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WNDI 2008 1

Agenda Politics DA Neg

Agenda Politics DA Neg
Agenda Politics DA Neg.............................................................................................................................................1
Agenda Politics DA Neg.................................................................................................................1
1NC Shell (1/3)...........................................................................................................................................................3
1NC Shell (1/3)................................................................................................................................3
1NC Shell (2/3)...........................................................................................................................................................4
1NC Shell (2/3)................................................................................................................................4
1NC Shell (3/3)...........................................................................................................................................................5
1NC Shell (3/3)................................................................................................................................5
Uniqueness – Bush Push (1/1)....................................................................................................................................6
Uniqueness – Bush Push (1/1).......................................................................................................6
Uniqueness – Won’t Pass (1/2)...................................................................................................................................7
Uniqueness – Won’t Pass (1/2)......................................................................................................7
Uniqueness – Won’t Pass (2/2)...................................................................................................................................8
Uniqueness – Won’t Pass (2/2)......................................................................................................8
Link – Democrats (1/1)...............................................................................................................................................9
Link – Democrats (1/1)..................................................................................................................9
Link – Pelosi (1/1).....................................................................................................................................................10
Link – Pelosi (1/1).........................................................................................................................10
Link – Republicans (1/1)...........................................................................................................................................11
Link – Republicans (1/1)..............................................................................................................11
Internal Link – Bipartisanship (1/1)..........................................................................................................................12
Internal Link – Bipartisanship (1/1)..........................................................................................12
Internal Link – Pelosi (1/1).......................................................................................................................................13
Internal Link – Pelosi (1/1)..........................................................................................................13
Internal Link – Political Capital (1/2).......................................................................................................................14
Internal Link – Political Capital (1/2)........................................................................................14
Internal Link – Political Capital (2/2).......................................................................................................................15
Internal Link – Political Capital (2/2)........................................................................................15
Human Rights Credibility Good – Democracy (1/1)................................................................................................16
Human Rights Credibility Good – Democracy (1/1)................................................................16
Human Rights Credibility Good – Human Rights (1/1)...........................................................................................17
Human Rights Credibility Good – Human Rights (1/1)...........................................................17
Human Rights Credibility Good – Russia (1/1)........................................................................................................18
Human Rights Credibility Good – Russia (1/1)........................................................................18

WNDI 2008 2
Agenda Politics DA Neg

Human Rights Credibility Good – Terrorism (1/1)...................................................................................................19
Human Rights Credibility Good – Terrorism (1/1)...................................................................19
COFTA Bad – Death Squads (1/1)............................................................................................................................20
COFTA Bad – Death Squads (1/1)..............................................................................................20
COFTA Bad – Drug Trafficking (1/1).......................................................................................................................21
COFTA Bad – Drug Trafficking (1/1)........................................................................................21
COFTA Bad – Environment (1/1).............................................................................................................................22
COFTA Bad – Environment (1/1)...............................................................................................22
COFTA Bad – Instability (1/2)..................................................................................................................................23
COFTA Bad – Instability (1/2)....................................................................................................23
COFTA Bad – Instability (2/2)..................................................................................................................................24
COFTA Bad – Instability (2/2)....................................................................................................24
COFTA Bad – Narco Terrorism (1/2).......................................................................................................................25
COFTA Bad – Narco Terrorism (1/2).........................................................................................25
COFTA Bad – Narco Terrorism (2/2).......................................................................................................................26
COFTA Bad – Narco Terrorism (2/2).........................................................................................26
COFTA Bad – Palm Oil (1/3)....................................................................................................................................27
COFTA Bad – Palm Oil (1/3)......................................................................................................27
COFTA Bad – Palm Oil (2/3)....................................................................................................................................28
COFTA Bad – Palm Oil (2/3)......................................................................................................28
COFTA Bad – Palm Oil (3/3)....................................................................................................................................29
COFTA Bad – Palm Oil (3/3)......................................................................................................29
COFTA Bad – Self Determination (1/1)...................................................................................................................30
COFTA Bad – Self Determination (1/1).....................................................................................30
COFTA Bad – A2 Colombian Economy (1/1)..........................................................................................................31
COFTA Bad – A2 Colombian Economy (1/1)............................................................................31

WNDI 2008 3
Agenda Politics DA Neg

1NC Shell (1/3)
A. Uniqueness - Deal won’t pass – democratic opposition, Obama, and administration
refusal to compromise
National Review Online, 7/15/2008, “Meekly Sensible – A Democrat to listen to on free trade,”
http://www.truthabouttrade.org/content/view/12077/54/
The Colombian military’s rescue of 15 hostages on July 2 from the narco-terrorist group the Revolutionary
Armed Forces of Colombia (known by its Spanish acronym “FARC”) put an exclamation point on what have
been several months of successes in Colombian president Alvaro Uribe’s campaign to eradicate political
violence in the country. But hopes that the episode would revive the stalled U.S.-Colombia Free Trade
Agreement appear to be in vain, at least according to one of the FTA’s top Democratic supporters.
Congressman Gregory Meeks is among the dwindling number of pro-trade Democrats. He voted for
normalized trade relations with China and in favor of the Central American Free Trade Agreement. Meeks
has been to Colombia several times and supports the Colombia FTA. Most of his Democratic colleagues
oppose it, citing President Uribe’s supposed willingness to tolerate violence against union members even
though the number of unionists killed has fallen by 88 percent since 2002. Of the chances that Congress
will pass the Colombia FTA before the November elections, Meeks says, “There’s a possibility, but it
really would be tough to get done.” The Democrats control both houses of Congress, and their party’s
presidential nominee, Sen. Barack Obama, opposes the deal. Meeks says that Obama’s opposition to the
FTA doesn’t necessarily mean that his election would doom the deal’s chances. “I would like to make the
offer at some point, if he is president, to do as he’s doing right now with reference to Iraq,” Meeks says. “I’d
love to take him to Colombia. I’d love to go with him to places I’ve found, in the jungle, where there are
things they’ve done for African-Colombians that had never been done before. I’d love to show him where the
violence has been reduced substantially.” Meeks says, “Is it all done? Of course not. But under the last five
years of the Uribe administration, a substantial, not a minimal, but a substantial change has happened.”
Murders, kidnappings, assassinations, and other acts of terrorism common in Colombia five years ago have
all decreased by double-digit percentages since Uribe took office in 2002. While acknowledging that
Obama’s opposition to the FTA makes passage difficult, Meeks does not blame Democrats for stalling the
deal. “I think that the burden is not so much on the Democrats, but the administration,” he says. He argues
that the administration needs to make it easier for Democrats to vote for the Colombia FTA by
agreeing to work with Congress on an expansion of trade-adjustment assistance (TAA), which is aid to
workers who lose their jobs due to import competition.

B. Link -

1. <insert link>

“Pelosi links TAA to Colombia FTA. anti-FTA Democrats said they had not been approached by Pelosi on the Colombia FTA. they said. "It would have to be robust. "I don't think it's going to happen. roughly three weeks after she met with Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice on Feb. A labor source said that the unions will use the FTA vote in close House races in Ohio. he said." she said." Veroneau said in a March 12 press briefing at the White House. This may be partially due to the fact that the high-level outreach by the administration to Pelosi by cabinet- level officials such as Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson has only gone on for four weeks. Hare called on the leadership in a March 12 statement to use "all the tools in its power to ensure the flawed Colombia FTA is not enacted. depending on how many Republicans will vote for it. Thomas Reynolds (R-NY). Marcy Kaptur (D-OH). Pennsylvania. such members will not face a reduction in business contributions." saying that it could stiffen opposition instead of leading to negotiations. One pro-FTA source called Schwab's announcement on forcing a vote a "big mistake. he speculated." Business supporters of the Colombia FTA make the point that despite Schwab's announcement. 3/14/2008. one lobbyist said. But any such concession would unlikely be acceptable to Republican members. but her spokesman said that would not necessarily mean a formal caucus meeting. Pelosi said she would discuss the Colombia FTA with House Ways and Means Committee Chairman Charles Rangel (D-NY) who has been hospitalized in New York. The labor source said that traditionally pro-free trade Democrats Reps. Joseph Crowley (D-NY) and Adam Smith (D- WA) will not face negative consequences from a no vote on Colombia given their overall record. The issue could help unseat vulnerable House Republicans like Reps. "And I would say this: we have a consultation process that I think should be honored. Given that Demo-crats are in the majority. which some see as too short to bear fruit. As of mid-week. possibly endangering the entire trade agenda. addressing not only income and health and other considerations. . Erik Wasson. He said that it is unlikely the TAA bill would be sufficient to sway Democrats to vote for the Colombia FTA. Pelosi was reacting to the announcement by Schwab on March 12 that the Bush administration plans to send up the final implementing bill for the FTA shortly after the Easter recess even if the congressional leadership does not agree. but said Democrats could work with the administration on the exact terms of a bill. according to House aides. Betty Sutton (D-OH). Phil English (R-PA) and elect a Democrat to the seat of retiring Rep."she said. but there have been soundings coming from the administration that they are going to send this bill over. there has been no formal White House decision signed off by President Bush to actually send the implementing bill to Congress over the objection of the House leadership.” lexis But a Democratic lobbyist cast doubt that the speaker has outlined a trade-off between TAA passage and support for the Colombia FTA. Pelosi met with Paulson on March 5. She also said she wanted to discuss the issue with members of the caucus. supporters will be able to generate sufficient votes for passage. Pelosi did not insist that the administration accept the comprehensive House passed bill. Supporters of the FTA estimate that they need between 30 and 40 Democrats to support the deal. James Walsh (R-NY). Mike Michaud (D-ME) and Phil Hare (D-IL) may call for a caucus meeting to debate the issue if there is any sign from Pelosi that she would consider allowing a vote. business nervous about forcing vote. In addition. he said." The Change to Win federation issued a March 12 statement and print ad urging Congress to vote down the Co-lombia agreement. Michigan and New York. Reps. Schwab and Deputy USTR John Veroneau emphasized this week that their threat of sending up the bill was meant to foster a negotiation with the leadership. The administration seems to assume that once the bill is submitted and a vote is certain. Trade. "We have not yet had a negotiation that we would like to have with the con-gressional leadership that lays out a path forward to facilitate that vote. and said the White House would have to offer concessions far more meaningful to Democrats to strike a deal. Concessions to democrats key to COFTA passage Inside U. But Pelosi expressed doubt that the administration would carry out that threat. 13.S. which it threatened to veto last year. In the meeting with Paulson.WNDI 2008 4 Agenda Politics DA Neg 1NC Shell (2/3) 2.

-Colombia Free Trade Agreement (FTA) would greatly diminish our nation's reputation as a leader in the fight to end human rights abuses worldwide. allies will find it difficult to support already politically sensitive missions if there is no independent resolution of such charges.democracy.S. Impacts – 1.WNDI 2008 5 Agenda Politics DA Neg 1NC Shell (3/3) C. July 23. Finally. RAND. and a secure pension could have cost us our lives. but because a world in which the United States exercises leadership would have tremendous advantages. free markets. they will be even more difficult if charges of human rights abuses undermine America's military standing.500 murders in that nation since 1986. to nation building. as in Kosovo and Haiti. 3. such a world would have a better chance of dealing cooperatively with the world's major problems. to the traditional warfare we waged in Kuwait. We believe passage of the U. On balance. 2000 U. the United States would seek to retain global leadership and to preclude the rise of a global rival or a return to multipolarity for the indefinite future. including a global nuclear exchange. the global environment would be more open and more receptive to American values -. Not only will opponents of the United States exploit past war crimes charges to undermine American credibility and future military operations.html If we had been born in Colombia. and the rule of law. Not on our watch.S.com/rep-phil-hare-and-rep-michael-h-michaud/colombia-free-trade-agree_b_95704.huffingtonpost. the United States must have credibility as a protector of human rights. As formidable as these tasks are operationally. and low- level conflicts. such as nuclear proliferation. The right to organize and bargain collectively is essential to human freedom. only 68 cases -- around 3 percent -. enabling the United States and the world to avoid another global cold or hot war and all the attendant dangers. Spring 1995 Under the third option. this is the best long-term guiding principle and vision. leadership would help preclude the rise of another hostile global rival. many of these criminals were convicted in absentia -. Human rights credibility is key to overall credibility of the military Washington Post. First.” http://www. U. However. COFTA kills American human rights credibility The Huffington Post. but even U.S. and they are being killed at a rate of over one per week this year.have resulted in convictions. Second. we would probably be dead. leadership would therefore be more conducive to global stability than a bipolar or a multipolar balance of power system. as in Somalia. Such a vision is desirable not as an end in itself. threats of regional hegemony by renegade states. 4/8/08“Colombia Free Trade Agreement: A Bad Deal for Everyone Involved. Thirty nine trade unionists were murdered in Colombia in 2007. better working conditions. military forces will increasingly be called upon to conduct a broad range of operations--from peacekeeping. 2. . Whether or not a civilian commission is the answer. The Washington Quarterly.S. President Bush and some Members of Congress want to reward Colombia with a free trade agreement. the fight for higher wages.meaning they may still be at large and continuing to terrorize workers. As members of our respective labor unions. That's right. Leadership is essential to prevent global nuclear exchange Zalmay Khalilzad. U.S. in order to build international coalitions and deploy troops effectively. Of the more than 2. Yet inexplicably.

exports lag. “Bush calls for early congressional approval for FTA with S.businessweek. and panama. he will be wrapping himself in the mantle of the Summer Olympics. all rife with stalled in Congress.latimes.” http://latimesblogs.php?Id=1658&yr=2008 President Bush Tuesday urged Congress to quickly approve free trade agreements with South Korea. Colombia and Panama as a means of stimulating a U. The other two deals could also face problems if they do not receive a vote." Bush told a news conference.S. “Upcoming at the Whitehouse and Beyond. there will be yet another opportunity to push for the Colombia Free Trade Agreement. economy struggling with rising oil prices and a subprime mortgage crisis. On Monday. Avi Salzman. greeting members of the team the United States is sending to Beijing. depending on whether the next President and Congress still like the terms the Bush Administration worked out. "And the other thing Congress can do is work on trade legislation. On Tuesday.” http://www. Korea. In the meantime.com/story-national. 7/17/2008. some U. a centerpiece of his final year's agenda. during a ceremony marking Colombian Independence Day.com/bwdaily/dnflash/content/jul2008/db20080716_265355. Colombia FTA center of Bush agenda LA Times. .S. Korea.” http://www. and they need to open up markets to Colombia and South Korea and Panama. barring a lame-duck session.WNDI 2008 6 Agenda Politics DA Neg Uniqueness – Bush Push (1/1) Bush is pushing Colombia FTA BusinessWeek.html The president is scheduled to return to Washington on Sunday. Bush calling for Colombia FTA Wisconsin Ag Connection. 7/16/2008.htm?chan=top+news_top+ne ws+index_news+%2B+analysis The Bush Administration and its backers in Congress have made a special point to push the agreement with Colombia because it is the only pending trade agreement that has already been sent to Congress for a ratification vote.com/presidentbush/2008/07/fires-colombia. If it doesn't get voted on during this session. which is expected to end in September. "One of the positives in the economy right now is the fact that we're selling more goods overseas. 7/17/2008.wisconsinagconnection." Bush was talking about the three free trade agreements awaiting approval by a Democrat-controlled Congress fearful of possible job losses and an increasing trade deficit in an election year. the whole agreement might have to be scrapped. “The State of Play on Trade: Trade deal with Colombia.

countries have been negotiating to end subsidies.) traveled to Colombia two weeks ago and expressed his support for the Colombia deal. to increase protections for U. These agreements have become a potent issue in the Presidential campaign. But there seems little prospect for approval of any free trade pact in this election year. where thousands have protested against the prospect of American beef imports. Obama.-Colombian Free Trade Agreement now awaiting congressional approval could deliver a timely boost to the national economy. the New York Democrat who is chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee. it is a worrying sign. not taxes. 7/17/2008. such gross impediments to trade might well have been on the agenda. Won’t pass – election and public The Daily News.” http://www. The plainest are the taxes or bans imposed by some countries on food exports in response to the rapid increase in prices. 7/16/2008. including the North American Free Trade Agreement. all rife with stalled in Congress. Sadly. and panama.html?ref=americas Yet the trade agreement remains a long shot. and labor NYT. products. “Trade pact with Colombia benefits state.WNDI 2008 7 Agenda Politics DA Neg Uniqueness – Won’t Pass (1/2) Deal won’t pass – labor and Obama opposition BusinessWeek. “I am not optimistic that the Congress will have an opportunity to review the bill this year. workers.) has said he wants to reevaluate various trade deals. some U. unless something unforeseen or dramatic occurs by the administration. Protectionist sentiment tends to flourish during uncertain economic times.S. Won’t pass – congressional opposition. Rangel.S. because of opposition by American labor unions. Weisman. Last year America’s Congress passed a free-trade deal with Peru. “The State of Play on Trade: Trade deal with Colombia. “I don’t think they handled this correctly. the presumptive Democratic presidential nominee. In the meantime. But had the negotiations been starting now. while Senator Barack Obama (D-Ill. Democratic leaders in Congress and the Democrats’ presumptive presidential nominee have made their opposition to new trade agreements a major campaign issue. Senator John McCain (R-Ariz.” http://www.com/bwdaily/dnflash/content/jul2008/db20080716_265355. exports lag.” Lexis Already there are some signs of rising hostility to trade.” http://www. 7/13/2008. as well as major agreements with Korea and Panama.S. “Colombia Trade Deal is Threatened.businessweek. eliminating tariffs on virtually all U. Another straw in the wind is the difficult progress of some regional trade agreements.txt The U. this year it has stalled on one with Colombia. Avi Salzman. Economists view bilateral and regional deals as a mixed blessing. “Defrosting Doha. it’s an issue that may resonate with an anxious public. Korea.” Won’t pass – trade skepticism The Economist.tdn.S. Any misgivings in Washington about an agreement with South Korea have been more than matched on the streets of Seoul. . on farm exports. But the Colombia deal. nation.htm?chan=top+news_top+ne ws+index_news+%2B+analysis A trade deal the Bush Administration negotiated with Colombia could change all that. But if hostility towards such agreements denotes unease about trade in general.” said Representative Charles B.com/2008/07/13/washington/13trade. has stalled in Congress. Democratic leaders in Congress and Senator Barack Obama of Illinois. 7/17/2008.nytimes.com/articles/2008/07/16/editorial/doc487d08885969b230276894. Steven R. This is not protection as usually practised—in the Doha round.

" said Peter Hakim. it doesn't reduce longstanding concerns she has had about violence facing union workers in Colombia.S. 7/3/2008. Pelosi spokesman Nadeam Elshami said. . it's just not in the cards. three Americans and 11 other hostages on Wednesday.-Colombia free trade agreement that has been snagged for months in the U.S.-Colombia free trade agreement and schedule a vote soon on the pact.has done a tremendous job of improving security there in Colombia. a think tank focused on Western Hemisphere affairs.since he was elected -. “Hostage rescue may not free US-Colombia trade deal. "We maintain that President (Alvaro) Uribe. Colombia soldiers posing as aid workers tricked the4- decade-old FARC guerrilla group into releasing Colombian politician Ingrid Betancourt.reuters." White House spokeswoman Dana Perino said.com/article/latestCrisis/idUSN03258932 Colombia's dramatic rescue of hostages held for years by a rebel group probably won't lead to quick approval of a U. "Politically. The rescue raised White House hopes that House of Representatives Speaker Nancy Pelosi might reconsider her opposition to the U. Doug Palmer.” http://www. Congress. since elected -.S. president of the Inter-American Dialogue." Although Pelosi applauds the rescue. "One of the concerns that she said she's had has been security in Colombia.WNDI 2008 8 Agenda Politics DA Neg Uniqueness – Won’t Pass (2/2) COFTA won’t pass Reuters.

2/5/2008. and tax credits for alternative energy sources. disabled veterans and the unemployed. they are trying to get support for tax breaks for wind-farm developers. David M. subsidies for low-income families struggling with home heating bills and other energy costs. extended unemployment benefits. As Senate Democrats push ahead with legislation to blunt a possible recession. he spoke of the need to help seniors. There was just one industry the Montana Democrat singled out for special assistance: renewable energy. “Senate Democrats’ Stimulus Plan Hits Roadblock. Herszenhorn. Levey. which produced a swift agreement amid a remarkable show of bipartisan cooperation. The inability to reach a compromise in the Senate was in marked contrast to the negotiations a week ago between the Bush administration and House Democrats. builders of more efficient appliances and businesses that install fuel cells. mortgage counseling for distressed homeowners. .WNDI 2008 9 Agenda Politics DA Neg Link – Democrats (1/1) Democrats looking for concessions on alternative energy NYT. 2/1/2008.” Lexis As Senate Finance Committee Chairman Max Baucus talked up his proposal Monday to expand a multibillion-dollar economic stimulus package. Noam N. “Democrats push ‘green’ energy tax breaks.” Lexis The Democrats also said that the efforts over the last two days to shape the stimulus package to reflect their economic priorities had allowed them to lay out an agenda that they would pursue in the months ahead and use to bolster the case for electing a Democrat as president and widening their majorities in Congress. Democrats want alternative energy incentives LA Times. increased food stamps. Top items on that agenda include increased benefits for the elderly and veterans.

they are not off base. incentives to keep jobs in the United States. signaling a willingness on the part of the president to work with the Congress to devise a better way forward. she said. “Pelosi steps into the spotlight. The morning after the election. Passionately antiwar." she told reporters in a packed reception room off the House floor. and her voting record suggests that at least on paper.WNDI 2008 10 Agenda Politics DA Neg Link – Pelosi (1/1) Pelosi wants alternative energy incentives The Washington Post. very much respect that I will be the speaker of the House." . she also is determined to draw the Bush administration into a debate over the Iraq war. But her Democratic colleagues describe her as far more pragmatic and realistic than the caricature suggests. "And I very. Shailagh Murray and Juliet Eilperin. Republicans like to ridicule Pelosi as a San Francisco liberal. the unexpected resignation of Defense Secretary Donald H. and not of the Democrats." Pelosi's top priority is to pass the bills that Democrats promised voters on the campaign trail: a minimum wage increase. 11/9/2006. Rumsfeld would mark "a fresh start toward a new policy in Iraq. alternative energy incentives. Pelosi spoke almost reverentially about her new role.” lexis The woman who will become speaker of the House in January is strong-willed and determined. an ambitious late bloomer who raised five kids. "I understand my role as leader of the Democrats. waded slowly into politics and now stands second in line of presidential succession. Hopefully.

where lawmakers will press Democrats to allow more home-grown oil drilling. lawmakers will meet with researchers who are working on various alternative energy sources -.” which begins next Friday. we are going to now be told the economical . biomass and fuel-cell technologies. Yes.rockymountainnews. 7/11/2008. we’ll learn more about the 10 billion barrels of oil that sit there laying idle. Colo. environmental. The next stop is Alaska’s “desolate” Arctic Coastal Plain.” http://www.WNDI 2008 11 Agenda Politics DA Neg Link – Republicans (1/1) Republicans want alternative energy incentives Rocky Mountain News. from the political ads I have seen lately.from solar and wind power to hydrogen. GOP supports alternative energy incentives CNS.cnsnews.com/public/content/article. “Republicans praising alternative energy. “House Republicans Launch ‘American Energy Tour. There.” he insisted. House Republican leader John Boehner (R-Ohio) said the “American Energy Tour.” Boehner said. “In Alaska.aspx?RsrcID=32262 House Republicans are going all the way to Arctic Alaska to push their plan to lower gasoline prices. from the Republicans. “We can produce more oil and gas here in the United States in an environmentally sound way. and geo-political advantages of alternative energy.’” http://www. 6/20/2008. will stop first at the National Renewable Energy Lab in Golden.” Boehner said on Thursday. we are going to have to stomach the call by Republicans for the development of alternative energy sources. . Susan Jones. “(W)e’re going to learn about how scientists and engineers are making America less dependent on foreign sources of energy. Peggy Proctor.com/news/2008/jun/20/republicans-praising-alternative-energy/ Apparently.

" Veroneau said Sept. "That order is Peru. Pro-trade congressional Democrats said this week they have enough support to pass FTAs with Peru and Panama. Veroneau indicated." he said. Colombia. Trade Representative John Veroneau has said that the Bush Administration has struck no deal with the Democratic majority in Congress to bypass the U. but lack support for the deal with Colombia although they said they are hopeful it can be passed. “Deputy USTR. Panama and Korea.S. 5. . The Administration.-Colombia Free Trade Agreement in order to have the pending free trade agreement (FTA) with Panama passed. . has not budged from its long-standing position that Colombia be considered and passed before Panama is brought up for a vote.S.WNDI 2008 12 Agenda Politics DA Neg Internal Link – Bipartisanship (1/1) Lack of bipartisanship with Bush means Panama isn’t being pushed ahead of Columbia – preventing it from passing even though it has support Inside US Trade." . "There is no agreement to move Panama next [after the Peru FTA]. Our priority and our goal is to pass all these trade agreements.” ln Deputy U. 9-7-2007. . "The order is which trade agreements have typically been considered by Congress and sent to Congress is the order in which they were concluded.

one of the United States' staunchest allies in Latin America. Pelosi pushed through a rule change allowing her to delay action indefinitely on the pact. We've got to get Colombia done this year. many times. she might negotiate.com/article/politicsNews/idUSN1648117020080716 Republicans pressured U." senior Republicans on the House Ways and Means Committee and the House Rules Committee said in a letter to colleagues. has been in limbo since April.WNDI 2008 13 Agenda Politics DA Neg Internal Link – Pelosi (1/1) Pelosi key to COFTA Reuters. 4/20/2008. Ms. The free trade deal with Colombia. House of Representatives Speaker Nancy Pelosi on Wednesday to set a vote on a free trade pact with Colombia. She said Bush had ignored her warning that Congress was not ready to vote on agreement. . If the White House doesn't "jam it down the throat of Congress.though she was vague as to what that entails. .reuters. even though she has postponed a vote on it indefinitely. a law passed in 2002 which required Congress to vote approve or reject trade agreements within 90 days and without making any amendments. The intellectual poverty of free-trade deal’s opponents. Nor did she specify how anyone could "jam" through a measure on which the administration has already briefed Congress many. when Pelosi rebuffed an effort by President George W." Pelosi will horse trade for COFTA The Washington Post. which they said would die if Congress does not approve it this year.” http://www.) says the Bush administration's free-trade agreement with Colombia may not be dead. "If the 110th Congress adjourns without a vote in both the House and the Senate. Bush to force a vote on the pact. Jim McCrery said he and two other Republicans sent their letter "to make sure everybody is aware that next year is not an option. . Rep. Bush submitted the agreement under White House trade promotion authority. 7/16/2008. Pelosi wants an "economic agenda that gives some sense of security to American workers and businesses . which many Democrats strongly oppose on the grounds that they believe Colombia has not done enough to curb violence against labor groups. “House republicans push for Colombia pact vote. However. that somebody is looking out for them" -.S. the agreement will be well and truly dead.” lexis HOUSE SPEAKER Nancy Pelosi (D-Calif." she said. “Colombia’s Case.

has negotiated with Colombia.” House Ways and Means Committee Chairman Charles Rangel (D-NY) this week placed the onus on President Bush to secure the necessary votes for the bilateral free trade agreement the U. The order of completion was Peru. “Rangel Cool To Colombia FTA." Meanwhile. Ron Kind (D-WI) and Joe Crowley (D-NY). according to a spokesman for New Democrat Co-Chair Ellen Tauscher (D-CA). "I think the Administration is going to have to see how many votes they have because more and more there is a lack of confidence in the ability of a President that I have a lot of respect for [Colombian President Alvaro Uribe] in being able to control the violence." he noted. President Bush on June 19 told a group of New Democrats in a White House meeting that he would like Congress to consider the pending FTAs in the same order in which they were completed. Panama and Korea. we don't know.WNDI 2008 14 Agenda Politics DA Neg Internal Link – Political Capital (1/2) Bush’s clout is key to lining up votes on a Colombian FTA." He said there are "very real questions of whether that violence has been a function of the government looking the other way or in some instances aiding and abetting it. Rep. Colombia. the House leadership favors considering Peru and Panama first. 6/22/07. Rangel and the White House should not get into a process fight over the FTAs and that the order of consideration should be determined by consensus. who did not attend the meeting with the President. Inside U. According to Smith. Smith said the bulk of the New Democrats that attended the meeting conveyed the message that Congress should consider the Peru and Panama FTAs first because they are more likely to get support. New Democrat Co-Chair Artur Davis (D-AL).S. He said the Colombia FTA is "a very tough sell because the country has a history of violence against persons trying to organize.S. said on June 21 that "from a tactical standpoint" there was no question the Peru and Panama agreements would be easier to approve than the pact with Colombia." "There's been some significant progress in Colombia in the last several years. "I am not going to say no [to the Colombia FTA] because that would be a political statement. Smith said he emphasized at the meeting that the House leadership. Trade. said in a June 21 interview that President Bush and White House officials made clear they wanted to have Congress consider the Colombia FTA sooner rather than later. Bush Presses New Democrats. But he emphasized that they seemed open to discussing this issue and that he had the impression that they had not made a "firm decision" on the sequencing of FTAs for congressional approval. "Whether that progress is enough to enforce the standards in the trade agreement." he told reporters on June 18. but did not completely rule out congressional consideration of the deal. a New Democrat Coalition vice chair." . the meeting was attended by Reps. Adam Smith (D- WA). In addition to Tauscher and Smith.

Bush. Colombians have seen how the signing of an FTA with the United States that was supposed to be ratified by the U. has gone out of his way to defend the treaty. like former vice-president Al Gore and presidential candidate Barack Obama -. following the lead of House leader Nancy Pelosi -. 2007.have blocked the bilateral treaty alleging Uribe's poor record on human rights. . Congress this year has become a bitter public battle between Democrat lawmakers in Washington and Uribe himself.” For a few months now. U. who has secured a loyal ally in Uribe. Democrats. July 29. President George W.S. Edmonton Journal (Alberta).S. Democrats stalling trade link like the one Canada aims to negotiate. managing only to make Uribe's case less convincing for the Democrats.WNDI 2008 15 Agenda Politics DA Neg Internal Link – Political Capital (2/2) Because Bush looks like a loser the Colombia FTA will fail. “A warning to Harper on the dangerous reality of Colombia.and of other Democrat stars.

In fact.pdf Lack of credibility will not prevent the United States from trying to implement projects to encourage democratic change in the Arab world. Tens of thousands of Arab students have graduated from American universities over the years. and openness. but it is not impossible. Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict. Most of these new and unconventional threats to security are associated with or aggravated by the weakness or absence of democracy. appears increasingly endangered. LESSONS OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY The experience of this century offers important lessons. because U. The flow of illegal drugs intensifies through increasingly powerful international crime syndicates that have made common cause with authoritarian regimes and have utterly corrupted the institutions of tenuous. The same is happening in many African countries. and enduring trading partnerships. Democracies do not sponsor terrorism against one another. the global ecosystem. Democratic governments do not ethnically "cleanse" their own populations. Precisely because. Global democratic consolidation is essential to prevent many scenarios for war and extinction. . hundreds of thousands have visited. They are better bets to honor international treaties since they value legal obligations and because their openness makes it much more difficult to breach agreements in secret. accountability. For example. who organize to protest the destruction of their environments. because in that region. Sustained U. support for democratic change has become more consistent during the last decade.org/wps/otm01/otm01. democratic ones.html. chemical. and the rule of law. the United States had very low credibility in Latin America when it first started talking of democracy promotion in the 1980s. the United States needs to establish its credibility as a pro- democracy actor.org//sub/pubs/deadly/dia95_01. October 1995. open.S. demo promo pressure is inevitable – enhanced credibility is key to making it effective Marina Ottaway. The very source of life on Earth. it had historically chosen the stability of friendly autocratic regimes over the unpredictable outcome of political transitions. To play a more important role in the political transformation of the Middle East. But these are not programs that can make a significant difference in countries that are already open to the world. In November 2002. They do not aggress against their neighbors to aggrandize themselves or glorify their leaders. Senior Associate and Co-Director of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. with its provisions for legality.WNDI 2008 16 Agenda Politics DA Neg Human Rights Credibility Good – Democracy (1/1) U. they respect competition. A few hundred more visitors will not make much difference. accessed on 12/11/99 OTHER THREATS This hardly exhausts the lists of threats to our security and well-being in the coming years and decades. This will be difficult. or students interested in studying in American universities. They are more environmentally responsible because they must answer to their own citizens. They do not build weapons of mass destruction to use on or to threaten one another. In the long run they offer better and more stable climates for investment. and biological weapons continue to proliferate.S. support for democratic change in the second half of the 1980s and throughout the 1990s slowly allayed suspicions about American intentions. property rights. the Middle East Partnership Initiative generated its first project even before Powell’s announcement. “Promoting Democracy in the 1990’s. and they are much less likely to face ethnic insurgency. Promoting Democracy in the Middle East. democracies are the only reliable foundation on which a new world order of international security and prosperity can be built. Projects of this kind can be carried out even in the absence of trust. popular sovereignty. It has been faced and solved elsewhere.carnegie.” http://www. within their own borders. Countries that govern themselves in a truly democratic fashion do not go to war with one another. Democratic countries form more reliable. March 2003. http://www. Nuclear. the State Department invited a group of Arab women who had run or planned to run for office to observe the election process here and to get advice from American experts on how to run a campaign more effectively.ciaonet. too. civil liberties. In the former Yugoslavia nationalist aggression tears at the stability of Europe and could easily spread.S. There will always be visitors willing to come to the United States.

As a member of the international community. in the Middle East. the United States must recognize the impact of its actions. The United States must continue to denounce human rights violations. 2001 As a sovereign country. these differences were often overlooked by countries that were fearful of alienating the United States and more fearful of the Soviet Union. however. These are daunting tasks. the resolution of conflict and the broadening of political participation is releasing great economic and social energies that can provide better lives for all the people of these long-suffering regions. During the Cold War. and leads to genocide and environmental destruction John Shattuck. will depend upon the credibility of its own record. in Africa. In the 20th century. for new ways of mobilizing the international community to address an avalanche of humanitarian crises. as witnessed by Chernobyl and the ecological nightmares of Eastern Europe. ethnic and religious class conflict in Haiti. . Why then has the Clinton administration made protecting human rights and promoting democracy such a major theme in our foreign policy? The answer I think lies not only in our values. The impact of these denunciations. Its position on these issues places the United States in conflict with much of the international community. Countries are now more likely to challenge the United States. but in the strategic benefits to the United States of a policy that emphasizes our values. racial and religious minorities living within their borders. Ironically. regardless of the cost. to respect rights of ethnical. the costs to the world of repressive governments are painfully clear. Repression pushes refugees across the borders and triggers wars. however. to observe international and honor agreements. to settle conflicts peacefully. Federal News Service On the disintegration side. The impact to strengthened human rights outweighs everything—it leads to war. the costs of virtue and arrogance have increased. We must intensify our search for new ways of holding individuals and governments accountable for gross human rights violations. and to provide the social and political basis for free market economics. particularly in the realm of human rights. By contrast. 9-12-1994. the United States is certainly entitled to address these issues in the manner it deems appropriate. As a result. the number of people killed by their own governments under authoritarian regimes is four times the number killed in all of this century's wars combined. to go to war with each other with great reluctance. We know from historical experience that democracies are more likely than other forms of government to respect human rights. for new ways of anticipating and preventing conflicts before they spiral into uncontrollable violence and reprisal. former Assistant Secretary of State.WNDI 2008 17 Agenda Politics DA Neg Human Rights Credibility Good – Human Rights (1/1) Human rights credibility is essential to solving human rights violations internationally San Diego Union-Tribune.all places where I have traveled in recent months and witnessed unspeakable suffering and abuses of the most fundamental rights. May 11. we are witnessing ugly and violent racial. and now remarkably perhaps even in Northern Ireland. which could be reason enough. in Bosnia. In South Africa. The new global community has yet to develop an adequate response to these horrors. in Central Asia. The end of the Cold War freed the Soviet bloc. has killed more than all 20th century wars combined. it also freed the Western bloc. most horribly in Rwanda -. Unaccountable governments are heedless of environmental destruction.

but also the U. the threat to Ukraine. such as radical nationalist Vladimir Zhirinovsky. of course. and Western jobs would be created. world stability. Eurasian oil is also key to the economic development of the southern NIS. Army War College. we become Russia's enabler. itself a paragon of misrule. And. and its partners -- including Russia -. and its allies. constantly articulates this threat. The supply of Middle Eastern oil would become precarious if Saudi Arabia became unstable. Moreover. Winter. What is more impressive is how often promoting democracy has actually advanced other American interests. Without playing imperialistic games.WNDI 2008 18 Agenda Politics DA Neg Human Rights Credibility Good – Russia (1/1) A strong US stance on human rights is necessary to prevent Russian revanchism and terrorism Stephen Blank.S. There were no doubt policies put forward in the name of human rights that damaged or could have damaged other U.S. but often these policies were bad for human rights and democracy as well -. the United States. Turkey. Ph. It would endanger not only Russia's neighbors. Moreover. a reconstituted Russian empire would become a major destabilizing influence both in Eurasia and throughout the world. Attempts to restore its empire will doom Russia's transition to a democracy and free-market economy.for example. and the Middle East. policy must prevent any state from establishing unilateral hegemony in Eurasia. Eurasian oil resources are pivotal to economic development in the early 21st century. If Russia succeeds in establishing its domination in the south.S. a neo-imperialist Russia could imperil the oil reserves of the Persian Gulf. . Heritage Foundation Reports. As Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz recently wrote: Nothing could be less realistic than the version of "realism" that dismisses human rights as an important tool of American foreign policy.must influence the security structure surrounding Russia and also constantly raise the issues of democracy and human rights.S. Neither Russia. its allies. or the belief that weakening South Korea's ability to defend itself from the North was necessary in order to advance human rights. the Mediterranean Sea. The independence of pro-Western Georgia and Azerbaijan already has been undermined by pressures from the Russian armed forces and covert actions by the intelligence and security services. As the former Soviet arsenals are spread throughout the NIS. The Eurasian states' enormous problems cry out for a multilateral dialogue about solving them. or if Iran or Iraq provoked another military conflict in the area. Unless we combine vigorous attention to regional security with democratization. if successful. these conflicts may escalate to include the use of weapons of mass destruction. and its allies in Europe and the Middle East. have resurrected the old dream of obtaining a warm port on the Indian Ocean. Senior Policy Analyst. mouthpiece for the most irredentist elements in the Russian security and military services. not its exemplar. professor of national security studies at the Strategic Studies Institute of the U.S. Only that policy can in the long run eliminate the causes of war and terrorism in that part of the world.D. The wars which would be required to restore the Russian empire would prove much more costly not just for Russia and the region. if these vast oil reserves were tapped and developed. tens of thousands of U. Moreover. and Afganistan will increase. Iran.S.S. The U. should ensure free access to these reserves for the benefit of both Western and local economies. Scenarios including unauthorized missile launches are especially threatening. nor any other country can do so alone. 2002 A truly successful U. n15 Vladimir Zhirinovsky. in addition to which Russian hegemony would make Western political and economic efforts to stave off Islamic militancy more difficult. 1-25-97 Much is at stake in Eurasia for the U. Only with oil revenues can these countries sever their dependence on Moscow and develop modem market economies and free societies. and security. Domination of the Caucasus would bring Russia closer to the Balkans. interests. Washington Quarterly. Russian revanchism causes nuclear war Ariel Cohen. Russian imperialists. but for peace. The ongoing war in Chechnya alone has cost Russia $ 6 billion to date (equal to Russia's IMF and World Bank loans for 1995). the notion that undermining the [shah's] regime would be a great advance for the Iranian people. it has extracted a tremendous price from Russian society. That approach applies today to Russia.

Policy Reasons for Honoring Human Rights Obligations This nation's credibility would be weakened by non-compliance with treaty obligations or with international norms. notably. they won't apply to us.. Statement of Jon O. they avoid a construction which. Charter. 2002 E. having something of an international supremacy clause. It would seem strange. in effect. of course. then. there are U." . if the government would seek to avoid enforcement of such norms within its own borders. The United States cannot expect to reap the benefits of internationally recognized human rights--in the form of greater worldwide stability and respect for people--without being willing to adhere to them itself. "if given its literal application. covenants. Comparing current judicial unease with human rights treaties to post-revolutionary unease with the Supremacy Clause. The United States seeks to impose international law norms--including. and we subscribe to them. United States courts act appropriately when they construe statutory programs in accordance with international law. 317-18 (1996) (Judicial Conference of the Second Circuit). A former Chief Judge of the court of appeals in this Circuit recognized this concern.N. there are treaties. he stated: There are international supremacy clauses which have civil consequences and criminal consequences that we today are currently not comfortable with. As a moral leader of the world. the United States has obligated itself not to disregard rights uniformly recognized by other nations.R. those on terrorism--upon other nations.D.WNDI 2008 19 Agenda Politics DA Neg Human Rights Credibility Good – Terrorism (1/1) Human rights credibility is key to preventing terrorism and fostering world stability New York Law Journal. would threaten the interests of the United States by placing the Nation in violation of international standards or embarrassing the political branches in their conduct of foreign relations. Once this country says there is a U..N. Newman. 201. 170 F. then there are going to be civil and perhaps criminal consequences that we might not all think are so wonderful. But you can't simply say that we're going to have treaties for the rest of them but.. Thus. February 6.

and Pol. These “free trade” agreements have therefore become increasingly unpopular. These agreements have also lost popularity in Latin America. when the Reagan Administration was supporting the mass murder of tens of thousands of civilians in countries like Guatemala and El Salvador. This kind of bullying will not force these governments to ignore their electoral mandates and will only increase resentment against the United States in the region. .and doesn’t care how much violence is used to terrorize workers into submission. But some Republicans in Congress have been threatening that duty- free access in order to punish Ecuador and Bolivia for not signing a “free trade” agreement. Approving the Colombian agreement would send an especially chilling message to the world that Washington is seeking access to cheap and repressed labor . including to President Uribe’s home state. Last year 72 trade unionists were killed.” The Colombian death squads . Congress should stop using the ATPDEA preferences as a political weapon against Ecuador and Bolivia. All four countries currently have access to US markets under the ATPDEA (Andean Trade Promotion and Drug Eradication Act). it is becoming clear that the death squads have been an integral part of the government. “Congress should reject trade agreement with Columbia.WNDI 2008 20 Agenda Politics DA Neg COFTA Bad – Death Squads (1/1) Columbia FTA is bad – it supports Columbia death squads that kill thousands of people Mark Weisbrot. and reject the agreements with Colombia and Peru. and this issue helped tip the balance of Congress to the Democrats in the 2006 election.org/archive/2007/07/12/2466/ A May 22 news report in the Washington Post summed up Colombia’s ever-widening scandal: “Top paramilitary commanders have in recent days confirmed what human rights groups and others have long alleged: some of Colombia’s most influential political. As the investigation progresses. the average real wage in the United States has hardly moved over the last 30 years. and for not being sufficiently subservient to foreign investors. 7-12-2007. which continues despite the incomplete demobilization.has been arrested and charged with conspiring with the death squads to kill union leaders and others. According to witnesses co-operating with the Colombian Attorney General’s office. The former chief of the intelligence service . Co-Dir. One of the main purposes of such commercial agreements as the NAFTA and the WTO has been to reduce wages here by throwing US workers into competition with their much lower-paid counterparts throughout the world. Partly as a result of these policies. have been arrested. But the truth has shown increasingly close ties between the death squads and high-ranking allies of President Alvaro Uribe. More than a dozen legislators.” Yet the Bush Administration wants to sign a “free trade” agreement with Colombia. Over the past three decades the United States has greatly expanded trade with — and moved factories to — countries where workers have limited rights to form unions or bargain collectively. making Colombia the most dangerous place in the world by far for a union activist. cities.who managed Uribe’s 2002 presidential campaign in the state of Magdalena .cannot sign the kind of agreement that Colombia and Peru are willing to accept. Congress is threatening to block the agreement. Center for Econ.” Common Dreams.commondreams. One of the most sinister revelations has been the government’s role in the murder of trade unionists. Research. where the governments of Ecuador and Bolivia . In the 1980s. despite productivity increases every year. mostly Uribe allies.which are classified as terrorist organizations by the US State Department — were mostly demobilized in recent years under an agreement that allows lenient sentences for the murderers in exchange for telling the truth about their crimes. these organizations were called “death squads. and his foreign minister has resigned. The word “paramilitary” is a euphemism. which is the Bush Administration’s closest ally in Latin America and receives $700 million annually in mostly military aid. and they should. killed civilians and shipped cocaine to U. the government’s intelligence services provided names and security details of union activists to the death squads.accountable to their voters . military and business figures helped build a powerful anti-guerrilla movement that operated with impunity.S. http://www.

” http://www.co. an ardent supporter of the agreement.scoop. which relies heavily on drug-trafficking for funds.nz/stories/WO0806/S00685." Similarly. However. acknowledges that the CTPA is a symbol of the "friendship and enormous support that the Colombian government has given and people have given us in trying to stem the flow of illegal drugs into the United States of America.htm Another impact of the CTPA will be its influence on current efforts to curb coca cultivation and combat drug trafficking. ratification of the CTPA would eliminate much of the success Colombia is beginning to achieve in combating FARC and drug trafficking. As a result. Since many Colombian agricultural products will be less profitable with the passage of the trade agreement. “Free Trade w/ Colombia: McCain’s Misguided Policy.WNDI 2008 21 Agenda Politics DA Neg COFTA Bad – Drug Trafficking (1/1) COFTA will increase drug trafficking Council on Hemispheric Relations. John McCain. the CTPA will inadvertently make coca cultivation a profitable alternative for many in rural populations. . The paradox of the CTPA is that it creates an incentive to increase production of coca instead of legal crops. 6/29/2008. the Bush Administration considers the trade deal as something of a reward for Colombia's progress in combating FARC. many producers may turn to the illegal production of coca as a means of economic survival.

7/8/2008. nor do does it provide any new funding for cooperation. Growth leads to political and macroeconomic stability and (selfishly) the ability to import more US goods. Unlike Nafta. the deal amounts to a rollback of small but significant steps that Nafta took. the Colombia deal does not create a significant commission for environmental cooperation committed to improving the laws of the signatories. . “Free trade’s false promises. Finally.WNDI 2008 22 Agenda Politics DA Neg COFTA Bad – Environment (1/1) COFTA opens the door to the destruction of the Colombian environment Guardian Unlimited. clean up or compliance. the deal has a little secret not allowed under the WTO but taken from Nafta: it leaves open the possibility that ad hoc investment tribunals will interpret social and environmental regulations as "indirect expropriation" and allow foreign firms to directly sue governments for billions of dollars. Nafta signalled a detour in US trade policy that has led to a long road of agreements that have been detrimental to our trading partners.” Lexis On the environment. The best trade deals for the United States is one that helps our trading partners grow their economies.

Under it. 5/7/2001. revive the economy and support democracy.." "War and Economy" and "Drugs. Ecuador." Karl said. the largest source of external capital. the United States is supporting training of army counter-narcotics battalions and equipping them with helicopters. warn that ratifying the U." he said. Panels included "The Culture of Violence.org/article/articleview/13354/ Teamsters Union president James Hoffa and Jorge Gamboa. promised to open its markets to Latin American trade." According to Karl. "Every Latin American country has recognized the seriousness of Colombia's situation. Plan Colombia is a broad initiative designed to promote the peace process. described as "one of the most dangerous countries in the world. Congress. Most Latin American countries are worse off today than 10 years ago. would let big multinational monopolies further cut Colombian workers’ wages and slash their few current on-the-job protections. and the consequences of $1. said that just as in Northern Ireland. Debilitating economic crises hit the region. the military and national police.S. we are talking about the entire northern part of Latin America. including 2. The United States. the issue that is most likely to cause a breach in U. "With 60 additional helicopters we get from the U. The late 1980s witnessed a period of euphoria that saw the end of military regimes and an economic upswing that was supposed to translate into stability and a better standard of living.stanford. which saw economic growth rates drop 40 percent between the first and second parts of the 1990s.html These facts. journalists and peace negotiators to discuss the escalating turmoil in what one participant. combat the narcotics industry. said representatives from the armed groups were not invited in order to allow participants. it is incumbent upon us to understand it. Human Rights and U.” .WNDI 2008 23 Agenda Politics DA Neg COFTA Bad – Instability (1/2) COFTA ratification would fuel instability and civil war in Colombia John Wojcik." she said. Amy Upgren. paramilitaries.S. "When we talk about the future of Colombia." she said. to speak freely. 7/10/2008. Coca cultivation and uncontrolled activity by right-wing paramilitaries financed by companies like Chiquita and Coca-Cola are widely acknowledged as major elements fueling the country’s on-going civil war. has received 40 death threats since he started reporting on the conflict 16 years ago. One speaker.S." "Press Freedom." . they say. 27-28 meeting invited scholars.' as U.S- Colombia Free Trade Agreement: “The paramilitaries receive money from the multinationals for murder of labor leaders. "Things didn't work out that way.S.S. It will only be solved by political means. she said." Rafael Pardo." she said. government officials have said. director of the Center for Latin American Studies." Karl pointed to how the war is already having ramifications in Venezuela.3 billion in U. The paramilitaries have killed tens of thousands of Colombians. military assistance designed to counter a burgeoning cocaine trade provided the backdrop for a recent two-day conference on Colombia. "The U.” Colombian instability spills over Lisa Trei. Presented by the Center for Latin American Studies. “Experts say conflict in Colombia threats all of northern Latin America. thousands more Colombians will have no alternative but illegal coca cultivation to feed their families. the Feb.S. we won't see any change in the conflict.” People’s Weekly World Newspaper.pww. discussion about the ongoing civil war involving guerrillas. Panama. Mexico and the Caribbean.500 trade unionists. setbacks to democracy were even more serious. The deal. stands largely alone in funding the military aspect of Plan Colombia. opened the conference by explaining the origins of the conflict and placing it in a regional perspective. journalist Ignacio Gomez. Gamboa explained the connection between the civil war and the U. Peru. If the agreement is passed the companies will have even more incentive to continue paying the paramilitaries because the trade agreement would let them cut workers’ wages and violently suppress organizing drives. http://news- service. "In this context." One of the conference organizers. since 1991. a Neiman Fellow at Harvard this year. a former peace counselor and defense minister in the Colombian government. Hoffa and Gamboa told a joint July 1 telephone news conference that if the trade agreement passes the U. Brazil. “Unions say ‘free trade’ pact would stoke Colombia strife. president of the National Petroleum Workers Union of Colombia. Policy. "There is no point in spending more on the military. some of whom live in Colombia. Colombian reporter Clara Ines Rueda." "Conflict Resolution. military assistance under Plan Colombia." Karl said.edu/news/2001/march7/colombconf-37. "not just 'bumps in the road. "When a conflict is a regional conflict. "There is a fear that the military funds will lead to a bigger war that will spill over the borders in Latin America and the Caribbean.S.S." Political science Professor Terry Karl.-Latin American relations is last year's increase in U. a military solution will not end the conflict.S.-Colombia “free trade” agreement would continue the long civil war that results in hostage-taking there. policy analysts. http://www.

org/correspondence/042500%20-%20modified. and literally a hell on earth will result. April 25.” http://www. Tom Bearden. Center for Hemispheric Defense Studies. etc. it is inevitable that some of the [wmd] weapons of mass destruction will be used by one or more nations on others. economy—and the concomitant power to act in the global security arena.pdf The United States shares with its Latin American neighbors an increasingly and vitally important financial. misery. and biological warfare arsenals of the nations as they feel the economic collapse. Right now. “Confronting Terrorism in Latin America: Latin America and United States Policy Implications.ndu. a bit earlier.WNDI 2008 24 Agenda Politics DA Neg COFTA Bad – Instability (2/2) The collapses the economy Boris Saavedra.S. PhD Nuclear Engineering. 2000.edu/chds/journal/PDF/2003-0403/Saavedra- article. Col. the only chance a nation has to survive is to desperately try to destroy its perceived enemies before they destroy it. In short.cheniere. with the crumbling well underway and rising. . commercial. my personal estimate is that we have about a 99% chance of that scenario or some modified version of it. poverty. we will get the great Armageddon we have been fearing since the advent of the nuclear genie. The reason is simple: When the mass destruction weapons are unleashed at all. death. and security partnership. http://www. resulting. Any kind of political-economic-social-security deterioration in the region will profoundly affect the health of the U. Extinction Lt. So there will erupt a spasmodic unleashing of the long range missiles. nuclear arsenals. The ensuing holocaust is certain to immediately draw in the major nations also. An interesting result then---as all the old strategic studies used to show---is that everyone will fire everything as fast as possible against their perceived enemies. April 2003.htm Just prior to the terrible collapse of the World economy.

however. "I don't have enough fingers. More recent studies have similar findings for Latin America. The notion of Islamic radicals in those places might sound like a new threat from an unexpected quarter. 3/10/2003. he said. across the globe. fighting crime and developing their economy. He did. the military commander of the U.com/2003/03/10/Columns/_Narcoterrorism__need. the losses to Colombia's textiles. What was new this time was the emphatic way Hill delivered it. In fact. Southern Command. ." he stressed. the tariff revenue losses for Colombia will amount to $520m per year. What's more. the agreement will actually make Colombia worse off by up to $75m or one-tenth of 1% of its GDP. “Free trade’s false promises.” http://www. According to a new study by the Inter-American Development Bank. a curious dot on the map where Brazil. “Narcoterrosim needs attention.shtml No one more so than Gen. "Narcoterrorism" in Latin America is fueling "radical Islamic groups" such as Hamas and Hezbollah. 7/8/2008. Argentina and Paraguay converge.S.” Lexis The Colombia agreement seems to be on the same path. James T. Articles in peer reviewed journals the Latin American Research Review and the Journal of World Investment and Trade found no independent correlation between foreign trade or investment agreements and increases in foreign investment in the region. these allegations have been around for a while. food and heavy manufacturing industries that will face new competition from US imports will outweigh the gains in Colombian petroleum. not speculation. These groups are exploiting weak border controls and the lack of state authority in certain "lawless" areas. to "generate hundreds of millions of dollars through drug and arms trafficking with narcoterrorists. Nor is it clear that the agreement will bring foreign investment to Colombia. attended by 300 academics and military brass. David Adams. When Hill addressed a regional security conference in Miami last week. Petersburg Times.WNDI 2008 25 Agenda Politics DA Neg COFTA Bad – Narco Terrorism (1/2) COFTA will strip the Colombian government of the funds needed to combat narcoterrorism Guardian Unlimited. apparel. Hill. Narcoterrorism key tow world terrorism St." This was "fact. According to the study. According to new estimates by the UN Economic Commission for Latin America.sptimes. he didn't pull punches." he said. go on to pick out some of those "lawless" places. The World Bank's 2005 Global Economic Prospects report warned that. mining and other export sectors. trade and investment agreements themselves would not necessarily translate into new foreign investment. and the message of a "clear and present danger" it carried. in Miami. reducing tariffs will strip the government of funds needed for combating guerrillas. Hill said he wasn't pointing fingers at any one country. including the so-called triborder area. and the Venezuelan island of Margarita in the Caribbean.

" The second myth is that strong action against terrorist infrastructure [leaders. that on September 11. Americans were stunned by the unprecedented tragedy of 19 al Qaeda terrorists striking a devastating blow at the center of the nation's commercial and military powers.S. defused a "ticking bomb. Palestinians religious movements [e. For instance. Why are the United States and Israel." The assassination of Ismail Abu Shanab . it behooves those countries victimized by terrorism to understand a cardinal message communicated by Winston Churchill to the House of Commons on May 13. The first illusion is that terrorism can be greatly reduced. recruitment. Thus. provided the root causes of conflicts . weapons. propaganda. particularly in democratic societies." . as well as scores of other countries affected by the universal nightmare of modern terrorism surprised by new terrorist "surprises"? There are many reasons.g." should be tolerated if not glorified. training. professor and director of the Inter-University for Terrorism Studies in Israel and the United States. contemporary terrorists have introduced a new scale of violence in terms of conventional and unconventional threats and impact. double standards of morality. 2003 Last week's brutal suicide bombings in Baghdad and Jerusalem have once again illustrated dramatically that the international community failed. despite the collapse of the Oslo Agreements of 1993 and numerous acts of terrorism triggered by the second intifada that began almost three years ago. the Hebron commander of the Islamic Jihad. military operation in Iraq eliminated Saddam Hussein's regime as a state sponsor of terror. therefore. In sum. The argument here is that law-enforcement efforts and military retaliation inevitably will fuel more brutal acts of violent revenge. This traditional rationalization of "sacred" violence often conceals that the real purpose of terrorist groups is to gain political power through the barrel of the gun.are addressed. biological. 2001.g. and the exploitation of the media by terrorist propaganda and psychological warfare. Clearly. operational command and control] will only increase terrorism. past experience provides useful lessons for a realistic future strategy. strengthening international cooperation]. right of return. The internationalization and brutalization of current and future terrorism make it clear we have entered an Age of Super Terrorism [e.. Israel's targeted killing of Mohammed Sider. chemical. regional and global security concerns. including misunderstanding of the manifold specific factors that contribute to terrorism's expansion. Hamas. radiological.. victory however long and hard the road may be: For without victory. "give me liberty and I will give you death.and long-term deterrence of terrorism.disrupted potential terrorist operations. The prudent application of force has been demonstrated to be an effective tool for short.” The Washington Times. are still "shocked" by each suicide attack at a time of intensive diplomatic efforts to revive the moribund peace process through the now revoked cease-fire arrangements [hudna]. nuclear and cyber] with its serious implications concerning national. Similarly. victory in spite of terror. in violation of fundamental human rights of the noncombatant segment of societies.political. if not eliminated completely. Likewise. but its stated objective is to "unite all Muslims and establish a government that follows the rule of the Caliphs. such as lack of a universal definition of terrorism. “Terrorism myths and realities.g. Israel and its citizens. August 28. social and economic . to understand the magnitude and implications of the terrorist threats to the very survival of civilization itself. It is not surprising. thus far at least.a top Hamas leader in the Gaza Strip who was directly responsible for several suicide bombings including the latest bus attack in Jerusalem . Jerusalem] but primarily to destroy the Jewish state. Two myths in particular must be debunked immediately if an effective counterterrorism "best practices" strategy can be developed [e. Similarly. For example. the U. weak punishment of terrorists. Unlike their historical counterparts. if this perception continues to prevail. 1940: "Victory at all costs. there is the danger it will paralyze governments and thereby encourage further terrorist attacks.WNDI 2008 26 Agenda Politics DA Neg COFTA Bad – Narco Terrorism (2/2) Unchecked terrorism will result in extinction Yonah Alexander. The conventional illusion is that terrorism must be justified by oppressed people seeking to achieve their goals and consequently the argument advanced by "freedom fighters" anywhere. there is no survival. the religionization of politics. Even the United States and Israel have for decades tended to regard terrorism as a mere tactical nuisance or irritant rather than a critical strategic challenge to their national security concerns. Osama bin Laden's international network not only opposes the presence of American military in the Arabian Peninsula and Iraq. funding. Islamic Jihad] and secular entities [such as Fatah's Tanzim and Aqsa Martyr Brigades]] wish not only to resolve national grievances [such as Jewish settlements.

According to the U. p 177 Massive extinction of species is dangerous. as currently practiced. "The ramifications of an ecological change of this magnitude [vast extinction of species] are so far reaching that no one on earth will escape them.oil cultivation is not only polluting on a local level but also contributes to greenhouse gas emissions. 1994. especially in acidic environments. As Philip Hoose remarks. social and environmental cost for the communities.9 million tons of solid oil wastes. In 2001 Malaysia’s production of 7 million tons of crude palm oil generated 9. Oil palm cultivation has been linked to massacres and expropriation by paramilitaries in Chocó. and 10 million tons of palm oil mill effluent. leaving the area essentially devoid of vegetation other than weedy grasses which serve as tinder for wildfires. the liberal use of petroleum-based pesticides. and shells. Indonesian plantations are so damaging that after a 25-year harvest. monoculture. that few other plants will grow. Berkeley. “Why is oil palm replacing tropical rainforests? Why are biofules fueling deforestation?” http://news. because removing species is an irreversible act. it may be too late to save the system after the extinction of key plants or animals. Considering that Malaysia is held to be one of the most efficient producers. and wild fires Rhett A. And. water. Butler. native forest dwellers renowned for their hunting and tracking prowess. Soils may be so leached of nutrients. South of Urabá and the East Llanos region.html 3. because one cannot predict which species are expendable to the system as a whole. mongabay. palm fiber. Environmental destruction causes extinction Paul Warner. . The proposed expanse of monoculture threatens to obliterate the region’s legendary biodiversity —the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) says some 361 species of animals have been discovered on the island in the past decade—while displacing local people. the Colombian government aspires to grow 6 million hectares of this product by 2020. Large scale monocrops target the best lands. production in other parts of the world may be more polluting. In recent years.palm lands are often abandoned for scrubland.html So. Center for Latin American Studies at the University of California. To approve the FTA is to approve large scale monocrops that will devastate environmental heritage of humanity.com. most of which are collectively and individually owned by Afro-Colombian grassroots communities. American University. Politics and Life Sciences. 4/25/2006. the nation and the world.S. The cultivation of just 456 hectares of African palm requires 86 kilometers of drains and 11 kilometers of roads. the production of palm oil. warming. oil. can be quite damaging to the environment.com/2008/04/more-on-colombia-free-trade-agreement. Dept of International Politics and Foreign Policy. vast areas of natural forest have been cleared across tropical Asia for oil palm plantations. Spring 2008. August. Nevertheless. and affected local communities dependent on services and products provided by forest ecosystems. then. sugar cane and corn¹s large scale cultivation. the scientific community is deeply concerned by a proposal by the Indonesian government to turn vast areas of Borneo’s remote and biodiverse rainforests into oil-palm plantations. herbicides.com/2006/0425-oil_palm. “More on the Colombia Free Trade Agreement. including the Dyaks. increased vulnerability to catastrophic fires. and fertilizers ensures that most palm. Further." One can never be sure which species holds up fundamental biological relationships in the planetary ecosystem. and fat residues that has been shown to have a negative impact on aquatic ecosystems. A Threat to the Environment The FTA contains an ambitious project to supply the world with bio- fuels produced from Oil Palm.” http://laguayabita.mongabay. This conversion has reduced biodiversity. For these reasons. Nariño. "Plants and animals cannot tell us what they mean to each other. why is oil palm cultivation a concern? For environmentalists the problem with palm oil as a source of biodiesel lies in the nature of how the crop is produced. National Research Council. This type of infrastructure has extremely high cultural." Trifling with the "lives" of species is like playing Russian roulette. Beyond the loss of forest ecosystems.blogspot. a polluted mix of crushed shells. Palm oil cultivation leads to deforestation.WNDI 2008 27 Agenda Politics DA Neg COFTA Bad – Palm Oil (1/3) COFTA will pave lead to large-scale palm cultivation The AFRO-LATINO Working Group. with our collective future as the stakes.

producers were out a billion dollars in lost yield. In the summer of 1968. To simplify the environment as we have done with agriculture is to destroy the complex interrelationships that hold the natural world together.WNDI 2008 28 Agenda Politics DA Neg COFTA Bad – Palm Oil (2/3) Monoculture leads to extinction Cary Fowler and Pat Mooney. 8/11/03 The vast majority of the world's climate scientists agree that global warming is now occurring on Earth due to the release of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere by the burning of fossil fuels and other human activities.org/ec/globalwarming/oceans. 1990. By the spring of 19701 the disease had taken hold in the Florida corn crop. U. and the Loss of Genetic Diversity. do we want to play what is basically a form of Russian roulette with life on Earth by contining to pour greenhouse gases into the atmosphere on the gamble that runaway global warming won't happen? . Agronomists in the Philippines warned of what became known as southern corn leaf blight in 1061. Politics. Some southern states lost half their harvest and many of their farmers. That is the subject of this book. perhaps the biggest single environmental catastrophe in human history is unfolding in the garden. seed exports may have spread the blight to Africa. inexorable—is leading us to a rendezvous with extinction —to the doorstep of hunger on a scale we refuse to imagine. Shattering: Food.S. Loss of genetic diversity in agriculture—silent. 2002.' The disease was reported in Mexico not long after. It is life at the end of the limb. By the close of the year. But it was not until corn prices leapt thirty cents a bushel on the Chicago Board of Trade that the world took notice. ”documenting the collapse of a dying planet”. It is not certain that the present global warming will "runaway" and cause a catastrophic climate change such as that which has made Venus uninhabitable. And the disaster was not solely domestic. it is considered a possibility. ix While many may ponder the consequences of global warming. we narrow our options for the future and render our own survival more precarious. While consumers suffered in the grocery stores. Reducing the diversity of life. the first faint hint that the blight was in the United States came from seed growers in the Midwest. The question is.shtml#090301. p. Latin America and Asia. an equally devastating time bomb is ticking away in the fields of farmers all over the world. Americans had lost fifteen percent of their most important crop—more than a billion bushels. but. by then it was August—and too late. as is discussed in the articles below. rapid. While all are rightly concerned about the possibility of nuclear war. 5. Earth crash earth spirit http://eces. The danger was ignored. Rural Advancement Fund International. Warming leads to extinction ECES.

the region of Borneo that falls under Indonesian jurisdiction. and wind create conditions that lead to a gradual recession of the remaining forest edge (Gascon. Behind the rosy numbers lies a destructive pattern of large-scale land conversion. Sedimentation from soil erosion can degrade drinking water and destroy aquatic ecosystems. cause massive fires. These charismatic megafauna are very often the focus of international conservation groups. Several large species at high risk are the Sumatran tiger. since the mid-1960's. Tropical rain forests in Malaysia and Indonesia have undergone unprecedented and permanent changes as a result of degradation and deforestation. . increase warming. Harvard biologist E.dailykos. 2005). “Rain Forest Destruction and Oil Palm Plantations: What You Should Know. In Malaysia. these statistics and growth rates are astounding. Rates of deforestation in Indonesia have been so severe that it is believed that only remnant patches of tropical lowland rain forest still exist in Sumatra today (FWI/GFW. increased sunlight. Epstein (2002). duration.664 hectares in 2000. and the Asian elephant. and devastate water quality Daily Kos. Physical changes in the non-human environment often accompany the severe effects of palm oil plantations on biodiversity. notes that global warming may be a contributor to the increased frequency. insecticides. Implicit in these changes is the loss of critical habitat for flora and fauna in a region that is home to some of the planet’s most impressive biodiversity and the outright extinction of several species of large animals (CSPI. however. 2002). In Kalimantan. but countless other unique lifeforms of intrinsic value are endangered or already extinct as the result of rain forest conversion to palm oil plantations. 2002). In Southeast Asia. Malaysia and Indonesia today account for 81% of world palm oil production (Basiron. creating local microclimates. production has grown 3600% in Indonesia alone (FWI/GFW. moisture. Since rain forest conversion to palm oil plantations is normally followed by the use of fire to release nutrients into the soil. 4/11/2008. both the Sumatran and Bornean orangutans.376. 2002).com/story/2008/4/11/205249/850/242/494014 The expansion of the palm oil industry has been phenomenal. When one considers the ecological consequences. the analysis is more sobering. Oil palm agriculture has important implications for water quality as well. Additionally. and wind regimes.WNDI 2008 29 Agenda Politics DA Neg COFTA Bad – Palm Oil (3/3) Palm oil plantations devastate biodiversity. reducing cloud formation and rainfall.” http://www. Williamson. palm oil mill effluent in Indonesia produced the equivalent of the amount of domestic sewage generated by 20 million people (CSPI. a 61-fold increase (WWF.638 hectares in 1960 to 3. and fertilizers often pollute local waterways in areas that have already been converted to industrial plantation agriculture. Inputs of petrochemical herbicides. the amount of cultivated land used for palm oil production rose from 54. carbon dioxide emissions from recurring fires on Sumatra and Borneo are themselves a major contributor to global climate change (Aiken. In 1999 alone. From an economic perspective. When forests are degraded or deforested. Closed canopy forests regulate heat. large-scale deforestation can result in decreased evapotranspiration. 2002). and da Fonseco. Wilson referred bleakly to the Sumatran rhinoceros as belonging to the “Hundred Heartbeats Club. 2005).) On a regional level. dryness.” a species whose living population currently numbers less than 100 individuals (Wilson. 2000. O. effluent from industrial wastewater creates massive amounts of untreated sewage. most tropical lowland rain forest will cease to exist by 2010 if current rates of deforestation continue unabated (FWI/GFW. 2005). 2002). and intensity of El Niños since 1976. 2002).

The time to end it is now. Circumstance has made the American Indian the first to bear the full brunt of the new colonialism in North America. Ultimately. 181-182 The struggle currently shouldered by AIM and related native organizations is not merely “for Indians. The FTAviolates these laws and is therefore a threat to their rights. It was not consulted with Afro-Colombians or Indigenous Peoples as required by the Colombian constitution and ILO convention 169. The only appropriate response is to see to it that they are also the last. Rather. Systematic human rights violations including murder. New populations and new areas will then be targeted. To resolve the issue of the colonization of the American Indian would be. as well as Africa. National sacrifice areas will be sacrificed. Berkeley. what it does can never be undone. As land is threatened. it will spread across the planet like the literal cancer it is. In altering the relations of internal colonialism in North America. and who will be alive. A Threat to Ethnic and Human Rights The FTA was conceived by violating the rule of law. p. Asia. In denying access to certain other resources. which. Tuba Cities. regardless of its immediate location at the moment. food security. The place to end it is where it has now taken root and disclosed its inner nature. will engulf other population sectors. and Pine Ridges which litter the American landscape are not primarily a moral concern for non-Indian movements (although they should be that. the Shiprocks. Creek Cherokee. Self-determination is necessary to prevent the violent expansion of colonialism across the world Ward Churchill.blogspot. have already begun to actively encroach in a more limited fashion. In denying access to the sources of uranium to the industrial powers. environment.” http://laguayabita. 1985-1995.com/2008/04/more-on-colombia-free-trade-agreement. the Lagunas. American Indians could take a quantum leap toward solving the problem of nuclear proliferation. and sacrificed. There is no sanctuary. at least in part. 1996. to run its course. “More on the Colombia Free Trade Agreement. 3. In Mexico. the right to life is threatened. Of the Afro-Colombians who held title to their land 79% are currently homeless due to this violence. it has become the problem and peril of everyone alive. 2. terror. The new colonialism is radioactive. nonpolluting alternative energy sources such as solar and wind power. A Threat to Land Ownership and a Dignified Life Land is a principle of life and strengthens identity for ethnic groups in Colom5bia. within the not-so-distant future. Churchrocks. as well). The FTA cannot be discussed or voted on until Afro-Colombians and Indigenous are able to safely return and live on their lands. From a Native Son: Selected Essay on Indigenism. they are pragmatic examples. Edgemonts.html 1. to resolve matters threatening to the whole of humanity. the North American Free Trade Agreement caused the displacement of 3 million rural farmers. “the AIM idea” would vastly reduce the capability of the major nations there to extend their imperial web into Central and South America. member of the Governing Council of the Colorado chapter of the AIM. Center for Latin American Studies at the University of California. These laws were created to protect Indigenous and Afro-Colombian¹s rights to territory. they could do much to force conversion to renewable. The list could be extended at length. expended. and to self determination. . precursors of situations and conditions which. are used on a daily basis to take over Afro-Colombian and Indigenous lands that are rich in natural resources. and the Pacific Basin. Left to its own dynamics.WNDI 2008 30 Agenda Politics DA Neg COFTA Bad – Self Determination (1/1) COFTA prevents self-determination The AFRO-LATINO Working Group. Expendable populations will be expended.” It is for everyone. Spring 2008. and forced displacement. The new colonialism knows no limits. Colombia¹s ethnic and rural populations cannot afford further displacements. from place to place. It can never be someone else’s problem.

postponement of the FTA will not have any immediate impact.” ln Economically. . Colombia will continue to benefit from preferential access to the US market under the Andean Trade Preferences and Drug Eradication Act (ATPDEA).WNDI 2008 31 Agenda Politics DA Neg COFTA Bad – A2 Colombian Economy (1/1) CFTA doesn’t impact the Columbia economy – ATPDEA fills in Economist. 7-18-2007. “Saying no to free trade. An additional extension next year is possible. which at the end of June (when it was due to expire) was extended by the US Congress for another eight months.