dimming will also have a detrimental impact on this Asian monsoon.shtml). Distinguished Professor of Climate and Atmospheric Sciences. Director at the Center for Clouds. We are not talking about few millions of people we are talking about few billions of people. West Coast Love 53 . So this insidious soup. bringing rain to the Sahel. For climate scientists like Leon Rotstayn the disappearance of the rains had long been a puzzle. and afflicted 50 million more. on the other hand making the clouds brighter. Over China. That heat was needed to draw the tropical rains northwards. NEWS REPORT - MICHAEL BUERK VOICE OVER: Dawn. NARRATOR: And when he looked at satellite images. And to our surprise the result of this was that the tropical rain bands moved southwards tracking away from the more polluted northern hemisphere towards the southern hemisphere.Warming Counterplan DDI 2008 Turnstein Valerie Dimming bad – causes drought Dimming kills millions – prevents rainfall. where the same monsoon brings rainfall to three point six billion people. extending into Africa. He could see that pollution from Europe and North America blew right across the Atlantic. DR LEON ROTSTAYN (CSIRO Atmospheric Research): What we found in our model was that when we allowed the pollution from Europe and North America to affect the properties of the clouds in the northern hemisphere the clouds reflected more sunlight back to space and this cooled the oceans of the northern hemisphere. But for twenty years in the 1970s and 80s the tropical rain belt consistently failed to shift northwards . what came out of our exhaust pipes and power stations contributed to the deaths of a million people in Africa. “Global Dimming. now in the 20th Century. With tragic consequences. But then Rotstayn decided to find out what would happen if he took the Maldive findings into account. PROF VEERABHADRAN RAMANATHAN: There is no choice here we have to cut down air pollution. DR LEON ROTSTAYN: So what our model is suggesting is that these droughts in the Sahel in the 1970s and the 1980s may have been caused by pollution from Europe and North America affecting the properties of the clouds and cooling the oceans of the northern hemisphere. PROF VEERABHADRAN RAMANATHAN: The Sahel is just one example of the monsoon system. Let me take you to anther part of the world. But now there's evidence that the real culprit was Global Dimming. Professor Veerabhadran Ramanathan is a Professor of Applied Ocean Sciences. This draws the rain belt that forms over the equator northwards. NARRATOR: Rotstayn has found a direct link between Global Dimming and the Sahel drought. 1/15/05. The Sahel's lifeblood has always been a seasonal monsoon.co. But it was when scientists started to investigate the effects of Global Dimming that they made the most disturbing discovery of all. NARRATOR: For Ramanathan the implications are clear.. and extending into the Pacific.. NARRATOR: Polluted clouds stopped the heat of the sun getting through. For year after year the summer rains failed. It was partly caused by a decade's long drought right across sub-Saharan Africa . consisting of soot. was having a double whammy on the Global Dimming. the heat of the sun warms the oceans north of the equator. Asia. For most of the year it is completely dry. Chemistry & Climate. Those more reflective clouds could alter the pattern of the world's rainfall. roughly half the world's population. But this could be just of taste of what Global Dimming has in store. sulphates.a region known as the Sahel. but all the climate models suggested it should have little effect on the monsoon.”. ash and what have you. RAMANATHAN: Basically the Global Dimming we saw in the North Indian Ocean.uk/sn/tvradio/programmes/horizon/dimming_trans. which causes famine and drought BBC.