AIN SHAJ"fS UNFVERSITY - FACULTY OF ENGINEERING STRUCTURAL ENGliVEERING DEPARTjUENT Third Year Civil - (Structural Section

)

ANY MISSING DA TA lY!4 Y BE REASONABLY ASSUMED. STEEL USED IS STEEL 37 (F; = 3.6 t/cm', and Fy = 2.4 t/cm')
Question I (48 jYfarks)

c
G

I"

E
<0

IPE 500

-iOj

u
2m
j+-

IPE 300

i
I

4m

6m

Crane wheel loads A IS m 24 rn
6m

FilZure 0)

11

Figure (1) shows the main structural system covering an industrial area (30 m x 60 m). The spacing of the steel frames is 6 m. It is required to: (2 marks) Suggest, using neat sketches, a suitable vertical bracing system between the columns
JDEF.

Calculate the buckling length of column D-E in the plane of the main frame. }'/ (9 marks) Design an intermediate roof purlin using a cold-formed Z - section with lip. Consider 2 v the weight of covering material to be 5 kglm2 and the live load to be 45 kglm and neglect the

J'-' i3 marks)

V (8 marks) Design the rigid connection between the rafter and the column at Busing

)mnd effect.

M20,

Grade 10.9 Pretensioned. High Strength Bolts (No design of the weld is required). The straining 2 actions at joint Bare: M = 22 m.t and Q = 6.5 t. For M20 (l().9) bolts, As = 2.45 cm , T = 15.43 t, and P, = 4.93 t. ~~th0trt aI};t calpu1ati9Rs, explain ho" to ch~k the ~ety pf the ~~b

and-flangfs ~at1t:>l~ )"' (6 marks) Design a, suitable section for the cantilever beam D-G. Consider that the total load on
this part is 60 Kg/m". (14 marks) The columns along J-H are not provided with vertical bracing. Design a built-up section composed of two IPEs for column J-H. Assume the spacing "d" between the two IPEs to be 50 em (Consider that: AI = A2 = 1). Design an intermediate welded batten plate to connect the column parts together.

\

,COURSNlSO •. CEs3sf:;;,
7- (6 marks) For the fixed base at H, design the vertical and the horizontal welds as well as the anchor bolts (neglect the out of plane moment). Base plate thickness is taken equal to 25 rnm.

$I1lEL STRVCFUru;s:~

r/ Question (II) : (11 Marks)
Draw the details of the parts at J and H of Figure (1) in different reasonable sections for the undesigned elements.

/,/f"

//

views to scale 1: 10. Assume

0/""'/' ""-" ////

Figure (2) shows a plan of a mezz~e floor. It is required to desl~. a sUltab}€/~ection for the secondary beam, (neg.lectiff{the effect of lateral buckling). Design marked connection between the secondary be~ and the main beam using M20/oon-pretensionedQolts grade (4.6). The tOu;V16ad on the floor is 0.8 qb = 0.25 F ub and Fb = 0.8 F~ ...

4 x 2m

Figure (2)

/t~:

1_

s~er
2.

urn?

_..lJ6'.U.mL--_;"';'

i

2;:.::m0:.4' -I

<;

,

O~estion IV (5 Marks)
L/l.

State the advantages of using cold-formed sections in steel construction. Which type would you use (portal frame or trussed frame) to cover spans of 20m and 50m. Give reasons for your answer.

Question V (5 Marksl
5 x6m=3Om
Ti 6m

--350m

-... +-----

r

fA

,-1+------ f-._-- I

I

.L_

-o~
6m Sec. A-A

Figure (3) Figure (3) shows the layout of a car shed. The site conditions necessitates that the column base to be of the hinged type. Intermediate frames are supported by one column only, while the end frames are supported by two columns. The shown horizontal bracing system is used to provide stability of the intermediate frames. This Horizontal bracing is supported by the end frames. If the total vertical load on the roof is 75 kg/rn'', it is required to calculate the force in the marked member of the horizontal bracing system Que to the vertical loads only (Neglect any effect of wind loads).
~ i

QUESTION (1-1)

4.0

t

I

6.0 -6.0 --6.0~6.0-

I !

QUESTION 11-2)
considering that the girder LP.E. 300 is simple with the two columns: (best solution) considering that joint E as hinged, so GE = 10 leol = Ix = 16720 ern" G
D

=

16720/4 23130/24

= 4.33

from charts k = 2.4 Lin= 2.4*4 = 9.6 m

QUESTION (1-3)
1) Loads: a) Dead load: 2 We = 5 kglm , o.w. = 10 kglm' WDL = (5* 1.5 + 10)/1000 = 0.018 tim' .. cos 5.71 MxD.L = 0.018*cos5.71*-

.

62 8 = 0.081 mt
2

My D .L. = 0.018*sin5. 71* 6 = 0.008 mt 8 b) Live load: b-1) due to distributed load (given) L.L. = 45 kglm2 WLL. = 45/1000*1.5 = 0.068 tim' Mx L .L . = 0.068*cos5.71*

62
')

8 = 0.304 mt

My L.L . = 0.068*sin5.71* 6- = 0.03 mt 8 b-2) due to one concentrated load P = 100 kg Mx = 0.1*cosS.71* 6/4 = 0.15 < 0.304 (not critical ) 2) Design values:Mx = 0.081 + 0.304 = 0.385 mt My = 0.008 + 0.03 = 0.038 mt

in /

3) Choice of section:0.58 * 2.4

= 0.385 * 100 + 0.038'"
Sx Sy

100

Assume that Sx = 6*Sy ,get from equation Sx = 43.5 cm3 Choose stiffened purlin Z200*60*20*2.5 Ix 476cm4 ,Iy = 56cm4 ,h(web) = 20cm ,b(flange) = 6cm ,r(fillet) = 0.8cm , t(thickness) 0.25cm , O(lip) 2cm.

=

=

=

4) Properties of section:Lip (unstiffened element)
ljJ

=1
V"\ N~

k ; = 0.43 d = 2 - 0.25 - 0.8 = 0.95 cm

""l = 0.95/0.25 I 2.4
p

~

00

44

V 0.43

= 0.204 =0.09<1.0

H"

p= 0.204

0.15-0.05*1

de = 0.09 X 0.95 = 0.085 cm Web (stiffened element) ljJ = -1 k(j=23.9 I. = 17.9/0.25 p 44
p= 0.52-0.15

V 23.9

I 2.4

~

==0.52

P

=

~.05*(-1) =1.55>1.0 0.52'" 1.0 ( no reduction in web)

Upper flange (stiffened element) ljJ = 1 S=1.28!E

V Fy

=1.28/

2100

-

V

2.4

=37.86 , ~=12.62 3

b = 3.9 =15.6 t 0.25

bS << 3t

S

15.6 -0.33)3 *0.254 = 0.00086 37.86 . 3 I = 0.25*0.95 =0.01786 s 12 I = 399*
a

1::) = _2_ = 0.5l3
b 3.9

0.25 < D < 0.8 b

k; = (4.82 - 5 '"0.513\/ 0.01786 + 0.43 V 0.00086 take kcr 2.685

= 10.71 ~ (5.25 - 5 '"0.513

= 2.685)

=

').. = 3.9/0.25
p

44

~ =0.335 ~ 2.685

= 0.335 -0.15 -0.05 '"1 = 1.2 > 1.0 p 0.3352 P 1.2 ( no reduction in web)

=

4/1/

There is a reduction only in the lip, the reduction is 0.91*0.95 :: 0.86 cm Assuming the neutral axis at the middle J =476-0.86*0.25*
x

20 -2+ 0.86)2 _ 0.25*0.86

3

2

2

12

=464 em'

J =56-0,86*0.25*(6Y •

0.25)2_ 0.86*0.25 2 12

3

=49 em'

5) Check bending stresses:38.5 * 20 + 3.8 *6 = 1.3 t I em' S 0.58Fy = 1.392 (safe) 464 2 49 6) Check deflection:5 * (0.068*cos5.71)/100*600 -1 17 cm Sc-+«>- 2 em (rfi) 600 -. sae 384 2100*464 300 finally use stiffened cold formed purlin Z section 200*60*20*2.5
A_ Ll-4

QUESTION <1-4) 1) Arrangement of bolts: em1n:: 2C1>:: *2 :: 4cm 2 take two bolts below of the upper tensioned flange by 4cm (at 2cm + IF=1.35cm + 4cm = 8cm from upper edge of head plate) and another two bolts at pitch = 8cm take the head plate height H = 2*40cm + 2*2cm = 84cm, take its breadth B = bFlange f o column = 20cm put another two bolts above the lower compression flange by 4cm (8cm from lower edge of head plate) 2) Straining actions: M = 22mt, Q = 6.5t effect of bending moment X1 = 8 + 8/2 = 12 em Xz = 84 I 2 - 12 = 30 em

12
30
~

I I

f
-f--

I

+ +

+ +

-- 18
I

I 18

f=
b

22*100 *84 =0.094 tl cm? 20 * 843 112 2 22 * 100 * 30 = 0.067 t I em' 20 *843112 = 0,5 * 0.094 + 0.067 * (20 * 12)J

84

It =
I

T

+

+

extbs.M

2

8

= 9.66 t < 0.8 * 15.43 = 12.34 t (safe) Text,b2,M ,=0.5*[0.067 2 *(20*30)J.
t

-20-

I

=10.05 t<0.8*15.43=12.34

(safe)

effect of shear force each bolt

Q = 6.5
6

= 1.08

t

< P,

= 4.93
')/1 ?

QUESTION (1-5) Solution No.1 without using knee bracing 1) Choice the section:
W=

Q

=

60 *6=0.36 tim' 1000 0.36*6 2.16 t

=

M=0.36*6 2 1.392

2

=6.48 mt

get Sx = 466 crrr' Sx From tables choose I.P.E. No.300 2) Check lateral torsional buckling: To get the allowable bending: Calculate Luact 2.1*600 1260 cm Calculate Lumax least value of the following the For cantilever and distributed loads Cb = 2.1

= 6.48*100

=

=

L
Urnax

= 1380 * (15 * 1.07) * 2. 1= 646 em
2.4 * 30
Urnax

L

= 20 * 15 = 194

em

buact 1260 > Lumax 194 Lateral torsional buckling will occur F
Llbl

=

=

=800*(15*1.07)*2.1=0.71 1260 * 30 1.07 * 15 112 1.07*15+0.71*30/6
3

t/em2 em

r
t

=

= 3.92

1260 =321>188/2.1 =176 3.92 V 2.4 _ 12000 * _ FLtb') ---" 2.1-0.24 t /cm 321""
i FLlb = VO.712 + 0.24 2 = 0.75

2

Note That the allowable stress is very small, the main reason that the actual unsupported length is very big, so we can reduce it by using knee bracing at the purlin. Solution No.2 using knee bracing every purlin (best solution) 1) Choice the section: w=~*6=0.36 tim' 1000 Q = 0.36*6 = 2.16 t M

= 0.36 *6 = 6.48
2

2

mt

()/D

1.536= 6.48*100
Sx

get Sx = 422 crrr'

from tables choose I.P.E. No.270

2) Check lateral torsional buckling: to get the allowable bending: calculate Luact = a = 150 cm calculate Lumax the least value of the following for cantilever and distributed loads Cb = 2.1 L
UmID(

= 1380*
urnax

3.5*1.02)*2.1=616 2.4 * 27

ern ratter

L

= 20~.5

~2.4

= 174

em

kuact =150 < Lumax = 174

no lateral torsional buckling will occur 3) Check compactness of section: - check if the section is compact: 16.9 109 (27-4*1.02) < =. compact 1.02 0.66 so the section is compact Fbcx = 0.64Fy =1.536 Check bending stresses: 6.48*100 ") fbx = =1.51 t Zcm" < l.536 (safe) 429 Check shear stresses: fbx = 0.5*13.5 _-= 66 .
=

Knee bracing

347

.<

127

v 2.4

I

=

82

compact

2.16 = 0.13 < 0.84 (safe) (27 - 2 * 1.02) *0.66 finally use I.P .E. 270 with knee bracing every purlin

7/1/

QUESTION (1-6)

Assume that the braking force is resisted by 2 columns equally
to get reaction of crane girder: assume own weight of girder 0.2 tim' 0.2 *6 Max. QD = = 0.6 t 2 8*4 Max. QL = +8 = 13.33 t

=

6

Lateral shock Q = (1/10)*13.33 = 1.33 t Braking force Q = (117)*2*8 = 2.3 t Design values: take "I" the impact factor equal 25% N = 2QD+QL+I= 2*0.6+13.33*1.25 = 17.86 t My = 1.33*6 = 8 mt Mx = ( 2.3 12 )*6 = 6.9 mt 1) Choice the section: The force in one I-beam only is t 50 2 For double moment assume f = 0.6 tlcm2 AI = 251 0.6 = 41.6 cm2 choose I.P.E. 2) Properties of global section: AI 1= 2*45.9 = 91.8 cm2 IYII=2*(420 + 45.9*252) = 58215 ern" Ix I =2*5790 = 11580 ern"
ry]

_0 l~~II1_t _y~ I 18t' ®_I __~ __
tlllllllliii--t

f
t

....... @ -----t--

Ii!

xix 1

I

@
8mt

50cm

y

;1

C - 8*100 + 18 -;5 -_

I

=

58215 91.8

= ;5.18
-

em

11580 = 11.2 em 91.8 3) Check buckling: Lin = Lout 2.1*6 = 12.6 m Lz (using batten plates) = 2*d = 100 cm
A.
In , I

=

=

12.6 * 100

25.18

=)

-0 < 180 sarfie

A A

out

= 12.6 * 100 = 112.5 < 180 11.2 =
100 3.02

sate
':1<

= 33.11 < 60

or 2/3*112.5 = 75

Z

).'in

= ~502

r--~----

+ (1.25 *33.11)2

= 64.9 < 180

safe

~/l/

4) Check stresses from compression:

fca

=

18 91.8 7500

=0.196

~ t/cm"
1

F, == ~ =0.59 t /cm" " 112.5(given) A1 A2 1.0

=

=

5) Check stresses from bending:

;;b

y

==

8*100 *(25+6.75)=0.436 58215 . 11580 *13.5 =0.8 t l cm?

t I cm?

;; = 6.9*100
Itt

Fbcx = Fbcx = 0.58Fy = 1.4 t/cm2
6) INT. EQU: 0.196 1 --+--+ 0.436 0.8 ==.:::;.2 1 2 case II sa f e 0.59 1.4 1.4 use 21-beams 270with spacing 50cm QUESTION (1-6) 1) Choice the section: L = d = 50 cm t = 50/50 = 1.0cm the column 21-beams face to face m = 2 2 1.33+ *18 P= =0.85 t 2 2) Properties of section: A = 50* 1.0 = 50 cm2 Ix = 1.0*503/12 = 10417 ern" S ,- - 10417 _ 417 em 3 x 25 3) Check bending stresses: a = Lz+d = 100 + 50 = 150 cm M = (P/2)*a = (0.85/2)*150 = 64 cm.t 64 , fbx = = O. 15 t/ em - < 1.4 (safe) , 417 4) Check shear stresses: R = M I (d/2) = 64 1 25 = 2.56 t 2.56 " q= = 0.05 t Zcm" < 0.84 (safe) 50 * 1

..-

0.85/2

9/1 ?

QUESTION (1-7)

neglect Mx as given in the question 1) Vertical weld: assume size of weld s = 6 mm
0.6C T 8* 100 + 18) = 13 t (comp.) 50 + 13.5 2 8*100 18 . --::::: 3.6 t (tension) 50 + 13.5 2 13 0.2*3.6*2*0.6 +2*0.6=16.2
ern

= 0.6(

-113.5 tt-50cm--l

=

Lvi

=

take height of vertical plate (end batten plate) = d = 50cm while required length of vertical weld = Lvi= 17 cm 2) Horizontal weld: assume size of weld s = 6 mm
A == 2 * 0.6 * 100 + 4 * 0.6 * 18 = 163.2 em 2 I =2*0.6*106 y 12
c

18t

0.6*18' +4*0.6*18*(50-1812)2 =17378Ec71t18---63.5 ---1812 100cm----163.2 tl cm: s(0.2*3.6 =0.72 tlcnt) tlent)

J, =O.E{8*100 * 100+~]=0.2
173786 2

;; =l 8*100 * 100_~]
I

173786 2

163.2

=0.12 (Icnt s(0.2*3.6=0.72
2

q =='

1 33 = 0.008 t/crn 163.2
r------

s 0.72 tI ern"

"

fcombined==~(0.2)2 +3*0.00~ =0.2 tl cm' s(0.72*1.1 =0.79 tlcnt)

3) Bearing stresses: B = 27 + 2*1cm + 2*10cm = 50cm
A == 100* 50 == 5000 em'

I = 50* 100 = 4166667 em' y 12 F = [ 8* 100 * 100 +~J = 0.013 t/cm ' = 13 kg/ern? s 70 k icm' b 4166667 2 5000 g

3

4) Anchor bolts:
C=

(-.!. * 3a * 0.05) * 50 = 3.75 * a
2

-:

50

~~----~~~------~

taking moment at point of ''T'' = zero
18*(100 -7)+8*100 2 - 3.75 * a * (100 - 7 - a) = zero

-7-

~T

3.75a2

-

348.75a + 1574 = 0
(wrong)

= 88.2 em

= 4.76

em (right) 18+T=3.75*4.76 ,

T=-0.15t

using min bolts 2 <I> 19 each side
1011 ?

~
llf-

U

II II II II II II II II II II II II II II II II II II II II I I I I I I
I I

• • • •

II •

II II II

"
II

II II II II II II II II I I I I I I I I I II
II

I II
II

II II

"

II

II II II II

~

(0) (0)

(0) (0)

1111 ?

QUESTION 00 W

= 75 x 6/1000 = 0.45

tim'

From equilibrium of the system L M 0.45 X
X

=0

62 12 = X ( 3.5 + 61 10 )

=

1.98 ton

This force is supported by the Hz bracing. R

= LXI

2

=4x

1.98 1 2

= 3.96 ton

Force in brac~ members <p = tan- 3 1 1.5 = 63.4° F = R 1 cos <p = 3.961 cos 63.4

= 8.5 ton

I
----6.0----+ 3.6

6/10

R

X

X

t

t

t-6.OOm -t

X

X

R

I

t

S21S21S21S21~:z1 o
--6.00m--

II.Som

6.0Om

1 III I.

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