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CO2 Fert

DDI 2008 SS
JBox

AFF Answers To CO2 Fert
AFF Answers To CO2 Fert............................................................................................................................................................1
Idso Biased....................................................................................................................................................................................2
Wildfires DA.................................................................................................................................................................................3
CO2 -> Weeds...............................................................................................................................................................................4
CO2 Doesn’t Help Plants..............................................................................................................................................................5
CO2 Hurts Plant Proteins..............................................................................................................................................................6
CO2  Extinction - Oceans..........................................................................................................................................................7
CACO3 Kills Reefs.......................................................................................................................................................................8

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000 from ExxonMobil since 1998.. Both Idso brothers have been on the Western Fuels payroll at one time or another. along with their father. is an adjunct professor at the ASU Office of Climatology. and Robert Balling.us/adti/Corrupt_Idsos. http://misc. Sherwood Idso. Alan Moghissi). "The Greening of Planet Earth. Keith Idso.500 from ExxonMobil since 1998." The Center has since tried to distance itself from the Western Fuels Association. Fred Palmer. stated in the release. Corrupt co2science. was a paid expert witness for Western Fuels Association at a 1995 Minnesota Public Utilities commission hearing in St. Sherwood Idso. Balling Jr." in January 1998 for the Western Fuels Association. Center for the Study of CO2 and Climate Change When the Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change's web site debuted September 23. but still regularly publishes articles on the Greening Earth Society website.org. a Western Fuels Association member. The Western Fuels Association-funded Greening Earth Society issued the press release announcing The Center's new site. (The Heat is On).mailarchive.html Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change. father of Craig and Keith Idso. No date given. http://www. (The Center also came into being in January 1998. according to information provided by the Center). "The Center's viewpoint is a needed antidote to the misleading and usually erroneous scientific claims emanating from the Federal scientific establishment and adopted by leading politicians.1998. Paul. 8/3/06. All the Idsos are funded by the Western Fuels Association and Exxon Eco Syn. Craig Idso produced a report. Patrick Michaels. MN. head of Western Fuels." Its Progression from Hypothesis to Theory. Associated: Robert C. According to news from Basin Electric. such as Vice President Al Gore. along with MIT's Richard Lindzen. 2 . Corrupt Idsos.html Arizona State University Office of Cimatology Arizona State University Office of Climatology has received $49. The Center is run by Keith Idso and Craig Idso.CO2 Fert DDI 2008 SS JBox Idso Biased The Idsos are paid by big oil Exxon Secrets. All of the Idsos are associated with the (Greening Earth Society) Western Fuels Association and the (Greening Earth Society) Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change (associated TASSC A. (Basin Electric Latest News no date given) Center for the Study of Carbon Dioxide and Global Change has received $65. then a doctoral candidate at the University of Arizona.con website .ca/survivalism/2006- 08/0423.ecosyn.

but when the rangeland is still dominated by native grasses. (the ambient level at the beginning of the 19th century. however.p. fires occur in some areas at average intervals of every 60 to 110 years. for communities. whereupon the plant dies. fire can also lead to environmental degradation through impacts on water cycles. the composition of the cheatgrass changed as the CO2 level increased. Buildings. it seems. with a longer life -.m.m. While cheatgrass can tolerate such frequent burns. More fuel.m. (a 1990s level) and 420 p. Tom Christopher. at 320 p. accessed through Lexis The spread of cheatgrass has been widely attributed to the degradation of native grasslands by overgrazing -. besides loss of an important resource base.cattle prefer and selectively eat the native grasses -. The cheatgrass that Ziska grew at the CO2 level equal to that projected for 2020 increased the plant's biomass by another 18 percent above current levels. 370 p. Increased CO2 alters vital growth patterns in weeds – These alterations inherently make them more combustable and will spark wide-spread wild fires on a scale never seen.Ziska says that the rise in greenhouse gases we have already achieved may have played a decisive role in the spread of a weed that has already transformed the ecology of the Western United States. In a natural setting. Global climate change. this would mean that the dead material would persist longer. (a 1960s level). though.p. and for farmers.S. studied and frequently writes about horticulture for the New York times. Cheatgrass's combustibility is inherent in the plant's pattern of growth. adding yet more fuel for wildfire. soil fertility and biodiversity. and erode soil World Wildlife Foundation. The situation seems likely to worsen too. The scientists grew the plant at four concentrations of CO2: at 270 p.CO2 Fert DDI 2008 SS JBox Wildfires DA A. In addition. highly flammable leaves through the following dry season. fire sweeps through every three to five years. before the Industrial Revolution).m. 9/12/06 http://www. For companies. Periodic fires are an integral part of the rangeland ecology. June 29. Sprouting in the fall. What they found was that an increase of CO2 equivalent to that occurring from 1800 until today raised the total mass of material (the biomass) each cheatgrass plant produced by almost 70 percent. fire may mean the loss of crops or even livelihoods.panda. Forest fires hurt biodiversity. will further stoke the rangeland wildfires. In areas overrun by cheatgrass. Department of Agriculture’. fire can mean the destruction of assets. (the approximate level predicted for 2020 in all the climate-change panel's estimates). Ziska and his colleagues discovered. it resumes growth at winter's end to mature and set seed in early summer.org/about_wwf/what_we_do/forests/problems/forest_fires/index. B.p. 2008. that the weed's flammability seems to have been greatly augmented by the increases in atmospheric CO2 that occurred during the period of cheatgrass's spread through the West. crops and plantations are destroyed and lives can be lost. 3 . opening up areas to invasion by fast-colonizing alien species and threaten biological diversity. the tissues becoming more carbon-rich so that the plant leaves and stems are less susceptible to decay.p. deplete water. the native flora cannot. leaving a tuft of dry. works cited from Lewis Ziska.and more especially to its exceptional combustibility. crush corporations. a –weed ecologist with the Agriculture Research Service of the U.cfm The immediate impact of forest fires can be devastating to human communities and forest ecosystems alike. Fires can alter the structure and composition of forests.

Peering at the instrument panel outside one growth chamber. horticultural and environmental topics.m. Tom Christopher.” has already migrated up to central Illinois and by 2015 could be extending its tendrils into Michigan’s Upper Peninsula. The New York Times.nytimes. It has already started. Tests with common agricultural weeds like Canada thistle and quack grass found them more resistant to herbicides when grown in higher concentrations of CO2. What he and his colleagues have found. Department of Agriculture’.com/2008/06/29/magazine/29weeds-t. they produced twice as much pollen as plants grown in an atmosphere with 370 p. he noted a CO2 concentration of 310 p. the oil in its tissue that provokes a rash. leaving behind more quickly the seedling stage during which they are most vulnerable.html?pagewanted=3&_r=1&ref=magazine Subsequent speakers got down to cases. Ziska showed himself to be a connoisseur of atmospheres. accessed through Lexis Ziska.nytimes. (the ambient level in the year 1998). Poison ivy has also demonstrated not only more vigorous growth at higher levels of CO2 but also a more virulent form of urushiol. of CO2 (the level projected for the end of this century in that same climate-change panel “B2 scenario”). it will have shifted to a regime more like that of Louisiana. (Herbicides already cost farmers more than $10 billion annually worldwide. should have a climate (and weed flora) resembling that of present-day North Carolina. who will have to spend more on chemicals and other anti-weed measures to protect their crops. not only augments the growth rate of many common weeds. Ziska has found. together with Bunce. If these projections prove accurate. 4 . horticultural and environmental topics. Florida will become something unprecedented in this country. the weeds mature more rapidly.p. Ziska hypothesizes that this may be a result of faster growth. making them harder to control. while Pennsylvania will metamorphose into West Virginia and then North Carolina. June 29. Field observations indicate that these transformations are already under way: another speaker pointed out that kudzu. over the same period. 6/29/08 “Can Weeds Help Solve the Climate Crisis?” http://www. Andrew McDonald. Kentucky.m. the year of my birth. had used the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s high projections for CO2 levels at the middle and end of the century to create an atlas of potential weed migrations in cornfields in the Eastern United States.com/2008/06/29/magazine/29weeds-t. Weeds benefiting from increased CO2 will change the ecology and landscapes of much of the eastern US in the next 3 decades. works cited from Lewis Ziska. he said. filters and boxlike aluminum growth chambers. by the end of the next one to three decades. Weeds produce twice as much pollen and poison ivy is more virulent. “the weed that ate the South. will be transformed to something first like North Carolina and then Georgia. it also changes their chemical composition. has been testing the effects of changing CO2 concentrations on a range of crop and weed species. an agricultural scientist at Cornell University. Delaware. This is bad news for allergy sufferers.p. increasing their size and bulk. by century’s end.CO2 Fert DDI 2008 SS JBox CO2 -> Weeds Weeds benefit more from CO2 enrichment – also leads to them becoming more resistant to herbicides and harder and more expensive to control.'' he said. The New York Times. Tom Christopher. is that weeds benefit far more than crop plants from the changes in CO2 and that the implications of this for agriculture and public health are grave. Tom Christopher.) Higher CO2 levels make weeds and poison ivy grow stronger.S. 2008. 6/29/08 “Can Weeds Help Solve the Climate Crisis?” http://www. This promises to be an expensive problem for farmers. especially since the pollen harvested from the CO2-enriched chamber proved far richer in the protein that causes the allergic reaction. a –weed ecologist with the Agriculture Research Service of the U.html?pagewanted=3&_r=1&ref=magazine But enhancing CO2 levels. Wending his way through a basement full of pumps. When he grew ragweed plants in an atmosphere with 600 p. studied and frequently writes about horticulture for the New York times.m.p. ''That's a 1957 atmosphere.

pests and diseases). Until recently. whereas analysis of studies of crops grown in near-field conditions suggest that the benefits of carbon dioxide may be significantly less – an 8 – 15% increase in yield for a doubling of carbon dioxide for responsive species (wheat. http://www. Parry et al. sorghum). "Stern Review on the economics of climate change. rice.gov. But new analysis by Long et al. Rising concentrations in the atmosphere will have benefits on agriculture – both by stimulating photosynthesis and decreasing water requirements (by adjusting the size of the pores in the leaves). which uses a different system for photosynthesis and does not respond to the direct effects of carbon dioxide. (2006) showed that the high-end estimates were largely based on studies of crops grown in greenhouses or field chambers. treasury.cfm Carbon dioxide is a basic building block for crop growth. research suggested that the positive benefits of increasing carbon dioxide concentrations might compensate for the negative effects of rising mean temperatures (namely shorter growing season and reduced yields). These new findings may have very significant consequences for current predictions about impacts of climate change on agriculture. 10/30/06. shows increases of 18 – 25% in greenhouse conditions due to improved efficiency of water use. as droughts intensify and critical temperature thresholds for crop production are reached more often.uk/independent_reviews/stern_review_economics_climate_change/stern_review_report.CO2 Fert DDI 2008 SS JBox CO2 Doesn’t Help Plants Increased CO2 empirically doesn’t help plants Sir Nicholas Stern. 5 . Even maize. higher temperatures are likely to become increasingly damaging to crops. soybean) and no significant increase for non-responsive species (maize. Head of the Government Economic Service and Adviser to the Government on the economics of climate change and development. Most crop models have been based on hundreds of experiments in greenhouses and field-chambers dating back decades. But the extent to which crops respond depends on their physiology and other prevailing conditions (water availability. (2004) examined the impacts of increasing global temperatures on cereal production and found that significant global declines in productivity could occur if the carbon fertilisation is small (figures below). nutrient availability. Regardless of the strength of the carbon fertilisation effect. which suggest that crop yields will increase by 20 – 30% at 550 ppm carbon dioxide.

4%.” says Taub. wheat. According to the study. “The Affect of Rising CO2 Levels on Food Nutritional Content” http://www.3% decrease. The Lempert Report (Food. Changes in taste can be frustrating to retailers and consumers.cfm Last month. Now. the literature as a whole clearly shows decreases in protein concentrations for several important crops. and rice. In this case. wheat down 9. The value of a meta-analysis such as ours is that rather than focusing on the results of one or a few experiments.8%. and soybeans showed reductions of 1. The Southwestern study found that crops grown in atmospheres containing elevated levels of carbon dioxide had significantly lower protein concentrations. Crops grown at higher temperatures have a shortened life cycle. barley. or that it had little or no effect. a Southwestern University study confirms this notion. rice was down 9.CO2 Fert DDI 2008 SS JBox CO2 Hurts Plant Proteins CO2 decreases the protein is foods such as potatoes. This is devastating to poor countries.9%. and that affects quality.article/articleId/125.foodnutritionscience. ours comprehensively addresses the totality of the research literature. rising CO2 levels in the atmosphere could decrease the nutritional value of many major food crops in the years to come. 6 .cfm/do/monsanto. Nutrition and Science) 2/25/08. barley showed a 15. Potatoes showed a 14% decrease in protein. but changes in nutritional content can be devastating – especially to poorer communities. “Various studies had reported that CO2 has a large effect on crop protein concentration.com/index. our Florida report demonstrated how rising temperatures on the Earth’s surface could be negatively affecting the quality of certain crops.

Oceans CO2 increases oceanic acidity which leads to species extermination Dr. some of the most important players at the base of the planet's food chain. The acidity could also negatively impact other calcifying organisms. "What we can't predict is just what acidic oceans mean to ocean ecology and to Earth's climate. co-author of the report and a newly appointed staff scientist at the Carnegie Institution's Department of Global Ecology in Stanford. See http://www. it has been estimated that more than a third of the human-originated greenhouse gas has been absorbed by the oceans. which eventually form sediments." continued Caldeira.CO2 Fert DDI 2008 SS JBox CO2  Extinction . Marine plants soak up CO2 as they breathe it in and convert it to food during photosynthesis. Ken Caldeira. CA.royalsoc. "We can predict the magnitude of the acidification based on the evidence that has been collected from the ocean's surface.uk/ Many scientists view the world's oceans as an important sink for capturing the human- induced greenhouse gas CO2 and slowing global warming.php Stanford. "If CO2 from human activities continues to rise. the oceans will become so acidic by 2100 it could threaten marine life in ways we can't anticipate.K. California. such as phytoplankton and zooplankton. A report issued by the Royal Society in the U.eurekalert." commented Dr. sounds the alarm about the world's oceans. While marine organisms need CO2 to survive. If current trends continue. 6/30/05. work by Caldeira and colleagues shows that too much CO2 in the ocean could lead to ecological disruption and extinctions in the marine environment. Ken Caldeira. and what's known about ocean chemistry. With the explosion of fossil-fuel burning over the past 200 years.ac. http://www. the scientists believe the acidic water could interrupt the process of shell and coral formation and adversely affect other organisms dependent upon corals and shellfish. the geological and historical record. Carnegie Institution.org/pub_releases/2005-06/ci-ott063005.* The report on ocean acidification was released today by the Royal Society. which is corrosive to shells of marine organisms and can interfere with the oxygen supply. “Oceans turning to acid from rise in CO2”. When CO2 gas dissolves into the ocean it produces carbonic acid. Organisms also use it to make their skeletons and shells. International and governmental bodies must focus on this area before it's too late. ocean circulation models." 7 .

8 . lowered calcification rates. and Richard B. February 2004 “Coral reefs Potential Contributions of Climate Change to Stresses on Coral Reef Ecosystems & Global climate change” Published by the Pew Center for Climate Change Reef-building occurs where calcium carbonate precipitation exceeds its removal. 1996. 1996). This points to a slow-down or reversal of reef-building and the potential loss of reef structures in the future. The structural components of reefs (skeletons of corals and algae) are glued together and made more resistant to physi.growth of thin layers of calcareous algae. A reduction in CaCO3precipitation by whatever means (mortality of reef organisms. Future changes in seawater chemistry will not only lead to decreases in calcification rates. Such effects have been observed in the Galápagos and elsewhere (Eakin. Buddemeier. Aronson..cal breakdown by calcium carbonate cements that precipitate within the reef framework. 2001). Kleypas. Some slow-growing or weakly cemented reefs may stop accumulating or shrink as carbonate deposition declines and/or erosion increases. 2000) indicate that the dis. KANSAS GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. Field experiments (Halley and Yates.solution rate could equal the calcification rate once atmospheric CO2concentrations reach double the preindustrial levels. Joan A. DAUPHIN ISLAND SEALAB. Reaka-Kudla et al. but also to increases in CaCO3dissolution. or lowered cementation rates) reduces a reef’s ability to grow and to withstand erosion (Kleypas et al.CO2 Fert DDI 2008 SS JBox CACO3 Kills Reefs CO2 induced CACO3 dissolution kills reefs—it’s key to growth and protection Robert W. NATIONAL CENTER FOR ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH. and by the over..