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KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS

2008-2009 X-GULLIE

COAL DAS—THE TRUTH
COAL DAS—THE TRUTH.......................................................................................................... 1
CITES PAGE..................................................................................................................... ......3
STRATEGY SHEET/ABBREVIATIONS GUIDE...............................................................................5
STRATEGY SHEET/ABBREVIATIONS GUIDE...............................................................................7
CLEAN COAL DA 1NC.............................................................................................................8
CLEAN COAL DA 1NC...........................................................................................................10
OVERVIEW (NORMAL)..........................................................................................................11
OVERVIEW (IF THEY DROP CONSUMPTION)...........................................................................12
IMPACT ANALYSIS CARDS TO ADD IN TO THE OVERVIEW IF YOU WANT...................................13
COAL DA—IMPACT TERMINAL UNIQUENESS: COAL SUSTAINABLE/A2 FINITE.............................14
CLEAN COAL DA—UNIQUENESS: CLEAN COAL COMING NOW...................................................15
CLEAN COAL DA—UNIQUENESS: CLEAN COAL COMING NOW...................................................17
CLEAN COAL DA—UNIQUENESS: A2 FUTUREGEN....................................................................18
CLEAN COAL DA—LINK: GLOBAL WARMING..........................................................................19
CLEAN COAL DA—LINK: RENEWABLES...................................................................................20
CLEAN COAL DA—LINK: RPS.................................................................................................21
CLEAN COAL DA—BRINK...................................................................................................... 22
CLEAN COAL DA—INTERNAL LINK: ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS KEY....................................23
CLEAN COAL DA—INTERNAL LINK: R&D KEY..........................................................................25
CLEAN COAL DA—IMPACT: AFFORDABLE ENERGY 2NC............................................................26
CLEAN COAL DA—IMPACT: AFFORDABLE ENERGY (A2 ALTERNATIVES CHEAPER)......................27
CLEAN COAL DA—IMPACT: AFFORDABLE ENERGY (SUSTAINABLE)...........................................28
CLEAN COAL DA—IMPACT: CHINA ENERGY COOPERATION 2NC................................................29
CLEAN COAL DA—IMPACT: CHINA ENERGY COOPERATION.......................................................30
CLEAN COAL DA—IMPACT: CHINA MODELLING (ECON) 2NC.....................................................31
CLEAN COAL DA—IMPACT: CHINA MODELLING (POLLUTION) 2NC............................................32
CLEAN COAL DA—IMPACT: CHIAN MODELLING (POLLUTION) 2NC............................................33
CLEAN COAL DA—IMPACT: CHINA MODELLING (POLLUTION)...................................................34
CLEAN COAL DA—IMPACT: COAL INDUSTRY (ENVIORNMENTAL PERCEPTION)...........................35
CLEAN COAL DA—IMPACT: COAL INDUSTRY (ENVIORNMENTAL PERCEPTION CARBON TAX
SPEIFIC).............................................................................................. ...............................36
CLEAN COAL DA—IMPACT: COAL INDUSTRY (MARKET COMPETITION)......................................37
CLEAN COAL DA—IMPACT: COAL INDUSTRY (PUBLIC RELATIONS)............................................38
CLEAN COAL DA—IMPACT: ECONOMIC/ENERGY COMPETITIVENESS 2NC...................................40
CLEAN COAL DA—IMPACT: ECONOMIC/ENERGY COMPETITIVENESS..........................................42
CLEAN COAL DA—IMPACT: INDUSTRIES (COAL/AUTO/OIL/UTILITIES/RAILROADS)......................43

Zavell I hid your man card here 1

KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS
2008-2009 X-GULLIE

CLEAN COAL DA—IMPACT: POLLUTION..................................................................................44
CLEAN COAL DA—SOLVES THE CASE (ELECTRICITY AFFS).......................................................45
CLEAN COAL DA—SOLVSE THE CASE (HYDROGEN FUEL CELLS AFFS).......................................46
CLEAN COAL DA—SOLVSE THE CASE (HYDROGEN FUEL CELLS AFFS).......................................48
CLEAN COAL DA—SOLVES THE CASE (NATURAL GAS AFFS) ....................................................49
CLEAN COAL DA—SOLVES THE CASE (OIL ADVANTAGES)........................................................50
CLEAN COAL DA—SOLVES THE CASE (WARMING ADVANTAGES)..............................................51
COAL CONSUMPTION DA—UNIQUENESS: COAL DEMAND HIGH................................................52
COAL CONSUMPTION DA—LINK: A2 LINK NON-UNIQUE (ALTERNATIVE ENERGY NOW) ..............53
COAL CONSUMPTION DA—LINK: RENEWABLES......................................................................54
COAL CONSUMPTION DA—LINK: NUCLEAR POWER.................................................................55
COAL CONSUMPTION DA—LINK: RPS....................................................................................56
COAL CONSUMPTION DA—LINK: WIND POWER......................................................................57
COAL CONSUMPTION DA—IMPACT: CLEAN COAL....................................................................58
COAL CONSUMPTION DA—IMPACT: ECONOMY.......................................................................59
COAL CONSUMPTION DA—IMPACT: ECONOMY.......................................................................60
COAL CONSUMPTION DA—IMPACT: ECONOMY (A2 OFFENSE-COAL INEVITABLE).......................61
CHINA COAL DA—UNIQUENESS: COAL DEMAND HIGH.............................................................62
CHINA COAL DA—IMPACT: CHINA COAL INDUSTRY 2NC..........................................................63
CHINA COAL DA—IMPACT: CHINA COAL INDUSTRY (SAFETY IMPACT).......................................64
CLEAN COAL DA AFF ANSWERS—UNIQUENESS: CLEAN COAL/HYDROGEN FUEL CELL FAR OFF...65
CLEAN COAL DA AFF ANSWERS—UNIQUENESS: NO CLEAN COAL NOW...................................66
CLEAN COAL DA AFF ANSWERS—LINK: CARBON TAX LINK TURN.............................................67
CLEAN COAL DA AFF ANSWERS—LINK: NO TRADE-OFF..........................................................68
CLEAN COAL DA AFF ANSWERS—IMPACT: ALT ENERGY SOLVES BETTER..................................69
CLEAN COAL DA AFF ANSWERS—IMPACT: RENEWABLES GOOD...............................................70
CLEAN COAL DA AFF ANSWERS—IMPACT: A2 CHINA COOPERATION........................................71
CLEAN COAL DA AFF ANSWERS—IMPACT: A2 SOLVES WARMING/CO2 EMITIONS.......................72
COAL CONSUMPTION DA AFF ANSWERS—LINK: RPS NO LINK................................................74
COAL CONSUMPTION DA AFF ANSWERS—IMPACT TERMINAL UNIQUENESS: COAL WILL PEAK. . .75
CHINA COAL DA AFF ANSWERS—IMPACT: WON’T USE CLEAN COAL.........................................76
CHINA COAL DA AFF ANSWERS—IMPACT: CHINA COAL INDUSTRY GOOD.................................77

“People don't like coal because it's black
If it were white, all our problems would be solved”
—Former Public Relations Manager who was promoted to be the Vice President
of one of the largest coal companies in the United States. AKA HUGE SCHMUCK

And you will never find it 2

KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS
2008-2009 X-GULLIE

CITES PAGE
SOME OF THE CITES FROM THE CONGRESSIONAL COMITTEES WHERE TO LONG TO PUT ON
EVERY PAGE THEY WERE NEEDED—SO I PUT THEM HERE

Bingaman et al—2007 (JEFF BINGAMAN, New Mexico, Chairman, DANIEL K. AKAKA, Hawaii PETE V.
DOMENICI, New Mexico, BYRON L. DORGAN, North Dakota, LARRY E. CRAIG, Idaho, RON WYDEN, Oregon
LISA MURKOWSKI, Alaska, TIM JOHNSON, South Dakota RICHARD BURR, North Carolina, MARY L. LANDRIEU,
Louisiana JIM DeMINT, South Carolina, MARIA CANTWELL, Washington BOB CORKER, Tennessee, KEN
SALAZAR, Colorado JOHN BARRASSO, Wyoming, ROBERT MENENDEZ, New Jersey JEFF SESSIONS, Alabama,
BLANCHE L. LINCOLN, Arkansas GORDON H. SMITH, Oregon, BERNARD SANDERS, Vermont JIM BUNNING,
Kentucky, JON TESTER, Montana MEL MARTINEZ, Florida, Robert M. Simon, Staff Director, Sam E. Fowler,
Chief Counsel, Frank Macchiarola, Republican Staff Director, and Judith K. Pensabene, Republican Chief
Counsel Comprise the COMMITTEE ON ENERGY AND NATURAL RESOURCES in a Hearing before the
Committee on Energy and Natural Resources for the 110th Congress, United States Senate, in the First
Session, “CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY”, 8/1/07, U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE)

Byrd and Dorgan et al—2007 (ROBERT C. BYRD, West Virginia, Chairman, DANIEL K. INOUYE, Hawaii,
PATRICK J. LEAHY, Vermont, TOM HARKIN, Iowa, BARBARA A. MIKULSKI, Maryland, HERB KOHL, Wisconsin,
PATTY MURRAY, Washington, BYRON L. DORGAN, North Dakota, DIANNE FEINSTEIN, California, RICHARD J.
DURBIN, Illinois, TIM JOHNSON, South Dakota, MARY L. LANDRIEU, Louisiana, JACK REED, Rhode Island,
FRANK R. LAUTENBERG, New Jersey, BEN NELSON, Nebraska, THAD COCHRAN, Mississippi, TED STEVENS,
Alaska, ARLEN SPECTER, Pennsylvania, PETE V. DOMENICI, New Mexico, CHRISTOPHER S. BOND, Missouri,
MITCH MCCONNELL, Kentucky, RICHARD C. SHELBY, Alabama, JUDD GREGG, New Hampshire, ROBERT F.
BENNETT, Utah, LARRY CRAIG, Idaho, KAY BAILEY HUTCHISON, Texas, SAM BROWNBACK, Kansas, WAYNE
ALLARD, Colorado, LEMAR ALEXANDER, Tennessee, CHARLES KIEFFER, Staff Director, BRUCE EVANS,
Minority Staff Directo comprise the COMMITTEE ON APPROPRIATIONS, and BYRON L. DORGAN, North
Dakota, Chairman, ROBERT C. BYRD, West Virginia, PATTY MURRAY, Washington, DIANNE FEINSTEIN,
California, TIM JOHNSON, South Dakota, MARY L. LANDRIEU, Louisiana, DANIEL K. INOUYE, Hawaii, JACK
REED, Rhode Island, FRANK R. LAUTENBERG, New Jersey, PETE V. DOMENICI, New Mexico, THAD COCHRAN,
Mississippi, MITCH MCCONNELL, Kentucky, ROBERT F. BENNETT, Utah, LARRY CRAIG, Idaho, CHRISTOPHER
S. BOND, Missouri, KAY BAILEY HUTCHISON, Texas, WAYNE ALLARD, Colorado, Professional Staff, DOUG
CLAPP, ROGER COCKRELL, FRANZ WUERFMANNSDOBLER, SCOTT O’MALIA (Minority), BRAD FULLER
(Minority), ROBERT RICH, Administrative Support, comprise the SUBCOMMITTEE ON ENERGY AND WATER
DEVELOPMENT, in a HEARING BEFORE A SUBCOMMITTEE OF THE COMMITTEE ON APPROPRIATIONS, for the
110th Congress, United States Senate, in the First Session, “CLEAN COAL, OIL AND GAS DEVELOPMENT,
NEW ENERGY OPPORTUNITIES THROUGH CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE”, 8/13/07, U.S. GOVERNMENT
PRINTING OFFICE, http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-
bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=110%5Fsenate%5Fhearings&docid=f:38423.pdf)

Katzer et al—2007 (DR. JAMES KATZER is the Executive Director, PROFESSOR STEPHEN ANSOLABEHERE,
Department of Political Science, MIT, PROFESSOR JANOS BEER, Department of Chemical Engineering, MIT,
PROFESSOR JOHN DEUTCH – CO-CHAIR, Institute Professor. Department of Chemistry, MIT, DR. A. DENNY
ELLERMAN, Alfred P. Sloan School of Management, MIT, DR. S. JULIO FRIEDMANN, Visiting Scientist,
Laboratory for Energy and the Environment, MIT, Carbon Management Program, Energy & Environment
Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, HOWARD HERZOG, Laboratory for Energy and the
Environment, MIT, PROFESSOR HENRY D. JACOBY, Alfred P. Sloan School of Management, MIT, PROFESSOR
PAUL L. JOSKOW, Elizabeth and James Killian Professor of Economics and Management, Department of
Economics and Alfred P. Sloan School of Management, MIT, Director, Center for Energy and Environmental

Zavell I hid your man card here 3

MIT. MIT. PROFESSOR RICHARD LESTER. PROFESSOR ERNEST J. Department of Chemical Engineering. MIT. Director. Cecil and Ida Green Professor of Physics and Engineering Systems. MIT. MONIZ – CO-CHAIR. 07) And you will never find it 4 . Industrial Performance Center. “The Future of Coal: An Interdisciplinary MIT Study”. PROFESSOR EDWARD STEINFELD.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE Policy Research. Department of Physics. Director. Department of Political Science. PROFESSOR GREGORY MCRAE. Laboratory for Energy and the Environment. Department of Nuclear Engineering.

Uniqueness—We are developing clean coal now—coal companies want to do it for public relations and profits. B. Oil—Clean Coal technologies help make an alternative to oil by converting coal into liquid forms that are similar to oil. HMMM SOLVES THE AFF. I didn’t quite find an impact to this. Now tell me if that isn’t just freaking awesome. ii. Clean Coal Good A. the DOE likes. Here are a few strategy tricks with this disad. this is especially true with the China Coal DA because I started it around 2 hours ago. wah. whatever. Necessity—The aff makes an alternative to coal. Zavell I hid your man card here 5 . so I recommend the mixing and incorporating of files after the summer so you are as prepared on this disad as you can be. lalala Bearden. so theres not a lot of stuff on it in this file. D. McCain and Obama like it. this is done through a project called Futuregen. Internal Impacts—How we solve the case/we make coal a lot better i. Natural Gas—Natural Gas is the alternative to coal because its so dang cheap. clean coal is the only way to stop the inevitable reintroduction of natural gasses into the market v. by moving towards alternatives the aff decreases the dependence on coal. It solves all their coal bad arguments that are not predicated off of mining. The unsustainability of energy/electricity causes price spikes in energy kills the economy. Profitability—This is probably the biggest inhibitor to the development of clean coal now. The two disads are: 1. Electricity—Coal is literally the best thing we have in the US to produce electricity. but I am pretty sure that this disad will be eventually put out at every major camp. which means they will probably loose the round. yada yada special intrest groups. I THINK SOOOO. I haven’t checked yet. ii. Hydrogen Fuel Cells—Clean Coal technologies are very similar to hydrogen fuel cell technologies so in the process of making Clean Coal technologies we would also develop hydrogen fuel cells. wah. when they are actually conceding half the offense. but if you really wanna run this go cut it yourself. I gave those tricks funny names because otherwise this would even bore me to a point where I wouldn’t even be able to write this at 3:30 in the morning. Link i. and its only sustainable in the world in which we can make it clean. China Energy Cooperation—China wants to cooperate to clean their coal. Affordable Energy—Coal is very freaking cheap. Warming—Clean Coal takes carbon dioxide out of the coal and allows it to burn without emitting greenhouse gasses into the air. This makes it no longer profitable to develop the coal also these profits are key to further conduct R&D C.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE STRATEGY SHEET/ABBREVIATIONS GUIDE This Disad is potentially devastating. DHeidt’s lab alone will probably put a 9000 page file out on this like everything else. vi. but if you have to much pride to read strategy sheets you will make yourself look a jerk trying to pull off some “chep shots”. External Impacts i. And there is definitely evidence that indicates that hydrogen fuel cells solve oil dependence and stuff. and wah. but you can defiantly find more stuff First—Monster In the Shadow This disad is actually two disads hidden in one that is meant to screw the 2ac over by making them think they answered the disad. our evidence indicates that only by cleaning coal can we make the use of coal sustainable in the long run so we can use it for electricity iii. which undercuts the need to clean coal because we have alternatives that are emit the same small amount of greenhouse gasses ii.

which is key for them to maintain competitiveness in the market and profits. Competitiveness—Clean Coal would provide a market that the US could lead innovation which makes us competitive in the market. Link—Alternative Energy X would push coal out of the market do to competition C. This kills the national economy. Coal Industry A. China Modeling—China would model our clean coal—this is key to initiating clean coal in China which is key to solve pollution in China so the dragon doesn’t cry. iv. v. Coal Industry—This is your bread and butter. Clean Coal is key for the Coal Industry to maintain strong public relations and environmental credibility. 2.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE iii. Uniqueness—The coal industry is maintaining mad profitability now B. and sustain their economy. Impact—Lack of coal profits the Coal Industry dies And you will never find it 6 . you should actually read through these cards because they are amazing.

kJ/kg SFC = Synthetic Fuel Corporation HRSG = Heat Recovery Steam Generator SIP = State Implementation Plan ICE = Injectivity. they take the affs solvency out because the link is off of decreasing the consumption of coal B. China Coal Industry—This arg is not in the 1nc A.S. IGCC) or that you cause R&D for a new technology that’s better ect. Development. Monitoring. Coal Market killing the ability for them to sustain China’s energy dependence. ARD&D = Analysis. ¢/kWe-h PC = Pulverized Coal CSLF = Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum PDF = Probability-Density Function EOR = Enhanced Oil Recovery PDU = Process Demonstration Unit EPPA = Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis PM = Particulate Matter Model (MIT) PRB = Powder River Basin EPRI = Electric Power Research Institute RD&D = Research. Link Turn—If they link turn. which means that when they read clean coal bad—you can say that you don’t use the technology that their evidence talks about (i. Research. Link—The plan would effectively destroy the U.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE STRATEGY SHEET/ABBREVIATIONS GUIDE 3. Uniqueness—China is importing tons of oil and mining only a little themselves B. CGE = Computable General Equilibrium ¢/kWe-h COE = Cost of Electricity. which causes China to have to produce their own coal C. $/kWe Change UIC = Underground Injection Control LAER = Lowest Achievable Emissions Rate USC = Ultra-Supercritical LLV = Lower Heating Value. Impact turn—The disad doesn’t actually have to defend a specific type of clean coal. and BAU = Business As Usual Verification CAIR = Clean Air Interstate Rule NAAQS = National Ambient Air Quality Standards CAMR = Clean Air Mercury Rule NG = Natural Gas CCS = Carbon Capture and Storage NGCC = Natural Gas Combined Cycle CCT = Clean Coal Technology NPV = Net Present Value CFB = Circulating Fluid Bed O&M = Operating and Maintenance Costs. Capacity and Effectiveness SNCR = Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction IECM = Integrated Environmental Control Model SNG = Synthetic Natural Gas (Carnegie Mellon University) SUBC = Subcritical IGCC = Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle TCR = Total Capital Required. Development. $/kWe IPCC = Intergovernmental Panel on Climate TPC = Total Plant Cost. and LPG = Liquified Petroleum Gas Demonstration MDEA = Methyl-Diethanol Amine ASU = Air Separation Unit MEA = Mono Ethanol Amine BACT = Best Available Control Technology MMV = Measurement. Impact—China’s Coal Industry is pure freaking evil…I mean no joke Second—Welcome to the pit of doom!!!!!!!!!!!! (doom)!!!!!!!!!! (doom)!!!!!!!!! (doom)!!!! One of the stronger things about this disad is that you don’t need to defend a lot and the few things that you do have to defend—the aff can’t straight turn A. kJ/kg USGS = US Geological Survey LNG = Liquified Natural Gas Zavell I hid your man card here 7 .e. and ESP = Electrostatic Precipitator or Precipitation Demonstration FGD = Flue Gas Desulfurization SC = Supercritical F-T = Fischer-Tropsch SCPC = Supercritical Pulverized Coal GHG = Greenhouse Gas SCR = Selective Catalytic Reduction HHV = Higher Heating Value.

org/Documents/THE%2520ROLE%2520OF%2520U. COAL IN ENERGY. more nuclear.S.the most threatening greenhouse gas.S. who says all coal plants. The idea is called "capture and sequester. And you will never find it 8 . more wind. But if carbon dioxide pollution is the problem with clean coal." and a global race is on to learn how it should be done. utilities are testing technology to make one of America's most abundant fuel But. While many U.S. NASA's expert on global warming. WILL PREVENT THE TRANSITION. coal industry is inextricably bound to public policies concerning energy." says James Hansen. DECREASE CO2 EMITIONS. One Norwegian firm is storing tons of carbon dioxide in rock caves beneath the North Sea. and overseas.S.com/stories/2008/06/20/eveningnews/main4199506. FROM INITIATIVE LIKE THE PLAN. They call it clean because they don't burn coal exactly .S.and then they decided to cancel it. They believe it's possible to recover most of the carbon dioxide and store it underground. industries have declined over the past two decades. strengthen basic infrastructure." says Hansen. Coal. the U. The purpose of this paper is to: • Discuss the status of the U. Coal is. "There is no coal plant that captures the carbon dioxide and that's the major long-term pollutant.shtml?source=RSSattr=SciTech_4 199506) (CBS) Much has been made about the skyrocketing price of oil lately. 6/20/08.167. but pulled all funding when the price grew too high. AND SAVE THE COAL INDUSTRY CBS—2008 (Clean Coal . And it's not just the industry. which virtually eliminates acid rain. the economy and the environment. we want to develop more solar.S. energy.Pipe Dream Or Next Big Thing?: Coal Industry Launches Ad Campaign To Support Energy Alternative. coal industry. Direct Economic Contribution. economy. "They took seven years just to decide where they were going to make a pilot plant . America's reliance on coal is in long-term trouble. and improve the nation’s balance of payments. A TRANSITION TO CLEAN COAL IS KEY TO PREVENT ACID RAIN. Energy efficiency can be improved and the environment protected while coal use expands to generate electricity.S. the dirtiest way America makes its electric power. and employ advanced technologies in the U.PDF) The future of the U. in the middle of rural Florida. gasifying coal allows the company to remove pollutants like sulphur.%2520COAL%2520IN%252 0ENERGY.coal .S. Until the federal government funds the research on carbon dioxide.” THE ROLE OF U. The Department of Energy planned to fund a plant. and environmental policies. as CBS News correspondent Wyatt Andrews reports. at least 63 coal-fired power plants have been scrapped or defeated by public opposition. with some saying that drilling in environmentally sensitive areas is a possible solution. economic. The abundant coal resources of the U. But exactly what is the technology? The cleanest coal plant in North America is operated by Tampa Electric.a cleaner alternative. America's efforts to sequester carbon have stalled. But Some Say Technology Hasn't Caught Up Yet”. ECONOMY AND THE ENVIRONMENT – SPECIAL REPORT”. by far. The potential of clean coal technology provides an enormous future opportunity for the United States. "There is no such thing as clean coal.233.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CLEAN COAL DA 1NC THE TRANSITION TO CLEAN COAL IS UNDERWAY—COAL INDUSTRIES AND PRESIDENTIAL CANDITIDATES ARE PUSHING IT—BUT NOT COMPLETE.104/search?q=cache:uu96- hfv3JAJ:nationalcoalcouncil. contributes both directly and indirectly to the U. But here's the problem. That's the good news. promote growth." says Hansen.they mix it with water and oxygen and convert it into a gas. http://64. Which is why the industry needs an ad campaign. but a new ad campaign funded by the industry promises a future where clean coal is a viable option.S. the nation’s largest source of domestic energy. And now. clean coal is not an option. PRODUCING CLEAN COAL IS KEY TO EFFECTIVE PR AND GROWTH OF THE COAL INDUSTRY WHICH IS KEY TO THE NATIONAL ECONOMY National Coal Council—1993 (2/93.cbsnews. nitrogen and soot. many scientists believe there is a solution. source . "And you can do it much cleaner than with the conventional coal technology." says Ramil. provide opportunities to improve the nation’s balance of trade in the 1990s. http://www.S. Both presidential candidates. Barack Obama and John McCain. "Until that time comes. The $21 billion in current value of annual coal production yields an impact of $81 billion on the economy. Florida Governor Charlie Crist helped pull the plug on the two clean coal plants because he says without a carbon solution. even TECO's. According to company president John Ramil. coal industry has increased its export position. the failure to solve the carbon dioxide problem is a threat to coal itself." says Crist. still emit millions of tons of carbon dioxide . and • Review the implications of coal’s role in U.%2520ECONOMY. are pushing clean coal. HIGH PRICES OF THE TRANSITION AND THE INCREASING ABILITY TO RELY ON ALTERNATIVE ENRGIES. In the last five years.

and emissions technologies can ensure that coal continues to contribute to energy security. is the primary market for coal. form of electricity. Accounting for 56% of total generation. FINDINGS The economic well-being of the United States depends substantially on coal. Electric power.S.S. economy. combustion. low-cost coal contributed to the electrification of the economy over the past twenty years. Availability of low-cost coal has enhanced the electrification of the U. Zavell I hid your man card here 9 . and environmental protection. Coal is the principal fuel used to generate electricity. economic growth. Coal also contributes to the economy in terms of tax revenue. the largest and fastest growing end-use sector in energy. Further development of coal production. If coal had not been available to meet the growth in electric demand. economy and the standard of living it supports depend on coal.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE The U. primarily in the form of electricity. Coal has been the nation’s largest domestic source of energy for nearly a decade. exports. Coal contributes over $80 billion annually to the economy and stimulates over one million jobs. consumers would have incurred over $190 billion in additional fuel costs since 1971. and infrastructure and technology development. Electric power is the largest and fastest growing end-use sector in energy. primarily in the Indirect Economic Contribution.

doc) History bears out that desperate nations take desperate actions.S. World Bank and elsewhere. forces there. the Director of the Association of Distinguished Scientists. suppose a starving North Korea launches nuclear weapons upon Japan and South Korea. EXTINCTION Bearden—2000 (Lieutenant Corporal T. – with a resultant global aftermath that will cause the whole world to enter into an extended period of severe deflation and depression – a new global dark age is now appearing on the event horizon. Europe’s economy will shortly thereafter follow suit the Federal Reserve.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CLEAN COAL DA 1NC U. are almost certain to be released. and was a Lieutenant Corporal in the US Army. the mutual treaties involved in such scenarios will quickly draw other nations into the conflict. Strategic nuclear studies have shown for decades that. As an example. the only chance a nation has to survive at all. “The Unnecessary Energy Crisis”. that those institutions responsible for the stewardship of the world’s economy are not dictating nor controlling US and global economic events and the darkness of this new age will depend on what is done now. Or suppose a desperate China — whose long range nuclear missiles can reach the United States — attacks Taiwan. 6/24/00. escalating it significantly.cheniere. lack of experience. adversaries and potential adversaries are then compelled to launch on perception of preparations by one's adversary. The resulting great Armageddon will destroy civilization as we know it. prior to this pending event. and perhaps most of the biosphere. Prior to the final economic collapse. is to launch immediate full-bore pre-emptive strikes and try to take out its perceived foes as rapidly and massively as possible. As the studies showed. and will do so within the next few months unless dire and drastic corrective steps are taken by the USA White House Administration and or As a direct result of this US economic collapse.html) The economy of the United States of America (USA) is about to collapse. at least for many decades. Without effective defense.com/2006/07/global-economic-collapse-new-global. ECONOMIC COLLAPSE ENSURES GLOBAL COLLAPSE Bolton—2006 (Peter J. Ben Benanke of the Federal Reserve is outweighed by his legacy of the impending Greenspan spawned economic meltdown by a most obvious lack of expertise. the stress on nations will have increased the intensity and number of their conflicts.S. The indicators are now that these necessary “dire and drastic corrective steps” will not be initiated. but too late and with little corrective effect. Mr. In addition to immediate responses. And you will never find it 10 . rapid escalation to full WMD exchange occurs. The real legacy of the MAD concept is this side of the MAD coin that is almost never discussed. lack of nerve (courage) and by policy directions emanating from his ideological oriented political superiors in the White House.blogspot. in a spasmodic suicidal response.org/techpapers/Unnecessary%20Energy%20Crisis. to the point where the arsenals of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) now possessed by some 25 nations. under such extreme stress conditions. “Global Economic Collapse . a Fellow Emeritus at the Alpha Foundation’s Institute for Advanced Study. http://verbewarp. IMF. including U. with a great percent of the WMD arsenals being unleashed . some ineffective measures will indubitably be introduced but merely to appease popular sentiment. http://www.E. once a few nukes are launched.” 8/1/06. Bolton is a Science Consultant. There can now be no doubt at all.A New Global Dark Age. Bearden is the Director at the Association of Distinguished American Scientists.

THIS KILLS THE GLOBAL ECONOMY—THAT’S CBS ‘8. VERTICAL ESCALATION— DESPERATE NATIONS TAKE DESPERATE ACTIONS ENSURING NUCLEAR ESCALATION ENSUREING COLLAPSE OF THE BIOSPHERE AND EXTINCTION B. MAGNITUDE 1. THIS DRAWS IN GLOBAL POWERS. COAL INDUSTRY AND INDEPENDENTLY THE PLAN UNDERCUTS THE PROFITS OF THE COAL INDUSTRY BY DECREASING DEPENDENCE THIS COLLAPSES THE US ECONOMY. BOLTON ‘06 THIS O/W AND TURNS THE CASE—OUR BEARDEN EVIDENCE MAKES SEVERAL CLAIMS A. PROBABILITY—PERCEPTION AND HAIRTRIGGER NATURE OF OUR IMPACT MAKES NATIONS ENGAGE THE WAR EVEN BEFORE THE ECONOMY COLLAPSES SO THEY CAN PROTSECT THEIRSELVES D. SOLVES CASE--<INSERT HERE> Zavell I hid your man card here 11 . 2. HORIZONTAL ESCALATION—MUTUAL TREATIES WOULD BE DESTROYED BY THE PRE-EMPTIVE NATURE OF THE CONFLICTS. NATIONAL COAL COUNCIL ’93.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE OVERVIEW (NORMAL) CLEAN COAL IS ON THE BRINK NOW—ONLY CONTINUED FOCUS CAN ENSURE A TRANSITION— THIS IS KEY TO THE PROTECTION OF THE U. TIMEFRAME—IMPACTS OCCUR AS SOON AS SOLVENCY DOES DUE TO THE ZERO SUM NATURE OF PROFITABILITY C.S. TURNS CASE—<INSERT HERE> E.

VERTICAL ESCALATION— DESPERATE NATIONS TAKE DESPERATE ACTIONS ENSURING NUCLEAR ESCALATION ENSUREING COLLAPSE OF THE BIOSPHERE AND EXTINCTION B. HORIZONTAL ESCALATION—MUTUAL TREATIES WOULD BE DESTROYED BY THE PRE-EMPTIVE NATURE OF THE CONFLICTS. BOLTON ‘06 THIS O/W AND TURNS THE CASE—OUR BEARDEN EVIDENCE MAKES SEVERAL CLAIMS A. MAGNITUDE 1.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE OVERVIEW (IF THEY DROP CONSUMPTION) THEY CONCEDE OUR SECOND INTERNAL LINK—THE COAL INDUSTRY IS STRONG NOW— DECREASED DEMAND BY THE PLAN WOULD COLLAPSE THE INDUSTRY KILLING THE DOMESTIC ECONOMY THIS MEANS WE HAVE 100% RISK OF OUR IMPACT—THAT’S CBS ‘8. SOLVES CASE--<INSERT HERE> And you will never find it 12 . THIS DRAWS IN GLOBAL POWERS 2. TURNS CASE—<INSERT HERE> E. TIMEFRAME—IMPACTS OCCUR AS SOON AS SOLVENCY DOES DUE TO THE ZERO SUM NATURE OF PROFITABILITY C. PROBABILITY—PERCEPTION AND HAIRTRIGGER NATURE OF OUR IMPACT MAKES NATIONS ENGAGE THE WAR EVEN BEFORE THE ECONOMY COLLAPSES SO THEY CAN PROTECT THEIRSELVES D. NATIONAL COAL COUNCIL ’93.

etc. http://www. and/or chemical weapons. we will get the great Armageddon we have been fearing since the advent of the nuclear genie. with the crumbling well underway and rising. and literally a hell on earth will result. Bearden is the Director at the Association of Distinguished American Scientists. and biological warfare arsenals of the nations as they feel the economic collapse. misery. the only chance a nation has to survive is to desperately try to destroy its perceived enemies before they destroy it. the Director of the Association of Distinguished Scientists. “Zero-Point Energy”. some 25 nations now have weapons of mass destruction (WMD) such as nuclear missiles. resulting. a Fellow Emeritus at the Alpha Foundation’s Institute for Advanced Study. An interesting result then— as all the old strategic studies used to show—is that everyone will fire everything as fast as possible against their perceived enemies. death. biological weapons.cheniere. Bearden is the Director at the Association of Distinguished American Scientists. The ensuing holocaust is certain to immediately draw in the major nations also. Here is his exact statement: ECON COLLAPSE HAS A 99% CHANCE OF CAUSING AN ARMAGEDDON Bearden—2000 (Lieutenant Corporal T. nuclear bombers and submarines.—almost certainly referring to the longitudinal EM wave interferometry weapons now possessed by seven or eight nations. etc. and with those conflicts increasing in intensity and sophistication. a Fellow Emeritus at the Alpha Foundation’s Institute for Advanced Study.E. 12/29/00. In short. we will be in a period of such increased conflicts between nations. etc. and was a Lieutenant Corporal in the US Army. being used to engineer the weather. and was a Lieutenant Corporal in the US Army. the Director of the Association of Distinguished Scientists. http://www. Right now. poverty.cheniere.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE IMPACT ANALYSIS CARDS TO ADD IN TO THE OVERVIEW IF YOU WANT AND THE IMPACT OF ECONOMIC COLLAPSE IS SEEN LONG BEFORE IT FULLY OCCURS Bearden—2000 (Lieutenant Corporal T. it is inevitable that some of the weapons of mass destruction will be used by one or more nations on others. and more nations are acquiring them. According to Defense Secretary Cohen. Zavell I hid your man card here 13 . So there will erupt a spasmodic unleashing of the long range missiles. “Zero-Point Energy”.htm) Just prior to the terrible collapse of the World economy. The Secretary also alluded to electromagnetic weapons of great power.htm) So about a year or two ahead of the "full economic collapse".E. initiate earthquakes. nuclear arsenals. The reason is simple: When the mass destruction weapons are unleashed at all. 12/29/00.org/correspondence/042500%20-%20modified.org/correspondence/042500%20-%20modified. my personal estimate is that we have about a 99% chance of that scenario or some modified version of it. a bit earlier.

2003: 129-32). THE SOONEST TIME OF COAL PEAK IS ANOTHER 100 YEARS Minqi—2007 (Li Minqi is a Staff Writer for the Journal of Contemporary Asia “Peak oil. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 2003: 167).S. coal could be depleted much faster. If coal consumption grows at 2% a year. However..access. BAUER. the United States has approximately a 250-year supply of coal available. “CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY”. I appreciate this opportunity to provide testimony on the Department of Energy’s advanced clean coal technologies and the program for carbon capture and storage. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY in a Hearing before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources for the 110th Congress.ecnext. may never be recovered due to declining net energy returns (the net energy output that can be produced for each unit of energy input) and environmental constraints (Heinberg. U. Much of it. the rise of China and India. Given current technologies. the rate of coal use will increase proportionally. coal is relatively abundant. minimize detrimental environmental impacts.com/coms2/gi_0199-7248586/Peak-oil- the-rise-of. at two trillion tonnes of coal equivalent. The United States’ fossil fuel resources represent a tremendous national asset. 8/1/07.cgi?dbname=110_senate_hearings&docid=f:38602. and rates of consumption. the continued use of this secure domestic resource will be dependent on the development of cost-effective technology options to meet both economic and environmental goals. http://goliath.TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY. in the First Session. And you will never find it 14 . Chairman. and the global energy crisis” 11/1/07. United States Senate. DIRECTOR. The economic prosperity of the United States over the past century has been built upon an abundance of fossil fuels in North America. [FIGURE 3 OMITTED] However. Coal-fired power plants supply about half of our electricity and are expected to continue to do so through mid-century.wais) Thank you Mr. then the world's total recoverable coal would be completely depleted before the end of this century (based on the lower estimate) or by the mid-twenty-second century (based on the higher estimate).html) Among the fossil fuels. Making full use of this domestic asset in a responsible manner enables the country to fulfill its energy requirements. including the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.gov/cgi- bin/getdoc. it is sufficient to last more than 200 years (Boyle et al. however.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE COAL DA—IMPACT TERMINAL UNIQUENESS: COAL SUSTAINABLE/A2 FINITE COAL PRODUCTION IS KEY TO AMERICAN ECONOMIC PRODUCTIVITY AND WE HAVE ENOUGH COAL TO MAINTAIN THE PRODUCTION FOR ANOTHER 250 YEARS DESPITE GROWING DEMAND Bauer—2007 (CARL O. with economic growth. 2006: 16). this would be sufficient to last more than 600 years. Trainer (2006a) used a high estimate of the world's potentially recoverable coal. Because electricity production increases at a rate of about 2 percent per year. NATIONAL ENERGY. and positively contribute to national security. The world's economically recoverable coal is estimated to be about 750 billion tonnes of coal equivalent. http://frwebgate. At the current rate of production. At the current rate of production. coal prices. The world's total identified coal resource is said to be 35 trillion tonnes (Cui.gpo.

In these new plants.S.S. AND IT WILL SOLVE Bingaman—2007 (JEFF BINGAMAN is a Senator from New Mexico in a Hearing before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources for the 110th Congress. These include advanced research. Fossil Energies core R&D program provides for the development of new cloth and environmentally effective approaches to use coal at predemonstration scale. Fluidized. CARBON CATCHING WILL BE INITIATED—PUTTING CLEAN COAL IS ON THE BRINK OF DEVELOPMENT Bauer—2007 (CARL O.gov/cgi- bin/getdoc.gov/cgi- bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=110_senate_hearings&docid=f:38602. instead of burning it. 8/1/07. United States Senate. less costly.gpo. “How Clean Coal Cooks Your Brain”.com/archives/008131. and now mercury.html) Big Coal insists they have solution for CO2. innovative technologies that would help industry to meet the strict environmental requirements. Flue gas scrubbers are a third of their cost compared to the 1970's and are more reliable. DIRECTOR. fluid-bed combustion. and more efficient.bed technology development in the core Zavell I hid your man card here 15 . to significantly reduce emissions of pollutants. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. advanced turbines and hydrogen turbines. It's called carbon capture and storage. In most scenarios. is a major clean coal story. U.access. The next challenge is to deal with the issue of carbon dioxide emissions from coal generation. http://frwebgate. capturing and storing CO2 from coal involves building a new kind of power plant that uses heat and pressure to gasify the coal.access. Details on these programs are in my written testimony. U. http://frwebgate.access. in the First Session. http://www. flue gas desulphurization. NATIONAL ENERGY. the current generation of low-NO burners alone.gpo. Today. “CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY”.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CLEAN COAL DA—UNIQUENESS: CLEAN COAL COMING NOW NEW COAL PLANTS WON’T EMIT CO2 Goodell—2008 (Jeff Goodell is the Author of Big Coal: The Dirty Secret Behind America's Energy Future.burning power plants in this country.TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY. U. The purpose of this cost-shared program was to develop and demonstrate at commercial scale. and yet not impinge on the economy of the United States. largely through the good works of the National Laboratories. Over the last few decades technologies have been produced and policies have been implemented. is equipped with technologies that can trace their roots back to the clean coal technology program. For example.wais) In 1985.TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY. carbon sequestration and capture. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY in a Hearing before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources for the 110th Congress. the CO2 can be removed. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. “CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY”. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. selective catalytic reduction. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY in a Hearing before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources for the 110th Congress. United States Senate. This program evolved into the power plant improvement initiative and then to the clean coal power initiative at present. nearly three out of every four coal. those emissions are roughly double the emissions produced from burning natural gas. “CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY”. The focus is on carbon capture and storage technologies. Selective catalytic reduction now costs half what it did in the 1980's and systems are on order or under construction for 30 percent of the coal-fired power plants. 6/16/08. 8/1/07. then injected underground in abandoned gas and oil wells or deep saline aquifers. The National Research Council estimated that these technologies have yielded sales totaling more than $27 billion. BAUER. has been a leader in the development of clean coal technology. http://frwebgate. hydrogen and fuels production.wais) Announcements of the third solicitation under CCPI is planned in this year.5 billion of these burners have X been sold and installed. DIRECTOR. THE US IS LEADING ON DEVELOPING CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY—THEY WILL DEVELOP IT NOW.gpo.cgi?dbname=110_senate_hearings&docid=f:38602. in the First Session. Nearly $1. compressed into an oil-like fluid.worldchanging. such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides and mercury.gov/cgi- bin/getdoc. BAUER.S. More than 20 technologies from the program have achieved commercial success in technologies that are related to low-NOX burners.wais) The United States. the Congress authorized DOE to initiate the clean coal technology demonstration program to provide additional impetus to move technologies from the laboratories to the marketplace. in the First Session. United States Senate. fuel cells gasification. 8/1/07. Today. and innovation for existing plants. NATIONAL ENERGY. WE CONTROL THE DIRECTION OF UNIQUENESS—THE DOE HAS BEEN PURSUITING CLEAN COAL SINCE THE 80’S—THEY HAVE BEEN EMPIRICALLY SUCESSFUL Bauer—2007 (CARL O.cgi?dbname=110_senate_hearings&docid=f:38602.

And you will never find it 16 . the first pioneering full-size coal gasification power plants. In Tampa. Indiana. and other supporting organizations. engineering firms. In conclusion. identified the most promising opportunities for carbon sequestration in their regions and are performing 25 geologic field sites and 11 terrestrial field tests. Florida and West Terra Haute. non-governmental organizations. Extensive data information gathered during the initial stages of the project. have opened a new pathway for the next generation of clean fuel flexible power plants. DOEs clean coal R&D program has a successful track record and a promising future that will ultimately lead to pollution-free coal plants. More recently within the coal R&D program. IGCCs. The partnerships are conducting field tests to validate the efficacy of carbon capture and storage technologies and a variety of geologic and terrestrial storage sites throughout the United States and Canada. the partnerships secure the active participation of more than 500 entities representing more than 350 industrial companies. of the seven partnerships.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE coal R&D program was first demonstrated in that program and has recorded global sales of over $10 billion. the carbon sequestration regional partnerships have brought an enormous amount of capability and experience together to work on the challenge of both infrastructure development and storing huge volumes of CO2 underground permanently. Together with DOE. State agencies.

to cutting-edge carbon-sequestration technologies that hold out the hope of capturing greenhouse gases and storing them under the earth in vast geologic reserves. 8/13/07. love coal" claims.salon. “CLEAN COAL. which causes acid rain. NEW ENERGY OPPORTUNITIES THROUGH CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE”. but in an election year where coal-loving swing states such as West Virginia and Pennsylvania are very much in play. Ultimately.access. in turn. PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATES ARE PUSHING CLEAN COAL FOR POLITICAL BENIFITS Mieszkowski—2004 (Katharine Mieszkowski is a Senior Writer for Salon Premium Media Group “Coal: Clean. green power machine?. everything from widely available scrubbers that reduce sulfur dioxide. United States Senate. burn. Forget about that nasty oil or radioactive nuclear waste: If you want to breathe fresh air. high-value chemicals. That's easy enough for them to do even if their positions on global warming differ. Zavell I hid your man card here 17 . burn!”. DORGAN is a Senator from North Dakota in a HEARING BEFORE A SUBCOMMITTEE OF THE COMMITTEE ON APPROPRIATIONS. and liquid transportation fuels. can be used as a fuel to generate electricity or steam.S. the synthesis gas.pdf) Gasification is a pre-combustion pathway to convert coal or other carbon-containing feedstocks into synthesis gas. Gasification plants are complex systems that rely on a large number of interconnected processes and technologies.html) Environmental and corporate watchdog groups have taken pains to debunk the nonprofit front group's trumped-up "Don't worry.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CLEAN COAL DA—UNIQUENESS: CLEAN COAL COMING NOW GLASIFICATION AND CARBON CAPTURE TECHNOLOGY IS ON THE BRINK OF CREATING CLEAN COAL NOW—CONTINUTED DEVELOPMENT IS KEY Dorgan—2007 (BYRON L. OIL AND GAS DEVELOPMENT. as well as development of novel approaches.gov/cgi- bin/getdoc. Advances in the current state-of-the-art. could help reveal the technical pathways enabling gasification to meet the demands of future markets while contributing to energy security. DOE is developing advanced gasification technologies to meet the most stringent environmental regulations in any State and facilitate the efficient capture of CO2 for subsequent sequestration—a pathway to ‘‘near- zero atmospheric emissions’’ coal-based energy.com/story/tech/feature/2004/10/05/clean_coal/index. for the 110th Congress. both presidential candidates have embraced the "clean coal" mantra. or as a basic raw material to produce hydrogen. because "clean coal" is one of those catchphrases that mean less the closer you look at them. 10/5/04.gpo. in the First Session. baby. U. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE http://frwebgate. says the coal industry. http://dir. "clean coal" is an umbrella term for many technologies. a mixture composed primarily of carbon monoxide and hydrogen.cgi?dbname=110%5Fsenate%5Fhearings&docid=f:38423.

automobile. carbon capture and storage will not be easily derailed.com/article/a-rocky-start-for-clean-coal/) So it seems apparent that the Department of Energy beheaded the Mattoon Futuregen project not to derail so-called "clean coal" but to accelerate its development. 2/7/08. http://www. And you will never find it 18 . “A Rocky Start for 'Clean Coal'”. 2/7/08. 28. a giant many-headed serpent with poisonous breath.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CLEAN COAL DA—UNIQUENESS: A2 FUTUREGEN THE COLLAPSE OF FUTUREGEN DIDN’T KILL CLEAN COAL BUT RATHER WILL SPEED PRODUCTION UP Montague—2008 (Peter Montague is a Staff Writer for Rachel’s Democracy & Health News. as noted above. Futuregen and its progeny will be hard to kill. “A Rocky Start for 'Clean Coal'”. "Let us fund new technologies that can generate coal power while capturing carbon emissions. CLEAN COAL IS INEVITABLE—INDUSTRIAL PUSH AND BIPARTISAN POLITICAL SUPPORT. http://www. mining and railroad industries depending upon it. with the coal.celsias. President Bush said.celsias. Like the mythical Hydra." And. but carbon capture and storage is anything but. both Senator Barack Obama and Senator Hillary Clinton support carbon capture and storage. oil. THIS OVERWHELMS THE RECENT COLLAPSE OF FUTUREGEN Montague—2008 (Peter Montague is a Staff Writer for Rachel’s Democracy & Health News. In his 2008 State of the Union address Jan. So Futuregen may be dead.com/article/a-rocky-start-for-clean-coal/) Naturally. Both political parties enthusiastically endorse the coal industry's "clean coal" campaign. aiming to get CCS demonstration projects going more quickly in more places simultaneously.

Clean coal technologies address this problem. The widespread deployment of pollution-control equipment to reduce sulphur dioxide. More recently. NOx and dust emissions from industry is just one example which has brought cleaner air to many countries. under the International Energy Agency.iea. Since the 1970s.85. 08.104/search?q=cache:an3800g0z3MJ:www.iea.pdf+https://www. can pollute and it produces carbon dioxide. however. http://209.org/textbase/papers/2008/Clean_Coal_CIAB _2008.org/textbase/papers/2008/Clean_Coal_CIAB_2008. Burning coal. that clean coal technologies now extend to include those for CO2 capture and storage (CCS).215.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CLEAN COAL DA—LINK: GLOBAL WARMING COAL DEPENDENCE WILL RAMAIN HIGH—CLEAN COAL COULD REDUCE EMISSIONS—BUT SHORT TERM GLOBAL WARMING IS KEY TO CREATE MOTIVATION FOR INNOVATION Coal Industry Advisory Board—2008 (The Coal Industry Advisory Board is a group of high-level executives from coal-related industrial enterprises. Zavell I hid your man card here 19 . with the result that the need to tackle rising CO2 emissions to address climate change means costs have fallen and performance has improved. “Clean Coal Technologies: Accelerating Commercial and Policy Drivers for Deployment”. various policy and regulatory measures have created a growing commercial market for these clean coal technologies.pdf) Coal is and will remain the world’s most abundant and widely distributed fossil fuel.

And you will never find it 20 .html) New "clean coal" technologies are addressing this problem so that the world's enormous resources of coal can be utilised for future generations without contributing to global warming. http://www. their replacement gives much scope for 'cleaner' electricity. 2/08. one hope for this is via "clean coal" technologies. As many coal-fired power stations approach retirement.world- nuclear. Alongside nuclear power and harnessing renewable energy sources.org/info/inf83.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CLEAN COAL DA—LINK: RENEWABLES REPLACEMENT OF OLD COAL PLANTS MAKE NOW KEY—ITS ONLY A QUESTION IF WE USE CLEAN COAL OR A RENEWABLE WNA—2008 (World Nuclear Association“"Clean Coal" Technologies”. Much of the challenge is in commercialising the technology so that coal use remains economically competitive despite the cost of achieving "zero emissions". such as are now starting to receive substantial R&D funding.

which effectively removes 90 percent of emissions. But it only includes what are classified as “renewables. and a couple of other kinds of The difficulty is that. and biomass. Zavell I hid your man card here 21 .house. http://www. again. 6/15/07 http://energycommerce. solar. which is a much cheaper way of getting to exactly the same result for greenhouse gas emissions. biomass as renewable. we have mercury regulations. “California's Climate Law: Boon or Boondoggle?—Transcript”.” Clean.1516/transcript.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CLEAN COAL DA—LINK: RPS RPS WOULDN’T EXCLUDE COAL WITH CARBON CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION ALSO KNOWN AS CLEAN COAL—THIS CREATES A DISINCENTIVE FOR CLEAN COAL Montgomery—2007 (W. when that Renewable Portfolio Standard is binding and forces. I'm in a little trouble of being sure about wind.asp) The idea of Renewable Portfolio Standard is to create a set of more or less market-based instruments. but forcing a particular way of meeting all of our environmental aspirations. So something that costs 50 percent more is forced into the market and replaces what would otherwise have been chosen under the motivation of the emission cap. we have NOx regulations. there is no legitimate reason why certain clean.eventID. and reliable energy sources such as hydropower. are almost never included as part of the Renewable Portfolio Standard. So it is a little hard to see what the policy problem is that the Renewable Portfolio Standard is trying to address other than creating a market for people who produce wind. If the true policy goal of an RPS is to encourage energy production. but coal with carbon capture and sequestration. the Renewable Portfolio Standard drives out in our modeling coal with carbon capture and sequestration. As a result.gov/Climate_Change/RSP%20feedback/US%20Chamber%2006%2015%2007 .pdf) One of the major drawbacks to current and RPS bills that have circulated through Congress is the definition of what energy sources are “renewable. safe energy producers are left standing at the door while others benefit. which has no emissions.all. solar. And I would be more broad about it. I would say. “We have sulfur regulations.” and renewables generally mean wind. Nuclear power. a lot of wind energy.org/events/filter. Should Congress choose to bind all states to a baseline renewable portfolio standard—which. nuclear power. the Chamber does not consider necessary—then it must strive to be as inclusive as possible.aei. David Montgomery is a Reporter for CRA International and a Writer for the American Enterprise Institute. for example. THE PLAN WOULD EXCLUDE CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES WHICH DISINCENTIVISES THEIR USE AND DEVELOPMENT Josten—2007 (Brus Josten is the Executive Vice President for the Chamber of Commerce of the United States of America in a Letter to Rep. 6/28/07. and clean coal technology have typically been excluded from this definition.” And all of those set up the incentive to choose the cost minimizing fuel and the RPS as kind of looking for a problem to solve. safe. you actually create something you can trade. John Dingell and Rick Boucher. Pennsylvania includes waste coal as a renewable resource so there is a certain amount of the politically correct resource. the RPS accomplishes precisely what energy legislation should not do: it picks winners and losers. in the market and there is also an emission cap.

8/1/07. including addressing how to capture carbon dioxide. Ionic liquid membranes have been developed at NETL for pre-combustion applications that surpass polymers in terms of CO2 selectivity and permeability at elevated temperatures.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CLEAN COAL DA—BRINK WERE ARE ON THE BRINK OF CREATING CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY CONTINUED EFFORTS ARE KEY—THESE CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES WOULD SOVLE Bauer—2007 (CARL O. In addition. —Carbon dioxide capture technology is being developed for solvent. however. http://frwebgate. The DOE efforts listed above are providing the elements needed to enable this expansion by advancing capture technologies to ensure a reliable low-cost supply of CO2 and improved EOR technologies to optimize for carbon sequestration co-benefits. Technology must.cgi?dbname=110_senate_hearings&docid=f:38602. the 7 Partnerships identified the most promising opportunities for carbon sequestration in their Regions and are performing 25 geologic field tests. in the First Session. and other supporting organizations. DIRECTOR. —The Carbon Sequestration Regional Partnerships have brought an enormous amount of capability and experience together to work on the challenge of infrastructure development. “CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY”. BAUER. contains information on stationary sources for CO2 emissions. Evidence of this progress includes: —The Carbon Sequestration Atlas of the United States and Canada. be developed to use this resource much more wisely and efficiently. all referenced to their geographic location to enable matching sources and sequestration sites.gov/cgi- bin/getdoc. U. and terrestrial ecosystems with potential for enhanced carbon uptake. combustion modification to control emissions. amine- based capture systems. And you will never find it 22 . state agencies. sorbent.S. http://frwebgate. in the First Session. Together with DOE. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. developed by NETL.cgi?dbname=110_senate_hearings&docid=f:38602. the Partnerships secured the active participation of more than 500 individuals representing more than 350 industrial companies.wais) Today. the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (Partnerships). non-governmental organizations. nearly three out of every four coal-burning power plants in this country are equipped with technologies that can trace their roots back to the Clean Coal Technology Program. and repowering with advanced power generation systems.gpo.gov/cgi- bin/getdoc. “CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY”. Research and systems analysis have identified potential cost reductions of 30–45 percent for the capture of CO2.access. membrane. ionic liquid membranes and absorbents are being developed for capture of CO2 from power plants. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY in a Hearing before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources for the 110th Congress. Approaches demonstrated through the program include coal processing to produce clean fuels. U. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 was a step in the right direction by providing tax incentives. Developing the technologies needed to support a widespread expansion of CO2– EOR could substantially increase existing U. Harper is the Chief Executive Officer and General Manager for Basin Electric Power Cooperative in a Hearing before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources for the 110th Congress. Relative to carbon capture and storage. WERE ON THE BRINK OF DEVELOPMENT NOW—CONTINUED DEVELOPMENT IS KEY Harper—2007 (Ronald R. and oxy- combustion systems that. DOE is making significant progress in developing the technologies and infrastructure needed for deployment of these technologies in a future carbon-constrained world. reserves and production.S. post-combustion cleanup of flue gas.TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY. These efforts helped accelerate production of cost-effective compliance options to address environmental issues associated with coal use. if successfully developed. would be capable of capturing greater than 90 percent of the flue gas carbon dioxide at a significant cost reduction when compared to state-of-the-art. NATIONAL ENERGY. loan guarantees and other programs to encourage the commercial development of the next generation of clean coal technologies. engineering firms.gpo. United States Senate. —The Partnerships are conducting field tests to validate the efficacy of carbon capture and storage technologies in a variety of geologic storage sites throughout the United States and Canada. and the National Carbon Sequestration Database and Geographical Information System. 8/1/07.access. geologic formations with sequestration potential.S. Using the extensive data and information gathered during the initial stages of the project.wais) Basin believes that we are on the threshold of tremendous opportunity with respect to continuing the use of fossil fuels in this country. United States Senate. —Field projects have demonstrated the ability to ‘‘map’’ CO2 injected into an underground formation at a much higher resolution than previously anticipated and confirmed the ability of perfluorocarbon tracers to track CO2 movement through a reservoir.

htm) ScienceDaily (Mar. Deploying technologies into the international marketplace requires that the technologies address environmental and operational performance requirements. mineral matter in mined coal gives rise to corrosive particles in the gas. It is this aspect that has largely been overlooked in past research. By removing unwanted minerals before the coal enters the power plant the new process helps protect the turbines from corrosive particles. The chemicals not only dissolve the minerals but are also easy to regenerate from the reaction products. but is virtually essential if chemical coal- cleaning is to be environmentally and commercially viable.000. see if coal-cleaning was viable. Dr Steel's research has further benefits. This new chemical process could make it more commercially viable.g. which can have an environmental impact. There are two ways to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from power plants -. the new approach involves using chemicals to dissolve unwanted minerals in the coal and then regenerating the chemicals again for re-use. The University of Nottingham research project "Development of a Process for Production of Ultra-Clean Coal" began in June 2005 and will run until October 2007. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY in a Hearing before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources for the 110th Congress. the new process could help ensure that world coal reserves are harnessed with less impact on climate change. Environmental and Mining Engineering is leading the project.com/releases/2006/03/060314085423. as well as financial challenges relative to the ability of plants to dispatch or sell its electricity at an acceptable place in the auction. These are then combusted in a gas turbine. as well as the need to dispose of them. Hydrofluoric acid is the main chemical being tested. apart from power generation. U. e. Potential uses for ultra-clean coal.(i) increase the thermal efficiency of the power generation process and so produce fewer carbon dioxide emissions per unit of electricity generated. “CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY”. which have potential to deliver significant carbon dioxide reductions. http://frwebgate. electrodes for the aluminium industry. This avoids the expense of using fresh chemicals each time. Background information The new process could also help ensure commercial take-up of high-efficiency "combined cycle" power technologies. As the chemicals are being regenerated. The aim is to cut unwanted minerals in coal from around 10% to below 0. include production of heavy fuel oil. the team is using specific chemicals to react with the minerals to form soluble products which can be separated from the coal by filtration. or removing unwanted minerals before the coal enters the power plant. in the First Session. NATIONAL ENERGY. There are two ways of protecting the turbine -. In combined cycles where coal is gasified ('coal gasification'). graphite and carbon fibres. As a raw material for manufacturing high purity carbon-based products. it makes sense to see if the perception is still justified today.TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY. With the environment high on the global agenda and coal certain to remain a key energy source for decades. This process is known as 'leaching'.05%. valuable additional products are made. 3/14/06." she says. e. offering efficiency gains that reduce the amount of carbon dioxide produced by 30-50%. Identifying and deploying effective ways of harnessing it at acceptable environmental and economic cost is an urgent priority for the global energy industry. Removing these minerals before using the coal to generate power prevents the formation of harmful particles during electricity production. BAUER. This is one of many initiatives worldwide looking into ways of using coal to generate electricity more cleanly. problems with cleaning the coal before it is burnt have made generating electricity in this way very expensive." If it proves technically viable and economically competitive. gas resources are becoming scarcer than coal. so efforts are now focusing on increasing the thermal efficiency of coal-fired power stations to match the thermal efficiency of natural gas-fired power stations. Coal currently meets one-third of the UK's electricity needs and will play a key role in meeting growing global energy demand in the decades ahead. causing severe damage to the turbine that generates electricity. To do this.S. http://www. Carbon dioxide has been identified as the main gas contributing to climate change. Coal gasification involves the use of steam to turn coal into the gases carbon monoxide and hydrogen. more efficient fashion that would reduce carbon dioxide emissions: this is where the coal is turned into a gas and used to drive a turbine. It is receiving EPSRC funding of just over £126. 14. DIRECTOR.g. "A lot of research took place in the 1970s and 1980s to Dr Karen Steel of the School of Chemical. United States Senate. making the coal 'ultra clean'. "The conclusion was that it was too expensive. THE ABILITY TO MAINTAIN PROFITABLITY AND SUCESSFUL DEPLOYMENT IS KEY TO SUCCESSFUL CLEAN COAL Bauer—2007 (CARL O. Zavell I hid your man card here 23 . with the waste heat from the gas turbines used to heat the steam turbines. and (ii) capture the carbon dioxide for long-term storage in secure geological structures.gov/cgi- bin/getdoc. By increasing generating efficiency. 2006) — A new chemical process for removing unwanted minerals from coal could lead to reductions in carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired power stations. There is already a way of burning coal in a cleaner. However. However. this reduces both the amount of fuel required and the emissions produced per unit of electricity generated. Under development by a University of Nottingham team with EPSRC funding. The new process focuses on the second option. 8/1/07. Climate change is now accepted as a fact by an overwhelming majority of the global scientific community. natural gas is the preferred fossil fuel for UK electricity generation as it gives a high thermal efficiency on combustion. pure silica -.access. it could act as a substitute for oil. so they are constantly recycled.sciencedaily.removing the particles from the gas before it reaches the turbine.cgi?dbname=110_senate_hearings&docid=f:38602.a raw material used in the manufacture of a huge range of products such as silicon chips and solar cells. compared with conventional coal combustion.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CLEAN COAL DA—INTERNAL LINK: ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS KEY CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY’S ARE ON THE BRINK OF BEING DEVELOPED NOW MAKING MAINTAINACE OF ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS THE ONLY BARRIER TO ADOPTION—THIS SOLVES CLIMATE CHANGE AND WOULD SUBSTITUE OIL Science Daily—2006 (“Ultra-clean Coal: Could The Price Now Be Right To Help Fight Climate Change?”. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.gpo. At present. A combined cycle uses both gas and steam turbines to produce electricity. Both are necessary for fighting climate change. The ultra-clean coal itself also has non-fuel uses. which characterizes the access to the market needed to gain adequate return on investment for the utilities.wais) The success of the clean coal R&D will ultimately be judged by the extent to which emerging technologies get deployed in domestic and international marketplaces.

And you will never find it 24 . in the regulated market. and are often difficult to overcome for new technologies seeking to make entry.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE This includes. the technical and financial risks associated with the deployment of new coal technologies are key factors in determining whether they will achieve success in the marketplace. the ability to recover cost in the rate-base.

With present technologies and higher quality coals.wais) Coal is the energy source for half of the electricity generated in the United States. R&D AND TECH DEMONSTRATION IS KEY TO CLEAN COAL Katzer et al—2007 (See Cite Page) Finding #6: It is premature to select one coal conversion technology as the preferred route for cost-effective electricity generation combined with CCS. consumers of having coal’s price-stabilizing influence on the electricity system. EPRI’s ‘‘Electricity Technology in a Carbon-Constrained Future’’ study suggests that it is technically feasible to reduce U. In the case with advanced coal with CCS. the cost difference is significantly less and could even be reversed by future technical Since commercialization of clean coal technology requires advances in R&D as well as technology advances.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CLEAN COAL DA—INTERNAL LINK: R&D KEY COAL USE IS INEVITABLE—WERE ON THE BRINK OF CLEAN COAL BUT CONTINUED R&D IS KEY— SUCESSFUL DEVELOPMENT IS KEY TO THE ENERGY SECTOR AND THE OVERALL U. Through the development and deployment of advanced coal plants with integrated CO2 capture and storage (CCS) technologies. United States Senate.gov/cgi- bin/getdoc. numerous forecasts of energy use predict that coal will continue to provide a major share of our electric power generation throughout the 21st century. other conversion/combustion technologies should not be ruled out today and deserve R&D support at the process development unit (PDU) scale.S. energy mix including advanced coal technologies with integrated CCS results in electricity at half the cost of a 2030 energy mix without advanced coal with CCS. a sustained RD&D program at heightened levels of investment and resolution of legal and regulatory unknowns for long-term geologic CO2 storage will be required to achieve the promise of clean coal technologies. economy is $1 trillion per year larger than in the case without advanced coal and CCS. The study showed that the largest single contributor to emissions reduction would come from the integration of CCS technologies to advanced coal-based power plants coming on-line after 2020.S. competitive advanced coal power generation and CO2 capture and storage technologies. The potential return on this investment is enormous.cgi?dbname=110_senate_hearings&docid=f:38602. the cost of electricity generated with CCS is cheaper for IGCC than for air or oxygen driven SCPC. The members of EPRI’s CoalFleet for Tomorrow® program—a research collaborative comprising more than 60 organizations representing international power generators. equipment suppliers.S.S.S. ECONOMY Phillips—2007 (Jeff Phillips is a Program Manager for Advanced Coal Generation for the Electric Power Research Institute. http://frwebgate. However. domestic fuel that can be used in an environmentally responsible manner. Economic analyses of scenarios to achieve the study’s emission reduction goals show that a 2030 U. and a railroad— see crucial roles for both industry and governments worldwide in aggressively pursuing collaborative RD&D over the next 20∂ years to create a full portfolio of commercially self-sustaining. coal and oil companies. electric sector CO2 emissions over the next 25 years while meeting the increased demand for electricity. affordable. For sub bituminous coals and lignite. Even with the aggressive development and deployment of alternative energy sources. demonstration. Criteria air pollutants from all types of new coal power plants have been reduced by more than 90 percent compared with plants built 40 years ago. A previous EPRI economic study based on financial market ‘‘options’’ principles found a similarly large benefit to U. Zavell I hid your man card here 25 . coal power will become part of the solution to satisfying both our energy needs and our global climate change concerns. “CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY”. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. in a Hearing before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources for the 110th Congress. U. Coal is a stably priced. with a much stronger manufacturing sector. the U.access.gpo. government research organizations. 8/1/07. in the First Session.S.

S. has estimated that using currently available technologies to capture and store 90 percent of the carbon dioxide (CO{-2}) produced by pulverized-coal-fired power systems would raise the cost of electricity by over 80 percent. This results in increased needs for coal and for water. Clearly. electricity is a commodity. The lower the prices. The National Energy Technology Laboratory. we must develop and deploy a mix of technologies to satisfy our growing need for electric power and other forms of energy. low and declining electric rates will moderate inflationary pressure for years to come. strongly linked to the abundance and affordability of fossil fuels. Economic Impact”. the greater the downward pressure on inflation. “Fueling Growth. * Market forces are powerfully oriented toward demanding low prices for commodities. Advanced clean coal technology will be an important part of our future energy portfolio as we transition to a sustainable energy future with zero emissions. Capturing and storing CO{-2} reduces the efficiency of pulverized-coal systems by 30 percent and IGCC systems by 20 percent. * When any commodity is projected to have stable and declining prices. <EXTEND THE 1NC ECON IMPACT> And you will never find it 26 . “Clean coal is vital to energy outlook” 6/15/08. For integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. economists predict low inflation.S. Since electricity is one of the biggest commodities bought and sold in our nation.azcentral. energy technologies that are capable of economically and efficiently capturing and permanently storing CO{-2} are needed. which boost the U. new technologies and the nation's economy. http://www.html) The economic prosperity of the United States has been. in general. electricity is critical to our economic strength. THIS IS KEY TO THE ECONOMY—6 WARRENTS CARE—2006 (Coalition for Affordable and Reliable Energy.asp) As America's most vital commodity. * Increasing electricity demand is a direct measure of the fast-growing use of electric-based technologies such as telecommunications devices and computer and internet-oriented equipment. which is why changes in commodity prices are considered a key indicator of inflationary trends. thereby protecting the integrity of savings and investments. 06. At the wholesale level. * The growing dependence on electricity is best illustrated by the continued close relationship between electricity usage and the general level of economic activity. and at $217 billion a year it is one of the largest commodities in the U.com/fueling_growth/impact. Managing greenhouse-gas emissions is now the biggest challenge for coal. resulted in just over a one percent rise in the demand for electricity.careenergy. To ensure a future that is both secure and prosperous. and is currently. or NETL. http://www. economy. a particularly important issue in arid regions. There is a direct connection between electricity. Each percentage increase in real GDP between 1970 and 2000 has. economy.com/arizonarepublic/viewpoints/articles/0615vip-strakey0615.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CLEAN COAL DA—IMPACT: AFFORDABLE ENERGY 2NC CONTINUED R&D FOR CLEAN COAL IS KEY TO AFFORDABLE ENERGY Starkey—2008 (Joseph P. the cost of electricity would increase by about 35 percent. Strakey is chief technology officer for the National Energy Technology Laboratory in Pittsburgh.

(8) Zavell I hid your man card here 27 .html) Prices or unit costs data can be confusing or misleading sometimes. and the global energy crisis” 11/1/07. Taking into account storage. the rise of China and India. 2006b) made direct estimates wind power is about 20% more expensive than a of capital costs of wind and solar power based on Australian prices (see Table 2).com/coms2/gi_0199-7248586/Peak-oil- the-rise-of.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CLEAN COAL DA—IMPACT: AFFORDABLE ENERGY (A2 ALTERNATIVES CHEAPER) WIND AND SOLAR POWER ARE MUCH MORE EXPENSIVE THAN COAL POWER Minqi—2007 (Li Minqi is a Staff Writer for the Journal of Contemporary Asia “Peak oil. Trainer (2005. then given the intermittency and variability problems. the cost of solar power is likely to range from 6 to 35 times that of coal-fired power. as it is not always clear whether prices or costs are subsidised or not and what items are included. storage would be necessary to deliver a reasonably reliable electricity output. If solar power is used on a large scale. Solar power costs range from 3 to 35 times those for coal-fired power. http://goliath. Trainer's estimates suggest that coal-fired power plant.ecnext.

and coal. 06. will be the world’s first zero emission coal-fired plant. Source: U. Department of Energy has announced a Presidential initiative to build "FutureGen.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CLEAN COAL DA—IMPACT: AFFORDABLE ENERGY (SUSTAINABLE) COAL IS THE ONLY SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SOURCE—ALL YOUR ALTERNATIVES FAIL Vaux—2004 (Gregson Vaux is a Chemical Scientist. http://www.S. “Cleaner Enviornment. more efficient and environmentally compatible technologies for electric utilities. but safety concerns. and increasing fuel efficiencies. Even countries such as Denmark that have made heroic efforts to develop wind power are connected to a larger electrical grid so that they can rely on more traditional sources of electricity when the wind is not blowing. Source: Table 8. waste disposal issues. which began in 1986. Meeting this rising growth rate will require the construction of the equivalent of more than 1. and needs for further technological development mean that nuclear energy will not be a majority energy source for several decades. Wind power has a moderately promising future but the unreliability of wind has limited its use throughout the world. natural gas. And you will never find it 28 . Now and in the Future Electricity demand will increase 53. lower-cost. http://www. Clean Coal Technology is Important. the only major energy sources for the next few decades will be oil. New programs in clean coal technology—such as the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI)—are essential for building on the progress of the original Clean Coal Technology Program.S.S. Over the longer term. Coal will remain the largest single source of electricity—accounting for 51 percent of power generation in 2025. utilities to meet more stringent Clean Air Act requirements while continuing to utilize America’s most plentiful domestic energy resource—coal. steel mills. plus continue the decline in SO2 and NOx emissions already underway. well but is now near its maximum potential because there are simply almost no rivers remaining to be dammed." a $1 billion project that will lead to the world's first emission-free plant to produce electricity and hydrogen from coal while capturing greenhouse gases. FutureGen.fromthewilderness. DEMAND FOR COAL IS INCREASING. DOE.com/cleaner_environment/clean-coal-technology. CONTINUED R&D FOR CLEAN COAL IS CRITICAL FOR DEVELOPMENT—THIS IS KEY TO SUPPLY CLEAN SUSTAINABLE ENERGY TO MATCH THE GROWING DEMAND FOR ELECTRICITY CARE—2006 (Coalition for Affordable and Reliable Energy. finding solutions for reducing trace emissions of mercury. reducing or eliminating carbon dioxide emissions. this will allow greater use of coal with zero emissions. focused on commercializing processes that helped reduce sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions and demonstrating more efficient and environmentally friendly alternatives to traditional pulverized coal boilers. Clean coal technologies will help meet these needs. Hydroelectric power has served the U. cement plants and other industries. If coupled with sequestration. In addition.S.html) Nuclear energy can be used to generate electricity and can even make motor fuels. LNG Import Issues Key”. Office of Fossil Energy Clean coal technologies helped make it possible for U.200 new power plants of 300 megawatts each—the equivalent of about 65 plants each year. There are also other energy sources such as solar power but they are very minor contributors and will remain so for reasons that are beyond the scope of this paper. The U.S. Annual Energy Outlook 2003 The recently announced FutureGen project takes clean coal technology even further. Clean Coal Technology (CTT)”. research in clean coal technology will be directed toward developing coal-based hydrogen fuels. “The Peak in U. water shortages have affected the reliability of hydroelectric power. In short.com/free/ww3/052504_coal_peak.4 percent over the next 25 years.careenergy.asp) Clean Coal Technologies—the products of research and development conducted over the past 20 years— have resulted in more than 20 new. a plant to produce hydrogen from coal and sequester emissions. 5/27/04. Coal Production. The original Clean Coal Technology Program.

development and utilization of energy.ncar. a continued deterioration of Sino-US ties does not bode well for the regional stability of the very large and equally important Asia Pacific. The increased nuclear sophistication on the troubled subcontinent carries with it the risk of a potential nuclear holocaust. China. much to the continued consternation of now-nuclear India. including better strategic dialogue on energy. the issue of immediate concern for the USA is nuclear non- proliferation. The Kashmir issue still remains unresolved and very explosive given the continued intransigence of both India and Pakistan to amicably resolve it. Immediate work has to be done by both sides to minimize damages on this issue. In the meantime. along with Russia. The PRC. it will encourage energy technology development.104/search?q=cache:Ahq8GXT- _u4J:www. Armed Forces Staff College national security professor. This reality is not likely to change in the foreseeable future. Aug 1. Adhariri – 99 (Eschan. has an established record proliferating nuclear technology. China will further expand international energy cooperation with foreign countries: ----Complement our domestic energy production through international trade and upstream development.org/conferences/60/presentations/Ma. online) Looking ahead. greater technological progress in the exploration. China.S. both countries will benefit from energy cooperation. create business opportunities and contribute to global environment protection. armed with the knowledge of America's premier nuclear programs. renewable energy and higher energy efficiency. countries share the same energy market. in a joint effort to boost global oil production and stabilize its supply. “China’s energy Policy and China-US cooperation”. The cooperation will help ensure energy supply for both countries.169. ----continue to participate in international energy cooperation in both bilateral and multilateral dimensions and step up its dialogue and cooperation with international organizations and transnationals to jointly secure the stability of world energy market ----continue to conduct extensive cooperation on energy security.233.l coop China and US has great potential for energy cooperation. energy cooperation has become one of the important contents in bilateral relations between US and Today. enhanced fruitful cooperation on clean coal. Jane’s Intelligence Review. transfer and deploy. US-SINO RELATIONS KEY TO SOLVE MULTIPLE NUCLEAR WARS. Accessed 7/9/08.http://64. Yet this regional stability might be negatively affected for a long time if Washington and Beijing fail to bounce back from this fiasco and assiduously work to improve their strategic relations.pdf) With the economic globalization.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CLEAN COAL DA—IMPACT: CHINA ENERGY COOPERATION 2NC CLEAN COAL AND ENERGY EFFICIENCE IS A KEY TO US-CHINA ENERGY COOPERATION WHICH IS KEY TO OVERALL RELATIONS Ma—No Date Given (Aimin Ma is a Administrator in the Economic Affairs Office in the Embassy of the People’s Republic of China in the U. is likely to be a much more sought after sources for nuclear proliferation than it has ever been in the past by those countries keenly interested in enhancing the sophistication of their extant nuclear programs and by those who have not yet developed indigenous nuclear knowhow but desire to purchase it. Zavell I hid your man card here 29 .

S. the technology will be used by member countries to reduce emissions around the globe. “Fact Sheet: Second Meeting of the U. both countries agreed to: * Coal-Mine Methane (CMM) Capture: Over the next five years.gov/press/releases/hp417. efficiently. making it FutureGen will initiate operations in 2012 and will be the first plant in the environmentally cleanest fossil fuel fired power plant in the world. http://www.htm) Promoting Energy Security and Protecting the Environment Energy security and environmental protection are shared priorities for both the United States and China.ustreas. China uses twice as much coal as the United States to power its growth and economy. and without contributing emissions. HP-417. This creates demand and incentives for the rapid development and deployment of clean and efficient energy technology. At the second meeting of the Strategic Economic Dialogue.- China Strategic Economic Dialogue”. And you will never find it 30 .” Secretary Bodman said. * Develop Clean Coal Technologies: The United States and China will provide policy incentives to promote the full commercialization of advanced coal technologies and will advance commercial use of carbon capture and storage technologies.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CLEAN COAL DA—IMPACT: CHINA ENERGY COOPERATION CLEAN COAL IS A KEY ISSUE FOR COOPERATETION WITH CHINA Kolton—2006 (Anne Womack Kolton is a Governmental Reporter and Researcher for the Department of Energy.S. 5/23/07. and that number is expected to double by 2020.gov/news/4535. Virtually every aspect of the 275 megawatt prototype plant will be based on cutting-edge technology." The $1 billion FutureGen initiative is a ten-year effort announced by President Bush in 2003. the world to produce both electricity and commercial-grade hydrogen from coal. the United States and China will develop up to 15 large-scale CMM capture and utilization projects in China. 12/15/06.S. and China Announce Cooperation on FutureGen and Sign Energy Efficiency Protocol at U. share a common energy resource in coal. simultaneously. so it is imperative that we work together to find ways to use coal effectively. “Our joint efforts in developing new energy technologies including clean coal and renewable energy will enhance our nations’ energy security.htm) ”We welcome China and their expertise to the FutureGen project. http://www. CHINA AND THE US ARE COOPERATING OVER CLEAN COAL Department of Treasury—2007 (U.-China Strategic Economic Dialogue”. and reduce harmful pollutants.S. Department of the Treasury. this plant will remove and sequester carbon dioxide while producing electricity and hydrogen.S. “U. provide for economic growth. Once operational.doe. China and the U. Once completed.

commercialising some key technologies and trying them out in large-scale demonstration projects is the way forward. but it's trying to find a cleaner way of using the resource. combining research and development from CAS institutes and other organisations. India might make a grab for Tibet. Meanwhile. Coal will be used as the feedstock in these projects.. without neo-conservative or Central Intelligence Agency prompting. from both China and elsewhere. pg. “The End of Oil: on the Edge of a Perilous New World”. initiative to develop clean-coal technology. "Given the increasingly important role China plays in the global economy.com/energy/energy/497329-the-burning-issue-of-clean-coal) China is still looking to coal to provide for its energy needs. 04.into nervous breakdowns. much less outright military invasion because the economy (against all predictions) suddenly collapses. a point not lost on BP. That’s why wise policy encourages Chinese stability. http://asiamedia. some in Japan might lick their lips at the prospect of of World War II revisited and look to annex a slice of China. “The burning issue of clean coal” 8/5/07. although at this stage it is little more than a recently-signed memorandum of understanding (MoU). The establishment of the Clean Energy Commercialisation Centre (CECC) is a start. 2003. China and India might find themselves able to burn their coal without dooming the climate to catastrophic warming. http://www. The CECC will also serve a co-ordination role. A massive flood of refugees would head for Indonesia and other places with poor border controls. As coal accounts for more than 70% of China's total energy consumption. BP managing director and chief executive. The stated aim of the CECC is ‘to accelerate the development in China of clean coal conversion technologies'. Then you can say hello to World War III.once occupied by Japan. INDEPENENTLY CHINESE ECONOMIC DOWNTURN CAUSES WORLD WAR III Plate. Bush scarcely needs enemies”. security and economic growth – the very direction the White House now seems to prefer.S. would dramatically change the significance of the Asian economy powered by coal. “WHY NOT INVADE CHINA? With allies like the neo-cons. CHINA WILL CONTINUE TO USE COAL—BUT WANTS TO PRODUCE CLEAN COAL—THIS IS KEY TO THE CHINESE ECONOMY AND THE GLOBAL ECONOMY Matthews—2007 (Stuart Matthews is a Staff Writer for the Arabian Business. for example. cleaner use of it is considered critical for the sustainable development of the Chinese economy. which don’t’ want them and cant handle them. Zavell I hid your man card here 31 . A U.ucla. 324) Even as U. which are looking to produce fuel.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CLEAN COAL DA—IMPACT: CHINA MODELLING (ECON) 2NC US PRODUCTION OF CLEAN COAL IS KEY TO CHINESE ADAPTION Roberts—2004 (Paul Roberts is a Contributor to Harper's Magazine. That would send Singapore and Malaysia. Asia style. and Pakistan for Kashmir.on its own.arabianbusiness.edu/TomPlate2003/06302003. chemicals and power. As a major consumer of Middle East oil. 2003 (Tom. American companies can bring down the costs of IGCC and carbon capture technology sufficiently.S. The final target is the creation of commercially viable ideas that can add to China's clean energy development and energy security. they would be encouraging the development of a more sustainable one.htm) But imagine a China disintegrating. How? Well. It will be a joint project between BP and the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). June 30. Refining and Marketing. professor of Policy and Communication Studies at UCLA where he founded the Asia Pacific Media Network. according to a BP statement. anything that has an impact on the country's energy demand could have an impact elsewhere too. policies were undermining the existing energy order. China's choice and efforts in promoting new and cleaner energy applications will have a profound impact on both the future of the Chinese economy and the global energy market." said Iain Conn. That would knock Asia into chaos.

The result is a power sector that is horribly polluting and so inefficient that. most new coal-fired power plants in China do not—not because the Chinese like acid rain any more than Americans or Europeans do. Between now and 2030. BUT A QUESTION OF HOW—AMERICAN PRODUCTION IS KEY TO REDUCE CHINESE POLLUTION—THEY CAN’T AFFORD IT THEIR SELVES Roberts—2004 (Paul Roberts is a Contributor to Harper's Magazine. more than a third of the energy consumed by China and its neighbors will come from coal. like gas—thus committing China to burn even more coal and emit even more pollutants. Despite an apparent decline in coal use during the 1990s (which Western analysts optimistically attributed to improved energy efficiency and a shift toward gas). 04. Today. initiative to develop clean-coal technology. American companies can bring down the costs of IGCC and carbon capture technology sufficiently.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CLEAN COAL DA—IMPACT: CHINA MODELLING (POLLUTION) 2NC US PRODUCTION OF CLEAN COAL IS KEY TO CHINESE ADAPTION Roberts—2004 (Paul Roberts is a Contributor to Harper's Magazine. Instead. And you will never find it 32 . the demand 11 for coal in China. which is on a similar coal track. “but whether China will use its coal cleanly. China’s per capita consumption of electricity is still less than a tenth of the average for industrialized countries. A U. Chinese coal consumption is again rising—by nearly 9 percent in 2002.13 What is truly alarming here is that. The climatic consequences of China’s coal-fired drive for energy security are staggering. where blackouts are still common in most cities. In electricity-starved China. to meet its demand for electricity. the answer seems to be no. “The End of Oil: on the Edge of a Perilous New World”. but because scrubbers add 30 percent to the cost of a new power plant—the difference between building four new power plants and building only three. they would be encouraging the development of a more sustainable one. China is. pg. “The End of Oil: on the Edge of a Perilous New World”. well on its way towards becoming the world’s largest coal economy. China is so poor that it simply cannot afford the kind of cutting-edge IGCC technology needed for a “clean-coal” energy economy. it has been forced to to build new plants faster than if it used a more efficient power technology. in fact. Given China’s current energy trends. Whereas many Western coal-fired power plants must install sulfur-“scrubbing” technology. a former energy official in the first Bush administration. and most of them will burn coal. many of China’s existing coal-fired power plants are so ancient they lack emissions-controlled technology and waste most of the energy they generate. which is ravaging China’s cities and nearly 40 percent of its forests and farmlands. “The real question isn’t whether china is going to use its coal. 324) Even as U. The consequences aren’t encouraging. China must build as many as sixty 400-megawatt electric power plants every year for the next decade. All told. through coal. the if China can’t afford sulfur scrubbers. According to one forecast. China’s CO2 emissions will increase as much as those of the entire rest of the industrialized world. China is already the leading emitter of sulfur dioxide. CHINA IS INCREASING ITS COAL CONSUMPTION—ITS NOT A QUESTION OF IF. 147-148) Instead. despite all the new growth in power usage and in construction of power plants. China is the second leading emitter of carbon dioxide. it is almost impossible to imagine how or why. 04. and in neighboring India. China will solve its looming energy security problems in the worst way possible. policies were undermining the existing energy order.14 What this suggests is not only that China still suffers from chronic energy poverty but that. By 2050. once China starts to lift itself out of that poverty and approach a Western level of energy use. to meet the nation’s rising energy demand. Indeed. for example.S. right behind the United States—despite the fact that China’s per capita CO emissions are just one-eighth those of the 2 United States.” At this point. the component in coal smoke that causes acid rain.S. it should occupy first place before the end of the decade. Beijing is relying largely on the same obsolete coal-fired technology that plagues the West. would dramatically change the significance of the Asian economy powered by coal.12 And would spend billions of dollars installing clean-coal technology.” warns Reid Detchon. pg. Beijing choice isn’t hard. will account for more than two- thirds of the growth in the world demand for coal. its energy needs will exceed the capacity of any global system that currently exists. China and India might find themselves able to burn their coal without dooming the climate to catastrophic warming.

Environmental woes that might be considered catastrophic in some countries can seem commonplace in China: industrial cities where people rarely see the sun. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides spewed by China’s coal-fired power plants fall as acid rain on Seoul. a meteorological deus ex machina. Chinese cities often seem wrapped in a toxic gray shroud. “As China Roars. one of China’s leading environmental researchers. the International Energy Agency has said China could become the emissions leader by the end of this year. to clear its skies for the 2008 Olympics. and the Netherlands Environment Assessment Agency said China had already passed that level. now more than at any time in the recent past. with such stark domestic and international repercussions. and dirtiest.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CLEAN COAL DA—IMPACT: CHIAN MODELLING (POLLUTION) 2NC POLLUTION IN CHINA KILLS THE ENVIORNMET.” says Wang Jinnan. For the Communist Party.” China’s problem has become the world’s problem. but many people refuse to accept that we need a new approach so soon. the political calculus is daunting. China is choking on its own success. Severe water shortages could turn more farmland into desert. 8/26/07. Officials blame fetid air and water for thousands of episodes of social unrest. and Tokyo.theledger. provides spoils for well-connected officials and forestalls demands for political change. And the unconstrained expansion of energy-intensive industries creates greater dependence on imported oil and dirty coal. Public health is reeling. the Ministry of Health says. that pollution poses not only a major long-term burden on the Chinese public but also an acute political challenge to the ruling Communist Party. POLITICAL STABILITIY. More pressing still. posting a succession of double-digit growth rates. according to the Journal of Geophysical Research. Experts once thought China might overtake the United States as the world’s leading producer of greenhouse gases by 2010. alienate business interests and threaten the party’s rule. Health care costs have climbed sharply. Delivering prosperity placates the public. China has entered the most robust stage of its industrial revolution. children killed or sickened by lead poisoning or other types of local pollution. Pollution Reaches Deadly Extremes”. possibly later. “It is a very awkward situation for the country because our greatest achievement is also our biggest burden. And it is not clear that China can rein in its own economic juggernaut. Ambient air pollution alone is blamed for hundreds of thousands of deaths each year. Nearly 500 million people lack access to safe drinking water. Beijing is frantically searching for a magic formula. But pollution poses its own threat. almost all from coal. A major slowdown could incite social unrest. Pollution has made cancer China’s leading cause of death. “There is pressure for change. Environmental degradation is now so severe. Only 1 percent of the country’s 560 million city dwellers breathe air considered safe by the European Union. South Korea. source. Reining in economic growth to alleviate pollution may seem logical. But the growth derives.com/article/20070826/ZNYT03/708260426) But just as the speed and scale of China’s rise as an economic power have no clear parallel in history. Much of the particulate pollution over Los Angeles originates in China. a coastline so swamped by algal red tides that large sections of the ocean no longer sustain marine life. even as much of the outside world has become preoccupied with global warming. The economy is on a historic run. Zavell I hid your man card here 33 . but the country’s authoritarian system is addicted to fast growth. http://www. the most readily available. from a staggering expansion of heavy industry and urbanization that requires colossal inputs of energy. Now. so its pollution problem has shattered all precedents. AND THE ECONOMY— SPILLS OVER GLOBALLY Kahn and Yardley—2007 (Joseph Kahn and Jim Yardley are Staff Writers for the New York Times. meaning that environmental problems get harder and more expensive to address the longer they are unresolved.

http://www. In the worst case. and burning operations. But the impact on the environment would be substantially greater. “As China Roars.000 in 2010 and 550. the highest number of automobile-related deaths in the world. given China’s very extensive coal resources. including gasification and liquefaction. An additional 110.700 people died last year in China’s notoriously unsafe mines.000 in 2020. in the case of carbon capture and sequestration. the Western models probably understate the problems.000 people.” World Bank officials said. while 60. unpublicized report by the Chinese Academy of Environmental Planning in 2003 estimated that 300. if anything. For the Chinese. My assumption is that they will turn out to be conservative.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CLEAN COAL DA—IMPACT: CHINA MODELLING (POLLUTION) CHINA COAL DEPENDENCE IS POTENTIALLY DEVISTATING FOR THE GLOBAL ENVIORNMENT— CLEAN COAL WOULD SOLVE—CHINA’S MARKET IS IDEAL FOR CLEAN COAL Katzer et al—2007 (See Cite Page) These two scenarios pose very different risks and benefits for China and for the rest of the world.theledger.000 died from diarrhea.” And you will never find it 34 . The results are more like plausible suppositions than conclusive findings. a World Bank study done with SEPA. citing the possible impact on “social stability. bladder and stomach cancer and other diseases that can be caused by water-borne pollution. which has done little long-term research on the matter domestically. Another report.000 deaths could be attributed to indoor air pollution caused by poorly ventilated coal and wood stoves or toxic fumes from shoddy construction materials. The Ministry of Health estimates that cigarette smoking takes a million Chinese lives each year. prepared in 2005 by Chinese environmental experts. and 89. This spring. mostly of heart disease and lung cancer. It would also mean less Chinese pressure on world oil and gas markets.000 people were killed in road accidents. the heavy environmental toll inflicted by today’s vast coal mining. Studies of Chinese environmental health mostly use statistical models developed in the United States and Europe and apply them to China.” said Jin Yinlong. estimated that annual premature deaths attributable to outdoor air pollution were likely to reach 380. and. shipping. More optimistically. “China’s pollution is worse. But these technologies will add considerably to the cost of coal use. Indoor pollution contributed to the deaths of an additional 300. said a person involved in that study. In comparison.com/article/20070826/ZNYT03/708260426) An internal. “So the studies are not definitive. both locally and internationally. China’s environmental agency insisted that the health statistics be removed from the published version of the report.000 people die each year from ambient air pollution. the national environmental agency. are unlikely to be deployable on a large scale for decades. 8/26/07. China would become the world’s largest market for advanced clean coal technologies.000 a year. the heavy coal use scenario would have the merit of greater energy autonomy. Pollution Reaches Deadly Extremes”. concluded that outdoor air pollution was already causing 350. already by far the world’s largest. For example.000 premature deaths a year. and eventually also including carbon dioxide capture and storage. But other international organizations with access to Chinese data have published similar results. the World Health Organization found that China suffered more deaths from water-related pollutants and fewer from bad air. CHINA POLLUTION O/W SYSTEMIC DEATHS Kahn and Yardley—2007 (Joseph Kahn and Jim Yardley are Staff Writers for the New York Times.000 to 400. 4. the density of its population is greater and people do not protect themselves as well. would grow much worse as China’s use of coal doubled or even tripled over the next 25 years. the director general of the Institute for Environmental Health and Related Product Safety in Beijing. but agreed with the World Bank that the total death toll had reached 750. But Chinese experts say that.

It's Here to Stay”. reaching an estimated $474. transportation and combustion of coal. 23. “Coal: Like It or Not.000 people in 2006. http://www.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CLEAN COAL DA—IMPACT: COAL INDUSTRY (ENVIORNMENTAL PERCEPTION) CLEANING COAL AND DECREASING EMITIONS IS KEY TO MAINTAINING HIGH COAL PRODUCTION WHICH IS KEY TO THE NATIONAL ECONOMY Kirkham and Hall—2007 (John Kirkham and Richard Hall are natural resource attorneys with Stoel Rives LLP. Clearly. the coal industry is an important component in both Utah’s and the national economy. Coal faces significant environmental challenges in mining.9 million in 2005. significantly increasing energy costs. air pollution. Based on the National Mining Association statistics. The major disadvantages of coal come from the adverse environmental impacts that accompany the mining. and emission of carbon dioxide (CO2). coal-fired plants contribute almost one-third of all the carbon emissions the United States generates – roughly as much produced by every car and truck on the road. Increases in production and prices are expected in 2006.5 million.aspx?Show=2484) In addition to the benefits provided as a source of energy.000. many still view coal as an unwelcome guest. Indeed. The Utah Geological Survey estimates that coal industry in Utah employed approximately 2. While coal supplies are abundant and production cost low. However. 6/4/07. Revenues from coal produced in Utah increased substantially in recent years. the average number of miners working daily in this country is approximately 123. reducing these emissions could significantly impact the competitiveness of existing and new coal-fired plants.stoel.0% higher than in 2004. pushing the estimated revenue up an additional 26.com/showarticle. Zavell I hid your man card here 35 . no future effort against global climate change will succeed without reducing coal-related emissions.2% to $599. Employment totals could increase by another 200 to 300 people in 2007 and 2008 as demand for higher production continues and proposed coal operations commence production. the highest amount ever recorded in nominal dollars.

and kept on track by an army of lobbyists.worldchanging. coal's reign as a "cheap" energy source is officially over. Even seven year-olds know that the accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Coal is by far the most carbon-intensive of fossil fuels. especially carbon dioxide. http://www. and our own ignorance of what goes on behind the light switch. there is no financial cost to dumping CO2 into the atmosphere. pushed along by hundreds of billions of dollars worth of heavy metal infrastructure. And you will never find it 36 . “How Clean Coal Cooks Your Brain”.html) Big Coal is best understood as a beast of inertia. is warming the planet. That may be changing. 6/16/08. with roughly twice the carbon content as natural gas. That’s likely to change during the next administration. Right now in the U.com/archives/008131.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CLEAN COAL DA—IMPACT: COAL INDUSTRY (ENVIORNMENTAL PERCEPTION CARBON TAX SPEIFIC) A CARBON TAX SYSTEM WOULD COLLAPSE THE COAL INDUSTRY Goodell—2008 (Jeff Goodell is the Author of Big Coal: The Dirty Secret Behind America's Energy Future. because if legislation passes that actually puts a serious price on CO2..S. Big Coal is fighting for loopholes and safety valves to keep CO2 costs low.

If the coal supply is secured. especially if coal remains cheaper than oil and gas. different geopolitical distribution of reserves and a higher reserves-to-production ratio. The advances in novel and more environmentally friendly technologies for coal utilisation — Clean Coal Technologies — have further increased the interest in coal. coal has recently come back into fashion owing to three energy supplies in the EU.europa.14.ec. What will the corresponding trends be in coal costs and prices? Zavell I hid your man card here 37 . 2/07 http://72. where will it come from? 3.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CLEAN COAL DA—IMPACT: COAL INDUSTRY (MARKET COMPETITION) CLEAN COAL IS KEY TO MAINTAINING MARKET COMPETITION FOR COAL Kavalov and Peteves—2007 (B. Kavalov and S. The full implementation of Clean Coal Technologies will represent a new era in coal use that might strengthen its market position. will the required coal supply be secured in the long term? 2.104/search?q=cache:i7MSoUfSRioJ:ie.jrc. diversity.pdf) The sharp increase in oil and gas prices in 2005-2006 and the temporary cutback in natural gas supplies from Russia at the end of 2005 have boosted about the security. If Clean Coal Technologies achieve large-scale penetration. such a scenario raises three important questions that are sometimes overlooked: 1.205. advantages over oil and gas: lower prices per energy unit. reliability and affordability of After many years in the shadows.D. Nevertheless. Peteves are DG JRCs Institute for Energy.eu/publications/scientific_publications/ 2007/EUR22744EN. “THE FUTURE OF COAL”.

where 60 foot seams of coal lay just below the surface. http://www. the "clean coal" campaign is not about reality – it's about perception. if it's a choice between losing flattening West Virginia and keeping our lights on. coal or chaos. What's the problem? Well. We can have a war in Iraq without sacrifice. We can borrow more than we can afford without worrying about how we'll pay it back.com/archives/008131." he told me. and warms the atmosphere. "Clean coal" is touted by Republicans and Democrats alike as the solution to America's energy troubles." And you will never find it 38 . Madison Ave. Gillette is in the center of the Powder River Basin. It's an exercise in re-branding. all our problems would be solved. We are a technologically advanced society. The logic is simple: America has lots of coal. poisons water. new coal plants are cleaner than the old coal burners of yore. it's too bad that mountaintop removal mining has destroyed or polluted 1200 miles of streams in Appalachia and that the Environmental Protection Agency projects a loss of more than 1. As one utility industry executive asked me while I was reporting Big Coal.worldchanging. is nothing less than a nationwide effort to paint coal white. Virginia! A SUCCESSFUL CLEAN COAL CAMPAIGN IS KEY FOR FURTHER AND LONG TERM SUCCESS OF THE COAL INDUSTRY Goodell—2008 (Jeff Goodell is the Author of Big Coal: The Dirty Secret Behind America's Energy Future. 6/16/08. here's one: "clean coal" is not an actual invention. 6/16/08." but we've made a commitment – a commitment to clean. The goal is not to solve our problems. "Have you ever been in a blackout? Do you remember how scary it was?" From the coal industry's point of view. Run the ads long enough. In one ad.worldchanging. Like other greenwashing campaigns. it's about using the iconography of sexy technology and down-home Americana to maintain the status quo.html) In the end. but to perpetuate our addiction. the narrator even adopts the feel-good language of substance abuse and recovery: cleaning up coal is a "big challenge. I think about that conversation in Gillette. pollutes the air. “How Clean Coal Cooks Your Brain”. suggesting that it was all a problem of perception: "People don't like coal because it's black. in Gillette.com/archives/008131. Wyoming. the epicenter of the coal boom in America. I fell into a long conversation with the vice-president of a large American coal company about coal's public image problem.html) Several years ago. It destroys mountains. This framing also disarms environmental arguments – yes. These campaigns always pretend to offer inspiration about we can do in America if we set our minds and hearts to it. Like "fat-free donuts" or "interest-free loans." Whenever one of those slick ads for "clean coal" pops up on CNN. This is why the false promise of "clean coal" is dangerous. this is a brilliant way to frame the argument. they're doing a pretty good job. http://www. the "clean coal" campaign is about using the tools of the 21st century to keep us locked in the 19th century.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CLEAN COAL DA—IMPACT: COAL INDUSTRY (PUBLIC RELATIONS) CLEAN COAL IS KEY TO COAL PR—IT’S KEY TO OVERWHELM PUBLIC PERCEPTION THAT THE COAL INDUSTRY HURTS THE ENVIORNMENT Goodell—2008 (Jeff Goodell is the Author of Big Coal: The Dirty Secret Behind America's Energy Future. Of course. did it for Harley Davidson motorcycles and Converse shoes. was deeply concerned about coal's future and expressed frustration with environmental attacks on coal." if Here's another: mining and burning coal remains one of the most destructive things human beings do on this earth. but in fact the real message is what we can't do: we can't power America without coal. This vice president. you look at it strictly from the point of view smog-producing chemicals like sulfur dioxide. they win. who did not want his name to appear in print." "clean coal" is a phrase that embodies the Bush-era faith that there is an easy answer for every hard question in America today. then shows images of little girls getting tucked into bed at night or Little Leaguers playing ball under the lights. It's that. We can end our dependency on oil by powering our SUVs with ethanol made from corn. But going from four bottles of whiskey a week down to three does not make you clean and sober. The ads remind us (accurately) that half the electricity in America comes from coal. And to the coal industry's credit. a physical thing – it is an advertising slogan. Ergo. we can't keep our lights on without destroying Appalachia. we can't pass meaningful carbon legislation without wrecking the American economy.4 millionacres – an area the size of Delaware – by the end of the decade. spearheaded by a coal industry front group called American Coalition for Clean Coal Electricity (formerly known as Americans for Balanced Energy Choices). And we can keep the lights on without superheating the climate through the magic of "clean coal. The subtext is not simply that. without coal. without the electricity from coal. “How Clean Coal Cooks Your Brain”." he explains. If the choice is. But the real goal of the campaign is not simply to re-brand coal as a clean and modern fuel – it's to convince energy-illiterate TV viewers that the American way of life depends on coal. "If it were white. civilization as we know it will come to an end. Why not Old King Coal? It's not a difficult trick – just whip out some slick ads with upbeat music and lots of cool 21st century technology like fighter jets and computers. and people will believe. and most important of all. the lights will go out and your family will be plunged into darkness. we can clean up coal. The $35 million "clean coal" campaign. good-bye West But hey. True.

Zavell I hid your man card here 39 . But just because your pusher decides to shower and shave. His real goal is to keep you hooked.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE After decades of stoking the engines of denial and obfuscation on global warming. it's nice that Big Coal wants to be a good citizen. don't delude yourself into thinking that he cares about your welfare.

it can use tax policy to raise the savings rate. leadership would help preclude the rise of another hostile global rival. HEGE SOLVES PATRIARCHY Khalilzad—1995 (Zalmay Khalilzad was a Fellow at RAND and the current Representitive for the U. 95) Under the third option. experts believe that the technology once costs have been driven down. the global environment would be more open and more receptive to American values -. This is going to be a growth market. by one estimate. this is the best long-term guiding principle and vision. for example. which will shift the sources of wealth and the relative position of classes and nations. which is even more important to U.S. "We have to start looking at this less as a climate policy than as an economic stimulus for the U. its relative position will necessarily worsen. where the bulk of the growth is. A U. economic strength must be enhanced by further improvements in productivity. economic wall-being over the long run. and the rule of law. Finally. enabling the United States and And you will never find it 40 . industrial sector. or it can pay later. policies were undermining the existing energy order. one way or another. First. U.S.S.S. if the United States hopes to avoid climate change it has little choice but to help the Chinese and Indians adopt clean-coal technology. they would be encouraging the development of a more sustainable one. threats of regional hegemony by renegade states. Third. the United States would seek to retain global leadership and to preclude the rise of a global rival or a return to multipolarity for the indefinite future. It can either pay now to try to mitigate some of the effects. First. American companies can bring down the costs of IGCC and carbon capture technology sufficiently. advocates say that the United States could attach strings to technology. and abandon more and more of its external interests.S. developments such as the agricultural and industrial revolutions produced fundamental changes positively affecting the relative position of those who were able to take advantage of them and negatively affecting those who did not.S. Some argue that the If the United States fails to world may be at the beginning of another such transformation. the United States must maintain its technological lead in the economic realm. "We should be approaching this at scale. market.S.S. and by generating and using superior science and technology. but because a world in which the United States exercises leadership would have tremendous advantages." Second. 04. In such an environment. and low-level conflicts. making the offer contingent. thus increasing real per capita income. As the United States weakened. become inward-looking.S. 324) Even as U. recognize the change and adapt its institutions. may be the overall rate of investment. but in a way that will make these units competitive overseas. such as nuclear proliferation. In the past. But advocates of such clean-technology exports counter with three points.democracy. “Losing the Moment? The United States and the World After the Cold War." argues Detchon. others would try to fill the Vacuum. to the United Nations. To remain the preponderant world power. economy declines seriously. free markets. “The End of Oil: on the Edge of a Perilous New World”. because and India have little choice but to burn coal. Such a vision is desirable not as an end in itself. currency or dumping products on the China and India will not only be the only market for U.and reverse a depressing trend in which the United States lost the lead in wind technology to the Danes and in solar technology to Japanese. the domestic economic and political base for global leadership would diminish and the United States would probably incrementally withdraw from the world. On balance. initiative to develop clean-coal technology. for example. simply to avoid the catastrophe of an Asian energy economy based on dirty coal." ECONOMIC COMPETITIVNESS FROM TECH SUPERIORITY IS KEY TO HEGE Khalilzad—1995 (Zalmay Khalilzad was a Fellow at RAND and the current Representitive for the U. pg. To sustain and improve its economic strength. not as one-off R&D projects. would dramatically change the significance of the Asian economy powered by coal. The second.a cost that conservative policymakers would oppose. when droughts and floods start to decimate the developing world. Its success will depend on the choices it makes. In fact. In the long run the economic future of the United States will also be affected by two other factors. U. subsidies of that kind could run the United States China at least ten billion dollars for the first hundred plants . Second. As one climate expert put it: "America is going to pay for climate. 95) The United States is unlikely to preserve its military and technological dominance if the U. many experts believe that the United States should not wait until the Chinese and Indians can afford clean-coal technology but should offer the technology as soon as it becomes available and should even subsidize the purchase. As a society the United States has to decide what part of the GNP it wishes the government to control and adjust expenditures and taxation accordingly. by strengthening education and training.S.S. could give rise to a lucrative American export business . such a world would have a better chance of dealing cooperatively with the world's major problems. China and India might find themselves able to burn their coal without dooming the climate to catastrophic warming. on a promise from Beijing to stop undercutting U. to the United Nations. One is the imbalance between government revenues and government expenditure. “Losing the Moment? The United States and the World After the Cold War. Although their government cannot endow Americans with a Japanese-style propensity to save.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CLEAN COAL DA—IMPACT: ECONOMIC/ENERGY COMPETITIVENESS 2NC DEVELOPMENT OF CLEAN COAL IN THE UNITED STAETS WOULD FORCE CHINA AND INDIA TO SHIFT THE ALTEARNTIVE ENERGY MARKET TOWARDS CLEAN COAL—BOOSTING AMERICAN ECONOMIC AND ENERGY COMPETITIVENESS Roberts—2004 (Paul Roberts is a Contributor to Harper's Magazine. Such energy Charity would not be cheap. and the United States needs to build up a real manufacturing strength. built clean-coal technology: many U.S.

KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS
2008-2009 X-GULLIE

the world to avoid another global cold or hot war and all the attendant dangers, including a global nuclear
exchange. U.S. leadership would therefore be more conducive to global stability than a bipolar or a multipolar balance of power system.

Zavell I hid your man card here 41

KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS
2008-2009 X-GULLIE

CLEAN COAL DA—IMPACT: ECONOMIC/ENERGY COMPETITIVENESS
DEVELOPING CLEAN COAL WOULD MAKE THE US A TECHNOLOGICALAL LEADER—CAUSING
MODELLING IN AUSTRALIA, BRAZIL, CHINA, INDIA, MEXICO, NEW ZEALAND, SOUTH AFRICA,
AND THE EU, AND CLEAN COAL WOULD BE MASSIVELY PROFITABLE FOR THE US
Fraser and Osborne—2007 (Shannon Fraser is an international trade specialist and Stefan Osborne is an
economist in the Manufacturing and Services unit of the U.S. Department of Commerce’s International
Trade Administration, “Potential Exports of U.S. Clean Coal Technology through 2030”, 11/07,
http://64.233.169.104/search?q=cache:L-VVaj0LjJ8J:www.trade.gov/media/publications/pdf/coal2007.pdf)
The United States is a world leader in technology that allows coal to be burned for electricity production
without excessive emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, mercury, and particulate matter. To reduce
overall emissions, the U.S. coal industry is developing specific technology that can be incorporated into
coal-fired power plants. That technology will allow coal to be burned with lower emissions of carbon
dioxide. The U.S. technological preeminence in this field presents an opportunity to export the equipment
and to license the technology to countries such as China and India, where coal-fired electricity production is rising quickly. This paper estimates the potential for U.S. exports of

existing clean coal technology (CCT) to a growing worldwide market. U.S. exports of CCT to Australia, Brazil, China, India, Mexico, New

Zealand, South Africa, South Korea, and the European Union (EU) 25 could amount to US $36 billion between 1

now and 2030.

FURTHER INVESTMENT IN CLEAN COAL IS KEY TO COAL EFFICIENTLY—AND IT WOULD BE
MODELLED GLOBALLY
Mieszkowski—2004 (Katharine Mieszkowski is a Senior Writer for Salon Premium Media Group “Coal:
Clean, green power machine?; Forget about that nasty oil or radioactive nuclear waste: If you want to
breathe fresh air, says the coal industry, burn, baby, burn!”, 10/5/04,
http://dir.salon.com/story/tech/feature/2004/10/05/clean_coal/index.html)
One technology that holds promise for cleaner coal is gasification, or "integrated gasification combined cycle
systems," which convert coal into a gas before generating electricity.
"That enables it to burn more efficiently and more cleanly than traditional coal-burning power plants," explains Environment 2004's Christensen.
Today's coal-fired power plants in the United States are about 30 percent efficient -- which means about 70 percent of the coal's
inherent energy value is wasted as it is burned to create steam -- but the Department of Energy predicts that gasified plants could be as

much as 60 percent efficient.
Environmentalists say that really investing in clean coal technologies will result in benefits beyond just
cleaning up our own environment -- there's also the prospect of exporting them to the rest of the world.
"We're expecting globally a tripling of the use of coal in the next couple of decades," says the Apollo Alliance's Hendricks.
"China being a huge piece of it, but also India, Iran, Korea. Many parts of the developing world are planning
to put new coal plants online. It could be a very significant export technology."

And you will never find it 42

KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS
2008-2009 X-GULLIE

CLEAN COAL DA—IMPACT: INDUSTRIES
(COAL/AUTO/OIL/UTILITIES/RAILROADS)
CLEAN COAL IS KEY TO THE COAL, AUTO, OIL, ELECTRIC UTILITIES, AND RAILROAD INDUSTRIES
Montague—2008 (Peter Montague is a Staff Writer for Rachel’s Democracy & Health News, “A Rocky Start
for 'Clean Coal'”, 2/7/08, http://www.celsias.com/article/a-rocky-start-for-clean-coal/)
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) -- sometimes called carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) -- would benefit other industries besides
coal. An 85% reduction of CO2 emissions from coal plants would make" space" for the automobile industry
to continue to pollute, so the automobile and oil corporations are enthusiastic about CCS for coal. The
electric utilities favor CCS because it would mean they could stop worrying about unfamiliar renewable
technologies like solar, wind, geothermal, and tidal power; if they can get CCS going on a large scale,
renewable energy won't be needed. Coal mining executives strongly favor CCS because without it their day
is done. And the railroads favor CCS because 44% of all rail freight (by weight) is coal.[3]

Zavell I hid your man card here 43

2: Impact of policies on air pollutant emissions 1900 2010 2010 2020 2020 Base Case Climate Protection Base Case Climate Protection AIR POLLUTION KILLS HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS A YEAR. IT’LL CAUSE EXTINCTION Katz – Dir of Citizens Awareness Network – 98 (Resist Inc. by reducing emissions of the key air quality-reducing pollutants. the Climate Protection strategy reduces our dependence on insecure energy supplies. water resources.11 These deaths are principally from heart and lung disease. such as Alar in apples. Associate Scientist in the Energy and Environment group at Tellus. It also positively affects public health.000 of dying from their effects. Bernard L. carbon monoxide.000 cancer deaths per year.resistinc. and volatile organic compounds. By dramatically reducing energy consumption. Table ES. The scientific community and the nuclear industry undermine citizens' confidence in their ability to understand nuclear power and its effects. We see that air pollution.net/sabsay/nuclear/index. Its conclusion was that air pollution is probably causing about 100. Department of Energy's Office of Health and Environmental Research sponsored a multiyear study by a Harvard University research group to evaluate all of the available studies. Many people have withdrawn from the process. Industrial technology-with its shadow of pollution-overwhelms us and threatens the democratic structures on which we depend.S. including sulfur dioxide.html) Toxic contamination of the planet threatens human survival. Most environmental agents that get abundant media attention and public concern. give those exposed less than one chance in 100. while enhancing the standing of the US as a supplier of innovative and environmentally superior technologies and practices.000 deaths per year in the United States. nitrogen oxides.pacbell. potentially allowing vital decisions to be dictated outside of democratic safeguards. Sulfur oxide emissions would decrease the most by half in 2010 and by nearly 75 percent in 2020. land. Cohen. July 2001 [http://www. and between 17 and 29 percent by 2020. pesticides that have been banned.org/energy/publications/E01-073-3. and formaldehyde.related. is thousands of times more harmful. and adversely affect agriculture. Implementing the policies would significantly reduce energy-related emissions as summarized in Table ES. http://www. http://home. and non-carbon greenhouse gas emissions. Alison Bailie.000 deaths per year means that 1 American out of 30 dies as a result of air pollution. which gives 1 chance in 30.org/newsletter/issues/1998/01/art1.pdf. Professor of Physics at the University of Pittsburgh.tellus. The complete Climate Protection package including measures to reduce energy-related. 1990 [The Nuclear Energy Option. forests. and buildings.. we will detennine whether there is clean air to breath. “The American Way to the Kyoto Protocol:”] In addition to greenhouse gas emission reductions.html] The U. The other pollutants are reduced between 7 and 16 % by 2010. cause acid rain and smog. PCBs. the set of policies in the Climate Protection case also reduce criteria air pollutants that harm human health.6 The estimate of 100.2. as well as modest purchases of allowances provides a net economic benefit to the US. relative to Base case levels in those years. In addition it is estimated that air pollution causes about 1. particulates.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CLEAN COAL DA—IMPACT: POLLUTION <EXTEND CLEAN COAL DECREASES EMISSIONS CBS FROM THE 1NC> EMISSIONS REDUCTIONS SOLVE AIR POLLUTION. In our time. And you will never find it 44 . water to drink and places to live for our children and theirs. AND.

in the First Session. including addressing how to capture the CO2 emissions. Coal provides 50 percent of the electricity generated in the United States.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CLEAN COAL DA—SOLVES THE CASE (ELECTRICITY AFFS) COAL IS THE BEST AND ONLY OPTION—ONLY CLEAN COAL ALLOWS US TO USE THIS WITHOUT HARMING THE ENVIORNMENT Harper—2007 (Ronald R.gpo. http://frwebgate. It is our most abundant domestic resource and will continue to play an important role in meeting our Nation’s energy needs. “CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY”. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. Zavell I hid your man card here 45 . To provide base-load power.cgi?dbname=110_senate_hearings&docid=f:38602. However. 8/1/07. U.S. the best choice was coal. United States Senate. it became clear to us that to meet our needs for low cost base-load power. After reviewing all of our options.access. and other programs to encourage the commercial development of the next generation of clean coal technology. one is the Dry Fork Station in Wyoming and the other will be located either in North Dakota or South Dakota. new technology must be developed to use this resource more wisely and efficiently. Harper is the Chief Executive Officer and General Manager for Basin Electric Power Cooperative in a Hearing before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources for the 110th Congress. We have built gas generation for peaking purposes and will build more. we do not believe it is prudent to build base-load gas generation and expose our membership to significant fluctuations in natural gas prices. The Energy Policy Act of 2005 was a step in the right direction in providing tax incentives. Both North Dakota and Wyoming have ample supplies of coal and we have considerable knowledge of building and operating coal-based generation plants.wais) Basin Electric is growing and we are looking at developing new base-load generation.gov/cgi- bin/getdoc. loan guarantees. However. Basin Electric is developing two coal-based facilities.

"We applaud the Bush Administration's launch of the FutureGen project.asp) Clean Coal Technologies—the products of research and development conducted over the past 20 years— have resulted in more than 20 new. steel mills. and increasing fuel efficiencies. The original Clean Coal Technology Program. Clean Coal Technology is Important.4 percent over the next 25 years. CONTINUED R&D FOR CLEAN COAL IS CRITICAL FOR DEVELOPMENT—THIS IS KEY TO SUPPLY CLEAN SUSTAINABLE ENERGY. more efficient and environmentally compatible technologies for electric utilities. commercial and residential power generation. Hydrogen Economy and Slow Climate Change. Source: Table 8. Department of Energy has announced a Presidential initiative to build "FutureGen." a $1 billion project that will lead to the world's first emission-free plant to produce electricity and hydrogen from coal while capturing greenhouse gases. If coupled with sequestration. The companies who will profit from a coal-based And you will never find it 46 . Source: U.pdf) Not only that.S. http://72. a plant to produce hydrogen from coal and sequester emissions. 06. Savage.205.S. Over the longer term. reducing or eliminating carbon dioxide emissions.14.200 new power plants of 300 megawatts each—the equivalent of about 65 plants each year. FutureGen. focused on commercializing processes that helped reduce sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions and demonstrating more efficient and environmentally friendly alternatives to traditional pulverized coal boilers. as well as contribute greatly to on-site industrial. The U. says The Thinking Companies”. lower-cost. Now and in the Future Electricity demand will increase 53.S. http://www. 12/18/03. an energy think tank. “Cleaner Enviornment. Office of Fossil Energy Clean coal technologies helped make it possible for U.104/search?q=cache:P8TYN7L2oVUJ:www. plus continue the decline in SO2 and NOx emissions already underway.careenergy.com/cleaner_environment/clean-coal-technology. will be the world’s first zero emission coal-fired plant. We believe coal will become an important source of the hydrogen that will power the fuel cells that will transform the transportation energy sector in decades to come. Meeting this rising growth rate will require the construction of the equivalent of more than 1." says Peter R. this will allow greater use of coal with zero emissions. we see the potential for an additional and perhaps equally significant contribution from clean coal. Clean Coal Technology (CTT)”. Pursuing Clean Coal Projects with Other Countries”. "Wise companies will get in on the ground floor of clean coal technology in order to be best positioned for the hydrogen economy of the future. DOE. which began in 1986. finding solutions for reducing trace emissions of mercury. CEO of The Thinking Companies. Maine -. utilities to meet more stringent Clean Air Act requirements while continuing to utilize America’s most plentiful domestic energy resource—coal.org/OnLnDoc/pdf/clean_coal031117.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CLEAN COAL DA—SOLVSE THE CASE (HYDROGEN FUEL CELLS AFFS) CLEAN COAL WILL CULMINATE IN THE CREATION OF HYDROGEN FUEL CELL POWER USINFO—2003 (“Abraham Says U.com/p/articles/mi_m0EIN/is_2005_Dec_7/ai_n15924840) FALMOUTH. cement plants and other industries. Clean coal technologies will help meet these needs. New programs in clean coal technology—such as the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI)—are essential for building on the progress of the original Clean Coal Technology Program. 12/7/05. DEMAND FOR COAL IS INCREASING. research in clean coal technology will be directed toward developing coal-based hydrogen fuels. Breakthroughs in scientific research and new technological developments are the basis for past and future advances in clean coal. AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF HYDROGEN FUEL CELLS CARE—2006 (Coalition for Affordable and Reliable Energy. Annual Energy Outlook 2003 The recently announced FutureGen project takes clean coal technology even further. CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY IS KEY TO A TRANSITION TO THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY— FUTUREGEN PROVES Business Wire—2005 (“Clean Coal Technology Will Aid Energy Security. http://findarticles.The seeds of the hydrogen economy lie buried in the coal beds of North America. Coal will remain the largest single source of electricity—accounting for 51 percent of power generation in 2025.S.gcrio. and cooperative international efforts such as this Conference will speed our progress and spread the benefits of our work.

KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE hydrogen economy are those who are willing to invest in today's and tomorrow's clean coal technologies. if they choose --How we've made progress in CO2 sequestration --How coal will beat the path to energy independence. domestically available fuel. and supports the US workforce." notes Savage. long before renewables can hope to contribute "Clean coal technology can provide energy that doesn't pollute. comprehensive report that tells you in detail: --How coal combustion has progressed." she notes. detailing many new efficiency improvements --Why coal gasification is now a realistic contender for electricity generation --What's emerging in the way of efficient clean-up techniques to solve SOx." Zavell I hid your man card here 47 . NOx and mercury problems --How gasification-based IGCCs will help utilities be the founders of a hydrogen economy. uses cheap." says co-author Shirley Strzelecki Savage. "You can't outsource energy production. the co-author of "Back To Coal: Why Utilities Must Reconsider This Cheap. Plentiful Fuel. "so why would you want to import a fuel source like LNG? It doesn't make sense." "Back to Coal" is a highly readable.

the Global Climate Change Initiative. And you will never find it 48 . (c) advanced power generation. (b) environmental control. FutureGen is intended to demonstrate the first commercial.scale. The current Clean Coal Power Initiative is directed toward demonstrating innovative technologies to help meet the Clear Sky Initiative.1 presents a timeline of the major RD&D program components. Since 1978 DOE has spent about $10 billion (2003 $) on these activities. integrated sequestration and hydrogen production power plant. The Advanced Research program is designed to develop the underlying basic science and innovative technologies to support the demonstration programs. A number of these activities have been undertaken in cooperation with industry and other organizations such as EPRI. and (e) industrial coal applications. Future. (d) CO2 capture and sequestration. near-zero-emissions. and the Hydrogen Initiative. Figure 6. The Power Plant Improvement Initiative focused on demonstrating near-term technologies for improving environmental and operational performance of the PC fleet. The Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program focused on commercial scale demonstration of technologies to improve the efficiency and reduce the environmental impact of coal-fired power generation.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CLEAN COAL DA—SOLVSE THE CASE (HYDROGEN FUEL CELLS AFFS) THE DOE IS INCREASING CLEAN COAL R&D WHICH WOULD REDUCE EMISSIONS TO ZERO AND PRODUCE HYDROGEN POWER Katzer et al—2007 (See Cite Page) Since 1978 the DOE has supported a broad effort of RD&D on advanced coal technologies for: (a) coal processing.Gen.

000 tons of coal on hand. Power generating companies are not expecting any improvement this year.' Other power companies are having similar supply problems.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CLEAN COAL DA—SOLVES THE CASE (NATURAL GAS AFFS) LACK OF COAL CONSUMPTION LEADS TO NATURAL GAS USE AFX International Focus—2006 (“Railroads struggle to ship coal in U.S. 6/10/06. testified before a Senate committee last month that power companies may be forced to buy up to $2 billion worth of natural gas to make up for a coal shortfall.000 tons.' Basin Electric spokesman Robb said. Entergy Arkansas has sued Union Pacific Railroad. L-N) Richard Bower. 'It's lack of coal deliveries. engineering assistant at the plant. saying it actually turned down new contracts to ship coal in order to catch up with delayed shipments to existing customers. Entergy Arkansas said its coal shipments declined up to 20 percent last year . Zavell I hid your man card here 49 . prompting Basin Electric to consider curtailing power production.000 to 800. 'It's not increased generations causing the stockpile to go down. said ideally the plant would have 700. forcing it to reduce operations at two power plants in Arkansas and to buy power on the open market. president of energy supply for the Minneapolis-based Xcel Energy. David Wilks. less than a week's supply. Wisconsin utilities incurred nearly $50 million in extra costs last year because of interruptions in coal shipments.”. UP denied the claim. claiming the railroad schemed to hold back deliveries of Wyoming coal in an effort to make more money. But this winter. the plant's coal supply dwindled as low as 150.

the rise of China and India. The world would be on the path towards environmental catastrophe. and the global energy crisis” 11/1/07. this is not particularly expensive. Pollution problems may be somewhat alleviated if so-called "clean coal" and carbon sequestration technologies are used to remove some of the pollution elements when coal is being processed. 577-83. STRONG COAL INDUSTRY CAN SOLVE FOR OIL DEMANDS Heinberg—2008 (Richard Heinberg is a Staff Writer for the Global Public Media. http://goliath. However. 2006: 29). http://www. coal is the dirtiest of fossil fuels. “Coal in the United States”.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CLEAN COAL DA—SOLVES THE CASE (OIL ADVANTAGES) COAL CAN BE CONVERTED INTO AN ALTERNATIVE TO OIL AND IT WOULD BE CHEAPER—CLEAN COAL IS KEY TO DO THIS WITHOUT HURTING THE ENVIORNMENT Minqi—2007 (Li Minqi is a Staff Writer for the Journal of Contemporary Asia “Peak oil. 2003: 48. Coal costs about $50 a tonne and the conversion from coal to oil results in an energy loss of 40% (thus. and that energy from coal is still relatively cheap.html) Coal may be converted into oil or gas through chemical processes. Given that the nation possesses so much coal. 5/28/08. And you will never find it 50 .energybulletin. They would not help to address the emissions generated by transportation vehicles. Coal could help with either of the latter two strategies. It is reported that China is currently investing $6 billion in production facilities that will have the capacity to make 14 million barrels of oil a year (Heinberg. then the total production cost of converting coal into oil is about $38 a barrel. or electrify transport. 2-8 December 2006 (Technology Quarterly Section): 30-2). industrial and agricultural equipment (unattached to large-scale facilities) and residential homes (Boyle et al.com/coms2/gi_0199-7248586/Peak-oil- the-rise-of.net/node/45005) The nation is currently paying over $620 billion per year for petroleum imports.. one tonne of coal may be converted into just under three barrels of oil). Given the current world oil prices. and this ongoing transfer of wealth abroad cannot help but have a substantial negative impact on the domestic economy. There are three ways to moderate that impact: reduce consumption of liquid fuels through conservation. it would seem inevitable that strong arguments will be made for a dramatic increase in coal production to help solve the nation’s energy problems. The Economist. produce more fuels domestically. which will require more electricity.ecnext. However. If coal is mined and used on a massive scale to replace oil and natural gas. the emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollution would get out of control. Assuming a plant life of 20 years. these technologies involve higher capital costs and reduce overall energy efficiency.

the means are available to control the emission of these substances into the environment to levels that meet current regulatory limits with the wide range of technologies already deployed on many coal-fired power stations. coal contains more sulfur and nitrogen. coal poses more environmental concerns than other fossil fuels. Speaking on behalf of the National Mining Association to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources in the United States Senate. The contributions attributable to individual plants vary considerably with differences in plant steam cycle. and more mineral matter. capacity factor. 4/27/07. Many of these were developed under the DOE-industry partnerships of the Clean Coal Program.html) Carbon capture and storage (CCS) could cut CO2 emissions from fossil-fuel power generation by up to 90%. a new supercritical PC unit built today might produce 5–10 percent less CO2 per megawatt-hour (MWh) than the existing fleet average for that coal type.cgi?dbname=110_senate_hearings&docid=f:38602.2287188. than oil or natural gas. in the First Session.pd) The Need for Clean Coal Technologies One of the principal reasons for developing new coal-fired generating technologies is to ensure that electricity generation from coal does not compromise environmental quality. http://frwebgate. http://64. and operating regimes. new ultra-supercritical (USC PC) plants could reduce CO2 emissions per MWh by up to 25 percent relative to the existing fleet average.233. The agency also estimates CCS costs could halve as technology develops. And models .gpo. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.00. There are no technologies in widespread commercial use today to control emissions of mercury or carbon dioxide from coal-fired power plants.104/search?q=cache:s9HW7uGJx9AJ:www. Frank Burke is the Vice President of the Research and Development Consol Energy Inc. U.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CLEAN COAL DA—SOLVES THE CASE (WARMING ADVANTAGES) CURRENT COAL PLANTS EMIT A TON OF CO2—SUCESSFUL R&D FOR CLEAN COAL WOULD SOLVE Phillips—2007 (Jeff Phillips is a Program Manager for Advanced Coal Generation for the Electric Power Research Institute. CLEAN COAL IS KEY TO LEVEL OFF CLIMATE CHANGE Wicks—2008 (Malcolm Wicks is an Energy Minister. United States Senate. coal fleet are roughly equivalent to 600 such plants.S.nma. such as electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters that control emissions of coal ash. in a Hearing before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources for the 110th Congress. Significant efficiency gains are also possible for IGCC plants by employing advanced gas turbines and through more energy-efficient oxygen plants and synthesis (fuel) gas cleanup technologies. 6/25/08. With an aggressive RD&D program on efficiency improvement. flue gas desulfurization scrubbers of various designs that control emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and a variety of methods and devices for reducing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. “Sustainable Low Emission Electricity Generation”. It's for these reasons that the government is investing in CCS technology. The annual power output and emissions of the current U.co. On average. For a given fuel.including that in the Stern review . Zavell I hid your man card here 51 .S. 8/1/07. Because of its chemical composition. but as I will discuss. Fortunately.. COAL IS DISASTROUS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT—CLEAN COAL DOESN’T EXIST NOW BUT EFFECTIVE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF CLEAN COAL WOULD SOLVE Burke—2004 (Dr. “Is clean coal the best way to meet spiralling energy needs and save the planet?”. http://society.show that including CCS in our climate mitigation plans could reduce the cost of cutting CO2 emissions by up to 60%.access.uk/thecarbonquestion/story/0.169. The International Energy Agency predicts the technology could contribute up to 28% of the global CO2 reductions needed by 2050 to stabilise temperature rises at 2C..gov/cgi- bin/getdoc. These include particulate collection devices. coal type.guardian.org/pdf/cong_test/burke_042704. “CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY”.wais) A ‘‘typical’’ 500 MW (net) coal plant emits about 3 million metric tons of CO2 per year. these are the subjects of active research programs.

it pumps water to our homes. http://www. “The Peak in U. COAL CONSUMPTION IS HIGH AND IS UNLIKELY TO FALL Vaux—2004 (Gregson Vaux is a Chemical Scientist.fromthewilderness. This technology has the potential to provide what may be called "zero emissions" .fromthewilderness. together with the use of natural gas and renewables such as wind will not provide the deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions necessary to meet future national targets. we see something strange: there were 300 years of coal reserves in 1988. Years of reserves remaining is easy enough to calculate: one only need determine how many tons of coal remain in the ground (available from the EIA) and divide by the production for that year.4 Most would agree that this will not be a problem because in the U. Figure 1 shows the percentage of various energy sources used to run American It can be easily seen that natural gas. 5/27/04.org/info/inf83. “The Peak in U. http://www. but with the cancellation of FutureGen this is in doubt. petroleum. http://www. COAL PRODUCTION IS RISING AND WILL CONTINUE TO RISE Vaux—2004 (Gregson Vaux is a Chemical Scientist. 2/08. and coal make up the vast majority of civilization from 1920 to 2002.com/free/ww3/052504_coal_peak.world- nuclear. And you will never find it 52 . Coal Production. It had an ambitious program to develop and demonstrate the technology and have commercial designs for plants with an electricity cost of only 10% greater than conventional coal plants available by 2012. without fossil fuels our civilization cannot exist as we currently know it.S. we can see that we have 255 years of coal remaining.S. coal has done the inverse. it produces nearly all of the products that we call chemicals. LNG Import Issues Key”. This is because coal is the only real alternative for gas and oil. and 10. If we look at the year 2000. Fossil energy powers our delivery vehicles and all of our farm machinery. Coal Production. The US DOE sees "zero emissions" coal technology as a core element of its future energy supply in a carbon-constrained world. Some might argue that there could be other sources of energy and they would be right but we are simply not ready for them. However. 5/27/04. we use our coal more quickly and we see that the standard formulation of 'years remaining' is nearly meaningless. we have hundreds of years of reserves remaining. This has come about as a result of the realisation that efficiency improvements. In short.html) There is almost no doubt that coal production will rise in the future and the Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) predicts that coal consumption will greatly increase in the next two decades. readily available fossil fuels.html) We live in a world that was built and is sustained by inexpensive. LNG Import Issues Key”.html) The clean coal technology field is moving very rapidly in the direction of coal gasification with a second stage so as to produce a concentrated and pressurised carbon dioxide stream followed by its separation and geological storage. American energy demand and that as petroleum and gas consumption have risen or fallen. extremely low emissions of the conventional coal pollutants.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE COAL CONSUMPTION DA—UNIQUENESS: COAL DEMAND HIGH DEMAND IS GROWIGN FOR CLEAN COAL NOW WNA—2008 (World Nuclear Association“"Clean Coal" Technologies”.S.com/free/ww3/052504_coal_peak. 1000 years reserves in 1904.in reality. and as low-as-engineered carbon dioxide emissions.000 years reserves in 1868! As each year goes by. if we look at other years.

Since 2000.stoel.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE COAL CONSUMPTION DA—LINK: A2 LINK NON-UNIQUE (ALTERNATIVE ENERGY NOW) DESPITE CURRENT LEVELS OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY THE COAL INDUSTRY IS STILL GROWING— THIS WILL LIKELY CONTINUE BUT THROUGH DIRTY COAL Kirkham and Hall—2007 (John Kirkham and Richard Hall are natural resource attorneys with Stoel Rives LLP. low-cost. however. Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicates that U. “Coal: Like It or Not.S. http://www. http://www. coal production will continue to increase by an average of 1. These alternatives. This has resulted in a swing back toward greater reliance on coal. natural gas prices have increased and are projected to remain above $3 per thousand cubic feet. averaging 2% per year.9% to 1133. THE ALTERNATIVE THAT IS BEING USED NOW IS NATURAL GAS—WHICH IS LETTING COAL MAINTAIN ITS COMPETITIVE ADVANAGE Kirkham and Hall—2007 (John Kirkham and Richard Hall are natural resource attorneys with Stoel Rives LLP. with no signs of slowing in the next few decades. the Department of Energy recently reported that U. in the United States. efficient natural gas combined cycle power plants competitive with coal-generated power. This trend is expected to continue.1% each year until 2015.aspx?Show=2484) Alternative means of electricity production are actively being pursued to reduce global reliance on coal. the price of natural gas averaged below $3 per thousand cubic feet. It's Here to Stay”.3 million short tons. Coal production growth should be even stronger between 2015 and 2030. This is the second straight year of increased production after significant declines from 2001-2003.stoel. Zavell I hid your man card here 53 . when total production will equal 1272 million short tons. During the 1990s. “Coal: Like It or Not. These low prices made new. Based on the current forecasts.com/showarticle. the electric power sector shifted to increased natural gas use. the coal industry (and coal consumption) is on the rise. coal will retain its competitive advantage over natural gas for the foreseeable future. 6/4/07. The U. This demand will likely be met with new or expanded coal-fired power plants. where coal is used almost exclusively to generate electricity.aspx?Show=2484) Despite environmental concerns and the development of alternative energy sources. As a result of the lower prices and environmental concerns. For instance.S. making coal-fired plants increasingly more competitive. The EIA predicts that U. It's Here to Stay”.S. natural gas. coal production in 2005 increased 1. utilities are planning to build 150 more coal-fired power plants through 2030. with nearly half slated for operation by 2011. the chief alternative to coal is cleaner. as electricity demand continues to increase. Consistent with this shift.com/showarticle. have had only limited success.S. 6/4/07.

the comparable figure was 102 GW. are likely to follow.pdf+https://www. Longer term. “Renewable Energy Likely to Overtake Oil And Coal Sooner than You Think”. In contrast. as opposed to the exponential growth of renewable energy. a further 90 GW are expected2. Venture capitalist Michael Liebreich. established by the International Energy Agency. solar. Worldwatch President Chris Flavin explains that we are at an amazing moment in the history of energy. And you will never find it 54 . an expert in renewable energy investment. The BP Statistical Review of World Energy reveals that in the period 2001-2006. smaller coal-fired stations and has indicated its desire for the future to primarily build supercritical units of 600 MW or above 1.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE COAL CONSUMPTION DA—LINK: RENEWABLES COAL IS AND WILL CONTINUE TO BE THE MAIN FOCUS FOR GLOBAL ENERGY.If current policies supporting renewable energy are simply maintained.215.1% are located in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member countries (BP. China leads global growth. explains that the implications of current growth are far bigger than people think. Wind power is already in the midst of an explosion. is all wrong. above all. of which 89% was coal.6% of the world’s oil reserves and 8.gather. 6/17/08. he believes that the momentum will be unstoppable. accounting for some 91% of the global increase in coal consumption during that period. hydro at 12% and renewables at 3% (IEA. by 2025. Conventional energy use is growing only incrementally. and other renewables are likely to replace oil and gas sooner rather than later. China’s power consumption could reach 11 000 terawatt hours (TWh) with a generating capacity of 2 400 GW3. Government policy has been a key driver. 2007c). increases of 330% and 360%.). from current levels. and other renewable energies. Renewable energy has accelerated greatly in the last three years. THE INCREASE USE OF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY TRADES OFF WITH STATUS QUO ENERGYS—LIKE COAL Goffman—2008 (Ethan Goffman is a Correspondent for Politics and Environment.org/textbase/papers/2008/Clean_Coal_CIAB _2008. UNLESS ALTERNATIVE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES ARE INCREASED—AND COAL IS KEY TO MAINTAIN CHINESE RAPID GROWTH THAT IS KEY TO GLOBAL GROWTH Coal Industry Advisory Board—2008 (The Coal Industry Advisory Board is a group of high-level executives from coal-related industrial enterprises.iea. according to experts at a Worldwatch Institute panel (Tipping Point). OECD countries have 6. coal will remain a key component of the electricity generation fuel mix for most of this century. a transformational moment. in Asia The rapid rise of Asia’s economies has been.9% of electricity production and renewables 2. http://209. the goals are even more ambitious.pdf) Because of its abundance. The growth in global coal consumption has accelerated in the decade 1995-2005: up 36% worldwide and over 70% in Asia (ibid. consumption has increased by almost 300% slowing only for a few years after the 1997 Asian financial crisis (Figure 4).1 mtoe.8% of the natural gas reserves In electricity generation. coal supplied 38% of generation and renewables 3%. of which 41. In 2005. natural gas at 4%. http://www. : in the OECD in 2005. For 2007. While hard coal consumption has declined slowly in Europe over the past quarter century and increased gradually in North America. Although these figures are significantly above other forecasts. 2006b). Wind. coal consumption in the Asia-Pacific region increased by 642. according to Liebreich. Global proved reserves for all types of coal are 909 billion tonnes.). respectively. Coal’s share of primary energy consumption has declined in Europe but increased in Asia. which is accelerating with stunning speed. broad geographic distribution and comparatively low and stable delivered cost. Investment in new renewable capacity hit $71 billion dollars in 2007 and continues to exceed expectations. “Clean Coal Technologies: Accelerating Commercial and Policy Drivers for Deployment”. and the scope and import of this expansion are severely under-reported.4% (IEA. in North America coal was 44. about 70 GW of new generation came online in China. and the worldwide impact of government policies. Martinot says. such as solar and cellulose ethanol.85. concern about climate change. It has embarked on campaigns to close older.org/textbase/papers/2008/Clean_Coal_CIAB_2008. driven by historic high energy costs. 08. A vice- minister of the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) indicated that.104/search?q=cache:an3800g0z3MJ:www.jsp?articleId=281474977375141&grpId=3659174697247171&nav=Gro upspace) Renewable energy is expanding voraciously and will do so even faster.com/viewArticle. powered by coal and coal demand will likely rise strongly as Asian countries continue to raise living standards (Figure 5). unless there are major breakthroughs in alternative energy technologies. which sees oil and coal as virtually unchallenged. overcoming resistance to renewable energy. under-remarked on in the mainstream media. 2007). This is because the big curve upward of renewable energy will inevitably beat the little curve of conventional energy. coal plays a crucial role (ibid. according to Worldwatch fellow and energy expert Eric Martinot. coal could make up about 78% of the generation mix by 2030 with nuclear at 3%.iea. In 2006. Conventional thinking.

which would set a limit on emissions while allowing companies whose discharges are lower than the cap to sell or trade credits to companies whose pollution exceeds the cap. economics. That's likely to happen soon.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE COAL CONSUMPTION DA—LINK: NUCLEAR POWER INCREASED USE OF NUCLEAR POWER WOULD DECREASE THE USE OF COAL Totty—2008 (Michael Totty is a news editor for The Journal Report in San Francisco. Zavell I hid your man card here 55 . through either a direct tax (based on the carbon content of a fuel) or a so-called cap-and-trade system. 6/30/08. the timing will be more predictable. Most important. nuclear in many ways is more like an emerging technology. mainly coal. lowering the price.wsj.in particular. don't reflect the high cost that carbon emissions pose for the environment. One reason it's so expensive at this point is that no new plant has been started in the U. Governments are expected to assign a cost to greenhouse gases. and so subsidies make sense to get it going. So financing costs are unusually high. Suddenly. and financing costs will no doubt come down as lenders become more comfortable. they're limited to the first half dozen of plants as a way to It's important to remember that although nuclear energy has been reassure investors that regulatory delays won't needlessly hold up construction. nuclear power appears economically uncompetitive primarily because the price of "cheaper" fossil fuels. Lenders -. and suddenly. As we build more. They are not permanent subsidies for uneconomical ventures. Critics argue that the high cost of building and financing a new plant makes nuclear power uneconomical when compared with other sources of power.are wary of financing the first new ones. nuclear. the number of companies supplying parts will increase to meet the demand. Loan guarantees and other federal incentives are needed to get us over this hump.com/article/SB121432182593500119. wind and hydropower. Add those costs. But if we start building more plants. That should be enough to ease investor concerns about utilities that build new nuclear plants. nuclear power will look like a bargain. since the last one to begin construction in 1977. around a while. It's also true that a shortage of parts and skills is raising the cost of new plants. http://online. as some critics say.uncertain how long any new plant would take because of political and regulatory delays -.html?mod=googlenews_wsj) First. Instead. it's hardly a "mature" industry. “The Case For and Against Nuclear Power”. big carbon polluters like coal-produced electricity are going to look a lot more expensive compared with low-carbon sources -. But that's misleading on a number of levels. It's estimated that a carbon "price" of between $25 and $50 a ton makes nuclear power economically competitive with coal. Because of the lack of new plants in so many years.S.

As with coal.086 billion kilowatthours with the RPS compared with 3.S. to 856 billion kilowatthours with the RPS from 896 billion kilowatthours in the reference case. 6/07. http://www.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE COAL CONSUMPTION DA—LINK: RPS AN RPS WOULD DECREASE THE USE OF COAL Energy Information Administration—2007 (The Official Energy Statistics from the U.html) The increase in renewable generation stimulated by the RPS primarily displaces coal fired generation.000 billion kilowatthours in 2005. And you will never find it 56 .330 billion kilowatthours in the reference case. a reduction of about 7 percent.gov/oiaf/servicerpt/prps/rps. Coal generation is still expected to grow significantly from 2.doe. By 2030. Government. this still represents significant growth relative to 2005 generation levels. “Impacts of a 15-Percent Renewable Portfolio Standard”. Natural gas generation is about 2 percent less than the 2030 reference case level of 932 billion kilowatthours.eia. Nuclear generation is reduced by less than 5 percent. coal generation is 3.

Government. however. Zavell I hid your man card here 57 .KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE COAL CONSUMPTION DA—LINK: WIND POWER WIND POWER HAS A ZERO SUM RELATION WITH COAL Mays—2007 (Janice Mays is the Chief Counsel for the Committee on Ways & Means for U. most of the additional wind generation is at the expense of coal generation growth.S. although there is also less electricity generated from dedicated biomass facilities. Nearly all of the 2030 wind power production levels that are above reference case levels result in a dampening of coal generation of the same magnitude. ”Analysis of Alternative Extensions of the Existing Production Tax Credit for Wind Generator”. Responding through the Energy Information Administration which is The Official Energy Statistics from the U.html) In each of the PTC extension cases. total electricity sales are unchanged. and there is a similar effect on coal generation.S. Even in this case. the 20 additional billion kilowatthours of generation from wind facilities slightly slows nuclear and coal expansions. nuclear generation is lesser by 10 billion kilowatthours. http://www. In the 1. the additional generation from wind displaces generation from other technologies. In the permanent extension cases.doe. This wind expansion results in 500 fewer megawatts of biomass capacity relative to the business-as-usual forecast.eia. 5/07.gov/oiaf/servicerpt/ptc/index.9 cent five-year extension case. Therefore. when compared to the reference case results. House of Representatives.9 cent permanent extension case. coal generation in 2030 is 59 percent above 2005 levels. 122 billion kilowatthours of additional wind generation is balanced by a drop of 122 billion kilowatthours in electricity generated from coal. In 2030. In the 1. which have greater effects on the fuel mix.

so will the development of "clean coal" technology.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE COAL CONSUMPTION DA—IMPACT: CLEAN COAL HIGH DEMAND FOR COAL IS KEY TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF CLEAN COAL Evans—2008 (Jared Evans is a Writer for Edzine. and coal being an "essential part of the world's energy future. And you will never find it 58 . Such plants are designed. "Within the next few years." it is only a matter of time until the coal rally begins. "[e]nvironmentalists are worried.-Record-Oil-Prices---Will-Coal- Rally?&id=1234181) However. signed a partnership on Wednesday with Schlumberger. an environmentally safe use for coal." With the US being called the Saudi Arabia of coal with the most reserves of any other nation. coal is going to become a very hot commodity. “Clean Coal Technology.com/?Clean-Coal-Technology. to be more adaptable to separating the carbon and storing it underground.Will Coal Rally?” 6/8/08. and G. "[m]ajor corporations sense the possibility of a profitable new business. as the demand for coal increases.E. In another New York Times article. power companies are planning to build about 150 coal plants to meet growing electricity demands. and plug-in hybrid cars going mainstream in the US due to outrageous gas prices. Record Oil Prices . they say. the oil field services company. but they put their faith in a technology that gasifies the coal before burning." With China now demanding more coal than it can produce and India following right behind. As stated in a New York Times article. to advance the technology of carbon capture and sequestration. http://ezinearticles.

including the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. and electricity is tied to coal. Therefore. in the First Session. The economic prosperity of the United States over the past century has been built upon an abundance of fossil fuels in North America. COAL IS KEY TO THE ECONOMY Burke—2004 (Dr.169.S.TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY. the necessity of the world to utilize its abundant coal resources will not be denied. 4/27/07. Frank Burke is the Vice President of the Research and Development Consol Energy Inc. minimize detrimental environmental impacts.the source for much of this electricity. but worldwide as a key component of our energy and economic security. for holding these important hearings. and positively contribute to national security. the continued use of this secure domestic resource will be dependent on the development of cost-effective technology options to meet both economic and environmental goals. However.cgi?dbname=110_senate_hearings&docid=f:38602. the rate of coal use will increase proportionally. Given current technologies. Coal. the United States has approximately a 250-year supply of coal available.5 billion tons. “Sustainable Low Emission Electricity Generation”. The question is not whether we need or will use coal for human development. coal prices. http://64. and rates of consumption. “CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY”. Chairman. http://frwebgate.5 billion tons of coal. Advanced clean coal technologies that are being developed under long-standing federal/private partnerships will assure that coal can continue to be used in a manner consistent with environmental needs.gov/cgi- bin/getdoc.org/pdf/cong_test/burke_042704.233. The most compelling evidence of this is China.pd) The United States is not unique in its dependence on coal.. 8/1/07.and must continue to be . Throughout the world. we agree with the statement in your letter of invitation to testify that “actions should be taken today to prepare the nation for a future time when oil and gas prices and availability limit their uses to areas other than electricity generation. U. and it is vital to our national interest to promote the increased use of coal not only domestically. United States Senate. Zavell I hid your man card here 59 . GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. http://64. Affordable and clean electric energy must be available to allow our nation to reach its full economic potential. economic growth and political stability are tied to electrification. Chairman.” As emphasized in the Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) latest Annual Energy the demand for electricity is expected to increase by nearly 50% by 2025 and we can Outlook published in January of this year.wais) Thank you Mr.104/search?q=cache:s9HW7uGJx9AJ:www. only assume that this growth will continue beyond that time. They expect to double their coal-fueled electricity generating capacity to 600 GW by 2020.org/pdf/cong_test/burke_042704. COAL PRODUCTION IS KEY TO AMERICAN ECONOMIC PRODUCTIVITY AND WE HAVE ENOUGH COAL TO MAINTAIN THE PRODUCTION FOR ANOTHER 250 YEARS DESPITE GROWING DEMAND Bauer—2007 (CARL O. Chairman. the desire and. Energy availability and energy quality are key to meeting all three aspects of sustainable development: economic. and now provides over 50% of the electricity we use. BAUER.pd) I would like to commend you. but how we will use it. Speaking on behalf of the National Mining Association to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources in the United States Senate. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY in a Hearing before the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources for the 110th Congress.nma. the Chinese expect to use 4 billion tons of coal annually. Speaking on behalf of the National Mining Association to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources in the United States Senate.. the Chinese will mine and consume 1. Coal-fired power plants supply about half of our electricity and are expected to continue to do so through mid-century. Mr. China’s increase alone will equal our current consumption. Making full use of this domestic asset in a responsible manner enables the country to fulfill its energy requirements. Clean electric energy means economic growth and it means jobs. In 15 years. Because electricity production increases at a rate of about 2 percent per year. societal and environmental.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE COAL CONSUMPTION DA—IMPACT: ECONOMY COAL IS KEY TO ECONOMIC GROWTH—ONLY CLEAN COAL CAN ASSURE THAT GROWTH CAN OCCUR WITHOUT HARMING THE ENVIRONMENT Burke—2004 (Dr. Frank Burke is the Vice President of the Research and Development Consol Energy Inc. This year. is . By 2040.169. in fact. 4/27/07. The United States’ fossil fuel resources represent a tremendous national asset. “Sustainable Low Emission Electricity Generation”.nma. I appreciate this opportunity to provide testimony on the Department of Energy’s advanced clean coal technologies and the program for carbon capture and storage. DIRECTOR. they will consume 2.233. Mr.gpo.104/search?q=cache:s9HW7uGJx9AJ:www. which is over 90% of our nation’s domestic energy resource on a Btu basis.access. NATIONAL ENERGY.

Annual Energy Review 2001.S. there were 390. Minnesota’s average electric rates are the 17th lowest in the U. and about 24. p. International Energy Outlook 2001. two states without coal mining. STATE. Source: EIA. Minnesota’s total economic benefit from coal exceeds $2. Source: WEAC 1998. Today. Source: EIA. are among those that benefit the most from combined direct and indirect economic impacts. Source: WEAC 1998.6. or nearly 1percent of all earnings received by the country's workers. It also promotes industrial and economic development.asp) The value of coal produced in the United States each year is nearly $18 billion. Source: WEAC 1998. Low-cost electricity helps farmers and businesses because it lowers their operational expenses and allows them to be competitive on an international level. and T.. AND INDIVIDUAL LEVELS—THIS IS LIKELY TO INCREASE—PREFER OUR EVIDENCE CITES GOVERNMENT STUDIES CARE—2006 (Coalition for Affordable and Reliable Energy. U. In fact. according to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Source: WEAC 1998.S.careenergy. California and New York. jobs and nearly one million jobs directly and indirectly. people working for the coal industry in North Dakota enjoy some of the state’s highest wages. 06.382 coal miners (includes anthracite) who averaged almost six tons of coal production a day.7. Source: EIA. Each percentage increase in electric usage is matched roughly by a percentage increase in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). pages 48-51 COAL IS KEY TO THE ECONOMY Partners for Affordable Energy—No Date Given (“Economic Impact”. Source: WEAC 1998. and will continue to do so for years to come.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE COAL CONSUMPTION DA—IMPACT: ECONOMY COAL MINING IS KEY TO THE AMERICAN ECONOMY—4 WARRENTS—THIS HELPS THE ECONOMY AT THE NATIONAL.7. coal-based electricity boosts our economy. p. Overall. In 1945.000 U. North Dakota’s economy receives more than $1 billion due to coal.E1 Individual Americans and their families receive a significant amount of personal income as a result of coal mining's monetary contributions to the economy: $37 billion annually. 3 The federal government receives more than $11 billion annually in taxes and fees from the coal industry.S. This is $596 for every U. 17. p. roughly 50 percent of the electricity in the United States comes from coal. 1 State and local governments receive nearly $9 billion each year in revenues. p. Department of Labor Employment and Wages Annual Analysis 1998. Benefits of Mining”.177 Production rates have reached an average of more than six tons per miner per hour.com/?id=3&page=Economic+Impact) Aside from powering America. citizen.8. Annual Energy Review 2001. http://www.2 Coal is directly responsible for the existence of more than 90. Coal-based electricity generates substantial economic benefits for our region’s economy.S. and over $80 million in tax revenue annually. Low-cost electricity is particularly beneficial to Minnesota and North Dakota as we consume high amounts of energy because of our weather extremes while enjoying some of the lowest electric rates in the nation.S. T. p. p. p. or nearly 52 tons in a single eight-hour day.com/fueling_growth/strategic. http://www. 1 Developing countries' demand for coal will double through 2020. And you will never find it 60 . Coal Data: A Reference 1998. 17 Coal mining has a combined direct and indirect impact of $161 billion annually on the U.powerofcoal.7. North Dakota’s average electric rates are the 8th lowest in the U. About 65 percent of Minnesota’s electricity comes from coal. Western Economic Analysis Center (WEAC).5 billion annually. 1998. In fact. T. even those without reserves or mining. benefits economically in some way from U.000 jobs in the state are part of the coal mining and power generating industries. 17. EIA Annual Energy Review 1998.S. since low electricity costs attract new business and help retain our existing companies. 6 Every state. T. coal production. Source: EIA. “Fueling Growth.S. economy. p.

"Coal is still the predominant fuel used in generating electricity. coal consumer. and the demand for electricity continues to increase. We produce more coal year in and year out than ever before. It is still one of our lowest-cost. coal”. electricity. the demand for coal will continue to increase for the foreseeable future. Coal-burning power plants produce about half of all electricity in the U. if heavily polluting. Zavell I hid your man card here 61 . Rising prices for natural gas. electric-generating capacity but less than 18 percent of output.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE COAL CONSUMPTION DA—IMPACT: ECONOMY (A2 OFFENSE-COAL INEVITABLE) THE COAL INDUSTRY IS INEVITABLE—ECONOMIC POWER. 1/5/06 http://www.com/news/2006/jan/04/20060104-115800-2050r/?page=1) The American coal industry.S. Because of that." said Pat Hemlepp. and technological barriers with other sources leave coal as one of the most cost-effective. sources of energy. source of energy. has made some gas-fired plants too expensive to operate. ENERGY TIES—IT’S ONLY A QUESTION IF THEY ARE PRODUCTIVE TO THE ECONOMY Washington Times—2006 (“International demand fuels market for U. the largest U. reliance on the fossil fuel for electricity." said Trina Karolchik Wafle. according to the Energy Information Administration.S. Regulatory limits on nuclear energy. They account for 23 percent of U. caused by strong demand and exacerbated by hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico this summer. has seen steadily rising sales.S. spokesman for American Electric Power.washtimes. associate director at National Research Center for Coal and Energy at West Virginia University. A deadly accident at a West Virginia coal mine this week underscored the dangerous work performed by tens of thousands of miners to keep power plants and industries running worldwide.S. "It is a thriving industry.S. if not the lowest-cost. supported by burgeoning international demand for energy and continuing U.S. revenue and investment after almost 20 years of stagnation. which generates almost 20 percent of U.

The prospect of continued high oil and gas prices make the coal-intensive scenario more plausible today than it was during the era of cheap oil. And you will never find it 62 . and increasingly. as a chemical feedstock. China will remain heavily dependent on coal for electric power. even as demand continues to grow rapidly in each of these sectors. for transportation fuels.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CHINA COAL DA—UNIQUENESS: COAL DEMAND HIGH CHINA WILL MAINTAIN A HIGH DEMAND FOR COAL—IT PROVIDES CHEAP AND NECESSARY ENERGY Katzer et al—2007 (See Cite Page) In an alternative scenario. for industrial heat.

washtimes. with flooding in Australia and power outages in South Africa. Three situations have developed: First. http://www. there have been major disruptions to the operations of the traditional coal exporters. the U. News. has the largest reserves of coal in the world.usnews. mines to export coal rather than leave it on the U. the dynamics are changing in the coal industry. Zavell I hid your man card here 63 .S.000 new coal- fired electricity plants over the next five years. coal is by far the cheapest fossil fuel in the world today. is demanding more fuel for its steel mills and growing electricity needs. That said. has become an importer to feed its growing demand for electricity.html) Hess Corp.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CHINA COAL DA—IMPACT: CHINA COAL INDUSTRY 2NC CHINA IS RELIANCT ON US COAL NOW Washington Times—2006 (“International demand fuels market for U." the EIA said in a November report. years ago. Third. 6/5/08. mining companies. which sit on the world's largest coal reserves. Also.S.S. coal”.S. Rising global demand has been good news for U. “Skip Alternative Energy—Dig for Coal Stocks”. This export demand shows no signs of letting up in the future.S. U. our coal was used primarily for domestic consumption. Hess will likely be able to double their proven reserves of oil from a small $36 million investment they made seven we think the most exciting part of the U. LOW PRICE AND HIGH AVAILABILITY OF US COAL IS WHY CHINA IMPORTS US COAL—REVERSAL OF THESE WOULD CAUSE CHINA TO START PRODUCING MORE COAL RATHER THAN IMPORTING IT Marquardt—2008 (Katy Marquardt is a Staff Writer for U. 1/5/06 http://www.com/articles/business/your-money/2008/06/05/skip-alternative- energy--dig-for-coal-stocks. name that is working alongside Petrobras in Brazil on this major new oil find. Compared to other fossil fuels.S. which was once a big exporter of coal. energy sector today is our nation's coal companies. prompting U. According to the Energy Information Administration.S.com/news/2006/jan/04/20060104-115800-2050r/?page=1) China. although traditionally. Second. meanwhile. as both India and China each plan to build more than 1.S. China. China is the world's largest coal producer and consumer. coal is more attractively priced than coal from other regions of the world. These dynamics have made for dramatic increases in the exports of U. market.S. "The wide-ranging economic expansion experienced in China in 2004 drove world markets for many commodities into overdrive and helped to re-establish the United States into Asian coal markets. with a 27 percent share. is a U. coal.S.

though independent experts state that China’s actual death toll is much higher.html) Even India. “Safety Challenges in China's Coal Mining Industry”. November 13.asianresearch.000 A YEAR IN ACCIDENTS Tu—2006 (Jianjun Tu is a Staff Writer for the The Jamestown Foundation. as mine owners routinely falsify death counts in order to avoid mine closures or fines [4]. China alone accounts for approximately 80% of the total deaths in coal mine accidents worldwide (China Daily.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CHINA COAL DA—IMPACT: CHINA COAL INDUSTRY (SAFETY IMPACT) CHINA’S COAL INDUSTRY KILLS ALMOST 10. the safety record of China’s coal industry is full of controversy (China Brief. 3/15/06. With such high fatality rates.org/articles/2997.995 deaths annually in the last decade. The official coal mine fatality statistics range from 5. 2004). 2006). October 25. Much like its coal production statistics.602 to 6. http://www. And you will never find it 64 . a sizable developing country with a notoriously poor past safety record was able to reduce this rate to less than 9% of China’s current rate [3].

burn!”. says the coal industry. Zavell I hid your man card here 65 .a tantalizing technological fix that's decades off. http://dir. 10/5/04.com/story/tech/feature/2004/10/05/clean_coal/index. baby. so one can endorse it happily and continue merrily polluting in the present. So the administration continues to promote its FutureGen Initiative. green power machine?.salon. burn. the promise of true "clean coal" is remarkably similar to the promise of the hydrogen fuel-cell car -. a research project to create a power plant that generates electricity and hydrogen while generating no emissions. including CO2. Forget about that nasty oil or radioactive nuclear waste: If you want to breathe fresh air.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CLEAN COAL DA AFF ANSWERS—UNIQUENESS: CLEAN COAL/HYDROGEN FUEL CELL FAR OFF CLEAN COAL AND HYDROGEN FUEL CELLS ARE JUST HOLLOW PROMISES THAT WON’T MATERIALIZE FOR DECADES Mieszkowski—2004 (Katharine Mieszkowski is a Senior Writer for Salon Premium Media Group “Coal: Clean.html) For the Bush administration. which would be captured and trapped under the ground.

S.8 billion "clean coal" demonstration plant scheduled to start construction next year. no one knows if. response to global warming -. Futuregen was supposed to cost $750 million. Senator Barack Obama (D-Ill. according to the New York Times . Obama's political rival. Futuregen in Illinois was supposed to show that a small (275. CO2 stored below ground will escape to the atmosphere. burn the hydrogen to make electricity. The U. hoping it would stay there forever.") DoE's 13 industrial partners in the Illinois project (the Futuregen Alliance) have bravely promised to press ahead. Mr. Futuregen was an important part of the coal-industry's "clean coal" campaign because it would combine. and further increases were expected.S. Department of Energy (DoE) announced January 30 that it is pulling out of the Futuregen Project in Mattoon. has said that. 2003 as a "bold" 10-year demonstration to turn coal into gas (mainly hydrogen and carbon dioxide). This is known as "carbon capture and storage" or CCS for short. (Polk uses a system called IGCC . the future of the planet -. Polk still emits its carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.the main global warming gas -. arguably. "Clean coal" is the coal industry's term for various end-of-pipe filters that capture carbon dioxide (CO2) -. if elected President. 2003.celsias. The stated goal of the Futuregen project is to store CO2 below ground for 5000 years.and therefore.com/article/a-rocky-start-for-clean-coal/) The U.3 billion) of Futuregen's costs.) And you will never find it 66 . http://www.America's $1. DoE had committed to paying 74% ($1.megaWatt) electric power plant could combine coal gasification with carbon capture and storage (CCS).) Despite this technical innovation. coal gasification with carbon capture and storage (CCS). President Bush had personally announced the Futuregen project Feb. In and bury the carbon dioxide a mile underground. so the DoE pulled out.pressurize it into a liquid.) and other Illinois politicians immediately denounced DoE for reneging on its commitment to the Mattoon "clean coal" project. (Not to be outdone.is wrapped up in this fight. but without DoE's billions. Coal gasification had been demonstrated at commercial scale a decade ago at the small (260-megaWatt) Polk Power Station 40 miles southeast of Tampa. Ho hum.8 billion. but recent estimates have escalated to $1. you say? Not so. Senator Hillary Clinton. Originally Futuregen was also intended to produce liquid transportation fuels from coal. she will "put immediate funding towards 10 large-scale carbon capture and storage projects. Fla. 4] (In the longer term. or when. thus contributing to global warming.[1.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CLEAN COAL DA AFF ANSWERS—UNIQUENESS: NO CLEAN COAL NOW THE DOE IS CUTTING ITS FUNDING TO THE FUTUREGEN PROJECT WHICH WILL PREVENT CLEAN COAL FROM COMING NOW Montague—2008 (Peter Montague is a Staff Writer for Rachel’s Democracy & Health News. “A Rocky Start for 'Clean Coal'”. short for integrated gasification combined cycle. 17. reducing near-term CO2 emissions by perhaps 85% compared to standard coal-burning plants. pg. and store it underground. Illinois -. 2/7/08. the Illinois project is almost certainly dead. hoping it will stay there forever. for the first time.

worldchanging. is far too expensive and ineffecient to be taken seriously by anyone but the most die-hard coal boosters).EMISSIONS ARE FALSE—WONT ACTUALLY BE DEPLOYED UNLESS A CARBON TAX IS DEPLOYED Goodell—2008 (Jeff Goodell is the Author of Big Coal: The Dirty Secret Behind America's Energy Future. But it's not technology that's holding back CCS. and whether or not the technology can scale up quickly enough to really make a difference. It's to use the expense and complexity of it as leverage in negotiations over climate legislation.com/archives/008131. Of course. there is little incentive to do anything serious about CO2 emissions from coal plants. Without a price on carbon. 6/16/08. It's politics. “How Clean Coal Cooks Your Brain”. Yes. http://www.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CLEAN COAL DA AFF ANSWERS—LINK: CARBON TAX LINK TURN BIG COALS CLAIMS OF ZERO. for Big Coal. while theoretically possible. Big Coal has always been better at touting new technology than actually deploying it. how soon will it happen. the game now is not to prove that carbon capture and storage is a viable technology. Zavell I hid your man card here 67 .html) Big Coal would like us all to believe that capturing and storing CO2 from these new coal plants is a slam- dunk technology -. Indeed. there are serious questions about how much it will cost to build new coal plants that can capture and store CO2.but one that's not quite ready for prime time yet (capturing CO2 from existing combustion coal plants.

Klare is a defense correspondent for The Nation and the director of the Five College Program in Pease and World Security Studies at Hampshire College in Amherst.stoel. as well as poisonous emissions responsible for “acid rain”.” These assurances 53 were then incorporated into the 2005 energy bill. And my energy plan directs the Department of Energy and the Environmental Protection Agency to use the best science to move expeditiously to find a safe and permanent repository for nuclear waste. Shrinking Planet: The New Geopolitics of Energy. the use of coal for generating electricity has nearly tripled in the last 30 years. coal was viewed as the fuel of the past.” Bush proclaimed when releasing the NEP in 2001. http://www. . the White House sought to emphasize the promise of what it called “clean coal” and “safe. “Coal: Like It or Not. It's Here to Stay”. Rising Powers. NO RISK OF A TRADE-OFF—THE TWO HAVE EMPIRICALLY EXISTED TOGETHER IN COOPERATION RATHER THAN IN COMPETITION Klare—2008 (Michael T. “[O]ur plan funds research into new.aspx?Show=2484) Thirty years ago. Attempts to abruptly eliminate coal from current and/or future energy options would be imprudent and jeopardize the availability. Coal has enabled America’s electric utilities to keep up with ever increasing demand. support for the development of new energy technologies should include research and development for clean coal technologies as well as improving competitiveness of alternative energy sources. a major source of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gasses. nuclear reactors raise the specter of accidents like those at Three Mile Island (1979) and Chernobyl (1986). they also contribute four-fifths of the carbon emissions associated with electrical generation. Last year. To allay such concerns. which provides billions of dollars in subsidies and tax breaks for the measures envisioned by Bush. and renewable energy sources were going to take us away from coal and place our reliance on cleaner alternatives. clean coal technologies. But while coal-fired plants contribute half of the electricity produced in the United States. and the demand for and consumption of coal is projected to increase for the foreseeable future.” “environmentally friendly” nuclear reactors. 08) The instinctive preference American leaders have for old-energy systems like coal plants and nuclear reactors was evident in the Bush administration’s National Energy Policy of 2001 and the Energy Policy Act passed by congress in 2005—both of which propose numerous incentives for the construction of additional facilities of these types. along with the problem of long-lasting radioactive wastes that cannot safely be disposed of. and it is anticipated that coal will maintain this percentage through 2025. 54 And you will never find it 68 . To ensure future energy needs are affordable. reliability and security of a country’s overall energy supply. He further claimed that “[n]ew reactor designs are even safer and more economical than the reactors we possess today. and coal is now being used in record amounts. IT IS MORE LIKELY THAT WE WOULD INCREASE ALTERNATIVE ENERGY AND CLEAN COAL TOGETHER Kirkham and Hall—2007 (John Kirkham and Richard Hall are natural resource attorneys with Stoel Rives LLP. coal will undoubtedly continue to play a significant role in power generation for decades to come.. of course. natural gas. However. Despite the The challenge facing government and industry is reconciling rapid economic growth and energy demand with the environmental impacts and risks of climate change environmental concerns and promising advances in the development of alternative energy sources.com/showarticle. coal-fired plants contributed 50% of the electricity produced in the United States. Coal-fired power plants are. despite these predictions. Nuclear power. 6/4/07.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CLEAN COAL DA AFF ANSWERS—LINK: NO TRADE-OFF ALTERNATIVE ENERGY DOESN’T DECREASE THE USE OF COAL—OUR EVIDENCE IS EMPIRIC.

com/archives/008131.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CLEAN COAL DA AFF ANSWERS—IMPACT: ALT ENERGY SOLVES BETTER ALTERNATIVE ENRGY SOLVES BETTER THAN CLEAN COAL Goodell—2008 (Jeff Goodell is the Author of Big Coal: The Dirty Secret Behind America's Energy Future. and so is large-scale solar thermal. those alternatives are getting cheaper and smarter.html) That's a false choice. The coal industry may not want to acknowledge it. The creaky old electricity grid will soon morph into a system that looks more like the internet. http://www. And with each passing year.worldchanging. of course. but we're living in the 21st century now. Google is exploring enhanced geothermal. 6/16/08. driving big gains in efficiency and allowing for real-time pricing of a kilowatt of power. This does not mean we can shut down coal plants tomorrow. Wind is already less expensive than coal in many parts of the country. We have indeed figured out other ways to generate electricity besides burning out 30 million year old rocks. “How Clean Coal Cooks Your Brain”. But it does mean that coal is no longer the engine of civilized life as it has been since the industrial revolution. Zavell I hid your man card here 69 .

And you will never find it 70 . leadership.com/article/a-rocky-start-for-clean-coal/) To stop coal. coal is over. It poses a basic choice for the nation: stick with 19th century technologies (coal and oil) or move into the 21st century and revitalize our economy and our standing in the world at the same time. and if coal is over then space opens up for renewable technologies.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CLEAN COAL DA AFF ANSWERS—IMPACT: RENEWABLES GOOD FAILURE OF CLEAN COAL IS KEY TO COLLAPSE COAL AND OPEN UP THE RENEWABALE MARKET— BOOSTING THE ECONOMY AND HEGE Montague—2008 (Peter Montague is a Staff Writer for Rachel’s Democracy & Health News. ingenuity. http://www. and productivity. “A Rocky Start for 'Clean Coal'”. 2/7/08.celsias. stop CCS Without CCS. creating an opportunity for America to revitalize its economy and once again demonstrate its industrial power.

S.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CLEAN COAL DA AFF ANSWERS—IMPACT: A2 CHINA COOPERATION THE US AND CHINA WOULD COOPERATE OVER ALTEARNTIVE ENERGIES Kolton—2006 (Anne Womack Kolton is a Governmental Reporter and Researcher for the Department of Energy. Energy Authority Chairman Sun Qin during which he underscored the importance of the U. http://www. geothermal.doe. and the Generation IV International Forum. 12/15/06.S. business leaders in China where they discussed current business opportunities and the role of the business community in the development and advancement of science and technology in the energy sector. These meetings follow Secretary Bodman’s meeting Thursday with U.S.S. Secretary Bodman and China’s Minister of Science and Technology (MOST) Xu Guanhua pledged to continue work to advance clean renewable energy technologies through discussions on market potential and commercialization and methods and results of research and development. “U.S. and China’s cooperation in nonproliferation work and discussed U.-China Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Protocol renews the joint collaboration in developing and deploying clean.gov/news/4535. Secretary Bodman also highlighted ongoing cooperation to advance energy security through a number of cooperative efforts. and China Announce Cooperation on FutureGen and Sign Energy Efficiency Protocol at U. the International Partnership for a Hydrogen Economy. During bilateral discussions with MOST Minister Xu Guanhua and NDRC Minister Ma Kai. wind. Zavell I hid your man card here 71 .htm) In addition. the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. the U. energy efficient and renewable energy technology including solar. biomass. the Carbon Sequestration Secretary Bodman met with China’s Atomic Leadership Forum. safe and cost-effective nuclear energy technology available. and hydrogen energy.S. private sector development and availability of the most advanced. These efforts include the Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate (APP).- China Strategic Economic Dialogue”.

civilization as we know it will come to an end. Run the ads long enough. new coal plants are cleaner than the old coal burners of yore. Why not Old King Coal? It's not a difficult trick – just whip out some slick ads with upbeat music and lots of cool 21st century technology like fighter jets and computers. even TECO's. of Greenpeace. since the new technologies also require energy to run. pollutes the air. And we can keep the lights on without superheating the climate through the magic of "clean coal.shtml?source=RSSattr=SciTech_4 199506) That's the good news. poisons water.com/story/tech/feature/2004/10/05/clean_coal/index. But going from four bottles of whiskey a week down to three does not make you clean and sober. we can clean up coal. Forget about that nasty oil or radioactive nuclear waste: If you want to breathe fresh air.Pipe Dream Or Next Big Thing?: Coal Industry Launches Ad Campaign To Support Energy Alternative. burn!”. burn. "We need to get to close to zero total CO2 emissions. who says all coal plants. then shows images of little girls getting tucked into bed at night or Little Leaguers playing ball under the lights. “How Clean Coal Cooks Your Brain”. It's like putting a muffler on your car. We can end our dependency on oil by powering our SUVs with ethanol made from corn. http://dir. the lights will go out and your family will be plunged into darkness. The subtext is not simply that. NASA's expert on global warming." Here's another: mining and burning coal remains one of the most destructive things human beings do on this earth. and you have to burn more coal to get the same amount of power. But here's the problem. It's an exercise in re-branding.html) The logic is simple: America has lots of coal." says Galloway from the Union of Concerned Scientists. if you look at it strictly from the point of view smog-producing chemicals like sulfur dioxide. there would be more carbon for unit of juice coming out of the plant.worldchanging. Ergo.com/archives/008131. Like "fat-free donuts" or "interest-free loans. "There is no such thing as clean coal. But the costs of bringing such a futuristic solution to market have yet to be explored: "The perfect solution of coal gasification with carbon sequestration on the back has not been used enough to really get at what the costs are going to be. If you're adding scrubbers.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CLEAN COAL DA AFF ANSWERS—IMPACT: A2 SOLVES WARMING/CO2 EMITIONS CLEAN COAL IS IMPOSSIBLE—IT STILL EMITS CO2 CBS—2008 (Clean Coal . did it for Harley Davidson motorcycles and Converse shoes. and warms the atmosphere. We are a technologically advanced society. it decreases efficiencies. It destroys mountains. As one utility industry executive asked me while I was reporting Big Coal.salon. a physical thing – it is an advertising slogan." says Keith. they use energy to run them. CLEAN COAL FAILS Goodell—2008 (Jeff Goodell is the Author of Big Coal: The Dirty Secret Behind America's Energy Future. baby.cbsnews. What's the problem? Well. still emit millions of tons of carbon dioxide . Madison Ave. "There is no coal plant that captures the carbon dioxide and that's the major long-term pollutant. without coal. "When you have a scrubber on a plant. The ads remind us (accurately) that half the electricity in America comes from coal. http://www. WITHOUT CARBON CATCHING OR CARBON SEQUESTRATION TECHNOLOGY WILL ONLY INCREASE CO2 EMISSIONS Mieszkowski—2004 (Katharine Mieszkowski is a Senior Writer for Salon Premium Media Group “Coal: Clean. True. So." says James Hansen. and people will believe. But Some Say Technology Hasn't Caught Up Yet”.the most threatening greenhouse gas. But the real goal of the campaign is not simply to re-brand coal as a clean and modern fuel – it's to convince energy-illiterate TV viewers that the American way of life depends on coal. 6/16/08.com/stories/2008/06/20/eveningnews/main4199506. Even coal gasification doesn't entirely escape the problem of CO2 emissions and global warming. 6/20/08." says Hansen. "Have you ever been in a blackout? Do you remember how scary it was?" And you will never find it 72 . Of course. without the electricity from coal. here's one: "clean coal" is not an actual invention. 10/5/04. and you're not going to do that with efficiency. http://www. We can have a war in Iraq without sacrifice.html) But the irony is that some of the technologies now used to make coal burn cleaner can increase CO2 emissions. says the coal industry. the "clean coal" campaign is not about reality – it's about perception." says Davies." "clean coal" is a phrase that embodies the Bush-era faith that there is an easy answer for every hard question in America today. We can borrow more than we can afford without worrying about how we'll pay it back. green power machine?. It's that. Only somehow keeping the carbon from escaping into the atmosphere via carbon-sequestration techniques could achieve that.

Clean Coal remains a dream more than a reality.5/22/07.” But the bad stuff has to go somewhere: all that sulfur has to be disposed of.com/article/36244-coal-the- black-gold) A slogan any ad wonk could love. http://seekingalpha. what they really mean is “keep all the bad stuff out of the air. When people talk about clean coal. good-bye West Virginia! CLEAN COAL DOESN’T REMOVE CARBON AND SULFUR—I T JUST SHIFTS IT SOMEWHERE ELSE Seeking Alpha—2007 (“Coal: The Black Gold?“. Zavell I hid your man card here 73 . coal or chaos. But hey. This has led most environmental groups to label the “clean coal” movement as nothing more than greenwash.4 millionacres – an area the size of Delaware – by the end of the decade. This framing also From the coal industry's point of view. this is a brilliant way to frame the argument. they win. it's too bad that mountaintop removal mining has destroyed or polluted 1200 miles of streams in Appalachia and that the Environmental Protection Agency projects a loss of more than 1. is that medieval alchemists never figured out how to turn lead into gold. if it's a choice between losing flattening West Virginia and keeping our lights on.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE If the choice is. disarms environmental arguments – yes. at the end of the day. The problem. all that carbon has to be taken care of.

renewable portfolio standards tend to decrease the consumption of natural gas. they do not appear to have a significant effect on coal consumption. “Coal: Like It or Not. Renewable portfolio standards typically require a certain level or percentage of electricity purchased or consumed by a utility or governmental entity to be produced from renewable sources.aspx?Show=2484) Some point to the introduction of renewable portfolio standards as a means to reduce coal reliance and the environmental impacts associated with coal-fired generation. In the long run. Due to price differentials.com/showarticle. It's Here to Stay”.stoel. And you will never find it 74 . 6/4/07.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE COAL CONSUMPTION DA AFF ANSWERS—LINK: RPS NO LINK RPS WOULDN’T DECREASE THE RELIANCE ON COAL Kirkham and Hall—2007 (John Kirkham and Richard Hall are natural resource attorneys with Stoel Rives LLP. http://www. rather than coal. encouraging the development of renewable energy sources alone does not appear to have a substantial effect on coal use or carbon dioxide emissions from the electricity sector in the absence of other policy measures. in the short term. While renewable portfolio standards have had measured success in promoting the development of renewable energy sources. the development of renewable energy sources may certainly prove key to reducing global reliance on coal. However.

Geological Survey's databases shows us that there are at least two resources that have experienced depletion. Figure 3 shows a Hubbert curve that has been fitted to coal production data for the United Kingdom. was chosen as an example because it is a region that is well past its peak and will likely never be able to increase its production to British coal's heyday in the early parts of the 20th century. U.S.S. If we look at figure 6. 5/27/04. we see that the production peak occurred exactly in the year that the model predicts. and U. but we must ask whether the Hubbert curve is a good depletion model. A review of the U. “The Peak in U. but the examples of British coal. ARSENIC. it might seem that the Hubbert curve does not closely match the historic data but that is because of the variable nature of historic growth. Britain has already shown us that a region's coal fields can be depleted. It is a bell shaped mathematical curve very similar to the normal distribution curve and is named after the now famous geophysicist M. but the results can be seen in figure 6. there was an early peak in 1918 but then production went back down not because of geological constraints but due to human decisions.S.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE COAL CONSUMPTION DA AFF ANSWERS—IMPACT TERMINAL UNIQUENESS: COAL WILL PEAK THE HUBBERT CURVE PROVES COAL WILL PEAK—OIL.S. The Hubbert model predicts that a resource will peak when ½ of the ultimate production (the total amount that will ever be produced) has been produced. we see a second production peak in 1943 that is only one year after the peak predicted by the Hubbert model. The fitted curve takes into account past production trends and predicts the peak date based on the assumption that once one half of the ultimate has been reached.html) One model that has been fairly successful at predicting the production of oil and gas is the Hubbert curve. BRITISH COAL. coal..S. A full paper will be published at a later date explaining how the Hubbert curve was fit to U. production for Arsenic and Manganese. coal production data.com/free/ww3/052504_coal_peak. However. manganese seem to indicate that a Hubbert curve may be able to predict future production trends for U. The U. LNG Import Issues Key”.fromthewilderness. It is probably too early to definitively say whether the Hubbert model can be used for coal production in the U.S. It seems to work fairly well for British coal but this sort of analysis is traditionally used for oil and gas. the date of peak coal production is forecast to be 2032.K. Zavell I hid your man card here 75 . Figures 4 and 5 show U.S. As for manganese. Some critics have argued that Hubbert's curves are really just curve fitting which is partially true but the Hubbert model also takes into account remaining and original reserves which are determined using geological knowledge. For arsenic. Hubbert was proven to be right when production peaked in 1971. http://www. AND MANGANESE PROVE—THIS PEAK WILL OCCUR AROUND 2032 Vaux—2004 (Gregson Vaux is a Chemical Scientist. production will naturally decline as the remaining coal lies in thinner and deeper seams. arsenic. King Hubbert who used it to predict that oil production in the 48 contiguous states would peak in the early 1970's.S. The full paper gives details describing analyses that argue that the fitted curve does indeed match the historic data. In this fitting of the Hubbert model. Coal Production.

whether by design or—simply by virtue of the speed with which they are executing commercial strategies—by default.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CHINA COAL DA AFF ANSWERS—IMPACT: WON’T USE CLEAN COAL NO CLEAN COAL IN CHINA—MULTIPLE STRUCTURAL AND GOVERNMENTAL BARRIERS Katzer et al—2007 (See Cite Page) A major obstacle is that these clean-coal-based strategies require a strong central government role. more than any other players in the Chinese system. those who are participating in the gas and petroleum supply chains are the organizations with cash. And you will never find it 76 . Instead. and nobody wants to rely on others for it. And none of them—not the national fuel and power firms nor the decision-makers in the leading coastal provinces—has much incentive to advocate For the state petroleum firms. It is commonly observed that in China everybody wants to generate power. the nominal parents of most of China’s coal-burning plants. they are not willing to invest in the large-scale infrastructure that would make them dependent on electricity generated in those interior regions. rather than waiting for a national strategy to emerge. and substantial cross-regional coordination. coal is a advanced coal-based solutions or technologies. Large-scale clean coal solutions are unlikely to be much more appealing to the national power companies. AND LACK OF INTEREST Katzer et al—2007 (See Cite Page) In fact. Large-scale clean coal is associated with power generation at the mine mouth. and the power companies have little interest in yielding control of their industry to mining concerns. links to global partners. China’s most-developed coastal regions. are moving forward with their own solutions. While they are willing to import coal from the poorer inland provinces. oft en with subpar environmental controls. Many municipalities are simply building conventional coal-fired power plants as fast as they can. LACK OF INCENTIVES. substitute for their products and the coal industry a competitor. which increasingly see themselves as gas companies and hold substantial cash reserves. and ready entrée to downstream infrastructure and major energy consumers. centralized funding. commercial sophistication. It is they who are making national energy policy. all of which are lacking in China’s energy sector today. NO CLEAN COAL IN CHINA—PETROLEUM INDUSTRY RESISTANCE. which in turn is associated with control by the mining industry. access to global fuel supplies.

the annual output result a record-breaking.55 billion tons with export hitting 90 million tons in 2003. Zavell I hid your man card here 77 . But there are still many places where the demands exceeding supply. Coal industry plays an important role in the construction of Chinese economy and the development of the society. Coal industry is the basic industry in China. If Chinese national economy keeps the rapid development trends as the present. The coal output will be 1.com/2007/static. It is estimated that the coal output will be 1.chinaminingcoal.6 billion tons in 2005. 07. and 1. http://www. sales and exports in the coming several years. China coal industry has kept good development trends in recent years.php?page=mkt_general_situation.KENTUCKY FELLOWS COAL DISADS 2008-2009 X-GULLIE CHINA COAL DA AFF ANSWERS—IMPACT: CHINA COAL INDUSTRY GOOD CHINA’S COAL INDUSTRY IS KEY TO IT’S ECONOMY China Coal and Mining Expo—2007 (“General Situation of China”.php) China is the third biggest country of coal resources in the world and its annual coal output and consumption rank number one in the world. Coal market is in great increase.8 billion tons in 2010. which is regarded as “The Motive Force of national economy” and “Industry Food”. there will be great increase of coal output.