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Indian Music as a Cultural System Author(s): Daniel M. Neuman Reviewed work(s): Source: Asian Music, Vol. 17, No. 1 (Autumn - Winter, 1985), pp. 98-113 Published by: University of Texas Press Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/833743 . Accessed: 20/03/2012 06:50
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INDIAN MUSIC AS A CULTURAL SYSTEM by Daniel M. Neuman INTRODUCTION It has been said that Hinduism in its essence has and Islam in its, with been concerned with what is true, the differences To tabulate between these what is right. in the world would be to two ways of being and believing a set of contrasts inventory involving virtually every and practice and cultural of social in thought aspect of the Asia. Some obvious South differences, iconic hierarchism/egalitarianism; polytheism/monotheism; as cremation/burial; elaboration/prohibition; marriage adumbrate a contract, prescript/social merely religious others. of innumerable one catalogue Perhaps the closest such a set and surely comes to summarizing the most of India and Pakistan. is the sheer existence Yet telling what we know as for Indo-Islamic many centuries and at times reached extraordinary flourished civilization florescence of cultural constructed of just those heights so much in opposition. The study of elements seemingly of Indian music encompasses the Muslim practitioner and the general theme and problematic also of encapsulates in South Asia. civilization Indo-Islamic The theme, not only in its music but in government and expressed and administration and economy painting, poetics, is the theme of cultural architecture The integration. stated is how such cultural generally problematic was accomplished the multiplicity of despite integration and what (and concommitant contradictions?) oppositions, we can learn from its study. in this is to explore My intention essay only a of Indo-Islamic selected part of the general landscape to chart the interaction of Islamic civilization: social with Hindu cultural and to focus expression organization of how their on the question came to create interlocking that exquisite known as engagement with aural splendor In order music. to develop Hindustani the argument I will contrast the social of convincingly organization the Muslim-dominated music making of North with the Hindu-dominated related music system in the South. closely is to demonstrate some of the ways in which My objective of the Islamization music and production patronage cultural adaptations generated through biological kinship, and performance which vocation, context, specialist affected musical performance itself. fundamentally

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the role of music theory, I will outline Specifically and the structure of composition, of the significance to the rhythmic accompaniment in their mutual contribution Geertz of the Hindustani evolution If, as Clifford style. "art and the equipment to grasp it suggests, persuasively then this is an account are made in the same shop" (1976), music - adapted to art - its classical of an Indian somewhat different shops, the Islamic and the Brahmanic. Caveat I wish to make clear what is not Before proceeding The conventional in assumed. wisdom being Indla, Islamic in the South, influences concerning particularly in Indian music is that Karnatak music was essentially whereas Hindustani untouched by Islamic music was ideas, Indeed this is often used as formed by them. essentially the for difference between the the basis explaining and southern northern Hindustani Karnatak music systems. often is that South Indian A less expressed corollary Indian music, whereas North music is the "pure" indigenous Indian music is a somewhat tarnished But there is hybrid. substantial evidence that South Indian music was fairly itself musical ideas from very much influenced by Islamic the 14th century on. The highly at least respected K. the musicologist argued Brahaspati convincingly the Persian Southern and system had thoroughly adopted Turkish modal (makam) system as had the Northern system his I am not (1979:79-102). Accepting argument, a measure of direct Islamic musical influences attempting On the contrary, in the North and South. I assume the as such to be unknown in any detail musical influences and assume these as constant in both systems. accordingly I am suggesting that the differences felt in Rather, between North and South derived not from Islamic influence forces as such - although musical these are probably a and cultural factor - but from social factors affecting and performance the of musical thinking, training, Put another I am suggesting that way, specialists. musical influences not occurred substantive directly of outright musical because but indirectly borrowing, and cultural because of social borrowing. The Brahmanic Tradition Until about the 16th century the art music culture of India, both in the North and the South, was an essentially Brahmanical This was due to the traditional activity. Hindu associations between sound and its in extensions

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and to the role of Brahmans in the and music, speech of the production of speech and music. theory and practice was a Brahman cultural "cultivated" Because music which characterized features there were several specialty, in India. music performance music specialization First, a profession, not to be considered was ideally but rather One practiced music for its qualities of an avocation. To be sure professionals, not remuneration. illumination for who accepted remuneration their as those defined existed and even certainly perhaps performances, of performers, but the a significant constituted majority was that music should for not be ideal performers This was compensation. performed for any sort of material the distinction between the professional much like and in 18th century Europe. the amateur musician Tyagaraja, of the South, refused musician even to teach archetypal musicians. professional to the first, related Another feature, was closely a devotional that performance was ideally music activity, salvation. being a pathway to spiritual Today such an in India when music is performed on ideal is represented occasions such as and certain celebratory weddings and in devotional contexts devotional holidays, singing songs such as kirtan and bhajan. Again, Tyagaraja still to be a saint, by many South Indians today believed this ideal. represents the Brahmanical tradition of musical Lastly, concerned with knowledge was also a scholarly activity, written Performance theory as well as oral performance. and theory tended to be separately practiced specialties, the domain of Brahmanical but both were still activity. which have come down to us were mostly the The treatises an activity work of Brahmans, which still is today If we consider dominated by Brahman scholars.' just these three features, definitions of music namely, the cultural music performance, and music theory and specialization, contrast each as they evolved in the Northern and Southern a pattern which systems, emerges suggests important for their respective music systems. consequences Music Specialization were an important force in Although Muslim musicians India at least from the 13th century on (during the period of the Delhi Sultanate), it is only during the 17th and 18th centuries that musical activity in North India came to be them. increasingly monopolized virtually by

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Extensive by the Mughals and their patronage nobility who was himself began in the reign of Akbar (1556-1605), the most important musical in patron to Tansen, figure music Hindustani Such continued history. patronage and after the musical Mughals throughout despite of traumatic (r.1659-1707), Aurangzeb prohibitions from outside India (Nadir Shah in 1739), and the invasions of the two major Muslim rulers British expulsion just the Mutiny (Nawab Wajid Ali Shah to before and after in 1856 and Bahadur Shah Zafar, the last Mughal Calcutta King, to Rangoon in 1858). Many formerly Hindu musicians to Islam, no doubt because converted of the political of such a change but also because Brahman advantages often lost their musicians caste status as servants of Muslim courts. (See Neuman 1980: 104-5, 124-5) these in South India, same two centuries During in what is now the state of Tamilnad, the principally of contemporary foundations Karnatak music practice and the theory were laid. By the end of the 18th century, of Karnatak trinity archetypal composers, Tyagaraja and Muttusvami (1767-1847), (1762-1827), Syama Sastri Dikshitar created the bosic of (1775-1835), repertoire In marked contrast Karnatak music. to the key musical of Hindustani were all music, the Karnatak Trinity figures Brahmans as were most of their followers into the first The point half of this then is that in the century. of music had become essentially an North, the profession Islamic one, whereas in the South, not only was it still dominated by Hindus, but in particular by Brahmans. My features common to the argument is that the Brahmanical of all India up to the 16th century art music tradition to characterize continued the Southern the system into 20th century. of The consequences the Islamization of music were manifold. The most immediate were the specialization of musicians and a change in the professionalization of music as a cultural definition This is phenomenon. in the career of Tansen. Just as succinctly exemplified the ideal model for being a musician in Tyagaraja provides the South, Tansen performs an identical role for musicians What we know of his life of the North. the personifies transition from Brahmanical avocational to Muslim professional. not known for certain, it is generally Although assumed that Tansen was originally a Hindu who converted to Islam. When he was brought to the Emperor Akbar's

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His he was counted as one of Akbar's nine jewels. court, was a Brahman of great reputation. guru, Swami Haridas, The known Akbar's well concerning story Emperor illustrates of Swami Haridas the tension appreciation of music as and Muslim definitions between Brahmanical Swami and worldly Akbar, practice. hearing spiritual asked Tansen why he was not able to achieve Haridas sing, that Swami Haridas Tansen replied such musical heights. to the Lord above, whereas he was singing was singing only ideal for the Lord before him. Although the Brahmanical was always part of the of music as a means of devotion even for Muslims value musicians, system of Hindustani Sufic and rationalized traditions) by similar (enhanced of context the courtly performances necessarily of musical practice the other worldly aspects subordinated The contemporary of the to patrons.2 requirements of Tansen is measured by the fact that most significance musicians trace some Hindustani today performing if not actual from Tansen descent, kinship discipulary, carries with it a relationship the most and such fundamental musical authority. musical In the South most of the key historical were either Brahmans or members figures non-professional the music as an avocation of nobility practicing For example Swati Tirunal was themselves. (1813-46)3 Maharaja of Travancore on the Malabar coast and is still one of South India's considered There great composers.' musicians performing were undoubtedly many professional in the courts of South India, but we hear little about them. at least the focus of musical in attention Historically the temple. the South was still The shift of specialist status from Brahman to Muslim to professional as also from avocational affected the role In both traditions, of musical theory. theory dealing was taught largely with performance as an oral practice in the Karnatak line tradition. of musical However, there was not a transmission of succession, only the oral but also a tradition, through performance of theoretical transmission treatises through a written Text and context were one. embodied in the same i.e. the Brahman musician and his community. instrument, both of which were descriptive and Theory and performance, for one another, came to have an integrity in prescriptive This the Karnatak condition was simply nonsystem. in the Hindustani existent tradition. Although the degree acted on performance to which theory in the South is there is no doubt that theoretical arguable,s writings

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as an activity were considered and that highly prestigious assumed an almost sacred the texts character and were as quasi-sacred heirlooms. passed on through generations on practice in at least one Theory had some effect and that is the now classic melakarta area, important in the 18th century this was Originally developed system. a classification which system of 72 parent scale types, of elements the periodic table like included some empty i.e. scales types which were not known to be categories, The melakarta system was quickly adopted as a performed. theoretical to fill system, and ragas were soon developed in the classifactory in many of the missing places scheme. Muslim Professional in marked musicians, very did not write theoretical treatises. Indeed the contrast, or discipular of the kinship link to Tansen significance the to fact related that is for Muslim Hindustani musical theory was coded in an essentially oral musicians, medium, and ultimate authority consequently lay not in as in the South, but in quasi-sacred texts, quasi-sacred Neither prescriptive nor descriptive, musical pedigrees. for Muslim musicians was essentially theory ascriptive. the theory as one inherited one's One inherited identity The substance of Muslim musical theory was as a musician. save in occasional inscribed on never, private writings, it was embedded in memory. It was transmitted paper; the medium of what theory was thought to be, through which was learned and memorized by namely performance, each successive Because existed in generation. theory for theoretical assertions rested memory, the authority but in the person who proclaimed not on theory itself it. The source of a person's was dependent on the authority of the person, and that identity was socially identity defined Musicians who could by his musical pedigree. to one or more historically trace their ancestry important - a Tansen, a Sadarang, musical a Khusrau - were figures of such connections as the main by virtue accepted of the musical tradition. carriers The distinction between theory and practice based on of the written the separation from oral tradition did not for Hindustani exist music until this century, when really North Indian Brahmans, especially and Bhatkhande, codified what had appeared, to a newly awakened Hindu systematized their musical consciousness a very traditions, concerning known system. and little chaotic The reason for the absence of tradition revolves among Muslims a written around theoretical the social

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of a performer in the context definition of court and other forms of private Musicians patronage. employed by courts were, as I have said, professionals. They received either a regular stipend- or income from villages granted of music the social to them. With the professionalization to what it had been in of the musician shifted definition that of a skilled other Islamic artisan or societies, Some musicians craftsman. in were, to be sure, celebrated and honored with elaborate and some court circles titles, were so much in demand that courts competed for them. But these models individuals, outstanding although certainly of the ordinary for the aspirations did not musician, It was the as such. the musical define profession not the extraordinary musician who provided the ordinary social definition of the musician as artisan, standard who was skilled at his craft much like any other artisan and exchanged his product for some kind of remuneration. And whatever else the artisan or craftsman might hope to an honored become - even member at court - he was never a scholar.6 There was no place then for virtually and system building theoretical to be written speculations down in treatises. The craftsman-like definition of musician is even today in the ustad-sagird maintained relationship, the term used for master and apprentice whether it be for musician or automobile mechanic. The craftsman-like social definition of these Muslim musicians should not that obscure individuals were the fact many of these as performing musicians. consummate artists However, with of music the musical professionalization performance, became a commodity, albeit not palpable or knowledge but no less real than a brass plate. In order to visible, control and preserve this rather kind of special there developed a practice of keeping musical commodity, of stylistic and the schools, knowledge in small circles of these institutions guild-like qualities put a high musical knowledge. premium on secrecy concerning The stylistic schools which (known as gharana) form after the mid-nineteenth emerged in their present became primary badges of artistic The century identity. named after the ancestral towns and gharana, usually of their putative cities were structured founders, through a hereditary male descendants of the group of lineal The social and concomitant musical stylistic founder(s).7 of each gharana was maintained integrity through very extensive cousin a marital that is marriages, practice to North Indian Hindus. These gharana strictly prohibited

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structured as tightly the kinship groupings monopolized of professional musicians until well into this production It is only during the last two decades that one century.8 break in the monopoly of hereditary a significant observes as and primary musicians Muslim musical performers in this Guild-like authorities. respect, gharana and the tradecraft controlled occupational competition This was perhaps of their traditions. an secrets motivation for musical keeping knowledge, important in musical an oral medium. As including theory, of such knowledge, gharana can be interpreted repositories in the of theoretical texts as the functional equivalents and in this sense were an essentially Karnatak tradition of music and Thus kinship system ascriptive theory. and memory became, for Hindustani marriage, pedigree the vehicle of their tradition.9 musicians, CONTEXTS PERFORMANCE Islamic political With the increasing and domination court patronage from the 12th century concomitant on in and the locus North India, the focus of musical attention shifted of musical preparation away from the temple and The shift was of course into the court. neither an nor ever an absolute There were immediate phenomenon. in Islamic courts and Muslim musicians in Hindu musicians and temples continued to patronize Hindu courts, musicians do today.'0 there continued to be as they still Similarly in South India until this century. court musicians But in more and the musical the North, more, important in courts. And to become a court occurred developments it helped much to have been trained by one. musician, eschewing court performances, provided the Tyagaraja, model in the South of how music was to be continuing at least as a cultural even for defined, ideal, culturally musicians. the ideal court model for Similarly performance venues remained the temple or ashram, even for To this day, this model and audiences. court performers in contemporary concert in which performances, persists are always both music and dance performances initiated In contrast the Northern model with an homage to a deity. and very "secular." is courtly when Tansen, symbolically of Hindustani the apical ancestor not actually musicians, was a court musician throughout his professional life. He to be the role model for Muslim performers, continues even in ambivalence to the point where the tension continues between music as a way for and a way of life.

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MUSICALRAMIFICATIONS

written In the absence of musical scores and little of this changed venue and the musical effects history, are elusive. The general movement from social definition music as devotion to music as diversion is marked by the
genres which succeeded one another in 'lighter' relatively From the austere, Hindustani music. Brahmanically-derived to the khayal dhrupad in the 16th and 17th centuries, in the 18th century and the thumri in the 19th, introduced affect.

forms moves towards the worldly the direction of classical as spiritual romantic, more and more thinly disguised
Thus for example, although

in the seriousness of intent forms, there is no mistaking at the of a dhrupad performance, the context whereas, be communicated in the thumri can as easily other extreme, in Hindustani which musical music emerge change occurred if we compare the major vocal genres of North and South the khayal and the kriti, India, respectively. in its The kriti basic form which can include optional composition, is a three part composed sections.

emphasizing the devotional/romantic

are found in all

Krishna

texts

three

actual performance as secular eroticism as it can sacred More specific details concerning the manner in devotion.

even though the language of each text, enunciated, clearly whether Telegu, or more recently Sanskrit, Tamil, may be The khayal in contrast to listeners. is a very foreign much collapsed of two composition consisting just short parts and including no other composed relatively The texts are usually in Braj Bhasa Hindi'' sections. and the themes are usually around Hindu, (typically revolving from Krishna's not Islamic the life) episodes despite name for the genre.12 Persian-derived because Most likely in most khayal of the Hindu thematic texts orientation, become very much a vehicle for tune and not performances This contrasts the other not only with way around. Karnatak musical but also with Islamic musical practice in other outside of traditions, performance practice where texts assume an exceptionally India, important
place.13

The texts,

which are usually

devotional

in

theme,

are

This apparent devalorization of Hindu texts in Muslim occurs at the same historical time as performance contexts of instrumental the separation music from vocal music. Instrumental music has become distinctive from vocal music in in a number of performance practice respects. is somewhat separate, Repertoire although overlapping

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there are a number of specifically exists. Additionally structures instrumental which do not exist in the vocal This distinction tradition. is signified by the different terms used for the basic known as gat for composition, music and chiz for vocal instrumental music. In one the introduction of khayal in the court of account, Muhammad Shah Rangile is to the related explicitly of a separate solo instrumental tradition (See development This was historically Neuman 1980). because significant in India to be the vocal music had always been considered - itself form of musical a Hindu primary expression - and instrumental music was always considered conception to vocal subordinate It be too music." may not to suggest that the dominance of instrumental speculative in Hindustani music music or more today, perhaps the dominance of instrumentalists, in terms of accurately, and remuneration is related to the devalorization prestige in a musical system which otherwise of texts always put a music. In this it is higher premium on vocal regard that in South Indian music there is no separate noteworthy instrumental instrumental and vocal are genre; genres identical. essentially In addition to the changed cultural value put on song with the of texts, probable consequence separating from vocal instrumental there is yet another genres, - rhythm - which seems to have evolved feature musical due to changes in music consumption patterns. differently distinction The contextual between temple and court, and the cultural differences between the Brahmanical and the Islamic in the musical appear to have led to differences role and consequent structure of rhythm systems between North and South India. RHYTHM Rhythm in India is governed by a recurring cycle of which never beats their number in any given change Within the cycle drummers can play a variety composition. of precomposed and improvised which are made up of pieces in pitch, established patterns by stresses dynamic, and timbre collectively known as bol. While these patterns the cycle of beats are played, and although continues, audible, every beat is not always sounded and therefore be in order to insure most will the integrity of the It is in the manner in which the integrity of the cycle. is maintained that the two differ cycle systems
markedly.15

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the drummer (performing In on the the South his relationship to the cycle maintains of mridangam'6) to external other reference beats timekeepers, by who keep time - more exactly in the ensemble musicians keep track of where the drummer is in the cycle - by of the structure a the with rhythmic cycle showing and finger of claps, counts. recurrent waves, pattern with their also participate Indeed South Indian audiences see The drummer can always of time. keeping parallel which is, so to the pattern where he is by observing speak, declamatory.
pair17

The North Indian drummer performing on the tabla drum The time keeper. external has no corresponding becomes his own timekeeper drummer in effect by playing known of the rhythmic cycle itself, the skeletal structure as the theka (a term meaning "support"). context If we return to our archetypal models (the court and the the one out of doors inside, temple in in the difference the other devotional, virtuosic), structures corresponds markedly to the rhythm performance The South Indian contexts. in performance difference of keeping time in Indian system is the standard pattern and is pre-eminently characterized traditions as musical The theka is almost an certainly being participatory. from the Middle East, entering the originally importation Indian folk North classical through system regional It is characterized of traditions.19 by the independence and the drummer from other sources of timekeeping support, indeed, as the term theka implies, provides support. The fact that the theka was adopted from the Middle it is unquestionably an East is not at issue although of North Indian music. important datum of the Islamization of why it was adopted is still It The question open.20 folk musicians would appear that the entry of professional into the classical system, beginning perhaps in the middle consolidated 18th century and certainly by the end of the in the importance of of the increase 19th, was a function of Hindustani as a function music. entertainment towards In the evolution a courtly and later an entertainment the cultural urban-based system,"2 of music making, as I have said, became quite definition Indian from its denotation as a original separated mode. Connoisseurs devotional participated by expressing with the exclamation for a performance of appreciation on their large round bolsters, "vah-vah" as they reclined

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not did intend to in but the they participate were separate The musicians and distinct performance.22 audience. the from the evidence that Indeed, given were also being recruited from folk traditions musicians it is likely (see Neuman 1980, 1982 and Stewart 1974), were sometimes distinct that from accompanists quite The theka as an independent as well.23 soloists structural musical for to have been seems performances support which was changing eminently adapted to a musical culture in its social of its specialists, the ethnicity context, and its cultural modality. AND CONCLUSION SUMMARY Autonomous timekeepers, and condensed compositions, lineage-encoded theory are three very general developments in Indian musical all of which I suggest are culture, with its Islamization. coincident The adoption directly allowed a marriage of Islam system, encouraged by a in which musical property musical system of transmission, controlled of could be carefully by strategic marriages and the to transmit cousins ability theory through in lineages in turn which defined discrete practice units known as gharana. Muslim musicians, most stylistic converts from Hinduism, continued of whom were originally of singing the Indian - that is, Hindu - musical tradition but for them as well as their songs with Hindu themes, a (culturally Muslim patrons, of de-emphasis necessary) in the structure the meanings of the texts and a reduction And last, evolved. a changed performance of the texts drummers to use a new model was adopted which required counting time. system of independently here ought not to be regarded as The cases discussed There are many other but only definitive suggestive. the Indian evolution of musical concerning problems which could be considered, for instance, the traditions in raga definition vs. see differences scales; (tunes vs. pre-composition, vocal vs. Powers 1980), improvisation and so forth. instrumental My aim here is to genres, such exhibit the that all demonstrate examples of explaining of a musical features system possibilities terms. in social and cultural

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NOTES 1i. 2. For example Bhatkhande in the more recently. Brahaspati early 20th century and

the cultural there existed Additionally, ambivalence in music Muslim courts production concerning of music traditions in many other characteristic In India it took a somewhat societies. Islamic bivalent cultural form, music being a highly prized but one which in Indian was terms, expression rendered as at suspect among the Muslim orthodoxy and at worst, best, something to be merely tolerated banned. This is an issue that was first brought to a head in India around the turn of the 14th century The great Sufi Saint, during the Delhi Sultanate. was attacked Nizamuddin Auliya, for by the orthodox at his devotional holding musical parties gatherings. defended himself in a court Although he successfully music has nevertheless been less than hearing, in some Muslim circles. tolerated completely Powers See the 1975). 1980 gives biography the dates of Swati 1829-1847 Tirunal (p.85). (Venkita S. Iyer

3. 4. 5.

In a verbal to the original form of this response to the assertion that paper, Harold Powers objected written to performance theory had any more relevance in the South than in the North. practice who did write on music were members Muslim scholars not professional of the nobility, musicians. Indeed Kaufmann claims Walter that the many of great he knew earlier musicians in the were century illiterate. (Walter Kaufmann 1968:8). functionally For a more complete treatment of the structure and of these stylistic evolution schools which at their core were lineage descent groups see Neuman (1978). For a recent and excellent of the musical analysis of these gharana performers features see Bonnie Wade (1984). there were always some numbers of Hindu Although from Western and musicians, professional largely Eastern India and all (Maharashtra Bengal), in these Muslim acknowledged their discipular origins gharana. originated

6.

7.

8.

110

9.

of the devlopment of the gharana was the A corollary in the of named regional musical evolution styles not found in the Karnatak system. North, a feature with associated and nature of musicians The extent India is an essentially Hindu temples in contemporary some sense of who they unstudied phenomenon although are and what they do can be found in Norvin Hein 1972 and John Hawley 1981. A dialect of Hindi spoken in the area around Mathura. 'imagination.' on his analysis of

10.

11. 12. 13. 14.

Khyal is a Persian see For example Moroccan poetry. Not only practice believed voice.

word meaning Geertz 1976

but in actual in terms of an ideal hierarchy music where instrumental was as well, to the only as accompaniment appropriate

15.

in a number of In fact the two systems are different the presence of a as well: other important respects the and of drums, (khali), "empty" beat pair within are all a acceleration performance of Hindustani characteristic drumming and absent not only in the South but also in the earlier pakhawaj Indeed (see Stewart 1974:76-129). drumming tradition between the a Stewart relationship suggests meter in the from musical of poetical separation of the distinctive tabla style evolution (pp.410-11). of the theka is explored However only the presence I should mention here also that much of the here. data on Hindustani drumming mentioned subsequently dissertation. comes from Stewart's outstanding The South Indian performances. barrel drum used in classical

16. 17.

The tabla is the drum characteristically and their with performances khayal instrumental performances. The distinction in North India performance the He only theka. if then rarely,

associated corresponding

18.

between vocal and instrumental genres here. is important During a vocal tabla player typically plays only the and performs solo virtuosic passages the accompanying melody instrument

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harmonium, or less commonly the violin) (the sarangi, the composition (known as a recurrently performs hears tabla solos is in Where one typically lahra). music. The tabla to instrumental accompaniment instrumentalist the theka as the solo player plays by having the performs but also plays solo himself instrumentalist play the lahra, thereby maintaining for the tabla player. the metric structure 19. 20. evidence The 1974:94-101. for which Stewart summarizes in

as timekeeping formula is The theka a probably in Hindustani recent innovation music, relatively that the North Indian barrel measured by the fact to as a drum, the pakhawaj (also sometimes referred which is cf. above), mridang, mridangam mentioned in used has accompanying dhrupad performances, adopted theka in theory but it is rarely performed in in Indeed, timekeeping practice. dhrupad the one North Indian genre known to performances, been derived from a Brahmanic have performance has retained not only the barrel drum tradition, but also the external tradition timekeeping cousin. of its southern structures See Stewart (1974). This is discussed in Neuman (1978).

21. 22.

A good representation of such a context is to be film Jalsaghar. found in Satyajit Ray's excellent in drums their The themselves, differences, such an interpretation. corroborate The tabla (the its Middle Eastern name itself is bespeaks origin) to indoor in which the more suited performances of fingers rather than the dynamic of palms delicacy of the the mridangam) become the (characteristic focus. As genealogically they still often are.

23.

REFERENCES CITED K.C.D. Brahaspati 1979

"Muslim Influences Readings On Music G. Kuppuswamy and B.R. Trivandarum: Corporation.

on Venkatamakhi," in and Dance, edited by M. Hariharan. Publishing

112

Clifford Geertz, 1978 Hawley, John 1981 Hein, Norvin 1972 Venkita 1975 S.

"Art as a Cultural Language Notes 91,

System." 1473-1499

Modern

At Play With Krishna. Princeton: Princeton Press. University The Miracle Plays Oxford University Swati Tirunal Trivandarum: of Mathura. Press. Bombay:

Iyer,

and His Music. College Book House.

Kaufmann, Walter 1968 Neuman, Daniel 1978 M.

The Ragas of North India. Calcutta: Oxford & IBH Publishing Company. "The Rise of Musical 'Houses' in Delhi and Neighboring in B. Nettl Cities," (ed.), Eight Urban Musical Cultures. Urbana: of Illinois Press. University The Life Detroit: of Music in North India. Press. Wayne State University

1980 1982

"Country Musicians and Their City in Proceedings of the 12th Cousins," International Music Congress. S. "South Asia," in The New Grove of Music and Musicians. Dictionary London: Macmillan. The Tabla University in Perspective. Microfilms. Ann Arbor:

Powers, Harold 1980

Rebecca Stewart, 1974 Wade, Bonnie 1984

Within North India's Creativity Khyal: Classical Music Tradition. Cambridge: Press. Cambridge University

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