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Accuracy: The degree of conformity of a measured or calculated quantity to its actual (true) value.

Actinides: The bottom row of f block elements. These are all radioactive Activated complex: A transitional structure in a chemical reaction that results from an effective collision between molecules and that persists while old bonds are breaking and new bonds are forming. Activation energy or EA: The minimum energy required to start a reaction by breaking bonds. Addition polymerisation: A polymerisation reaction where monomers join together and the polymer is the only product Addition reaction: A reaction where two molecules combine to form a single product Alcohols: Homologous series of organic molecules with an -OH functional group Aldehydes: Homologous series of organic molecules containing the carbonyl group positioned at the end to the carbon chain Alicyclics: Organic molecules containing closed rings of carbon atoms which may contain single or multiple carbon-carbon bonds Aliphatic: Organic molecules containing straight or branched chain carbon skeletons which may contain single or multiple carbon-carbon bonds Aliphatic hydrocarbons: Hydrocarbons containing closed rings of carbon atoms which may contain single or multiple carbon-carbon bonds Aliquots: Equal measured volume of solution Alkaline earth metals: A family of metals in Group 2 of the periodic table Alkanes: Simplest homologous group of hydrocarbons with general formula cnh2n+2 Alkenes: Homologous series of hydrocarbons containing a double carbon-carbon bond with general formula cnh2n Alkyl group: An alkane molecule that has lost a hydrogen atom to attach to another carbon chain Alkynes: Homologous series of hydrocarbons containing at least one triple carbon-carbon bond with general formula cnh2n-2 Allotropes: Forms of the same element in the same physical state Alpha radiation: Two protons and two neutrons (helium nuclei) Amorphous carbon: Non crystalline forms of carbon e.g. Soot. Anabolic steroids: Hormones used to encourage the growth of muscles and body mass.

Anthropogenic climate change: Climate change due to activities of human beings e.g. Burning fossil fuels, deforestation) Antioxidants: Compounds which react with and inactivate free radicals. Ar: Symbol for relative atomic mass Arenes: Organic molecules derived from the benzene molecule containing a benzene ring with six carbon atoms in their structure. Atom: The smallest complete unit of an element. It consists of protons and neutrons in the nucleus orbited by electrons. Atom economy: Measure of how efficiently a reaction turns reactants into desired products. Equals the molecular mass of the desired product divided by the molecular masses of all the products multiplied by 100. Atomic crystals: Atoms held together by covalent bonds in a giant lattice structure. Atomic mass unit: The mass of a carbon-12 atom divided by 12 Atomic number (Z): The number of protons in an atom of an element Atomic radius: The distance of closest approach between two atoms Atomisation: The breaking of the bonds in a molecule to leave atoms Avogadro constant: The number of atoms of carbon in exactly 12g of carbon-12, 6.02 x 1023 Avogadro s law: Law proposed by Amedeo Avogadro in 1811; All gases contain equal numbers of molecules at the same temperature and pressure Balanced equation: A chemical equation where the numbers of atoms are equal on both sides and all are in the form in which they undergo the reaction (ie complete molecules where relevant) Base: The number base Base peak: The largest peak (or the greatest trough) on the ir spectrum Base units: The basic SI units of measurement Bent linear: A molecule where three atoms are joined together but not in a straight line e.g. Water Benzene: Organic compound with the molecular formula C6H6. Simplest arene compound with ring of carbon atoms stabilised by delocalisation of electrons Beta radiation: High energy electrons Bio oil: See pyrolysis oil

Bio polymers: Polmers made from materials produced from living, renewable resources such as plants Biodegradable: Can be broken down by living organisms. Biofuels: Fuels made from living material eg ethanol from the fermentation of maize Blocks: Regions of the periodic table Body centred cubic structure: Arrangement of ions in a lattice where each ion has 8 nearest neighbours Bomb calorimeter: Calorimeter which gives accurate measure of enthalpy changes, particulary when a substance is burned in oxygen. Bond angles: Angle between two bonds in a molecule Bond dissociation enthalpy: The energy required to break a particular bond, or the energy released when a bond is formed. Bond energy: The amount of energy needed to make or break a bond Bond enthalpy: The energy contained in a chemical bond Bond fission: Breaking the bonds between atoms in a molecule Bond length: The average distance between the nuclei of atoms in a molecule Born Haber cycle: Special type of enthalpy level diagram used to calculate the lattice energy of siubstances. Boundary: Separates the system from the surroundings in thermochemistry Brittle: Breaks easily when hit Buckminsterfullerene: See fullerenes Calorimeter: Insulated container used to measure enthalpy change of a reaction Carbanion: A species containing a negative charge produced by the heterolytic fission of a covalent bond Carbocation: The positively charged ion left when carbon has lost electrons in an electrophillic attack. A species containing a positive charge produced by the heterolytic fission of a covalent bond. Carbon capture: A process that removes carbon dioxide and prevents it being emitted. Carbon footprint: Measure of the impact of human activity in terms of the amount of greenhouse gases produced

Carbon neutral: When the amount of carbon dioxide absorbed when a raw material is grown or a fuel is formed equals the amount of carbon dioxide formed when it is burnt Carbon offsetting: A method of reducing the effect of a carbon footprint e.g. By planting trees Carbon sink: A reservoir of carbon compounds Carbonium ion: See carbocation Carboxylic acids: Homologous series of organic molecules with a -COOH functional group Carcinogenic: Causes cancer Cat cracker: Industrial vessel where catalytic cracking takes place Catalyst: A substance which alters the rate of a chemical reaction without being used up. Catalytic cracking or cat cracking: Breaking down long chain alkanes into shorter chain molecules which are more useful as fuels and as compounds in industry. Catalysts such as zeolites are used to reduce the temperature needed for the reactions to take place Catalytic reforming: Process which involves breaking down the longer straight chain molecules from crude oil and reforming them into shorter branched chain molecules (often isomers of the original molecules) A platinum catalyst is often used to keep the temperatures required to a minimum Cellulose: A polymer of glucose molecules found in the stems of plants Centres of charge: Parts of a molecule where positive and negative charge is concentrated Chain reaction: A reaction in which a change in one molecule causes changes in many other molecules until eventually a stable molecule is formed Charge density: The amount of electric charge per unit volume Chemical bonds: Forces holding atoms together Chemical properties: Properties which affect the way in which an element or compound reacts with other substances Chemical recycling: Chemically breaking down polymers into monomer units for reuse. Chlorofluorocarbons or cfcs: Compounds containing chlorine, fluorine and carbon only, that is they contain no hydrogen. They were formerly used widely in industry, for example as refrigerants, propellants, and cleaning solvents. Cis trans isomerism: Traditional method of naming geometric isomers based on the arrangement of groups around a rigid bond

Closed: A system which can exchange energy with the surroundings but not matter Collision theory: Theory accounting for the effects of concentration, temperature and catalysts on reaction rates. Colorimeter: An instrument that measures the absorbance of particular wavelengths of light by a specific solution. It is most commonly used to determine the concentration of a known solute in a given solution. Colorimetric analysis: Analysis carried out using a colorimeter Completion: A reaction where all of the reactants have been turned to products Concentration: Measure of the amount of a solute dissolved in a solvent to form a solution Condensation polymerisation: A polymerisation reaction where ,a small molecule such as water or hydrogen chloride is lost when two monomer molecules combine. Condensation reaction: A reaction where two molecules combine to form a larger molecule and a small molecule such as water or hydrogen chloride is lost Conductimetric analysis: Analysis carried out by measuring changes in conductivity of solutions Contrails: Condensation trails and artificial cirrus clouds made by the exhaust of aircraft engines which precipitate a stream of tiny ice crystals in moist, upper atmosphere Coordination number: The number of close neighbours to an ion in a lattice structure Corrosive: A substance which breaks down or destroys materials including skin Coulombs law: Law which states that the force of attraction between ions is related to the charge on the ions and the distance between them Covalent bond: A chemical bond formed when two or more atoms share electrons to gain a full, stable outer shell Covalent bonding: A chemical bond formed when two or more atoms share electrons to gain a full, stable outer shell Covalent bonds: Strong bonds which result from sharing electrons during covalent bonding Cracking: See catalytic cracking Crude oil: Unprocessed oil, a fossil fuel which is extracted from under the ground Curly arrows: Symbol used to represent the movement of a pair of electrons D block: Region of the periodic table containing elements with their outer electrons in the d subshell

D block elements: Elements with the outermost electrons in the d subshell Dative covalent bond: A dative covalent bond is where both of the shared electrons come from the same atom Debye or D: Unit of dipole moment Delocalised electrons: Electrons which are not associated with one particular atom but are free to move. Derived units: Units of measurement derived from the basic SI units Diatomic: A molecule containing two atoms Diesel oil: One of the heavier fractions of crude oil used in diesel engines and as fuel for industrial boilers. Can also be used in a catalytic cracker to yield other chemicals Dimers: Pairs of molecules held together by dative covalent bonds Dipole: A positive charge and a negative charge separated by a short distance Dipole interactions: Forces of attraction between charge centres in different molecules Dipole moment: For a pair of opposite charges of magnitude of the dipole moment is defined as the magnitude of the charge times the distance between them and the defined direction is toward the positive charge. Displacement reaction: A reaction where a more reactive element displaces a less reactive element in aqueous solution Displayed formula: Formula which shows both the relative placing of the atoms and the number of bonds between them Disproportionation: Simultaneous oxidation and reduction Dissipated: Energy irreversibly lost to the system Dot and cross diagrams: A way or representing electrons to model bonding between atoms Double bond: The bond formed when two atoms share two pairs of electrons Double salt: Crystal containing two different salts in a 1:1 ratio Ductile: Can be drawn out into wires Dynamic equilibrium: See equilibrium E isomer: Isomer with higher priority groups on opposite sides of a rigid bond.

E Z isomerism: IUPAC system for naming geometric isomers based on the atomic numbers of the atoms attached around a rigid bond Electron cloud: Arrangement of electrons in an atom Electron density: the areas in the electron cloud of an atom where the electrons are most likely to be found Electron density map or plot: Map plotting the areas where the probablility of finding an electon is highest. The diffraction patterns produced when x-rays are passed through a crystal and diffracted by the electrons in the ions or atoms in the structure. Electron pair repulsion theory: The theory used to explain the shapes of molecules using the idea that electron pairs are arranged as far from each other as possible Electron spin: The rotation of electrons clockwise or anticlockwise creating a magnetic field Electronegativity: The tendency of the atoms of an element to gain electrons Electronic configuration: The arrangement of the electrons in an atom in their subshells and orbitals Electronic structure: The arrangement of electrons in an atom in its main energy levels and sub-levels Electrons: Sub-atomic particles with a negative charge which orbit the nucleus of an atom Electrophiles: Positively polarised, electron seeking groups eg H+ Electrophilic: Attracted to electrons Electrophilic addition reaction: A reaction in which an electrophile is attracted to an area of high electron density and joins onto the molecule Electrophilic attack: Effect of an electrophile on a molecule in a reaction, removing electrons Electrostatic: Relating to electric charges that do not move Electrostatic theory: Like charges repel, opposite charges attract Electrovalent bond: See ionic bond Element: A substance that cannot be broken down chemically into simpler substances. All the atoms of an element contain the same number of protons Elimination reaction: A reaction in which a small molecule is removed from an organic molecule to produce a double bond. Emission spectrum: See line spectrum

Empirical formula: Simplest formula of a compound showing the whole number ratios of the atoms present End point: The stage in a reaction where the indicator changes colour showing that exact reacting volumes of the two solutions are present Endothermic: A reaction which takes in energy from the surroundings Energetic stability: Stability of a compound with respect to its elements in terms of bond enthalpy Energetics: The study of energy transfers between reacting chemicals and their surroundings Energy recovery: Methods of recovering some of the energy used in the production of polymer products by burning them as fuels for electricity production etc Entgegen: opposite Enthalpy change: The change in the energy content of a system held at constant presssure Enthalpy change of reaction: The energy change which takes place during a chemical reaction Enthalpy H: The energy content of a system at constant pressure Enthalpy level diagram: Diagram used to represent the enthalpy changes during a reaction Epitestosterone: Hormone similar to testosterone Equilibrium or equilibria: A situation with a reversible reaction where the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction so there is no apparent changes in concentration of reactants and products. The plural is equilibria. Ethers: An homologous series Excited: Term used to describe electrons when they are raised from one energy level to another within an atom Exothermic: A reaction which releases energy into the surroundings F block: Region of the periodic table containing elements with their outer electrons in the f subshell F block elements: Elements with the outermost electrons in the f subshell Face centred cubic structure: Arrangement of ions in a lattice where each ion has 6 nearest neighbours Feedstock recycling: See chemical recycling Fingerprint region: The region to the right-hand side of the ir spectrum (from about 1500 to 500 cm-1) usually contains a very complicated series of absorptions. These are mainly due to all manner of bending vibrations within the molecule.

Fire retardants: Materials that inhibit or resist the spread of fire. First ionisation energy: The energy needed to remove the first electron from an atom Flame photometer: An instrument used for measuring the spectral intensity of metals present in the metallic salt Flame test: Test used to detect certain metal cations by observing the colour of the flame Fraction: The liquid collected at a particular temperature during primary distillation Fragmentation: The process in a mass spectrometer that causes a positive ion to split into pieces, one of which is a positive fragment ion Free radicals: Atom or molecule with an unpaired electron - for example formed on the breaking of a covalent bond Fullerenes: A family of ball-shaped carbon molecules with the commonest one C60 called buckminsterfullene. Functional group: Atom or group of atoms which is typical of a particular homologous series (organic family) and which plays an important part in determining the chemical properties of the molecule Gamma radiation: Electromagnetic radiation Gas oil: Similar to diesel oil but less useful in a cracker Gasification: Breakdown of solid hydrocarbons in a limited supply of oxygen to produce syngas. Gasoline: A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons widely used as motor fuel (C5-C10) General formula: A formula which applies to all members of an homologous series and describes the number of carbon atoms and their relationship to the other atoms Geometric isomerism: Stereoisomer - and isomer in space. A chemical compound which has the same molecular formula as another but a different geometric configuration because atoms or groups of atoms are attached on either side of a double bond or other rigid bond Geometric isomers: See geometric isomerism Giant atomic structures: See atomic crystals Giant lattice structure: Arrangement of ions in an ionic substance Giant molecular structures: See molecular crystals Global warming: A measured increase in the temperature at the surface of the earth over a period of time

Global warming potential or GWP: A measure of the effectiveness of different gases have in increasing global warming Greenhouse effect: The trapping of some of the energy absorbed by the earth from the sun and reradiated from the surface by greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Some of the energy is reradiated back down to earth again by these greenhouse gases and this is known as the greenhouse effect. Greenhouse gases: Atmospheric gases which reduce the loss of heat by radiation from the Earth s atmosphere, contributing to the greenhouse effect eg carbon dioxide, methane Ground state: The lowest energy state for an atom Groups: Vertical columns of periodic table Half equations: Part of an equation for a redox reaction showing oxidation or reduction of one species. Two half equations added together can produce an ionic equation Half-life: The time it takes for half of the atoms in a sample of radioactive material to decay Halogenoalkanes: Homologous series of organic molecules in which one or more of the hydrogen atoms within an alkane has been replaced by a halogen atom. Halogens: A family of reactive non-metals in Group 7 of the periodic table. Hazard: Potential to do harm Heat capacity (C): The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of an object by 1K Heat exchanger: A device built for efficient heat transfer from one place to another. In a chemical factory waste energy from one place can be used efficiently elsewhere. Hesss law: Law stating that the total enthalpy change for a reaction is independent of the route taken Heterogeneous reaction: A reaction which takes place at the boundary of two phases Heterolytic fission: Fission which involves the unequal sharing of the electrons of a covalent bond, so that both electrons go to one atom when then covalent bond is broken. High density polythene or HDPE: Ethene polymer with relatively few branched chains so relatively dense with higher melting temperature than low density polyethene Homogeneous reaction: A reaction which takes place in a single phase. Homologous series: Family of organic molecules Homolytic fission: Fission which involves the equal sharing out of the electrons in a bond, so that each atom receives one electron when the bond is broken

Hunds rule: Rule stating that when electrons are placed in a set or orbitals with equal energy, they spread out to maximise the number of unpaired electrons Hydration: The process where water molecules arrange themselves around ions in solution Hydration enthalpy: Energy released when 1 mole of gaseous ions are dissolved in excess water Hydrocarbons: Organic compounds with molecules containing only carbon and hydrogen Hydrochlorofluorocarbons or hcfcs: a class of haloalkanes where not all hydrogen has been replaced by chlorine or fluorine. They are used primarily as chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) substitutes, as the ozone depleting effects are only about 10% of the cfcs. Hydrogen bond: A special type of dipole-dipole force that exists between an electronegative atom and a hydrogen atom bonded to another electronegative atom. This type of force always involves a hydrogen atom and the energy of this attraction is close to that of weak covalent bonds (155 kj mol-1), Hydrogen cell: A new technology for powering vehicles based on the oxidation of hydrogen with water as the waste product Hydrolysis: A reaction where a substance is split up by water (or dilute acid or alkali) Hydroxyl group: An O-H group Immiscible: Liquids which do not mix but form separate layers. Incomplete combustion: Burning when the supply of oxygen is limited Index: The power to which a base number is raised Induced dipole: A dipole set up by the close proximity of a strong charge Inert: Non-reactive Infrared spectrometer: An instrument for producing an infrared spectrum Infrared spectrum: A graph showing the record produced when an infrared spectrometer scans a range of ir wavelength and the detector records how strongly the sample absorbs each wavelength Initial rate of reaction: The rate of reaction at the start of a reaction. Initiate: Start/supply the initial energy for a reaction Inorganic chemistry: Study of all the 91 naturally occurring chemical elements and their compounds, including carbon and its oxides and carbonates. Instantaneous dipole: A temporary dipole set up in a molecule

Instantaneous dipole induced dipole interactions: Forces between neighbouring molecules that provide the means of bringing non-polar molecules together in a liquid at low temperatures. Instantaneous dipole instantaneous dipole forces: See London dispersion forces Intermolecular forces: Forces between molecules Intramolecular forces: Forces within molecules Ion: An atom which has lost or gained electrons to take a positive or negative charge Ion microscope: A microscope which uses helium ions instead of light to form an image giving very high levels of magnification Ionic bond: Strong force of attraction between oppositely charged ions formed during ionic bonding. The electrostatic forces holding two oppositely charge ions together Ionic bonding: A chemical bond formed when atoms gain or lose electrons to form positive or negative ions. The loss or gain in electrons gives the ion a complete outer shell of electrons Ionic crystals: Crystals formed by giant ionic lattices Ionic equation: Reaction equation which only shows the ions involved in a reaction Ionic radius: Term used to describe the size of ions Ionisation: The complete removal of an electron from an atom Ionisation energy: The energy change associated with the removal of an electron from an atom or ion Irritant: A substance which causes irritation of the skin Isoelectronic: An ion with the same number and arrangement of electrons as an atom of another element Isolated: A system where the boundary prevents matter and energy entering or leaving Isomerism: Where two or more compounds have the same molecular formula but with the atoms arranged differently Isomers: Two or more compounds with the same molecular formula but with the atoms arranged differently Isotopes: Atoms of the same element with the same atomic number but with different numbers of neutrons giving them different mass numbers IUPAC: International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry

Kerosene: The fraction of crude oil used for aircraft fuel and also as a source of other useful chemicals in the cracking process Ketones: Homologous series of organic molecules containing at least one carbonyl group which is never positioned at the end to the carbon chain Kinetic stability: When the activation energy of a reaction is so large that no molecules in the reaction mixture have sufficient energy to overcome it and so the reaction does not take place Lanthanides: The top row of f block elements Lattice: Structural arrangement of a solid Lattice energy: The energy released when an ionic lattice is formed. A measure of the strength of bonds in an ionic compound. It is equivalent to the amount of energy required to separate a solid ionic compound into gaseous ions. Law of octaves: Law developed by John Newlands in an attempt to arrange the elements in order of their atomic masses. Le Chateliers principle: When an equilibrium reaction mixture is subjected to a change in conditions, the composition of the mixture adjusts to counteract the change Life cycle analysis: See life cycle assessment Life cycle assessment or LCA: The investigation and valuation of the environmental impacts of a given product or service caused or necessitated by its existence. Lime water: A solution of calcium hydroxide in water used as a positive test for carbon dioxide gas. Line spectrum: The pattern which results when the light given out by a gas when an electrical charge is passed through it is split to form a spectrum Linear: All of the atoms in a molecule are in a straight line Liquid petroleum gas or LPG: Propane which is liquified under low temperatures and high pressures for storage and transport London dispersion forces: The forces that exist in non-polar molecules that involve an accidental dipole that induces a momentary dipole in a neighbour. London forces: See London distribution forces Lone pair: Two non-bonding electrons in a molecule Low density polythene: Ethene polymer with branched chains - low density, low melting temperature.

Macroscopic properties: Those properties that an external observer can see and measure with a naked eye Malleable: Can be hammered into sheets Markovnikovs rule: Rule which states that when a hydrogen halide is added to an alkene, the hydrogen is most likely to add to the carbon atom which already has the most hydrogen atoms attached to it Mass number (A): The number of neutrons plus the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom Mass spectrometer: Instrument for obtaining a mass spectrum that can be used to measure the relative masses of isotopes or to find the relative abundance of the isotopes in a sample of an element Mass spectrum: The data produced by a mass spectrometer Maxwell Boltzman model: A model for expressing the distribution of energy among the molecules of a gas in thermal equilibrium Mean bond enthalpy: The mean (average) value of the bond dissociation enthalpy of a particular type of bond over a wide range of different compounds. Mechanical recycling: Physically breaking down plastics into smaller pieces before reprocessing Melting temperature: The temperature at which a pure solid is in equilibrium with a pure liquid at atmospheric pressure Metallic bonding: Bonding in metals with positive metal ions embeeded in a sea of delocalised electrons Metalloids: Elements which is not a metal but which has some characteristics of a metal eg conducts electricity Metals: Elements which are good conductors of heat and electricity, can be hammered into sheets and drawn into wires, usually shiny and with the exception of mercury solids at room temperature Micromoles: 1.0-6 mol dm-3 Microscopic processes: processes on a molecular scale Millimoles: 1.0-3 mol dm-3 Miscible: Liquids which completely mix to form a single layer Molar: Concentration in mol dm -3 Molar enthalpy of vaporisation: Energy required to change 1 mole of a liquid to a vapour at its boiling temperature Molar mass (M): The relative atomic or molecular mass in grams

Molar solution: A solution of concentration 1 molar (1 mol dm-3) Molar volume (Vm): The volume occupied by a mole of any gas under standard conditions of 1 atm pressure and 298K Molarity: See molar Mole or mol: The amount of substance that contains the same number of particles as there are atoms in exactly 12g of carbon-12, the relative atomic or molecular mass of a substance in grams Molecular crystals: Covalently bonded molecules held together in giant structures by intermolecular forces as a result of partial ionic character in the covalent bond Molecular equation: Reaction equation which shows the complete formula of every substance involved in the reaction Molecular formula: Formula of a compound showing how many of each atom there are Molecular ion peak: The peak corresponding to the M+ ion- the peak with the highest m/z value Moles per cubic decimetre: Measure of the concentration of a solution Monomer: A small molecule, for example an alkene, that can be joined to many other small molecules to form a much larger molecule Nanoparticles: Small particles with at least one dimension less than 100 nm. Nanoprobes: Devices for seeing very small objects Nanorods: A material made by compressing carbon-60 molecules. It is even harder than diamond. Nanorods can also be made of other substances e.g. Silicon carbide. Nanotubes: Cylindrical carbon molecules have novel properties that make them potentially useful in many applications in nanotechnology, electronics, optics and other fields of materials science. They exhibit extraordinary strength and unique electrical properties, and are efficient conductors of heat. Natural climate change: Climate change due to naturally occurring processes. Natural gas: A gaseous fossil fuel often found in association with crude oil. Largely made up of methane Natural pesticides: Pesticides derived from plants or other living organisms Neutrons: Electrically neutral sub-atomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom. Mass slightly greater than that of a proton. Noble gases: Group 8, unreactive gases Non aqueous solvents: A solvent other than water

Non-metals: All the elements which are not metals Nucleons: The sub-atomic particles found in the nucleus of an atom - the protons and the neutrons Nucleophile: An electron donor, attracted to positive ions. An atom or group of atoms that is attracted to a positive charge. A nucleophile is negatively charged or contains a lone pair of electrons. Nucleophilic attack: Effect of a neutrophile on an ion in a reaction, donating electrons Octane rating: Rating for fuel which indicates the proportion of branched chain to straight chain alkanes in the fuel mixture Octet rule: Rule stating that when elements react they tend to do so in a way which results in an outer shell containing eight electrons Orbital: The region where an electron is most likely to be found Organic chemistry: Study of carbon compounds with the exception of the simplest compounds such as the oxides and carbonates Overall ionic equation: Overall reaction equation showing what happens overall to the ions in the reaction Oxidation: Reaction in which electrons are lost Oxidation numbers: The charge that an element would have if it were totally ionically bonded. Oxidising agent: A substance which oxidises another substance but is itself reduced. P block: Region of the periodic table containing elements with their outer electrons in the p subshell P block elements: Elements with the outermost electrons in the p subshell Paraffins: Old, non-systematic name for the alkanes Parts per million (ppm): Mass of the solute divided by the total mass of the solution multiplied by a million Peaks: Characteristic wavelength of a vibration of a particular group leads to a maximum amount of ir radiation being absorbed. They are in fact shown as troughs on the ir spectrum. Pentagonal bipyramid: A molecule with three bonds in a plane with bond angles of 120o and one bond at right angles above and one bond at right angles below the plane Percentage transmission: The variable recorded on the y-axis of an ir spectrum Periodic law: Law stating that the properties of elements are a function of their atomic numbers. Periodic properties: Properties which show clear patterns in the periodic table

Periodic table: Table arranging the elements in order of their atomic number Periodicity: Repeating patterns of elements in the periodic table Periods: Horizontal rows of the periodic table Permanent dipole: A distribution of charge within a molecule Pesticides: Chemicals that kill animal pests Petroleum: See crude oil Physical properties: Properties which do not involve the chemical nature of the element or compound eg melting temperature, density, conductivity etc Pi bond: Double carbon-carbon bond Polar bond: A covalent bond where the pair of bonding electrons is not evenly distributed Polar molecule: A molecule with an overall dipole ,taking into account any dipole across bonds Pole: One half of a dipole Polychloroethene: Polymer of chloroethene Polyethene: Polymer made from repeating ethene monomer units Polymer: Large molecule made up of long chains of smaller units joined together Polymerisation reaction: A reaction in which many monomer units are joined together to form a long chain polymer molecule Polypropene: Polymer of propene Position of equilibrium: The extent to which a reaction has moved to completion Post transition metals: Metals found to the right hand side of the periodic table after the transition metals Precise: Results made to the maximum accuracy permitted by the apparatus Primary alcohol: An alcohol where the hydroxyl group is attached to a carbon atoms itself bonded to two or three other hydrogen atoms. Primary distillation: Process by which crude oil is turned into useful chemicals Primary halogenoalkanes: Halogen atom is attached to a carbon atom attached to two or three hydrogen atoms

Principal quantum number (n): The number assigned to electron shells, which indicates the size of the shell and the distance from the nucleus Principle of conservation of energy: Principle stating that the total energy content of the universe is constant. Propagation: A reaction which sets of other reactions Protons: Sub-atomic particle with positive charge found in the nucleus of an atom Pyramidal: A molecule such as ammonia with a pyramid shape Pyrolysis: Method of breaking down polymers using heat in the absence of oxygen Pyrolysis oil: A possible alternative for petroleum. It is extracted by pyrolysis from dried biomass in a reactor at temperature of about 500 degrees centigrade with subsequent cooling. Qualitative: Identifying the different constituents (elements, ions or atoms) that are present in a substance Quantitative: Measuring the different quantities of constituents (elements, ions or atoms) that are present in a substance Quantum mechanics: Branch of mathematics needed to understand atomic structure in detail Quench: Cooling a sample rapidly to slow all reactions to enable analysis to be carried out. Quicklime: The old name from calcium oxide Radioactive decay: The process by which an unstable nucleus breaks up to become more stable and emits alpha, beta or gamma radiation Radiocarbon dating: Using the ratio of C-12 to C-14 to date once-living material Rate of reaction: The rate of a reaction is the speed at which a reaction happens. Reaction mechanism: The mechanism by which a reaction takes place. A possible route that a reaction might follow showing the intermediate stages. Reaction profile: Graph that show the change in energy as a function of the progress of the reaction. Reactive metals: The s block elements Redox reaction: A reaction where oxidation and reduction take place Reducing agent: A substance which reduces another substance but is itself oxidised. Reduction: Reaction in which electrons are gained.

Refinery gas: The lightest fraction of crude oil (C1 C4) Reflux condenser: A vertical condenser which condenses escaping vapours so they fall back into the reacting flask. Relative abundance: Measure of the percentage of different isotopes in a sample of an element Relative atomic mass or RAM: The atomic mass of an atom relative to an atom of carbon-12 Relative atomic mass scale: The scale by which chemists compare the mass of all atoms to the mass of a standard carbon-12 isotope Relative formula mass: The sum of all the relative atomic masses of all the atoms in a chemical formula Relative greenhouse factor: A comparison of the effect different gases have on absorbing IR radiation. The value for carbon dioxide is 1. Relative molecular mass (Mr): The sum of all the relative atomic masses of all the atoms in a chemical formula of a covalent compound Reliability: Results that, if repeated, will give the same outcome. Residue: A viscous mixture of hydrocarbons with high boiling points produced during fractional distillation of crude oil. Can be used as fuel for power station furnaces or large ships or further fractionated to yield other useful substances. Risk: The chance of a hazard causing harm Risk assessment: Identifying the risks associated with a course of action and reducing them as far as possible Rock salt structure: The packing of ions found in sodium chloride S block: Region of the periodic table containing elements with their outer electrons in the s subshell S block elements: Elements with the outermost electrons in the s subshell Saturated: Fatty acid containing only carbon-carbon single bonds Second ionisation energy: The energy needed to remove a second electron from an atom/ion Secondary alcohol: An alcohol where the hydroxyl group is attached to a carbon atoms itself bonded to one other hydrogen atoms. Secondary halogenoalkanes: Halogen atom is attached to a carbon atom attached to one hydrogen atom

Shells: The regions in which electrons are concentrated around a nucleus, representing different energy levels of the electrons. Sigma bond: Single carbon-carbon bond Skeletal formula: Formula which simply shows the bonds and the functional group often used for ring compounds Slaked lime: The old name for calcium hydroxide Slaking: The exothermic process taking place when water is added to calcium hydroxide Solubility: Mass of a solute dissolving in 100g of solvent at a particular temperature Solute: Solid, liquid or gas dissolved in a liquid to form a solution Solution: A liquid containing a dissolved solid, liquid or gas Solvent: Liquid in which substances dissolve to form a solution Space filling models: Models showing the shape of molecules in three dimensions. Specific heat capacity c: The heat capacity per unit mass of a particular substance Spectator ions: Ions which appear in the same form on both sides of an ionic equation and can therefore be left out as they are not involved in the reaction Stability: Description of how readily a compound breaks down into its elements or reacts with other compounds Standard enthalpy change of atomisation: The enthalpy change when one mole of its atoms in the gaseous state is formed from the element under standard conditions Standard enthalpy change of combustion: The enthalpy change when one mole of a substance is completely burnt in oxygen under standard conditions. Standard enthalpy change of formation: The enthalpy change when one mole of the compound is formed from its elements under standard conditions Standard enthalpy change of neutralisation: The enthalpy change when one mole of acid is just neutralised by an alkali in their standard states at 25oc (298K) and in solutions containing 1 mol dm-3 Standard enthalpy change of reaction: The enthalpy change of a reaction measured under standard conditions of temperature and pressure (1atm and 298K) Standard form: A way of writing a number between 1-10 multiplied by 10 raised to the appropriate power

Standard solution: A solution of known concentration Standard temperature and pressure STP: Conditions used for measuring the molar volumes of gases - 1 atm pressure and 298K (25oc) Starch: A polymer of glucose molecules State symbols: Symbols used to indicate the physical state of a chemical in a reaction. S is solid, l is liquid, g is gas, aq is aqueous. Steady state: a situation in which all variables are constant in spite of ongoing processes that strive to change them. Stereoisomerism: When two or more compounds with the same molecular formula have a the three dimensional arrangement of the bonds which allows different orientations in space so the molecules cannot be superimposed on each other. Stereoisomers: Two or more compounds with the same molecular formula where the three dimensional arrangement of the bonds allows different orientations in space so the molecules cannot be superimposed on each other. Structural formula: Formula which shows both the number of atoms in a molecule and the way in which they are arranged relative to each other Structural isomerism: Where two or more compounds have the same molecular formula but with the atoms connected together in a different order Structural isomers: Two or more compounds with the same molecular formula but with the atoms connected together in a different order Subshell: Regions of differing energy within a shell, described by the letters s,p,d,f,g etc Substitution reaction: A reaction in which an atom or group of atoms is replaced by a different atom or group of atoms. Superconducting: At very low temperatures certain materials have very low electrical resistance and so become superconductors Surroundings: Everything around a chemical reaction Syngas: Mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide which can be used in a number of chemical processes Synthesise: To make in a laboratory Synthetic pesticides: Pesticides which are not naturally occurring - they have been synthesised in the laboratory

System: A chemical reaction Systeme International or SI: The common internationally used system of measurements Termination: A reaction which completes a chain reaction Tertiary alcohol: An alcohol where the hydroxyl group is attached to a carbon atoms itself bonded to no other hydrogen atoms. Tertiary halogenoalkanes: Halogen atom is attached to a carbon atom attached to no hydrogen atoms Testosterone: Male sex hormone Tetrahedral: The angle within a molecule with four covalent bonds e.g. Methane 109.5o Thermochemistry: The study of energy transfers in chemical reactions Thermodynamic stability: See energetic stability Titration: A process for finding the exact volumes of different solutions which react using an indicator. Titrimetric analysis: See volumetric analysis Transition: Energy changes which take place within the atom a electrons move from one energy level to another Transition metals: Another name for the d block elements Triads: Groups of three elements in an early attempt to group the elements Trigonal planar: A triangular shape with all three lines/orbitals in the same plane Triple bond: The bond formed when two atoms share three pairs of electrons Unsaturated: Fatty acid containing at least one carbon-carbon double bond Unstable: An atom in which the forces which make up the nucleus are unbalanced and there is an excess of internal energy. As a result an unstable atom will be radioactive as eventually the unstable nucleus emits radiation to become stable. Van der Waals forces: Very weak attractive forces between induced dipoles in adjacent molecules Volatility: The ease with which a liquid turns into a gas. Volatility decreases as boiling temperature decreases. Volumetric analysis: Chemical procedure used for determining the concentration of a solution. A known volume of a solution of unknown concentration is reacted with a known volume of a solution of known concentration (standard).

Weighted mean: A mean based on both the abundance of an isotope and its RAM Yield: The quantity of a product obtained from a chemical reaction Z isomer: Isomer with both higher priority groups on the same side of a rigid bond Zusammen: Together