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Investment Climate Advisory Services World Bank Group Primary Data Collection Methods
Investment Climate Advisory Services
World Bank Group
Primary Data Collection Methods

Category

Method

Definition

Advantages and Disadvantages

Observation

Direct

View subjects in natural setting or through field experiment

Advantages: minimizes response bias, can provide information which cannot be obtained otherwise Disadvantages: limited to measuring behavior, time consuming, and subject to investigator bias.

observation

Solicitation of

 

Structured or semi- structured face-to- face interviews with individuals

Advantages: permits detailed & in-depth question and response, minimizes non-response Disadvantages: Costly, interviewer bias, investigator bias

Expert Opinion

Face to face Interviews

 

Telephone

Structured or semi- structured telephone interviews with individuals

Advantages: Convenient, fast, relatively inexpensive, less interviewer bias than personal interview Disadvantages: Non-coverage, limited length and depth of questions and responses

Interviews

 

Self-Administered

Structured interviews received via mail, internet, phone to solicit someone's opinion

Advantages: Cost effective for large areas, minimizes interviewer bias, promotes accurate answers Disadvantages: low response rates, unanswered questions, incorrect answers

Questionnaire

Group Interviews

Group Interviews:

Development, evaluation and synthesis of experts’ points of view through solicitation and collation of experts’ judgments on a particular topic over several rounds.

Advantages: responses can be made at the convenience of the participant, individuals from diverse backgrounds or from remote locations can work together, it is conducive to independent thinking and gradual formulation of reliable judgments or forecasting of results Disadvantages: Information comes from a selected group of experts and may not be representative tendency to eliminate extreme positions and force consensus, more time-consuming than group process methods, requires time and participant commitment

Delphi Technique

 

Group Interviews:

Brings together 8 to 15 individuals to develop, evaluate and reach conclusions on specific issues.

Advantages: Uses people's knowledge and experiences allowing for in depth qualitative information, Can encourage participation from those who will not speak or respond to a personal interview Disadvantages: there is no confidentiality and thus some opinions may not be expressed, social pressure,

Focus Groups

1

   

(semi-structured

domination by an individual

interviews allowing

group interaction)

 

Group Interviews:

Interactive group

Advantages: generates and clarifies many ideas so it is a source of information, inexpensive, easy to apply Disadvantages: limited when it comes to applying ideas since it only stimulate creative thinking

Brainstorming

problem

identification and problem solving of 1-15 persons

 

Group Interviews:

A

possible

Advantages: Prevents the domination of discussion by a single person, encourages the more passive group members to participate, results in a set of prioritized solutions or recommendations Disadvantages: opinions may not converge in the voting process, cross-fertilization of ideas may be constrained, the process may appear to be too mechanical

Nominal Group

alternative to brain storming. This technique is a

structured

Technique

variation of small group discussion methods 1

 

Group Interviews:

A

structured

Advantages: Many ideas can be explored, helps to understand the point of divergence, bridges irreconcilable points of view

Dialectic Inquiry

qualitative

research method.

A

point and

Disadvantages: consensus may be difficult to obtain

counterpoint

process of debate to reach a synthesis.

Solicitation of

Exit Interviews

 

Advantages: captures the opinion right at the moment of experience, no recall bias Disadvantages: can be biased by an incident or other negative experience which has nothing to do with the research question, Hard to extrapolate if not large sample

Public Opinion

Can be face to face or in written form

 

Household

 

Advantages: Most people live in households so can allow for almost complete coverage of the population, households provide a convenient place where people can be contacted to be interviewed, a large number of household surveys are collected allowing for cross validation of the results, the Census collects baseline information about households which helps calibrate results Disadvantages: Willingness to provide information, memory of respondents, understanding of the questions and knowledge of the topic

Surveys 2

Organizational

Interviews with

Interviews with

Advantages: Opportunity to get insider view, can provide in-depth information

Assessment

key informants

individuals who are

in

a position to

Disadvantages: relationship between the two parties may influence the answers;

provide the answers for the questions under

investigation

 

1 Journal of Extension

2 U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health

 

Focus Groups

Brings together 8 to 15 individuals to develop, evaluate and/or reach conclusions on specific issues. (Are semi- structured interviews allowing group interaction)

Advantages: Uses people's knowledge and experiences allowing for in depth qualitative information, can encourage participation from those who will not speak or respond to a personal interview Disadvantages: There is no confidentiality and thus some opinions may not be expressed, social pressure, domination by an individual

 

Guided Direct

 

Advantages: minimizes response bias, can provide information which cannot be obtained otherwise

Observations

Environmental

Stakeholder

See Engagement Module of Toolkit

 

Assessment

Analysis

 

Interviews with

Interviews with individuals who are in the position to provide the answers for the questions under investigation

Advantages: opportunity to get insider view; can provide in-depth information Disadvantages: relationship between the two parties may influence the answers;

key informants