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Hybrid XTL Biorefinery Natural Gas-to-Petroleum Biorefinery Cum Zero- Carbon-Emission Power Plant The United States is

Hybrid XTL Biorefinery

Natural Gas-to-Petroleum Biorefinery Cum Zero- Carbon-Emission Power Plant

The United States is currently awashed with natural gas. Production outpaces demand, putting downward pressure on prices. With the maturation of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling technologies, the vast reserves of natural gas trapped in gas shale formations underlying vast areas of continental United States are now unlocked for long term production. With gas prices hovering south of $15.00 per barrel of oil equivalent (BOE), and crude oil prices hovering north of $100.00 per barrel, technical arbitrage exists for converting it to drop-in transportation fuels. BioSyn’s breakthrough technology architecture for conversion of natural gas to synthetic petroleum at the same CAPEX as conventional petroleum refinery, in conjunction with building a zero- carbon-emission power generation plant, represents a credible pathway towards solving the country’s energy independence problem. The same technology architecture breakthrough addresses the issue of carbon mitigation in generating power.

BioSyn Resources, LLC

4/19/2012

architecture breakthrough addresses the issue of carbon mitigation in generating power. BioSyn Resources, LLC 4/19/2012
architecture breakthrough addresses the issue of carbon mitigation in generating power. BioSyn Resources, LLC 4/19/2012
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Page 2 of 16 Pages

| Hybrid XTL Biorefinery

Hybrid XTL Biorefinery:

Natural-Gas-to-Petroleum Biorefinery Cum Zero-Carbon-Emission Power Generation Plant

White Paper

Deo C. Reloj BioSyn Resources, LLC April 17, 2012

Summary

The American Gas Association estimates that the country’s national inventory of gas reserves at the end of 2011 stands at about 300 trillion cubic feet (TCF) 1 . The Potential Gas Committee (PGC) of the Colorado School of Mines reported in 2011 that the estimated U.S. future gas supply for the year ending in 2010 was 2,170 TCF 2 .

Box 1. Gas shale formations in the United States
Box 1. Gas shale formations in the United States

With continuing technological developments and improvements in hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling techniques in unlocking the vast reserves of natural gas embedded in gas

shale formations that underlie a large portion of continental United States, the replacement rate for the on-the-shelf reserves inventory will continue to increase. This will further put downward pressure on already historic law prices of natural gas.

Meanwhile, petroleum based transportation fuels which are tethered to highly volatile world prices of crude oil, continue to rise. This gave rise to an unusual local phenomenon: an unprecedented large price differential between natural gas and petroleum based

1 300 TCF is equivalent to about 50 billion barrels of oil equivalent (BOE). This represents about 7 years of current

crude oil imports of the country. http://www.aga.org/Kc/analyses-and-statistics/studies/supply/Documents/EA%202012-

02%20Preliminary%20Reserves%202011.pdf

2 2170 TCF is equivalent to about 361 billion BOE. This is more than the proven oil reserves of Saudi Arabia for the year 2011, which was only 262.6 billion barrels at the end of 2011.

transportation fuels. Expressed in barrels of oil equivalent (BOE), natural gas prices have been dropping to now less than $15.00 while diesel continues to hover at more than $150.

This large price differential creates a technical arbitrage opportunity: the conversion of a $15- per-barrel feedstock into $150-per-barrel drop-in, infrastructure-ready transportation fuels 3 .

BioSyn has the technical wherewithal to, and will, exploit this as a business opportunity. It will also attempt to transform this opportunity into a template for addressing strategic issues relating to the country’s need for achieving energy independence objectives, sustainable power generation, and oil industry compliance with regulatory and legislative mandates for RSF2 fuel specifications.

BioSyn has identified, and will employ, the best commercially available technologies needed in its technology architecture to construct the conversion facilities. It has also identified, and will employ, commercially established technologies needed in its technology architecture to construct zero-carbon-emission power plants that will be fueled by pure hydrogen produced in excess by said conversion facilities.

BioSyn’s proprietary technology architecture provides the enabling mechanism to integrate said commercially established technologies to build the conversion facility and power plant.

Initially, BioSyn will build a 300-bpd commercial demonstration biorefinery to showcase its technology architecture. In this regard, it has secured the process license for a 4 th generation Fischer-Tropsch technology 4 .

The techno-economic information and operational experience that BioSyn and its process licensors, engineering partners and contractors will gather from the construction and operation of the demonstration plant, will form the basis for the construction of larger commercial plants.

3 Drop-in transportation fuels are infrastructure ready fuels that can be mixed with conventional petroleum based fuels in any proportion without the need for engine modification. Thus, a drop-in ultraclean gasoline made from natural gas can blended with conventional gasoline in any proportion without damaging side effects on the unmodified gasoline engine.

4 4 th generation Fischer-Tropsch technology produces light and middle distillates of about 25% isoparafinnic composition with less than 200-ppm oxygenates. This obviates the need for capital intensive hydrocracking blocks normally needed in 3 rd generation plants.

Hybrid XTL Biorefinery:

Natural-Gas-to-Petroleum Biorefinery Cum Zero-Carbon-Emission Power Generation Plant

White Paper

BioSyn Resources, LLC April 17, 2012

Introduction

liquid state. Both can be converted to a desired physical state. Thus, natural gas can be converted to diesel and vice versa.

Commercially available conversion technologies from reputable process licensors in the oil and petrochemical industries abound. Natural gas conversion technologies, also known as GTL technologies, produce drop-in, infrastructure ready,

ultraclean transportation fuels.

In this regard, arbitrage opportunity exists because natural gas, given its very low price,

There has never been a period in the history of the United States during which the price differential between two (2) ubiquitous energy carrier groups 5 has become so large it boggles the mind of an astute observer as to how it ever happened!

As of the time of this writing, natural gas prices hover around $15.00 per barrel of oil

equivalent (BOE), while liquid transportation fuels, like gasoline and diesel, fetch around $150.00 per barrel.

Box 2. Arbitrage opportunity

… arbitrage opportunity exists because natural gas, given its very low price, can be converted to drop-in liquid transportation fuels at a cost level that will still leave plenty of room for a healthy profit margin.

The first energy carrier

group is in gaseous state while the second energy carrier group is in

can be converted to drop-in liquid transportation fuels at a cost level that will still leave plenty of room for a healthy profit margin.

It is important to note that the prices of these two energy carrier groups are caused by disparate market forces. The low natural gas prices are a local phenomenon with no bearing at all on the interplay of forces and events in the international marketplace. In

5 The two energy carrier groups referred to in this Paper are 1) natural gas and 2) liquid transportation fuels. The first category refers to methane from all sources, including conventional natural gas, shale gas, coal bed methane, etc. The latter refers to gasoline, diesel and jet fuels. Kerosene is the base material for jet fuels. Heating oil is the same as diesel. The two are lumped together under liquid transportation fuels.

addition, there are no existing infrastructures to export excess local production. Natural gas in the United States is basically insulated from world market forces at this time 6 .

In contrast, the prices of liquid transportation fuels are dictated by world market forces, including geo-political events and wholesale manipulators, as well as institutional speculators that add about 20% more to the demand/supply- determined prices. In fact, although the country currently is a net exporter of finished petroleum products, the local prices of these commodities are on the upward trajectory.

Not surprisingly, prices of said energy carrier groups have been heading in divergent directions in the last few months.

Needless to say, there exists a unique window of opportunity for a technical arbitrage play.

BioSyn’s Arbitrage Play

Taking advantage of the unique arbitrage opportunity that currently exists, BioSyn decided to revise its construction plans by

6 In April 15, 2012, Cheniere Energy Inc. won federal approval to build a $10-billion natural-gas export terminal adjacent to its Sabine Pass gas-import terminal in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. Assuming no delays, this terminal will be operational in 2016.

implementing a portion of the 4 th phase 7 of its biorefinery project ahead of schedule.

BioSyn’s arbitrage play and philosophy are, in principle, simple and straight forward. Using commercially established unit processes configured in BioSyn’s proprietary technology architecture, it will convert natural gas into liquid transportation fuels at the same CAPEX cost of construction as a conventional oil refinery. The use of best available technologies results in lower OPEX costs than those employed in converting conventional crude oil into premium liquid transportation fuels. BioSyn will also do this at the same economies of scale as a typical oil refinery, which is between 50,000 100,000 barrels per day (bpd).

Additional Benefits

Zero-Carbon Power Plant. BioSyn’s refinery

will produce excess hydrogen in quantities that could not all be absorbed by traditional industrial users. In this regard, a cogeneration power plant driven by hydrogen-powered gas turbine will be built. Fueled by pure hydrogen, this power plant will emit no carbon dioxide.

Model for Large Scale Emulation. BioSyn

envisions that its business model and

7 The 4 th phase of BioSyn’s construction plan calls for the construction of a refinery island that is feedstock-flexible and biomass-centric. It will make use of locally available and abundant feedstocks, such as natural gas and Bitumen, among others.

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technology architecture will create a model that others will follow. Its large scale adoption will address a number of important national issues that the country faces today, to wit:

Skyrocketing gasoline, diesel, jet fuel and heating oil prices,

Energy independence,

Trade imbalance,

Generation of jobs that cannot be outsourced,

Greenhouse gas emissions, and

RFS2 mandates.

Current State of Conversion Technology and Current Players

Synthesis Gas Production. Different

technologies for producing synthesis gas from different feedstocks are well known processes. Gasification can be employed for different kinds of feedstocks. Steam reforming is used for gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons.

The production of synthesis gas from natural gas using steam methane reforming (SMR) is a well-established and mature technology. It is the dominant technology in producing synthesis gas for the production of commodity products like urea, ammonia, methanol and other industrial chemicals.

Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis. Converting

synthesis gas into synthetic petroleum is not a new phenomenon. The basic technology, Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, is a well known process that dates back to

the 1920’s when Fischer and Tropsch, two German scientists that discovered the process, first synthesized coal-derived synthesis gas to petroleum.

Product Upgrading. The crude synthetic petroleum oil produced by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis requires further processing in order to convert it into drop-in transportation fuels. Depending upon the catalysts used in the synthesis process, different synthetic crude oils are produced. And depending upon the quality of crude oils produced, a particular facility will require specific technologies for upgrading.

For example, Sasol Oryx’s conversion facility uses cobalt catalyst that produce waxy and largely normal paraffinic hydrocarbons with some oxygenates. It uses Chevron’s Isocracking technology to hydrocrack and deoxygenate the crude oil. It is then fractionated to different product streams.

Current Players. Most oil majors have Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in their respective technology portfolios. Sasol, South Africa’s national oil company, is the pioneer in 2 nd generation large scale installations. Shell constructed a 3 rd generation refinery in Qatar 8 . Chevron has an ongoing project that constructs a similar plant in Nigeria with a rated capacity of 34,000 bpd.

8 Shell’s Pearl project produces 140,000 bpd of synthetic crude and 120,000 bpd of natural gas liquids (NGL). Its price tag is $19 billion. Sasol Oryx is also a 3 rd generation refinery rated at 34,000 bpd with a price tag of $1 billion.

In addition, there are a number of development companies that have developed their own FT technologies whose business models are to monetize stranded and associated gases 9 . Their hardware systems are, therefore, designed for small scale production.

In contrast, Shell, Sasol and Chevron plants have rated capacities to the same level as conventional oil refineries.

Current Players’ Business Models

Conventional business models call for the XTL refineries 10 to be built in close proximity to feedstock sources, and under long term supply agreements with feedstock suppliers. Shell’s Pearl refinery, for example, was built in proximity to Qatar’s North field that has 900 TCF in proven reserves of natural gas, under a supply agreement with Qatar’s state-owned national oil company.

9 Some of the development companies that claim to be in the cusp of commercialization or ready to commercialize or have started to commercialize are Velocys, Oxford Catalysts, Syntroleum, Rentech and CompactGTL.

10 The industry uses the general terminology “XTL” to refer to conversion of synthesis gas to liquid hydrocarbons via Fischer-Tropsch synthesis using different feedstocks. If the feedstock is natural gas, “GTL” is used. If the feedstock is biomass, “BTL” is used.

Big players like Shell, Chevron and Sasol build large scale XTL refineries to achieve economies of scale 11 .

Small players adopt essentially the same business model, but target associated gases in smaller fields. They develop their own proprietary hardware with smaller footprints and capacities to cater to smaller wellheads. In both cases, XTL refinery operations are co-terminus with the depletion of the feedstock supplies at the source.

BioSyn’s Business Model

BioSyn adopts the business model of most oil refineries with respect to refinery siting.

Conventional oil refineries can be built independent of the location of the feedstock source. There are many oil refineries built in countries that have no endogenous crude oil resources. Oil refineries in Japan and Singapore are prime examples. Oil refineries from these countries simply source their crude oil from the international market. Interestingly enough, tiny Singapore exports more

11 Shell’s Pearl project has a price tag of $19 Billion for a total rated capacity of 260,000 bpd, or $73,760 per daily barrel (pdb). Sasol Oryx’s price tag is $1 Billion for 34,000 bpd, or $29,000 pdb 11 . Chevron Escravos GTL’s 34,000-bpd project in Nigeria has escalated to more than $6 Billion or $176,470 pdb.

In contrast, a moderately complex conventional oil refinery costs about $20,000 pdb to construct.

finished petroleum products than the United States.

$2.00-per-million-btu line while prices in Asia are in the $15-per-million-btu level.

In similar fashion, BioSyn will build its XTL refinery independent of the location of feedstock source. Its feedstock supplies will come from a combination of purchases from the open spot market, long term supply contracts and hedging strategies.

Meanwhile, liquid fuels are tethered to world crude oil prices which are projected to remain above the $100-per-barrel level.

Crude oil prices are not only a function of supply and demand. They are also influenced by:

The Arbitrage Scenario

winds and drama of geopolitics

supply disruptions due to:

There are three (3) fundamental factors that led to current

historic lows in natural gas prices in the country. They are:

Box 3. Compelling case for arbitrage play

At $15 per barrel of oil equivalent for natural gas and $150 per barrel for liquid fuels, the $135-per-barrel price differential creates a compelling case for an arbitrage play.

To describe the technical arbitrage

play simply, natural gas can be converted into liquid transportation fuels at conversion costs that will still allow plenty of room for attractive profit margins.

accidents

terrorist

sabotage

and/or

threats of

sabotage

weather

OPEC whims

Trader

speculations

The two market theaters created a huge price differential between the

Discovery and development of large gas shale formations,

Maturation of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling technologies, and

Lack of export infrastructures 12 .

two energy carrier groups, i.e., between natural gas and liquid fuels (gasoline, diesel, jet fuel).

At $15 per barrel of oil equivalent for natural gas and $150 per barrel for liquid fuels, the $135-per-barrel price differential creates a compelling case for an arbitrage play.

To describe the technical arbitrage play simply, natural gas can be converted into

As of the time of this writing, natural gas prices in the United States breached the

12 In April 15, 2012, Cheniere Energy Inc. won federal approval to build a $10-billion natural-gas export terminal adjacent to its Sabine Pass gas-import terminal in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. Assuming no delays, this terminal will be operational in 2016.

liquid transportation fuels at conversion costs that will still allow plenty of room for attractive profit margins.

Technology blocks for the conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels are commercially available. In fact, a number of large scale projects are already on-stream. However, they are located overseas.

Employing older generation technologies, these projects were built at higher CAPEX expenditures compared to constructing conventional oil refineries. The high CAPEX costs, however, were compensated by constructing large scale plants to achieve the required economies of scale for profitable operations.

Naphtha, being the basic raw material for conventional gasoline production and an important petrochemical feedstock, fetches a premium price over crude oil.

Natural gas producers actually prefer NGL, which is liquid, over natural gas (primarily methane), which is gas. But as NGL is produced in wet natural gas wellheads, so is natural gas also. Even if natural gas is given

away or flared out, operators of wet natural gas wellheads will still continue to make generate profits even on NGL production alone.

Given the above scenario, and given the vast deposits of shale natural gas now being unlocked, natural gas (methane) will continue to flow into the market despite its greatly depressed prices.

Box 4. Real drivers for high prices of crude oil in the world market. CNN’s
Box 4. Real drivers for high prices of crude
oil in the world market.
CNN’s Zakaria contends that the real drivers
of high prices of crude oil are governments of
oil producing countries in need of budgetary
support. The above picture shows the
respective prices of crude oil that these
governments need to maintain to balance
their respective budgets.

Long Term Prognosis

for Continued Price Divergence between the Two Energy Carrier Groups

Meanwhile, in the world theater, crude oil prices will continue to remain high driven by increasing demands from industrializing countries like China, India and Brazil.

In addition, governments of oil producing countries that depend primarily on oil revenues for budgetary support will collectively employ price support

Wet natural gas wellheads produce natural gas liquids (NGL) or condensates (NGC), besides methane, the principal component of pipeline natural gas. NGL or NGC is equivalent to naphtha, a product of crude oil atmospheric fractionation.

mechanisms that maintain high prices for oil.

BioSyn Technology Architecture

BioSyn will only use commercially established unit processes in its technology architecture. The unit processes will be provided by reputable process licensors and come with process guarantees.

BioSyn’s approach is not unlike Sasol’s technology architecture for its Oryx GTL project. The synthesis gas production unit is an auto-thermal reformer supplied by Haldor-Topsøe 13 .

Sasol employed its own Slurry Phase Distillate (Sasol SPD) process for Fischer- Tropsch synthesis of syngas to long chain hydrocarbons or synthetic crude.

Sasol itself is a world-renowned process licensor for Sasol SPD.

Chevron supplied the hydrocracking technology to upgrade the synthetic crude produced by the Sasol SPD unit.

All of the three (3) major technology blocks are individually stand-alone units that are used in other oil refineries and petrochemical plants around the world.

13 Haldor-Topsøe is multi-billion dollar Danish company that specializes in the production of heterogeneous catalysts and the design of process plants based on catalytic processes. It caters to the fertilizer industry, chemical and petrochemical industries, and the energy sector (oil refineries and power plants).

and the energy sector (oil refineries and power plants). Chevron’s Isocracking Uni t Using a similar

Chevron’s Isocracking Unit

Using a similar approach, BioSyn will use the latest generation and enhanced steam methane reforming (SMR) technology to produce syngas from natural gas. Unlike gasification or auto-thermal reforming technologies, SMR will not need oxygen input. This precludes the need for the installation of an expensive air separation unit 14 (ASU), thereby significantly reducing the CAPEX requirement for the project.

For its Fischer-Tropsch unit, BioSyn will use a 4 th generation technology that will produce long chain hydrocarbons that are about 40% isoparaffinic in the C4-C20 range, with about 5% C21+ composition. Unlike 3 rd generation F-T technologies, the product yield will not contain oxygenates.

14 An Air Separation Unit (ASU) represents a major CAPEX item in large scale XTL projects.

The product slate avoids the need for deoxygenation, hydrogenation and isomerisation units, all of which are capital intensive processes. This further reduces the CAPEX requirement of the project to a significant degree.

The plant will produce excess hydrogen, which can be sold to traditional industrial users. For large scale plants that will produce large volumes of hydrogen, BioSyn will put up a combined-cycle power plant that will be fueled by pure hydrogen.

The use of pure hydrogen as fuel will make the plant zero-carbon emission plant.

as fuel will make the plant zero-carbon emission plant. 4 t h generation 500-bpd GTL plant

4 th generation 500-bpd GTL plant in Japan

Making the Refinery Green and the Fuels RFS2 Compliant

BioSyn will install a biomass gasification island to produce synthesis gas from biomass materials that will be co-fed with syngas produced from SMR units.

In future large scale plants, large volumes of biomass for gasification will be needed. At that time, BioSyn enter into supply

agreements with farmers who will farm fast growing dedicated energy crops in marginal and under-utilized lands.

As a logistics strategy, BioSyn will build pyrolysis plants in proximity to farms to densify the biomass to pyrolysis oil for cost effective transportation to BioSyn’s XTL refinery. At that time, the feedstock to the gasification units will be pyrolysis oils.

Biochar produced from pyrolysis plants will be marketed as soil conditioners. Leaving biochar in the ground as soil conditioner will not only improve the soil quality for agriculture; it is also an excellent long term carbon sequestration strategy.

also an excellent long term carbon sequestration strategy. Biochar The overall architecture involving long term ca

Biochar

The overall architecture involving long term carbon sequestration will make BioSyn’s XTL biorefinery carbon negative.

CAPEX and OPEX Requirements

BioSyn’s XTL plant will have the same CAPEX expenditures as conventional oil refineries of the same capacity and product slate quality.

The OPEX will be slightly lower than producing similar premium transportation fuels out of conventional crude oil.

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The feedstock cost is, at the time of this writing, about 10% of crude oil prices.

Commercial Demonstration Plant

4 th Generation Fischer-Tropsch Plant. BioSyn

will first build a 300-bpd commercial demonstration plant based on a 4 th generation Fischer-Tropsch synthesis technology.

Feedstocks. This plant will use natural gas and carbon dioxide as feedstocks.

The carbon dioxide feedstock will be produced from the water gas shift (WGSR) unit of the syngas block. The demo plant will produce excess hydrogen which will be sold to industrial users.

F-T Reactor Footprint. The demo plant will

feature a very small Fischer-Tropsch reactor footprint. Its diameter will only be 1.0 meter and its height will be 6.0 meters.

Licensing Agreement. BioSyn entered into a

special licensing agreement with its primary process licensor for the 4 th generation 300- bpd demonstration plant. The process licensor will provide the basic technology design and basic engineering design. The said process licensor will also provide all the catalysts needed for synthesis gas production and Fischer-Tropsch synthetic crude production under favorable terms.

The construction of this demonstration plant will enable BioSyn to gain valuable techno-economic data and operational experience it will need in improving its

technology architecture, design and engineering for large scale 4 th generation plants in the future.

for large scale 4 t h generation plants in the future. Pilot plant of BioSyn ’

Pilot plant of BioSyns process licensor for the 4 th generation Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

FEEDS and Detailed Engineering Design.

BioSyn’s third-party EPCM company, which acts as its in-house engineer and project engineer, will perform the front end engineering and design studies (FEEDS) and detailed engineering studies for the 300- bpd demonstration plant.

Techno-Economic Study on a 10,000-bpd GTL Conversion Facility

BioSyn will commission a third-party process engineering party, which currently acts as its in-house engineer, to conduct a

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| Hybrid XTL Biorefinery

techno-economic study on its technology architecture for a 10,000-bpd GTL plant and associated zero-carbon emission power plant.

The 10,000-bpd facility will use the same 4 th generation Fischer-Tropsch process technology as the 300-bpd demonstration plant. However, it will employ a different technology in the production of synthesis gas such that excess hydrogen will be produced to be used in the associated zero- carbon emission power plant.

At the rated capacity of 10,000 bpd, the facility will produce hydrogen in volumes that will warrant the construction of a power plant that will be fueled by pure hydrogen. The use of pure hydrogen as fuel will render the power plant zero-carbon emission plant.

Exothermic Heat Recovery. The F-T reactors

exothermic heat will be recovered and looped back to the methane reformer which needs heat for the methane reforming to take place. No heat will be dissipated into the atmosphere, a significant departure from 3 rd generation designs.

Product Specifications

Both the demo and 10,000-bpd plants will produce synthetic crude oil with the following specifications:

Composition

n-

Iso-

Olefins

Total

(%)

Paraffins

Paraffins

C5 C10

35

14

 

17

66

C11 C18

18

11

2

31

C19 C30

2

1

0

3

Total

55

26

 

19

100

Oxygenates

 

<200 ppm

 

Aromatics

Traces

Sulfur & HA*

Traces

*HA - heteroatoms

A close examination of the table of product specifications will reveal that the plant will not need an expensive hydrocracking unit anymore. This is one of the reasons why the CAPEX requirement for the plant is much lower than 3 rd generation FT plants.

Conclusion

The picture for a unique opportunity to do an arbitrage play is obviously crystal clear. BioSyn is in a unique position to do the play, given its business model and technology architecture supported by commercially available unit processes that come with process guarantees from reputable process licensors.

BioSyns use of a 4 th generation Fischer- Tropsch technology will position itself as a front-runner in the commercialization of a technology that will produce premium

drop-in transportation that can compete head on with petroleum based fuels.

About BioSyn Resources, LLC

BioSyn is a development company engaged in designing and developing technology architectures for biomass- centric feedstock-flexible refineries that will produce ultraclean RFS2-compliant green transportation fuels. Its business philosophy and business model call for the use of best in class and commercially established unit conversion processes supplied by leading process licensors known in the petroleum and petrochemical industries.

Prior to the completion of the construction of its refineries, BioSyn manufactures and markets the analogue versions of the ultraclean transportation fuels to be produced by its future refineries.

The transportation fuels are infrastructure ready, also referred to as “drop-in“ fuels. This means that these fuels can be mixed in any proportion with conventional petroleum based fuels without need for engine modification.

BioSyn has a diesel demo car, pictured below, that runs on its ultraclean multi-functional military fuel the kind of fuel that doubles as jet fuel (JP-8, Jet A-1) and diesel fuel.

the kind of fuel that doubles as jet fuel (JP-8, Jet A-1) and diesel fuel. Page