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GERMAN COMPETITION DA
GERMAN COMPETITION DA..........................................................................................................................1
1NC SHELL – German Competition DA (1/2)....................................................................................................4
1NC SHELL – German Competition DA (1/2)....................................................................................................5
Uniqueness: Germany = Renewable Energy Leadership...................................................................................6
Uniqueness: Germany = Renewable Energy Leadership...................................................................................7
Uniqueness: Germany = Renewable Energy Leadership...................................................................................8
Uniqueness: Germany = Leader in Wind Energy...............................................................................................9
Uniqueness: Investments in Germany now.......................................................................................................10
Uniqueness: Germany = Leader in Solar (PV) Energy....................................................................................11
Uniqueness: Germany = Leader in Solar PV Energy.......................................................................................12
Uniqueness: Germany = Leader in Solar PV Energy.......................................................................................13
Uniqueness: Germany = Leader in Solar PV Energy.......................................................................................14
Uniqueness: Germany = Leader in Solar PV Energy.......................................................................................15
Uniqueness: Germany = Leader in Solar PV Energy.......................................................................................16
Uniqueness: Germany = Leader in Solar PV Energy.......................................................................................17
Uniqueness: Germany = Leader in Solar PV Energy.......................................................................................18
Uniqueness: Germany = Leader in Solar PV Energy.......................................................................................19
Uniqueness: Germany = Leader in Solar Thermal Energy.............................................................................20
Uniqueness: Germany = Leader in Biomass ...................................................................................................21
Uniqueness: Europe = Wind Energy Leadership..............................................................................................22
Uniqueness: Europe = Wind Energy Leadership..............................................................................................23
Uniqueness: Europe = Wind Energy Leadership..............................................................................................24
Uniqueness: US down, Germany up..................................................................................................................25
Uniqueness: Auto Industry.................................................................................................................................26
Uniqueness: German Legislation Competitiveness ......................................................................................27
Brink: German Economy....................................................................................................................................28
German Econ = Brink.........................................................................................................................................29
Link: Wind Energy..............................................................................................................................................30
Link: Wind Power................................................................................................................................................31
Link: Wind Energy..............................................................................................................................................32
Link: Solar Energy..............................................................................................................................................33
“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 1
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Link: Solar Energy..............................................................................................................................................34


Link: Solar Energy..............................................................................................................................................35
Link: Biofuels/Biomass........................................................................................................................................36
Link: Tech Development......................................................................................................................................37
Link: Research & Development.........................................................................................................................38
Link: Climate Change.........................................................................................................................................39
Internal Link: Alt Energies Key to Econ...........................................................................................................40
Internal Link: Alt Energy Key to Econ..............................................................................................................41
Internal Link: Alt Energy Key to Econ..............................................................................................................42
Internal Link: Alt Energy Key to Econ..............................................................................................................43
Internal Link: Wind Energy Key to Econ.........................................................................................................44
Internal Link: Wind Energy Key to Econ.........................................................................................................45
Internal Link: Wind Energy Key to Econ.........................................................................................................46
Internal Link: Solar Energy Key to Econ..........................................................................................................47
Internal Link: EU is increasing reliance on biofuels .......................................................................................48
Internal Link: Alt Energy Exports Key to German Econ................................................................................49
Impact - Germany key to EU Econ....................................................................................................................50
Impact: Germany key to EU economy...............................................................................................................51
Impact- European Instability..............................................................................................................................52
Impact – German Economy Collapse Global Instability..............................................................................53
Impact: Decline Economic Collapse...............................................................................................................54
Impact: German Econ Decline EU Collapse.................................................................................................55
EU Climate Spillover ..........................................................................................................................................56
AT: Competition =/= Zero-Sum..........................................................................................................................57
AT: Competition =/= Zero-Sum..........................................................................................................................58
AT: Wind Energy Competition =/= Zero-Sum..................................................................................................59
(Aff) Germany =/= Energy Independent...........................................................................................................60
(Aff) Non unique – German Economy...............................................................................................................61
(Aff) Non-Unique: German Competitiveness....................................................................................................62
(Aff) Non-Unique: EU Economy.........................................................................................................................63
(Aff) Non-Unique: US = Wind Power Leadership............................................................................................64
(Aff) No Link: Biomass........................................................................................................................................65

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 2


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(Aff) Non-Unique: Wind Energy Declining Now..............................................................................................66


(Aff) Non-Unique: Wind Energy Declining Now..............................................................................................67
(Aff) Non-Unique: Solar Industry Failing in Germany....................................................................................68
(Aff) No Internal Link.........................................................................................................................................69

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 3


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DDI 2008 <GT>
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1NC SHELL – German Competition DA (1/2)


Uniqueness - Liberal feed-in tariffs are driving Germany’s top-notch alternative energy industry and
attracting investment
Space Daily 6-12-2008; “New German Renewable Energies Law Strengthens Sector Investment”, Lexis
The German parliament (Bundestag) has agreed to new laws that strengthen conditions for renewable energies investments.
The laws are part of the government's "Climate Package," the goals of which are saving 250 million metric tons of CO2 by
2020, with renewable energies contributing to 30% of electricity production by the same year.
These legal changes strengthen Germany as an investment location for renewable energies and energy efficiency technologies.
One element of the reform is an amendment to the Renewable Energies Sources Act (EEG). This change calls for a higher
"feed-in tariff" for wind energy. The feed-in tariff is the compensation paid to owners of renewable energies systems when
energy from their systems is sold to the public grid. The new law raises the feed in tariff for wind energy to a range of 9.2-15
EURcent/KWh. The parliament also reformed the EEG for electricity from solar energy. Photovoltaic (PV) systems will receive a
feed-in tariff of 33-43 EURcent/KWh, depending on the amount of electricity sold to the public grid. According to the new law the
tariff will decrease between 8 and 10% in 2010 and then 9% annually after 2011. These two reforms are important for investors.
For wind energy, the increased tariffs provide further incentive for wind energy companies to enter the world's largest market
in wind energy (measured in accumulated capacity).
The falling tariffs in PV energy are evidence to investors that Germany is making significant progress in reducing the cost of
electricity generation from PV sources, therefore making subsidized prices less necessary to attract investment.
This progress has been made thanks to highly qualified workers in the PV sector in Germany, the location of top research
institutes, and leading suppliers. These conditions make Germany an attractive location for production or R and D in the PV
sector.

Link - American competitiveness hurts Germany – shifting markets overwhelms innovation


Business Week 2-11-2008; “The Wind at Germany’s Back”, Lexis
The challenge for Germany will be staying ahead. While the country leads in wind-generation capacity, the U.S. market is
growing faster. As sales shift to other regions, so, inevitably, will manufacturing. To hold on to its lead, Germany will have to
keep its edge in innovation. Siemens, which has 7% of the global wind-turbine market, aims to gain share via its expertise in
conventional power and its strong relationships with utilities. And Germany's network of research institutes continues to work
on renewables. One group hopes to cheaply produce silicon impregnated with hydrogen, creating a fuel that's easy to transport and
can be used to power fuel cells, solving the problem of getting energy from remote wind and solar farms to cities. Another outfit is
working to commercialize a generator that combines elements of sun and wind power, in which solar collectors at ground level
produce hot air that rises through a chimney and turns a power-generating turbine. Says Q-Cells CEO Anton Milner: "This industry is
still in the warm-up phase."

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 4


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DDI 2008 <GT>
Your Name

1NC SHELL – German Competition DA (1/2)


Internal Link - Alternative energies are crucial to German economic growth and reversing recession
Deutsche Presse 10-8-2007; “Survey: Climate change brings German economy new chances”, Lexis
The German economy stands to gain above-average opportunities from climate change in the years and decades ahead, a
leading economic institute and bank said Monday. The climate change survey issued by the Hamburg Institute of International
Economics (HWWI) and the Berenberg Bank said that Germany has become market leader in many future sectors of the emerging
billion-dollar business. "The economy has often complained about the additional costburdens brought by Green politics,"
HWWI boss Thomas Straubhaar said. "Now the time of reaping (the benefits) has come." he winners in the climate change scenario
will be those companies which offer so-called "green technologies," with their markets rising by an average of 8 per cent annually
through 2030, or double the economic growth rate for the world economy, the study said. "Germany will cut a really big slice of this
cake," Straubhaar predicted. The HWWI boss said Germany is now already at the forefront concerning renewable energies,
waste management, nano- and biotechnologies and boosting efficiency. "In order to prevent the negative consequences of
climate change, billions of euros would have to be invested in new technologies, prevention, adaptation and protection,"
Straubhaar explained. "This is an electrifying invitation to all creative tinkerers, curious inventors, smart investors and bold
entrepreneurs," he said. According to the study, the climate change will result in a"renaissance of the primary sector" on the
capital market and for investors.

Economic crisis in Europe leads to trans-Atlantic militarization, instability, and terrorism


The Scotsman 1-16-2005; “CIA gives grim warning on European prospects”, http://news.scotsman.com/europeanunion/CIA-
gives-grim-warning-on.2595505.jp

It adds that the EU’s economic growth rate is dragged down by Germany and its restrictive labour laws. Reforms there - and in
France and Italy to lesser extents - remain key to whether the EU as a whole can break out of its "slow-growth pattern".
Reflecting growing fears in the US that the pain of any proper reform would be too much to bear, the report adds that the experts it
consulted "are dubious that the present political leadership is prepared to make even this partial break, believing a looming budgetary
crisis in the next five years would be the more likely trigger for reform". The EU is also set for a looming demographic crisis
because of a drop in birth rates and increased longevity, with devastating economic consequences. The report says: "Either European
countries adapt their workforces, reform their social welfare, education and tax systems, and accommodate growing immigrant
populations [chiefly from Muslim countries] or they face a period of protracted economic stasis." As a result of the increased
immigration needed, the report predicts that Europe’s Muslim population is set to increase from around 13% today to between 22%
and 37% of the population by 2025, potentially triggering tensions. The report predicts that America’s relationships with Europe
will be "dramatically altered" over the next 15 years, in a move away from post-Second World War institutions. Nato could
disappear and be replaced by increased EU action. "The EU, rather than Nato, will increasingly become the primary
institution for Europe, and the role Europeans shape for themselves on the world stage is most likely to be projected through it," the
report adds. "Whether the EU will develop an army is an open question." Defence spending by individual European countries,
including the UK, France, and Germany, is likely to fall further behind China and other countries over the next 15 years.
Collectively these countries will outspend all others except the US and possibly China. The expected next technological revolution
will involve the convergence of nano, bio, information and materials technology and will further bolster China and India’s
prospects, the study predicts. Both countries are investing in basic research in these fields and are well placed to be leaders. But
whereas the US will retain its overall lead, the report warns "Europe risks slipping behind Asia in some of these technologies".
For Europe, an increasing preference for natural gas may reinforce regional relationships, such as those with Russia or North
Africa, given the inter-dependence of pipeline delivery, the report argues. But this means the EU will have to deal with Russia,
which the report also warns "faces a severe demographic crisis resulting from low birth rates, poor medical care and a
potentially explosive Aids situation". Russia also borders an "unstable region" in the Caucasus and Central Asia, "the effects
of which - Muslim extremism, terrorism and endemic conflict - are likely to continue spilling over into Russia".

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 5


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DDI 2008 <GT>
Your Name

Uniqueness: Germany = Renewable Energy Leadership


Germany’s policies have helped the growth of the renewable energy industry
Janet L. Sawin, energy and climate change writer and researcher based at the Worldwatch Institute in Washington DC, 6-3-2008;
“Germany Leads the World in Alternative Energy, http://www.mindfully.org/Energy/2003/Germany-Alternative-EnergyJun03.htm

The main obstacles that keep renewables from producing more than a small share of energy in most of the world are lack of
access to the transmission grid, high up-front costs, lack of information, and biased, inappropriate and inconsistent
government policies. Germany’s dramatic success has been achieved through a combination of consistent, ambitious policies
designed to address these barriers and create a market for renewable energy. These policies were driven by the public’s rising
concerns about global climate change, risks associated with nuclear power, and a need to reduce dependence on imported fuels. Most
significant has been the grid access and standard pricing law, enacted in 1991 and inspired by effective Danish policies. Under this
law, renewable energy producers receive above-market payments for power they feed into the grid and the costs are shared
among all electricity consumers in Germany. These preferential payments for renewables are not considered subsidies, but means of
internalizing the social and environmental costs of conventional energy and providing compensation for the benefits of renewables.

Research and investment has driven renewable energy growth in Germany


Janet L. Sawin, energy and climate change writer and researcher based at the Worldwatch Institute in Washington DC, 6-3-2008;
“Germany Leads the World in Alternative Energy, http://www.mindfully.org/Energy/2003/Germany-Alternative-EnergyJun03.htm

Increased investment has also driven improvements in technology, advanced learning and experience, and produced economies of
scale resulting in dramatic cost reductions. Between 1990 and 2000 the average cost of manufacturing wind turbines in Germany
fell by 43 percent. Between 1992 and 2001, PV capacity experienced an average annual growth rate of nearly 49 percent.
German PV manufacturers plan to expand their facilities significantly over the coming years to meet rapidly rising demand, a step that
will further reduce costs and increase employment.
Germany has demonstrated not only that it is possible for renewable energy increasingly to meet the energy needs of
industrialized society but also that the transition to a more sustainable energy future can happen rapidly with political will and
the right policies. To begin with, policies must be consistent and long-term. On-and-off policies in the US have created market cycles
of boom and bust, making it difficult to develop strong domestic industries. As a result, the U.S. is the only country where total wind-
generating capacity has actually declined in some years.
Market creation must also be prioritized. Germany began funding research and development of renewable energy in the 1970s but
saw little commercial development until market incentives were enacted two decades later. Today at least 300 companies are involved
in supplying solar panels. Last year Germans installed more than 2,000 new wind projects, all of them feeding into the grid. It is
estimated that more than 100,000 Germans own shares in wind energy projects, while many own shares in solar PV and other
renewable projects as well.

Germany is the world leader in wind and solar energy


Janet L. Sawin, energy and climate change writer and researcher based at the Worldwatch Institute in Washington DC, 6-3-2008;
“Germany Leads the World in Alternative Energy, http://www.mindfully.org/Energy/2003/Germany-Alternative-EnergyJun03.htm

Yet by the end of the 1990s, Germany had transformed itself into a renewable-energy leader. With a fraction of the wind and
solar resources of the U.S., Germany now has almost three times as much installed wind capacity (38 percent of global capacity)
and is a world leader in solar photovoltaics as well. And it has created a new, multibillion-dollar industry and tens of
thousands of new jobs. The German wind industry now employs more people than nuclear power (an industry that provides 30
percent of the nation’s electricity) without a commensurate increase in electricity costs. Germany now generates 4.5 per cent of
its electricity with the wind and appears on track to meet government targets of 25 per cent by 2025. The government also
considers solar photovoltaics an option for future large-scale power generation.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 6


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DDI 2008 <GT>
Your Name

Uniqueness: Germany = Renewable Energy Leadership


Germany is leading the international alt energy market
Space Daily 6-12-2008; “New German Renewable Energies Law Strengthens Sector Investment”, Lexis
Germany is already Europe's largest market for solar thermal technologies and offers foreign investors many possibilities.
Investors in heat-producing technologies also have growth possibilities in CHP systems. Here the federal government has made
EUR750 million available annually to support CHP projects. The government has set the specific goal of having 25% of energy and
heat coming from efficient parallel-production technologies by 2020. All of these legal reforms, plus others that encourage energy
efficient technologies, e.g. "intelligent electricity meters," make it clear that Germany is consolidating its position as world
leader in renewable energies and offering many possibilities for foreign investors to enter its growing market. Invest in
Germany is the inward investment promotion agency of the Federal Republic of Germany. It provides investors with comprehensive
support from site selection to the implementation of investment decisions.

Germany has effectively used incentives to encourage alternative energy use


Janet L. Sawin, energy and climate change writer and researcher based at the Worldwatch Institute in Washington DC, 6-3-2008;
“Germany Leads the World in Alternative Energy, http://www.mindfully.org/Energy/2003/Germany-Alternative-EnergyJun03.htm

But some barriers remained. For example, as the number of wind turbines skyrocketed in some regions, local opposition and
lengthy, complex siting procedures had the effect of stalling the development of new projects. The government responded by
encouraging communities to zone specific areas for wind energy—a step that addressed concerns such as noise and aesthetic impacts
and assured prospective turbine owners that they would find sites for their machines. To address the start-up costs barrier, the
German government has offered long-term, low-interest loans and income tax credits to projects and equipment that meet
specified standards. These initiatives have drawn billions of dollars to the renewable energy industry, while technology standards
have reduced risk and created confidence by keeping out substandard machinery. The government has also promoted awareness of
renewable technologies and available subsidies through publications and training programs. Such rock-solid policies ended
uncertainties about whether producers could sell their electricity into the grid and at what price. They also provided investor
confidence—attracting investment money and making it easier for even small renewable power producers to obtain bank loans.
Germans from diverse backgrounds and income levels have been able to invest in renewable energy projects, leading to a surge in
installed capacity and associated jobs, and reinforcing political support.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 7


FILE NAME
DDI 2008 <GT>
Your Name

Uniqueness: Germany = Renewable Energy Leadership


German policies have encouraged the rate of growth in alternative energy
Jamais Cascio, staff writer for WorldChanging, 12-22-2004; “Alternative Energy in Germany”,
http://www.worldchanging.com/archives/001780.html

This explosion in the use of renewable energy has been driven by the German Renewable Energy Law (EEG), passed in 2000
and updated earlier this year (PDF). The EEG guarantees that, for a limited time, the nation's electric utilities must buy all wind,
solar and other renewable power at a price per kilowatt-hour higher than that of power generated from coal, nuclear or
natural gas. Currently, the rate for solar is ten times that of traditional energy sources. Interestingly, the law stipulates that the utilities
must buy the power whether generated by commercial, industrial or residential generators. This contrasts to the situation in places like
California, where residences with solar connected to the grid can zero out their power bill, but don't receive payment for power fed
into the grid.
As noted, these higher prices aren't set in stone. Recognizing that improvements in technology will drive generation costs
down, the tariff bonuses paid to solar, wind and biomass will decline gradually over time. For onshore wind, the bonus period
is five years; for offshore, it's twelve. Solar, which isn't yet as close as wind to being fully-competitive, gets twenty years. In
addition, the added tariff for solar will not apply to any facilities built after the national installed solar capacity gets to 350 megawatts;
this tariff structure has the effect of encouraging solar power installation as early as possible in order to take advantage of the higher
rates. The rate structure is also divided up by size, with higher rates generally going to smaller facilities, expressly to encourage the
development of diverse, decentralized power production. (A detailed analysis of the 2000 version of the plan is available here.)

Incentives have made Germany the world leader in renewable energy


Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology, Germany, 2007; “Renewable Energies in Germany: A Success Story”,
http://www.german-renewable-energy.com/Renewables/Navigation/Englisch/root.html

Renewable energy accounted for 5.8 percent of primary energy consumption in Germany in 2006 and the share of renewable
energy in total gross electricity consumption rose to 12 percent. In relation to total road traffic, the contribution of biofuels to fuel
supply reached 6.6 percent and, in the heat market, renewables' share in total heat provision was 6 percent. Its proportion in the total
final energy consumption rose to 8 percent. A turnover of 11.3 billion euros arose from the erection of plants and 10.3 billion
euros from the operation of the plants. Some 214,000 people are now employed in the renewable energy sector and may have
managed to prevent some 101 million tons of carbon dioxide from being released into the atmosphere in 2006. The Federal
government has provided the impetus for this development, particularly by regulating the payment for electricity from
renewable energy fed into the grid through the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG), and through other support programmes such
as the market incentive programme for renewable energy (MAP). Following on from these, renewable energy technologies in
Germany have become an important industrial sector with high annual growth rates in the last few years. Many innovative
German companies have advanced to become international technological leaders, providing key components for the wind energy,
hydropower, solar energy, geothermic and biomass sectors. "Renewables made in Germany" are considered amongst the world
leaders and are therefore being used all over the world. The Federal Ministry of Economics is supporting this dynamic industry
with a multitude of instruments and wishes to use these pages to provide information on innovative technologies and successful "made
in Germany" projects, as well as events and ways in which companies can participate in the foreign trade fairs of the Renewable
Energy Export Initiative. (Figures from the working group on renewable energy statistics AGEE-Stat).

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 8


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DDI 2008 <GT>
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Uniqueness: Germany = Leader in Wind Energy


Germany is the undisputed world leader in wind power
Donald Aitken, PhD and former Senior Fellow at Dartmouth College, 5-10-2005, “Germany Launches Its Transition To All
Renewables”, http://www.sustainablebusiness.com/index.cfm/go/news.feature/id/1208

In 1996, the government amended the Federal Building Construction Law to permit wind generators to be built in natural
areas. By 1997, 2100 megawatts (MW) of wind had been installed in Germany. The country made an important policy advance
with the April 2000 introduction of the Renewable Energy Sources Act ("Act on Granting Priority to Renewable Energy Sources," or
EEG). The EEG was most recently amended last July and extended for several more years. Under the new law, onshore wind turbines
coming online in 2005 will receive not less than 8.53 euro cents (about $US 11 cents) per kilowatt-hour for the first five years (12
years for offshore development), and 5.39 euro cents (US 7 cents) after that, for 20 years of commissioning. Special incentives are
intended to redress reduced power production (hence, revenue) in the lower wind regimes. Germany's accomplishments since 1990
have been astonishing. By the end of September, Germany had 15,688 MW of wind installations, delivering 6.2% of the country's
electrical energy. It was the world leader in total installations, as well as in the annual rate of installations. Germany has about 125%
more installed wind energy capacity than either the U.S. or Spain, which are virtually tied for second.

Germany’s subsidies are key to its wind power leadership


Voice of America 12-25-2007; “German Investments in Clean Alternative Energy Pay Off”,
http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2007-12/2007-12-25-voa2.cfm

Wind turbines dot the landscape in rural Germany. In some regions, wind energy produces up to 20 percent of the electricity
used in German power grids. Engineer Hendrich Ziese says how much a single turbine can produce depends on the weather.
"When we have good days, we can [produce] 20,000 kilowatts per hour," Ziese said. "On bad days we make nothing." Germany
began investing heavily in alternative energy to meet the targets set out in the Kyoto Protocol, the 1997 global environmental
agreement to reduce greenhouse gases. Germany has achieved a 19 percent reduction in CO2 emissions, in part by providing
subsidies to companies willing to invest in new technologies. Hauke Eggers-Mohmann with Notus Energy, which develops wind
turbines, says the government guaranteed them a fixed price over a 10-year period for alternative energy. "Also it would support with
fixed prices not only wind energy, but also other forms of energy, so that it was possible for private companies to develop and
carry out other projects," Eggers-Mohmann said. The government subsidies helped companies develop new energy related
technologies at a time when oil and gas prices were relatively low. Now with petroleum prices at record highs, Germany profits
twice: it produces cheaper alternative energy and exports this technology around the world.

Germany’s policies have made them the leader in wind energy


Business Week 2-11-2008; “The Wind at Germany’s Back”, Lexis
To see Germany's latest cash crop, take a train across the flat plains between Hannover and Berlin or cruise the waters off the
gusty North Sea coast. In both places, you can't miss the rows of windmills marching to the horizon, quietly generating some 7%
of the nation's electricity needs--and powering an important new industry.
Thanks to smart regulation, Germany has become a global powerhouse in green energy, producing more electricity from wind
than any other country. While the industry owes some of its success to German expertise in fields such as aerodynamics, the biggest
boost has come from the government. The nation's energy law guarantees operators of windmills and solar generators an
above-market price for power for as long as 20 years. Other countries have similar policies, but few have applied them as
consistently as Germany. "The crucial point," says Paul Buchwitz, a Deutsche Bank fund manager who focuses on renewable energy,
is "you know how much you will get in advance."

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 9


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DDI 2008 <GT>
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Uniqueness: Investments in Germany now


Germany is expanding their wind power industry – investments prove business confidence
Matthew Hall, writer for World Markets Research Centre, 7-11-2008; “Private Equity Firm to Invest in German Offshore Wind Farm”,
Global Insight, In Brief; Lexis

Private equity group Blackstone is to invest 1 billion euro ($1US.6 billion) in developing a wind farm off the coast of Germany.
The project will see 80 wind turbines constructed, with a total generating capacity of 400MW in Germany's North Sea
territory. Blackstone will team up with other investors that already hold development rights for the project. The project is expected to
be completed within two years.
Significance:The investment will be Blackstone's first in the renewable energy sector, and demonstrates the growing confidence
of investors in such technologies as oil prices continue to climb and governments seek to encourage the harnessing of domestic
energy sources. Offshore wind farms in particular are proving a focus for many European governments. Earlier this week German
Environment Minister Wolfgang Tiefensee said the government was hoping to build up to 30 offshore wind farms to assist in
meeting newly established renewable energy targets (seeGermany: 7 July 2008: ).

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 10


FILE NAME
DDI 2008 <GT>
Your Name

Uniqueness: Germany = Leader in Solar (PV) Energy


Germany is leading the world in photovoltaic investment and technology – by a longshot
The Straits Times 4-30-2007, “Germany's solar city; The university town of Freiburg has built up a reputation as a leader in
solar technology”, Lexis

With the world seeking solutions to reduce global warming, coupled with the fast depletion of traditional energy sources such
as oil, countries around the world are looking to renewable sources such as solar energy.
Singapore recently declared that it would spend $350S million on clean technology research, including a big push for solar power. Abu
Dhabi has announced that it will build a $350US million ($530S million) solar power plant to be operational by 2009, while Portugal
has opened a solar plant covering 60ha last month. But Germany, which has invested in the technology decades ago, is the market
leader for solar power technology.
Mr Thomas Dresel, who is project executive for the city's solar programme at Freiburg's Environmental Protection Agency, told The
Straits Times that Freiburg is possibly also the cradle of the green movement in Germany.
It all started in the mid-70s when a plan to build a nuclear power plant here sparked massive protests. The anti-nuclear movement
attracted liberal activists as well as alternative energy enthusiasts not just from Germany but also from around the world. The
gathering of such like-minded people sparked the development of specialised institutes such as the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar
Energy Systems as early as 1981. A forward-thinking mayor started marketing Freiburg - then suffering from a relative lack of
economic activity - as a 'solar city'. Incidentally the area also has one of the highest sunlight hours in Germany. Some 30 years on,
Germany - the largest solar market in the world - produced 750MWp (Megawatts peak) or 52 per cent of the world total last
year. Japan is second, with 330MWp, or 23 per cent of the market. Some 1,400,000 sq m of solar thermal collectors were installed
last year, about three-quarters of them at houses in Germany. In addition, about 750 MWp of solar photovoltaic panels were also
installed last year. Solar thermal collectors are used to heat water and for general heating, while photovoltaic panels are used to
generate electricity. In recent years, a coalition government of the Social Democrats and the Green Party had placed environmental
policies high on the agenda. Policies such as the so-called 100,000 roofs programme in 1999 to 2003 were launched, offering
interest-free loans for the installation of solar panels. In addition, the Renewable Energy Sources Act in 2000 requires all solar
energy captured by photovoltaic panels to be fed into the power grid. The Act also orders power companies to pay a higher tariff
for solar power sold to them. That means that households generating electricity from solar energy will sell it to the power grid at a
higher price than what they would pay for electricity drawn from the grid.

The feed-in tariff has made solar a safe investment in Germany


The Montreal Gazette 7-31-2007; “An unlikely hotspot”, Lexis
The law has also since served as a model for other countries including Spain, Portugal, Greece, France and Italy.
Germany's PV systems generate about 3,000 megawatts of power - 1,000 times more than in 1990. Asbeck said political
decisions in the 1990s made it easy and even lucrative for ordinary people to put the systems on their roofs. At the heart of the
scheme is a "feed-in tariff" giving anyone who generates power from solar PV, wind or hydro a guaranteed payment from the
local power company. The power firms are obliged to buy solar electricity for 49 cents per kilowatt hour - or nearly four times
market rates. This can work out at a better return than putting money in the bank. So despite the cloudy weather, the
investment pays for itself within 10 years.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 11


FILE NAME
DDI 2008 <GT>
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Uniqueness: Germany = Leader in Solar PV Energy

Germany has encouraged photovoltaic solar systems – they dominate the PV market
Donald Aitken, PhD and former Senior Fellow at Dartmouth College, 5-10-2005, “Germany Launches Its Transition To All
Renewables”, http://www.sustainablebusiness.com/index.cfm/go/news.feature/id/1208

Photovoltaics (PV): Germany's accomplishments in the development of solar energy for both electricity and water heating are
as dramatic as those for wind, despite starting somewhat later. This achievement is especially remarkable considering that
Germany's average solar potential is about 1000 kilowatt-hours per square meter per year - about half that of the U.S. Nevertheless,
Germany was the fastest growing PV market in the world in 2003, when over 20,000 new PV systems were installed,
representing a capacity of 145 MW peak (MWp) and bringing the end-of-year total to over 400 MWp of PV installed. In 2004,
Germany installed another 25,000 PV systems, totaling 300 MWp, double the 2003 installation pace and exceeding an annual
investment of 1 billion euros (US$1.3 billion) for PV for the first time. The PV industry was effectively spurred by the "100,000
roofs program," which from 1999 to 2003 produced 65,324 PV systems totaling 342 MW of capacity. The aim was to stimulate a new
building-integrated PV (BIPV) market. The government initially stimulated this program by offering interest-free 10-year loans,
waiving the last installment payment and guaranteeing a "feed-in" incentive of 8.5 euro cents per kilowatt-hour. With the beginning of
the EEG on April 1, 2000, the PV incentive price jumped to 50.62 euro cents (US 66 cents). By the end of 2004, Germany had become
the world's No. 2 PV producer and the world's No. 1 PV installer. The amended Renewable Energy Act of 2004 assures continued
activity in the German PV market. The base incentive remains 45.7 euro cents. This incentive is increased to 54-57 euro cents (US 70-
75 cents), depending on the size for PV systems mounted on building roofs (the upper size limit has been eliminated). The incentive is
further increased to 59-62.4 euro cents (US 77-81 cents) for PV systems integrated into building surfaces other than roofs (eg., walls).
Because the upper size limit for PV systems has been eliminated, even large ground-mounted systems are assured a revenue
stream of 45.7 euro cents (US 59 cents) for 20 years plus the year of commissioning. The law also requires grid operators to give
preference to renewable energy generators, and to guarantee connection to the grid even if that means upgrading their transmission
facilities. They can recover their costs in the fees they charge for use of their facilities.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 12


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Uniqueness: Germany = Leader in Solar PV Energy


Germany is a leader in the solar world – Mulhausen proves
Jamais Cascio, staff writer for WorldChanging, 12-22-2004; “Alternative Energy in Germany”,
http://www.worldchanging.com/archives/001780.html

The world's biggest solar power plant went online in Mulhausen, Germany this month, putting out 6.3 megawatts of power. The
plant is part of a set of facilities in Bavaria which produce a total of 10 megawatts of power using 57,600 silicon solar panels, built by
the Berkeley, California, PowerLight corporation. (PowerLight also built the solar array on top of San Francisco's Moscone Center.)
Another 10 megawatts will be coming online soon in a four-location project funded by Michelin. Beyond solar, Germany is also
the world's leading producer of wind power, with over 16,000 windmills; power generation capacity from wind amounted to
14,609 megawatts in 2003, up from 334 megawatts in 1993. Renewable power sources currently produce more than 10 percent
of the nation's energy, a level which is supposed to double by 2020 and reach 50% by 2050. It will likely improve faster that that
-- as of projections from 2000, the 10% point wasn't supposed to happen until 2010.

Germany’s industry is at the forefront of European solar development despite its geography
Reiner Gaertner, staff writer for Wired, 7-9-2001; “Germany Embraces the Sun”
http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2001/07/45056

FREIBURG, Germany -- Germany is not necessarily known as the sunniest spot in Europe. But nowhere else do so many people
climb on their roofs to install solar panels. Since the introduction of the Renewable Energies Laws (EEG) in April last year,
Germany has been experiencing a remarkable boom in solar energy. "When my cab driver gives me a lecture about solar
technologies, I know I am back home," raved Rian van Staden, executive director of the International Solar Energy Society (ISES)
about Freiburg, the sunniest city in Germany and host to the InterSolar conference July 6-8. The little university town in southwest
Germany, about 40 miles away from the French and Swiss borders, is Germany's "Solar Valley." A gigantic solar panel at the train
station greets visitors to Freiburg. The city also boasts the new Zero Emissions Hotel Victoria, which is the first European hotel to run
completely on alternative energy sources. Even Freiburg's premier league soccer stadium is solar powered. More than 450
environmentally oriented companies and institutions take advantage of the favorable weather, research, networking
opportunities and progressive political climate in Freiburg, which makes even Berkeley -- its soul mate in the San Francisco Bay
Area -- look comparatively conservative. The German solar industry has exploded in the last two years. DFS (Deutscher
Fachverband Solarenergie), the German Association for Solar Energies, recently reported a 50 percent rise in solar panel orders
during 2000. German solar companies sold 75,000 solar systems in 2000 in addition to 360,000 solar systems installed
previously, and photovoltaic installations increased fourfold from 1999. Solar power means big business in Germany: Solar
companies generated revenues of $435 million in 2000. According to DFS, Germany -- with its 54 percent market share -- is by far the
European leader in produced solar collectors.

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Uniqueness: Germany = Leader in Solar PV Energy


Government incentives have created a boom in Germany’s solar industry
The New York Times, 5-16-2008; “Germany Debates Subsidies for Solar Industry”,
http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/16/business/worldbusiness/16solar.html
Yet the sun was shining here the other day — and nowhere more brightly than at Q-Cells, a German company that surpassed Sharp
last year to become the world’s largest maker of photovoltaic solar cells. Q-Cells is the main tenant among a flowering cluster of solar
start-ups here in an area known as Solar Valley. Thanks to its aggressive push into renewable energies, cloud-wreathed Germany
has become an unlikely leader in the race to harness the sun’s energy. It has by far the largest market for photovoltaic systems,
which convert sunlight into electricity, with roughly half of the world’s total installations. And it is the third-largest producer
of solar cells and modules, after China and Japan. Now, though, with so many solar panels on so many rooftops, critics say
Germany has too much of a good thing — even in a time of record oil prices. Conservative lawmakers, in particular, want to pare back
generous government incentives that support solar development. They say solar generation is growing so fast that it threatens to
overburden consumers with high electricity bills. Solar-energy entrepreneurs warn that reducing incentives will deprive
Germany of its pole position in an industry of the future. As proof, they point to the United States and Japan, which were once
solar stars but have faded as their government subsidies became less enticing.

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Uniqueness: Germany = Leader in Solar PV Energy


German alternative energies are the most price-competitive
Sophie Horsfall, fund manager of the F&C Stewardship International Fund; 1-1-2007; “Winds of Change”, Pensions Management,
Lexis

Despite the UK taking the lead internationally in terms of environmental awareness, government support is still lacking
compared with countries like Germany, where the state has been successful in accelerating the adoption of new energy-
efficient technologies and in nurturing the alternative energy industry to the point where it is now the best in the world.
Several years ago, the German government introduced legislation and attractive feed-in tariffs in order to incentivise and
accelerate the adoption and use of different types of alternative energy. Excess electricity generated can be fed into the national
grid, although the scheme allows electricity bills to be only partially offset. The German government has also offered various tax
incentives to help new alternative energy companies, bringing costs and hence the price per kWh (kilowatt/hour) of their energy
more in line with conventional sources. The government has been so successful in supporting this type of company that many have
become profitable, and government support can now be eased.

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Uniqueness: Germany = Leader in Solar PV Energy


Germany’s policies have effectively incentivized solar energy and attracted business
US Department of Energy, September 2004; “Our Solar Power Future”
Effective policies sustained over time increase solar power production, dramatically grow
markets, improve technology, and reduce costs. Programs in Germany, Japan, and California prove it.
In April 2000, Germany introduced a “feed-in tariff” that offered solar power producers about 50 Euro cents for every kWh
fed into the utility grid and guaranteed this price for 20 years. Each year, this guaranteed price is reduced by 5% for new contracts
to encourage solar power equipment manufacturers to reduce technology costs. This feed-in tariff, combined with low-cost loans
available in the 100,000 Roofs Program, has had a strong, positive impact on Germany’s solar power market, expanding it
from less than 20 MW per year to 130 MW per year. The long-term commitment of the program attracts investors and
gradually creates sustainable solar power markets. The cost is spread over the entire electricity user rate base so that utilities
are not negatively impacted and the government does not have to appropriate money annually.

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Uniqueness: Germany = Leader in Solar PV Energy


Germany’s solar industry is still expanding
The Guardian 5-16-2008, Solar future brightens as oil soars,
http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2008/jun/16/renewableenergy.energy

Soaring oil prices have led to such a boom for solar power that the industry could operate without subsidies in just a few years,
according to industry leaders. At the solar industry trade fair in Munich over the weekend, there was growing confidence that the holy
grail known as "grid parity" - whereby electricity from the sun can be produced as cheaply as it can be bought from the grid -
is now just a few years away. Solar photovoltaics (PV), which convert sunlight into electrical power, have long been dismissed as
too expensive to make a meaningful contribution to the battle against climate change. But costs are falling as PV production
booms, and with electricity prices rising rapidly in line with soaring oil and gas prices, demand for solar panels is increasing sharply.
Germany, the world leader in PV thanks to its "feed-in tariff" support, installed 1.1 gigawatts of capacity last year - the
equivalent of a large power station. It now has nearly half a million houses fitted with PV panels. The feed-in tariff pays people with
solar panels above-market rates for selling power back to the grid. "High oil prices have boosted demand even more. The
market will probably expand another 40% this year," said Carsten Körnig, of the German solar industry association, referring to
both PV and solar thermal systems, which produce hot water. He said his previous assumption - that grid parity would be reached in
Germany in five to seven years - now looked very conservative since it allowed for only a 3% rise in electricity prices each year. In
many countries increases of 20% a year are becoming the norm. All the companies at the Intersolar fair are planning large increases in
production of solar panels. The China-based Suntech, the world's biggest maker of PV panels, plans to double production from
540MW this year to 1GW in 2009. Jerry Stokes, head of Suntech Europe, thinks grid parity in Germany can be reached within five
years. In California and Italy, where there is lots of sun and high electricity prices, he said grid parity for PV systems had already been
achieved. "The great thing about solar power is that although you have an upfront cost, the fuel is free and is not controlled by
another country," he said. PV costs were falling rapidly and would continue to do so as the efficiency of panels improved and
installation costs dropped, Stokes said. Moreover, the price of silicon - which can be 70% of panel costs - is also likely to fall as new
production comes onstream.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 17


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Uniqueness: Germany = Leader in Solar PV Energy


Germany’s domestic solar industry is thriving because of incentivizing legislation
Siân Harris, science and technology journalist based in the UK, 2007; “German legislation generates photovoltaic leadership”,
http://spie.org/x17246.xml

What's more, Germany is not just the location for foreign PV businesses. According to Ralf Segeth, senior manager for renewable
energies and resources for the German government organization, Invest in Germany, approximately 60 percent of the PV companies
in the country are home grown. These include businesses such as Wacker Chemie, Q-Cells, Solarwatt, Schott Solar, Würth Solar,
and Solarworld, covering all parts of the PV technology supply chain. "The majority of the companies in PV are still of German origin
because Germany was an early mover in this area," Segeth points out.
The strength of PV technology in Germany is reflected in its figures. Analysts place the country as by far the largest PV
market, with a turnover of €3.7 billion in 2006 and expected double-digit growth rates for the upcoming years, according to
Invest in Germany. Indeed PV has become such big business, especially in eastern Germany, that people have even begun to predict
that it could overtake Germany's automotive industry in size.
One of the biggest factors in many companies' decisions to base their facilities in Germany is the results of national legislation
that was passed in 2000. Germany's Renewable Energy Sources Act (Erneuerbaren-Energien-Gesetz, or EEG) requires electricity
companies to buy a certain amount of electricity derived from renewable sources such as solar power and to pay above market
rates for it. The effect of this law has been to enable solar electricity companies to compete with those providing electricity
from fossil fuels and to help push the adoption of this electricity source by consumers.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 18


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Uniqueness: Germany = Leader in Solar PV Energy


Despite bad weather, Germany’s solar industry is tops in the world
Unplugged Living 8-7-2007; “Germany Top In Generating Solar Power”, Lexis
Aug. 3, 2007 (b5media delivered by Newstex) -- Despite the country being one of those with more cloudy skies than sunny days,
Germany tops all other countries in the world when it comes to generating solar power. This is according to some data as
reported by ShortNews.com. Only a third of the whole amount of daylight that Germany receives in a year is sunny and the rest
keeps the country under heavy clouds. What is interesting though is the fact that the European country holds 55% of the share of
photovoltaic energy that the entire world has produced. What the country does to create such a huge amount of solar power is
it spreads out solar panels and this absorbs the sun's power and transforms it into something useful. The officials of the
country have also run laws wherein those companies who would be using and investing in solar power would be given
incentives. That has also helped in making the country the leader in generating solar power. [Via ShortNews.com]>[Image from Tech
Republic] Share This>

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Uniqueness: Germany = Leader in Solar Thermal Energy

Germany is at the forefront of the solar thermal industry


Donald Aitken, PhD and former Senior Fellow at Dartmouth College, 5-10-2005, “Germany Launches Its Transition To All
Renewables”, http://www.sustainablebusiness.com/index.cfm/go/news.feature/id/1208

Solar Thermal Water Heating: Germany also leads Europe in total and annual installations of solar thermal collectors for water
heating. Interest in solar water heating was boosted by the increase of the subsidy, effective February 1, 2003. 2003 sales totaled
about 600 million euros. In 2004, 740,000 more square meters were added, about 80% of them for domestic water heating and 20%
for space heating. To keep this sector expanding and encourage applications on apartment buildings, the government is
developing a Renewable Heating Act. Whereas the EEG raised money for PV by spreading the costs proportionately over all utility
districts, the Renewable Heating Act would raise money with a country-wide tax on oil and gas used in the heating sector, using
this revenue to provide an incentive payment per kilowatt-hour of heat generated by solar thermal systems.

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Uniqueness: Germany = Leader in Biomass


Legal reforms in Germany are promoting investment in biomass – and working
Space Daily 6-12-2008; “New German Renewable Energies Law Strengthens Sector Investment”, Lexis
Germany's legal reforms also promote biomass. Investors in this sector can receive feed-in tariffs of 7.79-11.67 EURCent/KWh
for electricity from biomass. There are also bonus incentives to encourage the use of sustainable raw materials, or the
simultaneous use of biomass in a combined heat and power (CHP, or co-generation) plant.
The legal reforms further add to Germany's attraction to investors in the biomass sector. An increased domestic demand for
biomass technology and products is bringing major investors to Germany. The climate package also calls for the promotion of
heat from renewable sources. These laws require that new buildings have heating systems deriving heat from renewable sources.
Financial incentives will be made available to equip older buildings with such technologies. These laws provide a ready made market,
plus EUR500 million of available funding, for investors in energy efficient heating technologies such as solar thermal heating.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 21


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Uniqueness: Europe = Wind Energy Leadership


Europe is leading the wind power market through incentives
Platts Oilgram News 4-11-2008; “Global wind power capacity rises on new installations”, Lexis
Global wind power capacity rose 27% in 2007 to more than 94,100 MW, led by capacity additions in the EU, the US and China,
the Washington-based Worldwatch Institute said April 10.
New wind installations were second only to natural gas in the US as a source of generation and were the leading source of new
capacity in the EU, Worldwatch, an independent research organization, said. In China, the estimated 3,449 MW of wind turbines
added last year pushed the country past its government's wind power target for 2010, the group added.
The addition of a record-breaking 5,244 MW of wind capacity in the US in 2007?enough to power 4.5 million US homes?was driven
by the federal production tax credit and by renewable energy mandates in 25 states and the District of Columbia, Worldwatch said. It
said US wind capacity now stands at 16,818 MW, second only to Germany.
"If Congress acts quickly to extend the tax credit, the US will likely pass Germany to lead the world in wind power within the next
two years," said Janet Sawin, a Worldwatch senior researcher. The federal production tax credit for wind energy is set to expire at the
end of this year.
Germany remains the world leader in wind power capacity, with 22,247 MW, or almost 24% of the global total, but it
experienced a lackluster year in 2007, Worldwatch said. Still, renewables now provide more than 14% of Germany's electricity
needs, with about half of this coming from wind. Spain, which led Europe in new installations in 2007, now ranks third
worldwide in total wind capacity with 15,145 MW, the group said.
France, Italy, Portugal, and the UK all experienced significant growth last year as well. In all, EU wind power capacity rose
18% in 2007, and the region is home to 60% of global installed capacity, according to Worldwatch.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 22


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Uniqueness: Europe = Wind Energy Leadership


EU renewables goals set the wind industry standard
Space Daily 4-2-2008, “With Ambitious EU Legislation, Wind Energy Can Provide Huge Benefits To Europe”, Lexis
"Wind has delivered the most promising results out of all renewable energy technologies so far, with 57 GW of total capacity
installed in the EU by the end of 2007. In order to ensure that this trend continues, we need to have a secure and favourable EU
legislative framework", EU Energy Commissioner Andris Piebalgs told delegates at the opening session of the European Wind Energy
Conference (EWEC) today in Brussels.
The EU Commissioner - Chairman of the EWEC 2008 Conference also emphasised the need to consider renewable energy solutions
beyond 2020 and far into the future.
A swift adoption and implementation of the European Commission's proposed Renewable Energy Directive is essential to
ensure a secure, sustainable and competitive energy future in Europe, delegates heard this morning. Decision-makers at national
and European level stressed the importance of a stable, flexible legislative framework. They outlined their vision for the EU
legislation and how this will deliver a new generation of energy supply.
The European Commission's proposed Renewable Energy Directive has generally been well received by the wind energy
sector, although some improvements could be introduced by the European Parliament and Member States. Furthermore, it still
remains to be established beyond any doubt that Member States are legally entitled to remain in control of their national mechanisms.
Speakers at the opening session of EWEC retained the overall positive note as they presented their views on how such legislation
can help achieve the EU's binding target of 20% renewables in the energy mix by 2020.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 23


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Uniqueness: Europe = Wind Energy Leadership


Wind energy is price-competitive and feasible on a wide scale in the EU
Space Daily 4-2-2008, “With Ambitious EU Legislation, Wind Energy Can Provide Huge Benefits To Europe”, Lexis
Arthouros Zervos, President of EWEA, looked at the current wind energy situation and presented the association's new report, Pure
Power: wind energy scenarios up to 2030. The report introduces development pathways for wind energy up to 2010, 2020 and 2030,
studying the probable effects on electricity, greenhouse gas emissions and the EU economy.
He said, "There is no contradiction between economic growth and large-scale deployment of wind energy - on the contrary.
Wind energy is a precious commodity that brings numerous benefits to our society. Not only does it revitalise the economy, it
also creates new jobs, reduces EU dependency on imported fossil fuels, and facilitates better functioning electricity markets -
which is desperately needed."
Wind energy currently meets 3.7% of EU electricity demand. Pure Power shows that the European Commission's goal of
increasing that share to 12% by 2020 is certainly achievable. In 2007, wind power capacity in the EU increased by 8.5 GW, and on
average, wind power capacity needs to increase by 9.5 GW per year over the next 13 years to reach 180 GW and meet 12-14%
of EU power demand in 2020.
180 GW of wind in 2020 would produce 477 TWh of electricity, of which 133 TWh would come from offshore wind. This is
equivalent to supplying the needs of 107 million average EU households.
Wind power on this level would represent 18.1% of the total installed electricity-generating capacity in the EU, which is over half of
the renewables contribution needed for the binding target. With the appropriate legislation, real benefits - economic and
environmental - can be generated by wind energy for the whole of Europe.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 24


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Uniqueness: US down, Germany up


Germany is at the top of the solar industry while the US is falling behind
US Department of Energy, September 2004; “Our Solar Power Future”
World photovoltaic shipments grew by 32% in 2003, and the industry generated $4.7 billion in revenue. Solar electric systems
for homes and businesses dominated the market in the United States, Europe, and Japan as the volume of sales surpassed 740
megawatts (MW). In 2004, the solar power industry expects to surpass the milestone of 1,000 MW of
production—enough capacity to power all the households in a city the size of Atlanta, Georgia.
In part, market growth was driven by innovations in both technology and manufacturing that continue to
increase efficiency, boost product lifetime and reliability, and make installation easier. As a result, average
costs and prices declined to make solar power more competitive with conventional energy sources. Solar
electric power has matured into a robust, competitive industry with worldwide markets ready for sustained,
rapid growth.
Unfortunately, the United States has lost its lead in solar power development. In 1997, U.S. solar power manufacturers
captured 100% of the domestic market; in 2003, they captured only 73%. In 1997, U.S. manufacturers captured more than
40% of the world market; in 2003, they captured a mere 14%. And after years of growth, shipments in 2003 from
U.S. manufacturers fell by more than 10%. Meanwhile, shipments from Europe grew by 41% and shipments from
Japan by 45%.
Increasingly, policies in Europe and Japan are driving technology and market development. The U.S. solar industry is
compelled to look overseas for markets and to shift critical manufacturing investments away from the United States. Where
U.S. solar markets are supported by state policies, a growing share of the installed solar power systems are
being imported. And Europe and Japan reap the benefit of manufacturing jobs and local economic development created by
solar technology.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 25


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Uniqueness: Auto Industry


The US is in an eco-race with Germany and Japan for alternative energy leadership
Automotive News 1-28-2008, “Panelists: U.S. entering green-technology race”, Lexis.
The United States is on the verge of a green technology race that will rival the space race of the 1950s and 1960s, a panel of
experts said. But if the nation fails to act quickly, it risks losing a leadership role.
Fuel-economy legislation is sparking the race, Dean Harlow, president of engineering firm Ricardo Inc., said last week at the
Automotive News World Congress. ``Just as Kennedy pushed NASA to the moon in a decade, Washington has now thrown down the
gauntlet for the auto industry,'' said Harlow. He was a member of a panel discussing the risks and opportunities of ``green
technologies.'' ``We're in a race for eco-innovation,'' he said. But without more investment, alternative vehicle technologies and
development of hydrogen-powered cars will leave the United States, the head of General Motors' fuel cell activities warned. Other
countries are investing heavily in green technologies and could surpass the United States, GM scientist Byron McCormick said.
``There is a real chance that could happen. If that happens, what happens to the jobs, to the learning and the skills that go with it?''
McCormick said the United States has a technology momentum in the field. ``We have a wonderful opportunity to put the
United States in a leadership position.'' He is the executive director of GM Powertrain's fuel cell activities. McCormick identified
Germany, China and Japan as countries that are poised to benefit. They could gain the infrastructure that comes with global
leadership in alternative vehicle technologies.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 26


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Uniqueness: German Legislation Competitiveness


Germany’s feed-in tariff is key to the solar energy industry
The Montreal Gazette 7-31-2007; “An unlikely hotspot”, Lexis
It rains year-round in Germany. Clouds cover the skies for about two-thirds of all daylight hours. Yet the country has managed to
become the world's leading solar power generator. Even though millions of Germans flee their damp, dark homeland for holidays
in the Mediterranean sun, 55 per cent of the world's photovoltaic (PV) power is generated on solar panels set up between the
Baltic Sea and the Black Forest. So far just three per cent of Germany's electricity comes from the sun, but the government
wants to raise the share of renewables to 27 per cent of all energy by 2020 from 13 per cent. It is a thriving industry with
booming exports that has created tens of thousands of jobs in recent years, posting growth rates that surpassed the optimistic
forecasts made by the fathers of a pioneering 2000 renewable energy law. This law, known by the acronym EEG, has helped this
cloudy, rainy country on the northern rim of central Europe become a solar giant. "The EEG was the single most important vehicle
to boost the solar energy market," Frank Asbeck, chairman of SolarWorld AG, told Reuters. The law, which offers cash incentives
to people introducing renewable energy sources, was designed to help fight climate change and reduce dependency on fossil
fuels.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 27


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Brink: German Economy


Germany’s economy is receding – high oil prices are responsible
AFP 7-24-2008; “Dollar climbs against euro after dire European data”
http://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5g2w6VI3IPiZQ0GZMUbGuM8pUFFUQ

NEW YORK (AFP) — The dollar climbed against the euro Thursday after gloomy economic data darkened the economic
outlook for the 15-nation eurozone, sparking fears of recession. The euro fell to 1.5683 dollars around 2100 GMT, from 1.5693
dollars late Wednesday. The dollar slipped to 107.19 yen from 107.86. Downbeat surveys on eurozone business activity and German
business sentiment weighed on the single European currency, while the dollar benefited from expectations the Federal Reserve would
raise interest rates in the near future to curb inflation. Traders said that after a quarter-point hike in interest rates earlier this month to
keep inflation in check, the European Central Bank was now less likely to tighten monetary policy further even though prices were
rising at a record pace in the 15-nation eurozone.
"The latest very weak survey data from the eurozone will surely prevent the European Central Bank from raising interest rates
further," said Capital Economics analyst Ben May. "On the face of it, the surveys suggest there is now even a risk of a technical
recession in the region." Eurozone business activity contracted more sharply than expected in July, hitting the lowest level since just
after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in the United States, a key survey showed Thursday.
The eurozone's purchasing managers index (PMI), compiled by data and research group Markit, slid to 47.8 points in July from 49.3 in
June. The drop, which indicated that private sector activity in the bloc was at the lowest level since November 2001, was worse than
forecasts for a reading of 48.7 points. A separate survey in Germany, the eurozone's biggest economy, showed that business
sentiment plunged to a 34-month low in July amid high oil prices and a strong euro which crimps exports. The monthly
business climate index calculated by Munich-based economic research institute Ifo fell below the psychologically key 100 level to
97.5 points, from 101.3 points in June. The last time it was below that level was in September 2005. Analysts had forecast a more
modest drop in July to 100.2 points. "For a long time now, the German Ifo survey has presented a much more optimistic picture
relative to other survey data -- in particular the PMIs -- and so this month's release finally represents some significant catch-up to the
downside," said Barclays Capital analyst Nick Matthews. The German data "bodes badly for the region as a whole," said Boris
Schlossberg, analyst at Forex Capital Markets. "Sentiment has turned sharply lower as the German economy has finally
succumbed to the triple-punch combination of higher oil prices, higher interest rates and higher exchange rates," Schlossberg
said.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 28


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German Econ = Brink


Germany’s economy is fluctuating but rising due to a closing trade deficit
EU Business
German exports stagnated in February but rose strongly year-on-year, data showed Wednesday, adding to recent evidence that
Europe's largest economy is holding up well despite the rise in the euro.
Figures from the federal statistics office showed that exports, adjusted for seasonal effects, were flat from January at 84.6 billion
euros (133 billion dollars), but were up 9.0 percent year-on-year. Imports were down by 0.4 percent at 67.7 billion euros from
January and were up 7.0 percent from a year earlier. As a result Germany's trade surplus edged lower to 16.9 billion euros from
17.1 billion in January. Analysts polled by Thomson Financial had expected a much bigger drop, to 15.2 billion euros. Strong
exports to other countries with the euro helped to attenuate the effects of the single currency's strong rise against other
currencies.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 29


FILE NAME
DDI 2008 <GT>
Your Name

Link: Wind Energy

Increased US wind power capacity will overtake Europe’s lead


Joe Truini, writer for Waste News, 6-11-2007; “Climate concerns make wind energy attractive option”, Lexis

The time is ripe for wind power, and it is well-positioned to take advantage of a positive political and social climate. ``The stars
seemed to be aligned,'' said Karl Rabago, director of government and regulatory affairs for Arlington, Va.-based AES Corp. Despite a
slow start, U.S. wind energy is poised to take the global lead in installed generation capacity by 2010, perhaps sooner, said Steve
Sawyer, secretary general of the Global Wind Energy Council. ``The Europeans know it. They'll soon be eating your dust,'' he said.
Political and public opinion is shifting toward adopting carbon regulations to address climate change, and wind power is the
only form of affordable energy positioned to help, Sawyer said. New nuclear plants would be impossible to site and build by 2020,
and commercial carbon capture technology for coal-fired power plants is at least 10 to 15 years away, which is the critical time to
address climate change, he said. ``I believe the key to this 21st century energy challenge begins and ends with renewable energy,
especially wind power,'' said Iowa Gov. Chet Culver during the Windpower 2007 Conference & Exhibition June 3-6 in Los Angeles.
``A new economy is being born,'' said Carl Pope, executive director of the Sierra Club. ``Wind is going to be part of that economy.''
But the industry has to meet the challenge, or it will be a major opportunity squandered, said Montana Gov. Brian Schweitzer. ``If you
get it right, you will be known as the greatest generation,'' Schweitzer said. ``And if you get it wrong, your grandkids will fight a war
someplace else.'' Climate change is the catalyst that is increasing demand for wind energy and creating a favorable
environment for wind power development on Capitol Hill and Wall Street, said former Democratic Sen. Tom Daschle. ``I actually
think it could be bigger than the entire dot-com revolution,'' he said. Global warming is hitting closer to home as political and even
religious leaders increasingly recognize the threat, said Rep. Jerry McNerney, D-Calif. ``In the past, we've relied on fear to cooperate
on threats of national and global significance,'' he said. ``If we follow that path of cooperation, we will open up a new chapter in
human history.'' A large-scale transition to wind energy could be the greatest economic boon the nation's ever seen, improving
the nation's energy security while creating manufacturing jobs, Schweitzer said. He has a plan to develop 3,500 megawatts of
wind generation capacity in Montana to sell electricity to Los Angeles, Las Vegas and Phoenix. Montana already exports most of its
electricity and will take advantage of its status of windiest state to sell more, he said. ``Wind power is not just for hippies sitting on
mountaintops smoking marijuana,'' Schweitzer said. ``The market wants it and we'll supply it.''

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 30


FILE NAME
DDI 2008 <GT>
Your Name

Link: Wind Power


American wind power competitiveness attracts investment away from Europe
International Herald Tribune, 11-8-2007; “EU Firms Are Attracted to Open Space and Generous Subsidies for Green
Energy”, http://www.geni.org/globalenergy/library/technical-articles/generation/wind/international-herald-tribune/us-winds-morph-
into-a-european-power-play/index.shtml

The European Union has taken the lead on many climate change issues - from ratifying the Kyoto Protocol to passing laws to
require and encourage the development of renewable energy. Why, then, are so many European energy companies looking to
invest in the United States? For Antonio Mexia, the chief executive of Energias de Portugal, the answer is simple. "The United
States is the fastest-growing market in the world for wind power," he said. "If we want to be a leader, we have to be here." In July,
Energias paid nearly $3 billion to buy Horizon Wind Energy from Goldman Sachs. The purchase, Mexia's first foray into the United
States, doubled the amount of wind power in Energias's portfolio, giving the once sleepy Portuguese utility the fourth- largest wind-
farm capacity in the world, behind Iberdrola of Spain, FPL Energy - an affiliate of Florida Power and & Light in the United States -
and another Spanish company, Acciona Energia.
All the biggest players in wind power are focused on the United States. This year, Acciona bought the wind farm development
rights of EcoEnergy of Elgin, Illinois, and Iberdrola bought CPV Wind Ventures of Silver Spring, Maryland. Iberdrola also added the
wind development company PPM Energy of Portland, Oregon, to its business through its acquisition of a British company,
ScottishPower, in April, and in 2006 it bought Community Energy of Radnor, Pennsylvania.
BP, based in Britain, also added to its green portfolio in 2006, buying two U.S. wind developers, Greenlight Energy and Orion Energy.
In October, the German company E.On bought the North American wind farms of Airtricity of Dublin for $1.4 billion. "In America
you can put up a 200- or 300-megawatt wind park," Mexia said. "You can't do that in Europe" because of the lack of open
space for such large wind farms.
There is also more potential for growth in the United States, where wind farms account for barely 1 percent of installed
generating capacity. In some EU countries, that figure is as high as 10 percent.
The biggest incentive, however, is not the strength and speed of the wind blowing across some states, but a number of laws put
in place in about half of the states to encourage the development of renewable energy.
At the national level, energy legislation calls for subsidies for wind power producers, in the form of a tax credit. Meanwhile, 25
states now have laws that require utilities to obtain a certain amount of power from renewable resources. This puts the United States at
the top of a ranking of countries by Ernst & Young on the best renewable energy markets.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 31


FILE NAME
DDI 2008 <GT>
Your Name

Link: Wind Energy


US wind projects compete with European markets for investments and supplies
Jason Wiest Arkansas News Bureau, 4-1-2007; US wind industry growing, equipment supply stretched thin,
http://www.arkansasnews.com/archive/2007/04/01/News/341525.html

LITTLE ROCK - Although legislation offering a tax break to windmill blade manufacturers quickly blew through the state
Legislature, U.S. demand for wind energy equipment has been building steadily since 2000. Spurred by federal tax breaks, the
U.S. industry's growth has flooded suppliers, causing delays for some overseas wind farm projects. "It's not possible to get
even one turbine for love or money for two years because of all the investment in the U.S." Ian Hatton, managing director of
Eclipse Energy, told a United Kingdom newspaper last week. Eclipse is working to build a wind farm in Great Britian, but
construction has been delayed for at least a year because American sites are lined up and waiting for turbines from the world's
main manufacturers in Denmark and Germany, according to an article in the North-West Evening Mail. Demand for wind energy
has pitted states against each other to lure manufacturers of wind turbine components. Arkansas and another state are said to be
competing for a manufacturing plant, prompting the Legislature to pass a bill exempting windmill blade manufacturers from state
income taxes through 2033, with certain stipulations.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 32


FILE NAME
DDI 2008 <GT>
Your Name

Link: Solar Energy


Germany’s solar market is ahead, but only economic slowdown is keeping the US market in check
Reuters 5-15-2008; Economic Slowdown Challenges Solar Industry-EPIA,
http://www.planetark.org/dailynewsstory.cfm/newsid/48354/story.htm

FRANKFURT - The economic slowdown, regulatory conflicts and competition from China pose the main risks to future growth
of the solar industry, the head of the European Photovoltaic Industry Associations told Reuters. "The two key elements for me
are the regulatory conflict in Europe, particularly in Germany with the revision of the feed-in law, and globally the economic
slowdown," Adel El Gammal, secretary general of EPIA, said in an interview. He expects the US solar market, home to industry
heavyweights such as thin film company First Solar and cell maker Suntech Power, to take off in 2009 and beyond. EPIA forecasts
the United States will overtake Germany as the largest solar market in 2012. Strong public as well as political support for green
energy paired with high electricity retail prices at peak times worked in favour of the US solar market, El Gammal said. "The only
limiting factor I see there is really the impact of the economic slowdown that probably is more severe than one expects, in
particular in the United States," El Gammal said.

Germany owns the solar market, but increased US incentives could change that
US Department of Energy, September 2004; “Our Solar Power Future”
Our projections start with where we are today—with a worldwide industry growing at greater than 30% annually, but
increasingly dominated by German and Japanese technology and market development. If the United States continues at
current levels of state and federal investment in research and market development, then we will continue to contribute to the
growth of world markets, but will import an increasing share of the systems installed here. Investments by Germany and
Japan in both research and market development will put their manufacturers in a commanding market position. However,
with robust investments in research and market development, the picture changes dramatically. We would expect growth in
shipments in the United States to accelerate from 30% to 38% per year by 2010, then moderate to 26% by 2020 as PV
technology and markets mature rapidly. By 2020, total installed PV capacity in the United States could reach 36 GW—a level not
expected from the Baseline case until after 2034. These growth rates sound ambitious, but they are consistent with what is happening
today and with experts’ assessments of solar power’s potential. Solar power companies involved in cost-shared research with the U.S.
Department of Energy have reported an 82% “experience curve” in reducing module costs—that is, for every doubling of production,
costs decline by 18%. For this roadmap, we assume a 90% experience curve for solar power systems.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 33


FILE NAME
DDI 2008 <GT>
Your Name

Link: Solar Energy


Incentivizing solar power puts the US at the top of the solar market and takes the lead from Germany
US Department of Energy, September 2004; “Our Solar Power Future”
However, the nations who are proving that these investments truly do lead to the promised benefits are Germany and Japan,
not the United States. Their success— coupled with our failure to make similar investments—has resulted in the loss of our
competitive edge. Even our technological advantages through the national laboratories and our R&D investments cannot
overcome the amount of capital and experience being generated by the combined strategy of market development and R&D
support being advanced by Germany and Japan. And although California is one of the shining stars in the United States regarding
solar power growth, its success cannot substitute for a national commitment to market development. What we are proposing—and
have proposed—really does work. And it will deliver the proven benefits of more jobs, a cleaner environment, and more secure
domestic energy. A recent analysis of policy options for building solar markets shows that by 2025, half of all new U.S.
electricity generation could come from the sun. But this bright future will not happen without solid investment now. The U.S.
solar power industry has developed Our Solar Power Future as a roadmap through 2030 and beyond. In this document, we briefly
discuss the state of solar power today. Next, we look ahead over several decades and set targets for the kind of growth and application
of solar power that we think is both possible and vital. Solar Power Today—World photovoltaic (PV) shipments grew by 32% in
2003, and the industry generated $4.7 billion in revenue. In part, market growth was driven by innovations in both technology and
manufacturing that continue to increase efficiency, boost product lifetime and reliability, and make installation easier. As a result,
average costs and prices declined to make solar power more competitive with conventional energy sources, especially as a source of
peak power. Unfortunately, the United States has lost its lead in solar power development. In 2003, shipments from U.S. solar power
manufacturers fell by over 10% and our overall share of the world market dropped to 14%—the lowest level ever. Meanwhile,
shipments from Europe grew by 41% and shipments from Japan grew by 45%. Increasingly, policies in Europe and Japan are
driving technology and market development.
Solar Power Tomorrow—The next 10 years are critical for worldwide solar power development. Actions by industry and
government will determine whether solar power is catapulted to a new level and whether the United States will regain its
position at the forefront of solar power development. Investment decisions over the next decade for research, new manufacturing,
and creating new markets will determine where solar power will thrive—and where it will merely survive.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 34


FILE NAME
DDI 2008 <GT>
Your Name

Link: Solar Energy

US competitiveness trades off with German market control


Randy Burge, columnist for the Albuquerque Tribune , 1-7-2008; “U.S. should help spark solar energy surge”,
http://www.abqtrib.com/news/2008/jan/07/us-should-help-spark-solar-energy-surge/

However, Americans need to wake up to the new market light behind today's photovoltaic revolution.
In fact, the United States needs to play serious catch-up with other countries that are outdistancing us in terms of alternative
energy legislation, technology development, manufacturing capacity and other dynamic measures. These factors will pay huge energy
and economic dividends to those countries that master photovoltaic industrial development.
WorldWatch.org and SolarBuzz.com report that the compound annual growth rate for the photovoltaic industry is more than 43
percent - a huge burst of energy, so to speak. The United States risks being left out of the industry the country helped create.
Ironically, one of the brightest stars on the photovoltaic scene is an American company, First Solar, based in Phoenix. First Solar,
though, does not sell any products in the United States. Yet. The company's remarkable growth and success is driven by
German investments and work force, and receptive global, non-U.S. markets. The company has a market valuation higher than
General Motors or Consolidated Edison. First Solar, in part backed by a branch of the Wal-Mart fortune, innovated a new way to make
photovoltaic cells without the heavy demand of limited silicon resources. The cost per watt performance of photovoltaic
technologies over the past several decades has limited the widespread adoption for home, commercial or electric-grid scale
photovoltaic uses.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 35


FILE NAME
DDI 2008 <GT>
Your Name

Link: Biofuels/Biomass
The US and Germany will compete over biofuel providers
Caitlin Roman 07-06-2007 “EU Aid for Biofuel in Poor Nations” http://www.forbes.com/feeds/ap/2007/07/06/ap3890410.html

The European Union plans to give money to help developing countries grow energy crops rich nations want to use for
transport fuel, the EU aid chief said Friday. Europe and the United States plan to use more low-carbon emission biofuels
to reduce their dependence on imported oil and cut their contribution to global warming. EU Development Commissioner
Louis Michel said the EU would allocate part of a 220 million euro ($300 million) foreign aid budget to offer countries investment
and technical skills so they can jump on the biofuel bandwagon. Officials were unable to give a precise figure. He said the EU was
currently studying how sugar producers from former European colonies in Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific, or ACP, could
turn to ethanol production while other regions could grow oilseed crops. The biofuel boom offers an answer to fears that ACP
countries will lose out as the EU slashes sugar prices it kept artificially high for decades. For more than 30 years, these
countries had preferential access to rich European markets and grew crops that Europe wanted. The EU is now pushing them to
turn to other crops by cutting trade tariffs for other products - and may reduce high ethanol tariffs in the future although
this is likely to benefit Brazil more than other sugar exporting countries. Michel acknowledged concerns that turning land
over to energy crops might reduce food production but said this should not hold back a "historic" opportunity to introduce new
crops where there is high demand.

American challenges result in biofuel competition


Gershwin Wanneburg, reporter for Reuters, April 4, 2007 “Biofuels in Africa: Investment Boon or Food Threat?”
http://www.planetark.com/dailynewsstory.cfm/newsid/41249/story.htm

The United States, the world's biggest maize producer, is already pressed to meet its domestic demand for biofuels. Nearly a
quarter of its annual 230-million-tonne maize output goes to ethanol production. That is with a requirement of just four percent
ethanol content in gasoline -- a quota set roughly to double in a few years. The European Union, among those leading the push
for cleaner fuels, faces a similar challenge and already imports much of its bioethanol from Brazil. So, in the long run, this may
make a turn to African inevitable.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 36


FILE NAME
DDI 2008 <GT>
Your Name

Link: Tech Development

US tech dominance trades off with European economic leadership


Sorin Lungu, PhD candidate, international relations; June 2005;, European Perceptions of U.S. High-Technology and Defense
Strategies since the Final Days of the Cold War: A Sine Qua Non Research Agenda?, Strategic Insights,
http://www.ccc.nps.navy.mil/si/2005/Jun/lunguJun05.pdf

Europeans assessed that a key element of the U.S. Government strategy has been the attempt to shape the direction of
technological development in a way that could set the ground for the economic competition with Europe and allow the United
States to use its position of political and military prominence within the Atlantic alliance.[2] European Subordination For
Europeans, such a U.S. strategy meant, to a large extent, de facto technological and political subordination, favored by already
existing strict military and political links between the two sides of the Atlantic. European elites considered that U.S. policies would
lead the “Old Continent” to renounce choices of greater technological originality, economic growth, and political autonomy. They
feared that Europe would return, just like in the immediate post-World War II period, to be a junior political partner, with an economy
lagging behind the United States and dependent on it for key technologies. In this context, the “trade-defense linkage” was identified
by the mid-1990s as an area of great concern in Europe (especially in France and Germany). More precisely, it was assessed that U.S.
high-technology preeminence (both in the military and commercial sectors) could become the main external factor in determining
Europe’s economic prospects and, thus, its political autonomy in the early 21st century. This did not exclude the possibility
(especially after the victory in the Gulf War of 1990-91) that the United States could manage the commercial return on defense
investment in such a way that it would increase its influence on the European Union’s ability to promote its own foreign and
commercial policy agenda, especially with regard to the Persian Gulf region, the Asian Far East, and South America. It was perceived
that the United States was changing the pattern of competition in international politics by translating defense technological
superiority into global market share. In this way, it was considered that by indirectly linking trade and security, access to foreign
markets could be gained, competitors could be discouraged, and an expansion of global market shares could be achieved.[3] Losing
Export Market Share The major European countries (France, Germany, Italy, and the UK) lost export market shares to the United
States especially during the period from the late 1980s to the late 1990s, not only in civilian high-technology sectors, but in defense
sectors as well. Shrinking export markets were associated in the European Union not only with less influence in world affairs
but also with a potential competitive decline in the high-technology industries.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 37


FILE NAME
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Link: Research & Development


R&D is crucial to US renewables competitiveness
US Department of Energy, September 2004; “Our Solar Power Future”
The foundation of successful technology is excellent research and development. The U.S.
industry recognizes that to reduce solar power system costs, increase the energy delivered
from its components and systems, and enhance its manufacturing efficiency (i.e., throughput and
yield), the following investments in balanced federal R&D are essential.
Foster technologies that are now and near, which are critical to our current U.S. industry—this
includes crystalline silicon and thin films, as well as balance-of-systems components. This focus will
decrease the gaps between where these manufactured technologies are now and what they can
realistically achieve, helping to ensure that we meet the roadmap’s technical goals over the next 10 years.
Position the United States to own the coming generations of solar power technologies—Investing in R&D for higher-risk,
longer-term technology will provide options to leapfrog beyond today’s technology to new levels of performance and reduced
costs. This R&D includes developing new materials that push current technologies to the next performance level, discovering and
demonstrating new devices with ultra-high efficiencies (e.g., nanotechnology approaches, multiple-junction and layered devices), and
developing devices with ultra-low costs (e.g., organic or plastic solar cells, ultra-thin films). Investments must also stimulate the
next generation of fully integrated solar energy systems. This includes modules and balance-of-systems components, including
novel and “smart” electronics, optics, integration, architecture-based energy, storage, hydrogen production, and advanced
power electronics.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 38


FILE NAME
DDI 2008 <GT>
Your Name

Link: Climate Change


The US perceives Germany as an economic threat – competitive renewables are key
Reuters 3-17-2008; “Europe's renewables lead stirs U.S. concern-Germany”
http://www.reuters.com/article/latestCrisis/idUSL17762760

BERLIN, March 17 (Reuters) - The United States' resistance to international efforts to fight climate change is linked to Europe's
growing competitive advantage in the renewable energies sector, Germany's deputy environment minister said on Monday.
Michael Mueller said he believed that economic interests were playing an increasingly important role in international negotiations
aimed at reducing emissions of greenhouses gases. Germany is a world leader in renewables technology. "In the United States
there is a growing recognition that Europe's lead in renewable energies technology is a problem," Mueller told a conference in
Berlin, where substantial government backing has led to flourishing renewable sectors. "I think the United States' blockade can be
traced to the fact that the Americans are not as far along in this area as they should be," he added. "There's an economic
interest behind their blockade."

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 39


FILE NAME
DDI 2008 <GT>
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Internal Link: Alt Energies Key to Econ


Alternative energy leadership reduces fossil fuel imports and helps Germany’s economy
Young Germany 1-5-2007; “Alternative energy use continues to increase” http://www.young-germany.de/news-
verwaltung/news-singleview/article/6f3ee4ac0a/alternative-energy-use-continues-to-increase.html?no_cache=1

The year 2006 was a record year for the use of renewable energies in Germany. Solar energy, wind power and other renewable
energy sources enjoyed record popularity in Germany, the Federation of Renewable Energy (BEE) said Thursday (4 Jan). The share
of alternative energies in overall national energy consumption was 7.7 percent (2005: 6.8). Use of alternative energy was most
prevalent in German electricity, where it accounted for 11.6 percent (2005: 10.5%) of the consumption. Also of note was the massive
40 percent increase in the use of biofuel: More than 3.3 million tons were used in 2006, accounting for 5.4 percent of fuel
consumption in Germany. This development means that Germany is on track to meet the energy consumption targets set by the EU
for 2010, which are a 12.5 percent share of alternative energy for electricity and 5.75 percent for fuel. And the use of alternative
energy is not just good for the environment: The BBE estimates that the use of alternative energy saved Germany 4.2 billion
euros in oil, gas, coal and uranium imports. BBE President Johannes Lackmann said, “Germany is increasing its
independence from expensive and environmentally damaging energy imports. Alternative energies are strengthening
Germany’s position as a place to do business.”

Germany is committed to renewable energy for the long term


Donald Aitken, PhD and former Senior Fellow at Dartmouth College, 5-10-2005, “Germany Launches Its Transition To All
Renewables”, http://www.sustainablebusiness.com/index.cfm/go/news.feature/id/1208

Can renewable energy development keep pace with rising global energy demand? As world governments struggle with this question,
Germany is advancing with resolve in a transition to 100% renewable energy. The German government accepts the goal is
technically and economically feasible, and has adopted a long-term national policy for the transition. After years of reliance on
nuclear energy - which supplies 30% of the nation's electricity - Germany has concluded that nuclear is a dead-end and has established
long term plans to phase it out. Germany's most urgent conclusion is that the period lasting until about 2020 comprises "make-
or-break" years for the renewable energy transition. It is this conviction that has driven German policy makers to introduce
the world's most aggressive support for renewables, to stick with it during the past decade and to guarantee that support for
the next 20-30 years.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 40


FILE NAME
DDI 2008 <GT>
Your Name

Internal Link: Alt Energy Key to Econ


Germany is a major supporter of exporting alternative energy
The National Competitiveness Center, 5-11-2008; “German EcoMin urges reforms to speed up growth, improve
competitiveness”, http://www.saudincc.org.sa/News-and-events/News/German-EcoMin-urges-reforms-to-speed-up-growth,-im.aspx

German companies are satisfied with their investments in Hungary, but reforms are needed to speed up growth and improve
competitiveness, German Economy Minister Michael Glos said during an official visit to Budapest on Thursday. Glos also pressed for
more transparent and faster public procurement procedures. Hungary’s new Economy and Development Minister Gordon Bajnai
agreed with Glos on the need for reforms. Bajnai said the two had discussed Hungary’s lobbying to be picked as the site for the
European Technology Institute, if Brussels decides to put the institute in a new member state. Glos said Germany supports the
deregulation of cross-border trade of electricity. Linking Europe’s power networks as well as using alternative energy sources
is essential to decrease the region’s energy dependency, he said. Hungary’s exports to Germany rose 15% to €18.1 billion in 2007
and imports from Germany climbed 8% to €17.3 billion, Economy Ministry figures show. According to the Hungarian-German
Chamber of Trade and Industry, German companies have invested Ft 15 billion in Hungary, accounting for almost one-third of FDI.
(MTI-Econews)

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 41


FILE NAME
DDI 2008 <GT>
Your Name

Internal Link: Alt Energy Key to Econ


Germany is leading the EU in solar energy – competition with Britain proves
The Guardian 7-23-2007; “Germany sets shining example in providing a harvest for the world”,
http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2007/jul/23/germany.greenbusiness

Germany has 200 times as much solar energy as Britain. It generates 12% of its electricity from various renewables, compared
with 4.6% in Britain. It has created a quarter of a million jobs in renewables - a number that is growing fast. Britain has only
25,000, a number that represents the amount of jobs created in the industry in Germany in the past year alone. Freiburg, a town of
200,000 people in the Black Forest, has almost as much solar photovoltaic (PV) power as the whole of Britain. Dr Dieter Wörner,
director of Freiburg's environmental protection agency, admits that such is the competition among German towns that Ulm has just
overtaken Freiburg as solar capital of the world.
"But we are still expanding rapidly. It's a sporting contest," he says. Indeed, by the time Britain starts its first eco-town in 2016,
Germany will have 50 or 60 eco-cities. Small wonder that the Labour government has quietly dropped the pledge it made six
years ago to catch up with Germany by 2010. In Germany, too, the higher production has pushed prices down sharply. A typical
3kw PV system costs about £17,000 in Britain but less than £10,000 in Germany. Dr Wörner says prices have halved in the past seven
years and will do so again in the next seven.
The secret of German success is the "feed-in tariff" (FIT). Anyone generating electricity from solar PV, wind or hydro gets a
guaranteed payment of four times the market rate - currently about 35p pence a unit - for 20 years.
This reduces the payback time on such technologies to less than 10 years and offers a return on investment of 8-9%. The cost is spread
by generating companies among all users and has added about one cent/kwh to the average bill, or an extra €1.50 (£1) a month.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 42


FILE NAME
DDI 2008 <GT>
Your Name

Internal Link: Alt Energy Key to Econ


Solar energy provides jobs and boosts the German economy
Sramana Mitra, economic analyst of “Sramana Mitra on Strategy”; 2-2-2008; “Germany and Renewables”, Lexis

Wind power is "quietly generating some 7% of the nation's electricity needs and powering an important new industry." "The
sector both energy suppliers and equipment manufacturers employs more than 235,000 people and generates annual sales
upwards of $33 billion, government figures show. Nearly 60 companies in Germany specialize in wind systems." "Nearly 100
companies manufacture solar cells or supply the sector, with more than half of those in the old East Germany, which has
earned the nickname Solar Valley. One of the stars, 9-year-old Q-Cells, is second only to Japan's Sharp in producing solar
cells." We talked with Tom Werner, CEO of SunPower last year about how big a force Germany has been in the solar sector. The
Wind energy advances are also spectacular.

German renewables have spurred economic growth


Triple Pundit 7-2-2008; Retooling a Developed Economy’s Energy Base: Germany at the Head of the Class,
http://www.triplepundit.com/pages/retooling-a-developed-economya-003304.php

The European Union has been far more united and proactive than the US federal government when it comes to policies
ushering in post-petroleum and fossil fuel era by restructuring and retooling its energy and industrial infrastructure.
Germany is at the forefront of this wave of change. Energy consumption in Germany dropped 5.6% - the equivalent of 18.5 tons
of oil - in 2007 as its economy grew 2.5%, according to BP’s latest statistical review of world energy, illustrating that economic
growth is possible while clean technology is put in place and alternative, renewable energy resources are developed. The BP report
and latest figures were released just days after Germany’s cabinet passed legislation committing the country to reducing CO2
emissions 40% below 1990 levels by 2020. In contrast, world energy consumption increased 2.4% in 2007, led by rapidly developing
China and India while US energy consumption rose 1.7%.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 43


FILE NAME
DDI 2008 <GT>
Your Name

Internal Link: Wind Energy Key to Econ

Wind energy is the primary factor in Germany’s economic growth


Michael Gorvin, staff writer for Talkibie, web-based news server, 3-7-2008; German Technology “Making Green” While “Going
Green”; http://www.talkibie.com/clean-and-green/german-technology-making-green-while-going-green/

Is it possible to pursue alternative, renewable energy while at the same time stimulating the economy? Well, it certainly seems
to be working for Germany’s burgeoning wind energy industry! A recent article in Businessweek highlighted German’s windmill
generators. According to the article, 7% of the nation’s power and electrical needs are generated from the wind power harvested
by these windmills. Further, because of favorable regulation of the industry, “Germany has become a global powerhouse in green
energy, producing more electricity from wind than any other country.” Germany currently leads the international market in
wind production, they have no plans to stop there. According to this blogger, the country plans to expand their wind farms and the
use of other renewable energy resources, which will position Germany as a true international leader in alternative energy production.
In addition to the economic stimulus in the wind energy field, the German economy has benefited from other green businesses.
According to Businessweek, this sector of the economy employs more than 235,000 people and generates sales upwards of $33
billion. While the U.S. economy is currently plagued with surging oil prices and increased concerns over global warming
ramifications, Germany is seeing the payoff for their labors in pioneering wind-harvesting technology. In addition, the solar
industry in Germany is also beginning to take off, with almost 100 companies manufacturing solar cells within the country.

Wind power is key to Germany’s economic expansion


University of Iowa Environmental Health Science Research Center, Fall 2008; “Green Bike Tour Seeks European
Alternative Energy”; http://www.ehsrc.uiowa.edu/ehsrc_update/EHSRC_Update_1-3_Fall2002.pdf
Karl Martin Hentschel, minister of Finance and Energy in the State Parliament of Schleswig-Holstein. Mr. Hentshcel, who
leads the Green Party, told us that 15 years ago people laughed at the Greens when they said wind could provide substantial
energy. Now, wind power is credited for giving the German economy a shot in the arm. In addition to making the country less
dependent on imported fuels, wind-machine manufacturing and installation have created many jobs, and now is second only to
the automobile industry in its demand for steel. Schleswig-Holstein has a goal of providing 50 percent of its electrical needs
from wind energy by 2010. The present government considers this goal very achievable if offshore wind development works out.
Much of the other 50 percent will come from organic waste from farms, homes and restaurants which will be separated to become a
source of biomass energy.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 44


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Internal Link: Wind Energy Key to Econ


Wind energy creates jobs and develops rural regions in Germany
OSEA (Ontario Sustainble Energy Association), July 2002, “German Renewable Energy Feed In Tariffs Policy Overview”,
http://www.ontario-sea.org/ARTs/Germany/GermanyRickerson.html

Soon after the introduction of the "250 MW program," a coalition of parties in opposition to Kohl's conservative CDU
government, pushed the Stromeinspeisungsgesetz or "Electricity Feed-in Law" (EFL) through the German Bundestag in 1990. The
EFL ignited the German wind industry by guaranteeing grid connection and a Renewable Energy Feed-In Tariff (REFIT) to RES
generators. Under the law, hydropower, landfill gas, sewage gas and biomass producers were guaranteed at least 80% of the retail
consumer price for the electricity they produced. Wind and solar producers, meanwhile, were given a 90% price guarantee. The EFL
surprised many policy makers with its significant and sustained effects on the wind industry and on the German economy. Wind
quickly became Germany's fastest growing energy source and the industry continued to expand even during economic
downturns. In combination with the 250 MW program, low interest wind turbine loans from semi-public banks, and various state
level incentive programs, the EFL propelled the German wind industry to 2100 MW in 1997 - a 420-fold increase over the 5 MW
installed a decade earlier [14 & 17].
The EFL-driven boom created approximately 40,000 new jobs - an impressive figure for an energy source that contributes
such a small fraction to the national energy supply. By comparison, the nuclear industry supplies 30% of Germany's energy
but employs only 38,000 people. Wind energy's job creation effect per megawatt of installed power in Germany is therefore
approximately 10 times greater than that of nuclear energy's. Furthermore, wind energy has created jobs in sectors which are
critical to the development of the German economy. Most new wind jobs are created in the SME sectors and in regions that
are rural or economically less developed. Former East German Bundesländer like Brandenburg and Sachsen-Anhalt, with 326 MW
and 302 MW respectively, have attracted much-needed jobs and income through wind energy development [15].

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 45


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Internal Link: Wind Energy Key to Econ

Germany’s economy is reaping the benefits of wind power business


Business Week 2-11-2008; “The Wind at Germany’s Back”, Lexis
Now, as oil prices surge and global warming concerns fuel demand for green energy, Germany is seeing the payoff. The
sector--both energy suppliers and equipment manufacturers--employs more than 235,000 people and generates annual sales
upwards of $33 billion, government figures show. Nearly 60 companies in Germany specialize in wind systems. Enercon, based
near the North Sea, is in a dead heat with General Electric's wind-power unit and Spain's Gamesa for the No. 2 slot in the global
market for wind generators. The leader, Denmark's Vestas, produces key components such as windmill blades in Germany. Winergy, a
unit of Siemens, says half the world's windmills use its parts.
Despite Germany's reputation for gray skies, the energy law has also helped build up a solar industry. Nearly 100 companies
manufacture solar cells or supply the sector, with more than half of those in the old East Germany, which has earned the
nickname Solar Valley. One of the stars, 9-year-old Q-Cells, is second only to Japan's Sharp in producing solar cells. And last year,
Phoenix-based First Solar opened a $170 million solar-module plant near the border with Poland.
First Solar is just one of a slew of foreign outfits investing in renewables in Germany. GE makes turbines near the Dutch
border and is expanding production. Solar wafer maker EverQ, backed by Massachusetts' Evergreen Solar, has opened two factories
in eastern Germany since 2006 and now employs 800 people there. And India's Suzlon last year acquired a majority stake in REpower,
a Hamburg wind-equipment supplier.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 46


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Internal Link: Solar Energy Key to Econ


Solar energy is reversing Germany’s economic downturn
Chris Cordy, writer for Invest In Germany, July 2007; Photovoltaics – Sunrise Over the Oder, http://www.invest-in-
germany.com/homepage/info-service/publications-downloads/magazine/special-magazine-edition-eastern-germany/brandenburg/

The economic decline of the previous decade is now starting to reverse course. The sun is literally shining as the solar energy
growth that marks the German economy as a whole leaves its mark on Frankfurt (Oder). The entire solar energy sector in
Germany is growing rapidly. With sales of €3.7 billion in 2006, it is significantly contributing to Germany’s growing economy and
bringing money and jobs to this border city. In July 2007, the American company First Solar opened its first German factory in
Frankfurt (Oder), with over 400 employees, to make state-of-the-art thin film solar modules. The President of the company,
Bruce Sohn, said at the opening ceremony,“ as the world’s largest solar power market, Germany is the ideal location for our
production facility. Our location in Frankfurt (Oder) is a testament to the successful environmental and economic policies in Germany.
The favorable investment climate was made possible by the consistent promotion of environmentally friendly energies through
the renewable energy act”.

Solar power has created a quarter-million jobs and created a grassroots climate movement in Germany
The Montreal Gazette 7-31-2007; “An unlikely hotspot”, Lexis
"There has also been an enormous interest for solar power from the public in general," added Asbeck, who in 1988 started his
Bonn-based company making and marketing PV products. Its 1,350 staff have doubled in number in the last two years. "Germans
have a fondness for inventing and developing technologies - especially when it might lead to big export rates. Helping fight climate
change is a bonus," said Asbeck, who plans to nearly double the staff again within two years.
There are now more than 300,000 PV systems in Germany - the energy law had planned for 100,000.
Spread out across the country, they are owned by legions of homeowners, farmers and small businesses who are capitalizing on
the government-backed march into renewable energy. By tapping the daylight for electricity - which power companies are obliged
to buy for 20 years at more than triple market prices - they are at the vanguard of a grassroots movement in the fight against
climate change. "It's grown much faster than anyone thought it would," Juergen Trittin, the former Environment Minister who
masterminded the scheme, told Reuters. He was mocked at the time for his claims it would create jobs and not hurt the economy.
There are now 250,000 jobs in Germany in the renewables energy sector. Asbeck expects the number of jobs in solar power
alone to double to 90,000 over the next five years and hit 200,000 in 2020.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 47


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Internal Link: EU is increasing reliance on biofuels


The EU relies on biofuels for their energy future
Randy Schnepf Specialist in Agricultural Policy Resources, Science, and Industry Division March 2006 “European Union
Biofuels Policy and Agriculture: An Overview”

Several different economic and environmental forces have converged in recent years to generate growing interest in alternate
sources of energy, including biofuels, within the European Union (EU). The European Commission (EC) is using both
legislation and formal directives to promote biofuel production and use within the EU. However, EU biofuel production is
impeded by its high production costs relative to fossil fuels. To date, the most important biofuel produced in the EU has been biodiesel
with an 80% share of biofuel production in 2004. Bioethanol has accounted for the remainder. The major feedstock for EU biodiesel
production is rapeseed oil, while bioethanol is generally produced using a combination of sugar beets and wheat. U.S. policymakers
are closely watching EU biofuel developments, particularly for any successful policy choices that might work in the United
States. In addition, both the production and use of biofuels have important long-run implications for EU agricultural
production and trade. This report briefly introduces some of the more salient agricultural policies and issues related to EU biofuel
production and use. This report will be updated as events warrant.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 48


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Internal Link: Alt Energy Exports Key to German Econ


Competitive alternative energies are needed for German economic growth
Agence France Presse – English September 25, 2007, “German economy could absorb 26-pct cut in greenhouse gases: study”,
Lexis

Germany could slash its greenhouse gas emissions by a quarter by 2020 without curbing economic growth or sacrificing the
quality of life of its citizens, an industry study released Tuesday indicated. But the analysis, presented by the German Federation of
Industry (BDI) and consultancy giant McKinsey, said cuts beyond 26 percent would take a toll on the economy, particularly if Berlin
moved ahead with plans to scrap nuclear power. It said reducing emissions by more than 31 percent was "unimaginable" if the
government pressed on with its goal to mothball the country's 17 atomic power plants by about 2020. German Chancellor Angela
Merkel has made combatting climate change a central goal of her coalition government and has set a goal of reducing carbon
emissions by 40 percent by 2020 compared to 1990 levels. "If it wants to reach 40 percent, it will only be possible by maintaining
nuclear energy," BDI president Juergen Thumann said at the presentation of the study, entitled "Costs and Potential of Avoiding
Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Germany." The study said that otherwise the costs of cutting emissions would be so high that many
companies would flee Germany, leading to the loss of "millions of jobs". The authors said theirs was the first study to look at the
specific costs of fighting climate change from the point of view of investors and affected industries. They estimated the average cost
of reducing carbon emissions by 26 percent at 20 euros (28 dollars) per tonne. Beyond that, the cost would rise to between 32 and 175
euros per tonne using today's technology due to the far greater need to use renewable energy in key sectors. Thumann called on
Berlin to implement policies that would spur the development of technologies that increase fuel efficiency and cut carbon
emissions. "The results of this study clearly show that the German economy with its technological potential is the solution to
the problem," Thumann said. "At the end of the day, only companies can develop and implement the products, practices and
technologies for efficient protection of the environment." Thumann said that Germany should harness the international market
potential of "green" innovation. "We will only find the appropriate global response to the global problem of climate change
and strengthen our domestic economy and labour market if we foster the export of relevant technologies," he said. More that 70
companies and industry organisations contributed to the study.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 49


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Impact - Germany key to EU Econ


German decline collapses the EU economy
David Rodriguez, Currency Analyst at Comtex News Network, 7-21-2008; Euro Could Face Downside Risks as German
Economy Struggles to Stay Afloat, Lexis

The Big 4 in Euroland have responded rather differently to the headwinds that have hit the Euroland economy. Overall,
Euroland is on the brink of recession. The French economy is cooling very fast at the moment, as indicated by the composite PMI
falling from above 55 to below 50 in just 3 months, meaning French PMI has entered contraction territory. In addition, French
consumer confidence is in freefall, hitting a record-low for the sixth straight month in June. In Italy, growth has been slow for years,
and Italy has been well into PMI contraction territory for some time.
Spain is in deep trouble, and is set to slide into recession this year on the back of the collapsed housing market, which hadbeen the
main driving force for growth in recent years. Germany, in contrast, has performed relatively well during these turbulent times,
and is now more or less the last man standing in Euroland. Therefore, Euroland growth heavily depends on how Germany copes
with the blows it has been dealt. If Germany weakens (further) in the coming months, this will have a profoundly negative effect
on the Euroland economy, as Germany accounts for more than a quarter of total Euroland GDP. Furthermore, as the Euroland
economies are rather intertwined, a weakening in Germany will most likely have a substantial knock-on effect on the other
Euroland economies - and the risk of a significant economic slowdown in German has risen in recent months, as the other major
economies in Euroland have weakened considerably.

Extinction
Walter Russell Mead, former Senior Fellow for U.S. Foreign Policy at the Council on Foreign Relations, World Policy Institute,
1992; "Depending on the Kindness of Strangers," New Perspectives Quarterly 9.3 (Summer 1992) pp. 28-30.
Hundreds of millions – billions – of people have pinned their hopes on the international market economy. They and their leaders
have embraced market principles – and drawn closer to the west – because they believe that our system can work for them. But what if
it can’t? What if the global economy stagnates – or even shrinks? In that case, we will face a new period of international conflict:
South against North, rich against poor. Russia, China, India – these countries with their billions of people and their nuclear
weapons will pose a much greater danger to world order than Germany and Japan did in the 30s.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 50


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Impact: Germany key to EU economy


German economic health is key to the European Union
International Herald Tribune 10-27-2006, http://www.iht.com/articles/2006/09/27/business/euecon.php
In a Reuters poll released Wednesday, 79 of 80 economists forecast that euro zone rates would rise to 3.25 percent next Thursday,
with 71 betting on another rise in December to 3.5 percent. The ECB said Wednesday that euro zone money supply and loan growth
accelerated unexpectedly in August, with borrowing by businesses rather than consumers driving a rise in private sector loan growth to
an annual 11.3 percent from 11.1 percent in July.
Economic growth in the euro zone outpaced the United States in the second quarter, with an annualized rise of 3.6 percent in gross
domestic product versus the preceding quarter.
Most forecasters believe this pace will slow in the latter half of 2006, but not dramatically, and the prospect of a big sales tax
rise in January is encouraging Germans to spend now, boosting consumption this year and possibly next.
GfK said its forward-looking consumer sentiment indicator for October rose to 8.8, the highest since November 2001, from 8.6 in
September.
Chancellor Angela Merkel's coalition plans to raise VAT three percentage points to 19 percent to ease pressure on Germany's
public finances and reduce non-wage labor costs.
In Italy, ISAE's seasonally-adjusted business confidence index rose to 97.3 from an upwardly revised 94.9 in August. "Confidence is
growing in all sectors with the most marked increase in consumer goods," ISAE said.
Outside the euro zone, the news was mixed. The Swiss KOF leading indicator of business sentiment fell in September for a
second month while Sweden published surveys showing still healthy consumer and business sentiment.

Europe’s economy is connected – German decline means European recession


Edward Hugh, economic analyst, 7-24-2008; “German Economy Watch”, http://germaneconomy.blogspot.com/2008/07/german-
business-confidence-falls.html

Christian Menegatti in his Global Recession Watch post on RGE Monitor last week strang together an impressive list of countries
which might be at risk of entering recession during 2008. One name which was conspicuously absent from the list was that of
Germany. Yet the situation here is not as self evident as some may assume, and one of the aims of this post is to pose the question:
just how realistic it is to expect an export dependent German economy to avoid recession when so many of its most important
customers - the UK, the US, Spain, Italy... - are either skirting or entering recession even as I write? Indeed Sebastain Dullien
implicitly asks this same question in his most recent post here on Europe EconMonitor.
As Sebastian points out there are now a growing number of indicators which suggest that the German economy is not only slowing,
but slowing comparatively rapidly. And maybe one indicator here says it all: industrial output. Increasing industrial output to fuel
rapid growth in export demand has been at the heart of Germany's most recent expansion, and, as can be seen from the
seasonally adjusted output index in the chart below, industrial output has now been declining for three consecutive months (as of
May data, released 07/07/2008). In addition all the main sentiment indicators are now down (including the EU Composite
Economic Sentiment Indicator, which came in at 101.5 in June, its lowest level since January 2006). The latest Ifo institute business
climate index fell to 101.3 in June (again its lowest level since January 2006) down from 103.5 in May, and the Sentix institute index
(released this morning) fell to minus 9.3 from a positive 5.2 in June. That's the lowest since June 2005 and the biggest one-month drop
since the start of the index in February 2001.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 51


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Impact- European Instability

European instability risks nuclear war and extinction


Zalmay Khalilzad, US ambassador to the United Nations and total badass, Spring 1995, RAND, The Washington Quarterly, Lexis

With the shifting balance of power among Japan, China, Russia, and potential new regional powers such as India, Indonesia, and a
united Korea could come significant risks of preventive or proeruptive war, Similarly, European competition for regional
dominance could lead to major wars in Europe or East Asia. If the United States stayed out of such a war -- an unlikely
prospect -- Europe or East Asia could become dominated by a hostile power. Such a development would threaten U.S.
interests. A power that achieved such dominance would seek to exclude the United States from the area and threaten its
interests-economic and political -- in the region. Besides. with the domination of Europe or East Asia, such a power might seek
global hegemony and the United States would face another global Cold War and the risk of a world war even more
catastrophic than the last.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 52


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Impact – German Economy Collapse Global Instability

German economic collapse leads to instability and war


Bizcovering, May 17, 2008; German Economic History, http://www.bizcovering.com/History/German-Economic-History.125282
Prior to the First World War, the German federation of states underwent extreme economic development and reduction of
trade barriers through German Zollverein and customs unions. Zollverein policy was the first crucial step in German unification
and “proved to be a potent stimulant for economic development.” Economic unification began after the North German Federation
conquered land within France, increasing growth potential. With the establishment of the German Reich, trade regulations in the
country were unified as a result of the increased spirit of liberalism. Although Germany remained divided under the control of the
Reich, a currency system was established that aided in the process of unification. Based on the gold standard, this adaptation to
the German economy proved significant in the global economy. The German states “cleared a path to an international
currency unification on the gold basis, which for the whole period up to the World War proved of the greatest importance for
the rapid expansion of world trade.” The unification of the Reich and the development of a currency based on the gold standard
provided increased international economic opportunity. Bundesbank, the central German banking system, played an integral
role in the process of industrialization and the expansion of foreign trade. Germany and Great Britain were the two leading
industrial exporters in the world economy as a result of Zollverein. This expansion of capital and industrial products brought
about a shift in the European balance of power, leading to the outbreak of the First World War. The economic system was
unprepared for a war that was to last several years; the first battle of the war was also a battle for the German economy, resulting
in increased credit requirements for private business. The economy collapsed with the disintegration of military power, crippling
monetary and fiscal domestic policies.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 53


FILE NAME
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Impact: Decline Economic Collapse

Decline of the EU runs the risk of economic disaster


World Economic Outlook 1999; “Global Repercussions of the Crises in Emerging Markets and Other Conjunctural Issues”,
Questia

Although financial fragilities and policy shortcomings played important roles in the buildup to the recent emerging market
crises, the unsatisfactory performance of Japan and most of western Europe since the early 1990s also contributed. Japan's and
Europe's large and growing surpluses of domestic saving over domestic investment not only meant that they were able to
finance the persistent balance of payments deficit of the United States, they also enabled global financial markets to channel
large net capital flows into emerging markets. While these capital flows enabled many emerging market economies to expand
strongly over this period, they also resulted in overheating pressures and large external imbalances. These imbalances made the
economies concerned increasingly vulnerable to adverse external developments, including changes in cyclical conditions
among the industrial countries and consequent fluctuations in global financial conditions and in the pattern of exchange rates
among the major currencies. In addition, the emerging market countries became highly vulnerable to changes in perceptions of
and aversion to risk.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 54


FILE NAME
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Impact: German Econ Decline EU Collapse


German economic struggles lead to European decline
Robert Samuelson, MSNBC/Newsweek, 11-11-2002; “The (New) Sick Man of Europe”;
http://www.vinod.com/blog/News/Econ101GermanStagnation.html

Europe’s troubles stem significantly from Germany. It’s the engine that drives other countries: its population (82 million) is
about a fifth of the EU’s; its gross domestic product (about $2 trillion) is almost a quarter. The engine is sputtering. In 2001,
German GDP grew a meager 0.6 percent; this year it is expected to be 0.4 percent. Since 1991, unemployment has averaged
about 8 percent; the number of jobs in Germany today is roughly what it was a decade ago. Worse, things won’t get better
soon. “German underperformance could easily persist for another decade or more,” concludes a study by economists Dirk
Schumacher and David Walton of Goldman Sachs.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 55


FILE NAME
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EU Climate Spillover
The EU is a key player in fighting climate change – more ambitious policies are key
Agence France Presse – English, 3-7-2007, “EU seeks to cement leadership against climate change at summit”, Lexis
The European Union will try to cement its leadership in fighting climate change, at a summit starting Thursday, with plans to set
tough targets for cutting carbon dioxide emissions. Meeting in Brussels for a two-day gathering, EU heads of state and government
will seek to hammer out a united energy strategy aimed at diversifying sources while reducing pollution. In the run-up to the meeting,
EU leaders have cranked up the rhetoric about the need for tough action to tackle global warming, although some
environmentalists say that proposed targets do not go far enough.
German Chancellor Angela Merkel, who will host European leaders for the first time under Germany's EU presidency, stressed the
urgency of their task in by warning that Europe was at an "important crossroads".
"If we act decisively now, we have a chance of effectively counteracting the dangers of climate change," she said in her invitation
to the summit. British Prime Minister Tony Blair said that Europe should not only show leadership on combatting climate change, but
also beef up the security of energy supplies while opening the market to more competition.
"I think there is the real possibility of showing how Europe can lead the debate on climate change, on energy security, and on
deregulation in the interest of a more competitive European economy," Blair said on Tuesday in London.
EU leaders are expected to endorse plans to cut carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by 20 percent by 2020, from 1990 levels, and by 30
percent if other developed and emerging economies, particularly China and India, join them.
Although the summit is expected to provide a show of unity, tensions are brewing under the surface over the role of nuclear energy
and whether to set a binding target on the use of renewable energy sources.
One of the liveliest debates is expected on whether to set a binding target of renewable energy sources meeting 20 percent of Europe's
energy needs by 2020, after foreign ministers failed to reach an agreement on Monday.
Although Europe is leading efforts to combat climate change, some environmentalist warned that the EU leaders are not aiming high
enough. "The EU's energy action plan ... will fall a long way short in making Europe's energy more sustainable unless targets for both
renewable share and reducing greenhouse gases are raised and tightened," said Friends of the Earth climate campaigner Jan Kowalzig.
Energy policy has climbed to the top of the EU political agenda over the last year as oil price spikes, cuts in gas and oil supplies
from Russia has spurred the bloc to forge a common strategy to meeting their needs.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 56


FILE NAME
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AT: Competition =/= Zero-Sum

Trade is zero-sum – nations compete for economic gain


Clyde V. Prestowitz, Jr, writer for Foreign Affairs, August 1994; “Playing to Win”,
http://www.foreignaffairs.org/19940701faresponse5764/clyde-v-prestowitz-jr/playing-to-win.html

Krugman contends that concern about competitiveness is silly because as a practical matter the major countries of the world are
not in economic competition with each other. He attempts to prove this by making three points. First he argues that trade is not a
zero-sum game. Trade between the United States and Japan is not like competition between Coca-Cola and Pepsi because
whereas Pepsi's gain is almost always Coke's loss, the United States and its trading partners can both be winners through the dynamics
of comparative advantage.
Although true to some extent, this rationale ignores that different kinds of trade take place. Surely Krugman is correct in the
case of trade between the United States and Costa Rica, where America imports bananas it does not grow and exports airplanes and
machinery that Costa Rica does not make. Both countries come out winners by devoting their resources to what each does best. But
what about the kind of trade typified by the recent Saudi Arabian order for $6 billion of new airplanes? Why were the
Europeans so upset and Clinton so happy when the Saudis announced that U.S. producers would win all the orders? Both the
Europeans and the Americans make airplanes, and this order means that the United States will gain jobs and income that
Europe might have had but lost. This was largely a zero-sum trade situation, and ironically it was precisely the case that first
brought Krugman to prominence. Maybe he was right the first time.

Common sense dictates that trade is zero-sum – your authors are just academics looking for attention
William R. Hawkins, Senior Fellow for National Security Studies at the U.S. Business and Industry Council, 9-2-2003; “U.S.
Officials Misread Economic Warfare”; http://www.americaneconomicalert.org/view_art.asp?Prod_ID=882

World trade is mainly about manufactured goods and there is an intense rivalry between nations to dominant this
sector. American is losing this competition. Unfortunately, despite all the talk of “global capitalism,” there seems little
appreciation of the role of conflict in economic theory. Writing in the Atlanta Journal-Constitution (Aug. 17), economics
professor emeritus Donald Ratajczak of Georgia State University trotted out the old saw, “Trade is mutually beneficial
because it is done willingly and helps both sides” but he was writing about exchange between buyers and sellers, not
competition between producers which is the core of the international economic system. Who wins this competition determines
where the jobs, industry, and wealth are created; and where investment flows to finance innovation. It is nothing less than the
process which determines which societies advance, and which stagnate or decline. In this larger sense, trade is a zero-sum game.
When Airbus sells another airliner, it means Boeing did not. When a customer buys a Toyota, it means he did not buy a Ford. And
when American transnational corporations invest $72 billion in China, it means those funds did not go to expand production
capabilities in the United States. Renowned scholar Samuel P. Huntington has noted, “The idea that economics is primarily a non-
zero-sum game is a favorite conceit of tenured academics. It has little connection with reality.” He then asks, “Why are the
economists out in left field? They are there because they are blind to the fact that economic activity is a source of power as well
as well-being.”

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 57


FILE NAME
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Your Name

AT: Competition =/= Zero-Sum


Economics is a zero-sum game – the Law of Scarcity proves
William R. Hawkins, Senior Fellow for National Security Studies at the U.S. Business and Industry Council, 9-2-2003; “U.S.
Officials Misread Economic Warfare”; http://www.americaneconomicalert.org/view_art.asp?Prod_ID=882

Academic economists and business journalists often seem to forget the first premise of economics and the reason the field of
study even exists: the law of scarcity. There is never enough to go around to satisfy everyone’s needs and wants. Not enough
things, not enough money, not enough time. Though supplies can be increased over time, allowing more needs and wants to be
met, at any point in time the allocation of currently available resources is critical. The larger the share a person or company or
society can get, the more it can do – both now and in the future. If the “gains from trade” were large enough to solve the global
economic problem of scarcity, it would then be a foundation for peace. But the world is far, far removed from such a happy state. In
the real world, economics is at the heart of the international struggle for primacy and progress. The trade policies formulated
by China and the European Union are explicitly aimed at undermining what they see as the insufferable American
preeminence in world affairs. In this global struggle, the plots that really menace America’s future are not being hatched in
Afghan caves, but in plush office suites, genteel country clubs, and 5-star hotels. Terrorism is the weapon of the weak, whereas
trade wars are waged among the strong. A Homeland Security department has been created to protect American communities from
suicide bombers. The Commerce department is supposed to provide similar protection from economic assault. But with Commerce
Under Secretary for International Trade Grant Aldonas saying recently that Americans should “resist demonizing China” on trade
issues, it is clear that the rules of engagement at Commerce permit U.S. government officials to open the floodgates and walk away
from their posts.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 58


FILE NAME
DDI 2008 <GT>
Your Name

AT: Wind Energy Competition =/= Zero-Sum


The wind energy market is zero-sum – US investment rises as Germany’s fall
Reuters 1-22-2008; “World wind energy market seen growing in 2008”,
http://www.reuters.com/article/environmentNews/idUSL2236054520080122

BERLIN (Reuters) - The global wind energy market is set to keep growing in 2008, despite pressure on turbine makers from raw
materials prices, but it is likely to slow in Germany, the German Engineering Federation (VDMA) said on Tuesday. Thorsten
Herdan, head of VDMA power systems, said Germany, one of the world's biggest markets, would probably experience a further
slowdown after shrinking by 25 percent in 2007. "Worldwide we see further growth," Herdan said. "The situation in the supply
markets is a little tight and that has to do with the fact that lots of companies have invested in new capacity," he told a news
conference. The world market for wind energy grew by 30 percent in 2007, with around 20,000 megawatts (MW) installed, the
VDMA said. This was compared with 32 percent growth in 2006. Herdan said China had experienced three-fold growth while the
U.S. market had doubled in size. Debate over European Union plans on how to share the burden of cutting carbon dioxide emissions
in Europe and the planning rehaul of the emissions trading system (ETS) had, however, caused some uncertainty among investors,
Herdan said. "This current discussion is not necessarily beneficial for potential investors in the market," he said.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 59


FILE NAME
DDI 2008 <GT>
Your Name

(Aff) Germany =/= Energy Independent


Germany isn’t a leader in alternative energy – they’re not even energy-independent despite subsidies
Voice of America 12-25-2007; “German Investments in Clean Alternative Energy Pay Off”,
http://www.voanews.com/english/archive/2007-12/2007-12-25-voa2.cfm

But Germany is far from being energy independent. Despite the investment in alternative energy, Susanne Droge with the
German Institute for International and Security affairs says there is not enough wind or sun to meet the country's energy needs. "For
Germany, I will guess we can increase the share of alternative energies made at home, but we will not become independent,"
Droge said. "It is a dream." Droge says to keep the lights on in Germany, the country must continue developing domestic alternative
technologies, while also relying on multiple international energy suppliers.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 60


FILE NAME
DDI 2008 <GT>
Your Name

(Aff) Non unique – German Economy


Germany’s economy is stagnating – bizcon proves
George Frey, staff writer for AP Business; 6-23-2008; “German business confidence falls in June”

FRANKFURT, Germany — German business confidence fell in June, dragged down by concerns over record high oil prices, a
closely watched survey of attitudes in Europe's biggest economy showed Monday. "Dark clouds are gathering over the German
economy," said Andreas Rees, chief German economist at UniCredit. "Today's business barometer showed that it is time to say good
bye to the so-far outstanding resilience of 'Made in Germany.'" The Munich-based Ifo institute's business climate index fell to
101.3 points in June from 103.5 points in May, a steeper decline than analysts had expected. "The sharp hike in oil prices is
evidently becoming an increasing burden on the German economy," said Ifo President Hans-Werner Sinn in a statement. Confidence
in the manufacturing sector worsened "significantly," dropping to 8.2 points in June from 15 points the month before, Sinn
said.Alexander Koch, an economist at UniCredit in Munich, said the deterioration in manufacturing points to a slowdown in global
demand. Weaker orders from important euro-zone neighbors also points to "slower industrial dynamic ahead," he said.

Energy prices haven’t fallen and the German economy is struggling


George Frey, staff writer for AP Business; 6-23-2008; “German business confidence falls in June”

The fall in the overall index "underscores that also the German industry cannot decouple from the downswing in its major
trading partner economies," Koch said. "Together with the burden of the very high energy prices on domestic demand, we
expect further downward movements in German business climate in the coming months." Firms surveyed by Ifo were more
pessimistic both about the current business situation and expectations for the next six months. The current situation index dropped to
108.3 points from 110.1, while the expectations index dropped to 94.7 from 97.2, Ifo said. In addition to manufacturing, the Ifo study's
other industry-specific subindexes were also largely down, with trade and industry falling to 1.7 from 6.1 the previous month;
wholesaling falling to 2.1 from 4.0 and retailing falling to negative 6.5 from negative 4.4 the previous month. Only the construction
sector rose, to negative 18.9 from negative 20.2 the month before _ the fourth rise in succession. Timo Klein, an analyst with Global
Insight in Frankfurt, said he continues to expect an eventual supportive impact from consumer demand, but not as long as oil prices
remain above $110 a barrel _ well below the $136.65 they hit Monday. "June Ifo data signal that even the Germany economy's
astonishing resilience to negative global forces has a limit," Klein said in a research note. He also pointed to strong hints from the
European Central Bank that it will likely raise interest rates next month. "The repeated disappointment of hopes for a downward
correction of energy prices, coupled with the most recent ECB announcement of monetary tightening in July, have now hurt
business confidence, especially among manufacturers to a greater degree." The Ifo Business Climate index is based on around
7,000 monthly survey responses from companies in manufacturing, construction, wholesaling and retailing.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 61


FILE NAME
DDI 2008 <GT>
Your Name

(Aff) Non-Unique: German Competitiveness


Improved technology proves other countries are going to catch up to Germany
OSEA (Ontario Sustainble Energy Association), July 2002, “German Renewable Energy Feed In Tariffs Policy Overview”,
http://www.ontario-sea.org/ARTs/Germany/GermanyRickerson.html

In terms of both market growth and technological progress, the global wind industry is developing at a pace that rivals that of
information technology. Wind turbine technology has advanced dramatically in the last 20 years and modern turbines have 45 times
the rated power of their predecessors from the 80s. Larger turbines, increased efficiency, falling costs, and versatile turbine
designs have led to improved economies that have driven the rapid increase of wind energy use worldwide. In the four years
between 1997 and 2001, global installed capacity more than tripled from 7,700 MW to 25,000 MW. The majority of new wind
development has been concentrated in the environmentally-driven markets of Europe, where 70%, or 17,500 MW, had been installed
by 2001. Market studies have shown that wind development in Europe shows no signs of slowing. Even as traditionally strong
markets like Denmark have stagnated, Europe's installed base has experienced a 173% growth over the last four years and
important new markets (France, Poland, Turkey, Italy) continue to build momentum [1 & 3].

Germany’s alternative energy incentives are in decline


Reuters 5-15-2008; Economic Slowdown Challenges Solar Industry-EPIA,
http://www.planetark.org/dailynewsstory.cfm/newsid/48354/story.htm

Support programmes have so far been key for the industry's stellar growth rates and El Gammal said they will continue to play
an important role. The widely copied German renewable energy law is under review as Berlin aims to drive up efficiency and
lower costs. Under the current plan, fees paid to producers of solar power -- which are above market prices to boost the still
young technology -- will decline by about 7 percent plus one cent per kw/hour next year, 7 percent in 2010 and 8 percent in 2011. A
German economic research institute recently called for a cut of 30 percent over a period of 20 years from 2009. "If we look at
scenarios where (fee cuts are) very much higher than 9 percent I think that could very significantly damage the industry," El
Gamal said. Faster consolidation of the industry would be the result, he said.
"The drawback is that we may then put an end to small actors which could introduce alternative and diverse technology," he
said, adding that it was important at this stage of market development to have a variety of players

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 62


FILE NAME
DDI 2008 <GT>
Your Name

(Aff) Non-Unique: EU Economy

Business confidence is low in Europe – investments are unlikely to increase


The Age 7-24-2008, German business confidence falls sharply; http://news.theage.com.au/business/german-business-confidence-
falls-sharply-20080725-3kmw.html

German business confidence dropped to near a three- year low in July, a key survey released said, as a surging euro, spiralling
inflation and worries about higher interest rates hit sentiment in Europe's biggest economy. After falling to 101.2 points in June,
Germany's closely-watched Ifo business confidence index fell sharply to 97.5 this month. Analysts had predicted that the index,
which is drawn up by the Munich-based Ifo economic institute, would fall to 100.2. "These results suggest the economic upswing is
coming to an end," said Ifo chief Hans-Werner Sinn releasing the latest report. Based on a survey of 7,000 German executives, the
July Ifo report comes as a batch of major economic sentiment surveys point to a bleaker outlook taking shape across Europe. While a
report released showed consumer confidence in Italy dropping to about a 15-year low, French business confidence fell to a
three-low, a report released Thursday said. The Ifo index also coincided with the launch of Europe's latest company reporting season
with businesses already reporting mixed earnings results during the latest quarter. Dragging down the July Ifo report were both the
executives' assessment of the nation's current state and their expectations for the coming months. While the Ifo survey component
measuring current business conditions dropped from 108.3 to 105.7, the measure gauging expectations fell from 94.6 to 90.0. Both
falls were more than forecast by economists. "The grim report indicates that growth is slowing sharply in Germany," said Elga
Bartsch, economist with the US investment house Morgan Stanley.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 63


FILE NAME
DDI 2008 <GT>
Your Name

(Aff) Non-Unique: US = Wind Power Leadership


The US has harnessed the most wind-power – we passed Germany in July
MarketWatch 6-22-2008; “U.S. blows by Germany in wind-energy output”, http://www.marketwatch.com/news/story/us-blows-
germany-wind-energy/story.aspx?guid=%7B2FE90BA5-EB86-447F-9C3A-9D5174D97FF2%7D&dist=hpts

NEW YORK (MarketWatch) - The U.S. in July surpassed Germany as the world's largest wind-energy producer, as the business
of harnessing electricity from giant turbines continues to pick up momentum on several fronts.
"Wind is now a mainstream power source - it's not just an alternative energy," said Randall Swisher, executive director of the
American Wind Energy Association, a lobbying group. The AWEA is preparing to release a report with specific figures on the U.S.'s
new role as the leading wind-power producer. But preliminary data show that the country now generates more electricity from
wind than Germany does, though the European nation has more wind turbines in operation. "The wind in the U.S. is more powerful
than in Germany, so we generate more electricity overall," he said. A little more than 1% of the U.S.'s electricity is produced from
wind, compared to figures as high as 20% in Denmark, he said. However, the U.S. Department of Energy has released data showing
that 20% of U.S. electricity could come from wind by 2030. Wind energy figured prominently in the Texas investor T. Boone
Pickens's testimony Tuesday to the U.S. Senate Homeland Security and Government Affairs Committee. Pickens continued to tout
what he calls the threat posed by $700 billion a year moving overseas to buy imported oil. He argued that U.S. national security is in
its greatest jeopardy since World War II due to its "dangerous dependence on foreign oil." He repeated his call for more wind power
to generate electricity. Instead of fueling electric-power plants, natural gas could be used to power vehicles and reduce oil imports to
make gasoline.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 64


FILE NAME
DDI 2008 <GT>
Your Name

(Aff) No Link: Biomass


European biomass promotion is declining
Leigh Phillips, EU Observer; 7-7-2008; “EU signals retreat on biofuels target”, Lexis

European energy ministers have backed away from the EU's biofuels for transport target, admitting a gross confusion on their
part in which they said they had been misreading policy documents since the target was initially proposed a year and a half ago.
The ministers, meeting in Paris for informal discussions, said that upon closer inspection, EU proposals that aim for a target of 10
percent of fuels for cars and lorries coming from biofuels by 2020 in fact only demand that 10 percent of fuels come from
renewable sources, which may or may not be the controversial energy source. "The member states realised that the commission's
plan specifies that 10 percent of transport needs must come from renewable energy, not 10 percent from biofuels," French energy and
environment minister Jean-Louis Borloo told reporters at the conclusion of the meeting. Until now, it was believed that EU leaders
last spring agreed that the EU should increase the use of biofuels in transport fuel to 10 percent by 2020, up from a planned
5.75 percent target to be achieved by 2010. Jochen Homann, a state secretary in the German Ministry of Economics and Technology
said he and his colleagues had "discovered" that the documents "do not speak of biofuels, but renewables," according to AFP. "We
have to decide if the quota can be kept," Mr Homann said. "It might be changed." The retreat comes after months of pressure on the
EU and US from environmental groups, development NGOs and international institutions such as the World Bank and the United
Nations to adjust or abandon their biofuels policies. Until a year ago, the alternative fuel source had widely been seen as a green
alternative to petrol that also allowed European and developing world farmers to benefit from new markets for their crops.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 65


FILE NAME
DDI 2008 <GT>
Your Name

(Aff) Non-Unique: Wind Energy Declining Now


Wind power isn’t expanding in Germany – it’s declining as companies move outside the country for
business
The Age 10-13-2007; “An ill wind blows across Germany”, Lexis
Not all embrace wind power, writes Andrew McCathie in Berlin. The towering wind turbines stretching across the German
countryside have in recent years emerged as a key symbol of the nation's pioneering role in promoting renewable energy.
Now, two decades after the first wind park was opened in Germany, the country's rapidly growing alternative power sector has stepped
up its global drive, with an offshoot of Hamburg-based Conergy AG planning to build Australia's biggest wind park near Broken Hill
in NSW. Riding a global wave of concern about oil prices and climate change, the industry's international expansion comes
amid signs that further development of the wind energy sector in Germany could be limited due to a backlash from affected
communities, and government moves to lower the guaranteed fixed price for the sector. "The wind power business (in
Germany) is not what it used to be," said Stefan Wagner from wind park group Enertrag. Conergy, Europe's biggest renewable
energy company, is boosting its operations outside Europe as the company shifts away from its traditional solar business. With
business operations in 26 countries, Conergy is aiming for a tenfold increase in its Asian business over the next five years, with the
company moving to cash in on China's fast-growing alternative energy market by opening an office in Shanghai. This follows the
launching of operations in India, South Korea, Singapore and Thailand. Underscoring its global ambitions, Conergy's sales surged 70
per cent to EUR418 million ($A657.7 million) during the first half of the year, with overseas sales not only outnumbering domestic
sales for the first time, but tripling them.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 66


FILE NAME
DDI 2008 <GT>
Your Name

(Aff) Non-Unique: Wind Energy Declining Now

Wind energy competitiveness is falling in Germany


The Age 10-13-2007; “An ill wind blows across Germany”, Lexis
In the meantime, with the industry predicting that the electricity generated by wind power could grow from just 1 per cent
worldwide now to 15 per cent by 2020, Europe's alternative energy sector is increasingly in the hands of big power companies
such as Germany's Siemens AG and E.On AG, Europe's biggest energy group.
With 18,685 turbines, Germany has more wind turbines than any other country, meeting 6-7 per cent of electricity needs and
accounting for about 38 per cent of the global wind power turnover. Australia has about 563 turbines.
But while German power companies export 61 per cent of the wind generators they produce, the number of new wind turbines
installed in Germany fell by more than 25 per cent in the first half of the year compared to the same period in 2006. "This is
evidence that the fundamental conditions for wind power utilisation are no longer favourable in Germany," said Germany's Wind
Energy Federation president Hermann Albers.

Wind energy faces opposition in Germany, reducing investments


The Age 10-13-2007; “An ill wind blows across Germany”, Lexis
These days news that a wind park is planned normally results in a local residents' campaign to raise concerns that the wind
generators risk spoiling the countryside, driving away tourists and leading to sleepless nights for those living close to the turbines
because of the infrasound - sound with a frequency too low to be detected by the human ear - caused by the whirling blades. Each
year German courts hear 600-700 cases mounted by opponents of plans to build wind turbines in their local communities. This
week a court in the city of Darmstadt ruled out building two wind turbines on the grounds that they would change the character of the
local environment. Moreover, after leading the world in wind power development, Germany has also run into problems
entering the next great frontier of wind energy - offshore parks - which tend to be free of environmental concerns and where the
wind blows strongly and constantly. Plans for building wind parks out at sea have also run into regulatory and technical hurdles,
with the industry now hoping that an offshore pilot scheme will be launched next year.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 67


FILE NAME
DDI 2008 <GT>
Your Name

(Aff) Non-Unique: Solar Industry Failing in Germany


Germany’s solar industry expanded too far- it’s on the decline
The Guardian 12-13-2007; “Financial: German solar power goes into eclipse as company sheds jobs and profits”, Lexis
The German solar energy group Conergy dealt a severe blow to investor confidence in renewables yesterday by issuing a
second profit warning within two months and slashing a fifth of its workforce.
Shares in the Hamburg-based company, which claims to be Europe's largest solar power group, plunged as much as 20% after
it admitted that pre-tax losses this year could be as much as euros 150-euros 200m (£107m-£143m) compared with earlier forecasts of
euros 10m and that turnover would fall short of the expected euros 1bn.
Germany, which has set ambitious targets of a 40% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2020, is the world's leading solar
power producer, with 15 of the 20 biggest plants, many of them in the former communist east.
Shares in solar groups have outperformed other sectors hugely this year, with Conergy
hitting almost euros 70 in October. Its shares fell 30% on one day in October after it issued its first profit warning. The shares fell 15%
on yesterday's news and closed 11% down.
The sector, comprising 5,000 companies buoyed by laws forcing utilities to buy solar power at above market rates, employs
more than 50,000 and likes to see itself as "solar valley".
But an overstretched Conergy said it planned to axe 500 jobs among its 2,500 staff and sell off its biomass and solar thermal
(house-heating) businesses. Dieter Hammer, the new chief executive, said: "The new board has decided on a decisive break, which
will swiftly restore Conergy to a successful path."

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 68


FILE NAME
DDI 2008 <GT>
Your Name

(Aff) No Internal Link


Germany still relies on fossil fuels for economic growth
UPI (United Press International), 7-16-2008; “German leaders hit EU climate change plan”,
http://www.upi.com/Top_News/2008/07/16/German_leaders_hit_EU_climate_change_plan/UPI-99361216231502/

BERLIN, July 16 (UPI) -- German leaders have criticized EU climate change efforts as harmful to its industries if other major
greenhouse gas emitters don't also make reductions. "Any success achieved in Europe would be pointless," said a Wednesday
statement from the German Economy Ministry pointing to the need for commitments from other polluters such as China, India and the
United States. The statement laid out strong criticisms of the package unveiled by the European Commission in January, the EU
Observer reported Wednesday. The Emissions Trading Scheme came in for particularly serious criticism with the German
ministry saying that a proposed 21 percent reduction on 2005 levels in the amount of emissions trading permits would hurt
jobs and growth in the EU's largest economy. Another key element in the ETS, the commission's proposal to begin auctioning
pollution permits rather than giving them away, could undermine German corporations' investment plans. With skyrocketing gas and
oil prices already pushing investment in alternative energy, any additional governmental measures thus "should be considered
only with great caution," concluded the German ministry.

“I have a competition in me…I want no one else to succeed…” –Daniel Plainview 69