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THIS INSTRUCTABLE IS NOT YET COMPLETE. I have been trying to build a wireless charger but have come across a problem. I have documented what I have done and learnt so far. Hopefully from this you can see my errors and help me out. Please read the last page to see what I think the problem is and suggest any ways to get around this. THANKS The Project I am trying to build a circuit that will allow gadgets that are usually charged by USB to be charged wirelessly. As an example I am reverse engineering an A4tech battery-less mouse. However it is too great a challenge for me and I am seeking help from you. I thought it would be better for me to turn this into a group effort than to ditch the project. I will give a detailed description of what I have built and learnt and hopefully you can tell me where I went wrong.
Step 1Background Information
http://www. To make our own wireless device we need to know more about induction. This is the same technology as RFID. Step 2Basic Theory . The mouse I was talking about (see other picture) in the introduction is exactly the same as the Splashpad it uses induction to transfer power across an air gap.-INDUCTION/?ALLSTEPS i Transferring power wirelessly is reasonably simple.instructables. in fact it uses this to communicate with the pad. It is pretty much a transformer with an air core. If you think about it. all transformers are wireless. Like the Splashpad (see picture).com/id/I-need-your-help. But we want something that's truly wireless.
any frequency would do. more tesla coil orientated but more or less the same principles. This changing magnetic field induces a current in the secondary which produces a . We need an AC power source for the primary. but to make it more efficient we need a high frequency. To explain this think of two solenoids.-INDUCTION/?ALLSTEPS i We need two coils. So the question is.freeuk. I think you get the point.com/dunckx/wireless/inductive/inductive.html). however as we get further away from the primary coil the strength of the field dramatically decreases. how do we Increase the power that is transferred to the secondary coil? It is called inductive coupling of tuned circuits (Here is some more detailed information.com/id/I-need-your-help.instructables. Unfortunately this current is so low that it is too low to do anything useful or should I say too low to even measure. A primary and a secondary. Initially the current will be zero. so low it might as well be nothing.http://www. once the two reach equilibrium the current reaches a steady maximum (can be calculated by I=V/R) and the magnetic field also becomes constant. if we hold our secondary coil anywhere in that space an alternating current will be induced. If we hook up the primary coil to a DC supply. Now.http://home. Gigantically low. The primary will be connected to an AC power source that creates an alternating magnetic field spreading out into space to infinity. the current will increase at a decreasing rate due to a magnetic field that is created to oppose the change.
now we need a primary coil.instructables. The battery-less mouse has a frequency range of about 119kHz to 135kHz. It doesn't really matter too much but we want something like the mouse/Splashpad. please let me know and I'll remove it. When the capacitor is fully discharged the current stops.-INDUCTION/?ALLSTEPS magnetic field in the opposite direction. If the capacitor was fully charged and then connected in parallel with an inductor (right-hand side of image) we would get an alternating current flowing through the two components. the lecture had no name on it. This type of oscillation is called resonance if the reactance's (see next sentence) of the inductor and capacitor are equal. . a magnetic field is created. this coil shouldn't be too large so that it is more like a pad than a brick. This is because the capacitor discharges through the inductor. To decrease the resistance/Impedance of the primary circuit we need a coil in series with a capacitor. the energy of the magnetic field is converted back into electricity. which is what we will use. Now if we did this over and over again we would induce more tiny blips and hence more power. The capacitor and inductor make something called a resonator. We have just transferred a small amount of power. This cycle then repeats many times. This is just a small blip of current that lasts just for a short period of time. This is why a higher frequency would transfer more power.com/id/I-need-your-help. it is probably a legal frequency??? *The third image I grabbed from a lecture slide. Reactance is the equivalent of resistance in a DC circuit. Step 3Resonator i So we have a high frequency power source.http://www. this recharges the capacitor. So the final circuit will look something like the circuit on the left in the image below. If someone objects to me taking this slide.
-INDUCTION/?ALLSTEPS Let's take a look at my high school notes book.http://www.com/id/I-need-your-help.instructables. Step 4AC in Resistors i The current and voltage are in phase Step 5AC in Capacitors and Inductors .
http://www.instructables. See second image Step 6LCR (Inductor.-INDUCTION/?ALLSTEPS i The current and voltage are out of phase The resistance is not easily calculated as AC resistance is affected by frequency.Capacitor. it still has the same unit as resistance.com/id/I-need-your-help. The ohm. It is clear that frequency affects the resistance and hence the current. We therefore use a different physical quantity called reactance.Resistor) Resonant Circuit .
(see picture) Note: the circle diagrams with the arrows are phasor diagrams that represent the magnitude of the quantity at a moment in time. The graph pretty much explains how the resistance of a resonant circuit decreases if the reactance's of the capacitor and inductor are equal.-INDUCTION/?ALLSTEPS i This is slightly different from the LC circuit mentioned above.com/id/I-need-your-help. No power is lost in the inductor and capacitor. The frequency that this occurs at is called the resonant frequency. but the same principles apply. Step 7The Circuit (AC/square wave generator) . In the resonant circuit above the reactances of the capacitor and inductor are equal and opposite having the effect of cancelling eachother out. The Whole picture This theory helps us understand that if the primary and secondary circuits in our wireless circuit are at resonance we increase the effieciency.http://www.instructables.
kpsec. My first attempt was using a Multivibrator (http://en. The maths looked complicated so I soon discarded that idea. However that didn't work unless it had a separate power supply. Step 8Choosing resistor values for 555 timer i . It also isn't very accurate because it relies on the accuracy of the values of the capacitors and resistors. As far as I know it is quite an accurate timing device and is rather simple to use.com/id/I-need-your-help.edu/hbase/electronic/square.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multivibrator). In the end I decided to use a 555 Timer.instructables. Another way would have been to use a comparator as a square wave generator (http://hyperphysics. Take a look at the page anyway because it is quite interesting to know that the multivibrator can make a flip flop.phy-astr. We are going to use it in its Astable configuration. the change in current due to a parallel circuit would affect the rate of the multivibrator. We have probably all heard of this universal device.com/555timer.http://www.htm) with everything you need to know about it. Below is a small excerpt from a webpage (http://www.freeuk.-INDUCTION/?ALLSTEPS i We need to construct a circuit that can produce alternating current at a desired frequency.gsu. whenever I attached the load.html#c1).
We will use this more accurate measurement to work out the true frequency of our circuit using the following formula (see fifth image) Our true frequency is 119658.41.http://www.com/id/I-need-your-help. The closest resistor value I have is 33kOhm.12 Hz The value of R1 has to be about one tenth of R2 to make the mark and space time approximately equal! So. (see second image) This gives us a result of 32407. which has a value of 32.5kOhm when measured with a multimeter.instructables. 3. Lets use the formula from the previous webpage to calculate the value of R2 (in the picture below).-INDUCTION/?ALLSTEPS We need to choose resistor values that will give us a frequency of about 120kHz. I happen to have a 181K capacitor.3kOhm Step 9Square wave generator .
I thought it didn't work because of this and decided to look at google patents for another idea. Check these out. I have come up with various circuits.com/id/I-need-your-help.http://www.-INDUCTION/?ALLSTEPS i Now we need something that takes this signal and turns it into AC using a DC source. I first tested this in combination with the multivibrator but it affected the rate of the multivibrator. there's some interesting stuff. Below is the original circuit I designed. Step 10AC generator .instructables.
com/id/I-need-your-help.-INDUCTION/?ALLSTEPS i With a bit of research I found many varieties of DC to AC inverters/converters. Many were complicated and so I went back to the drawing board. The circuit below is what I came up with.http://www. In my case +3V and -3V with a neutral centre tap.instructables. How does it work? (see diagram) We have alternate current through the resistor by the centre tap. Step 11Primary coil . I have tested this and it does work at low frequencies for testing. It uses a voltage divider to create dual voltage power supply.
html. . For testing I have used primary/secondary coils that are of similar size so that they can be wound on the same pipe. just for simplicity. its freeware!). There are many online calculators for calculating inductance (See the external links for some of the calculators I looked at).miscel.dk/MiscEl/miscel.-INDUCTION/?ALLSTEPS i All we have to do now is decide on the coil shape and size and the capacitor that will create a resonant circuit. I decided to use a program called MiscEl (http://www.instructables.com/id/I-need-your-help.http://www.
Make this coil and attach it to the capacitor in series. As you may have noticed. Your help is appreciated.instructables. Enter the inductance and the diameter of the coil.com/id/I-need-your-help. It will then give you the number of windings needed to produce that inductance. That's because it doesn't work yet.-INDUCTION/?ALLSTEPS First choose a capacitor and calculate its reactance. Ok thats the primary circuit complete. When I get this thing going I'll make all the printed circuit boards and modify this instructable with all the correct values and dimensions. I have used the values I used in my circuit. (see image) MiscEl can work backwards.http://www. Step 12The Secondary circuit i . Then calculate the required inductance you need to create a resonant circuit. all my work has been done on a breadboard.
Like in the picture below. for ease of production. Therefore we want a small number of turns.-INDUCTION/?ALLSTEPS As you would have guessed. The problem i . I have a variable capacitor that I should use in conjunction with a fixed capacitor to allow us to fine tune our circuit. The final secondary circuit will be all on one circuit board. I have a variable radio capacitor with a capacitance of up to 220pf when the two internal capacitances are connected. I will do that as soon as I get this working. (see second image) Step 13Finally. When I originally thought of doing this I was going to use a flat spiral coil.com/id/I-need-your-help.http://www.instructables. Using this information we can once again calculate the reactance's and hence the dimensions of the coil using MiscEl. I used a green cap with the markings of 104J (100000pf). We do this by connecting the two outside leads (A &O) of the variable capacitor. We also attach a capacitor in parallel with the variable capacitor to increase the capacitance. This circuit is also at the resonant frequency. Using the frequency of the primary circuit we will calculate the value of the capacitor and the value of the inductor. Anyway. The secondary coil cannot be too large as it needs to eventually fit onto one of our electronic gadgets.
The primary is similar too. And this current is very low. I measured a voltage of 8V. How can I increase the voltage across the primary coil? Below are some photos of the A4Tech mouse.com/id/I-need-your-help. One significant difference is the voltage across the primary. But it's a USB powered device and is restricted by the maximum current the computer can supply. I have analyzed the mouse and its circuit to find out what the difference is between my circuit and theirs. Now unfortunately it doesn't work.http://www.-INDUCTION/?ALLSTEPS We can turn on the circuit and see whether we induce a voltage on the secondary coil.4 volts. minus the rectifier which I will add later. a capacitor in series with . The voltage on mine was about 0. The secondary circuit of the mouse is exactly like mine. A low resistance coil with a high voltage.instructables. This is where I'm stuck. But how is this possible. If we apply ohms law we would find that the current would have to be huge.
which has very little turns and a low resistance.com/id/I-need-your-help. A coil. For some reason I cant get the video to play. Please.com/video/play?vid=1686520 Step 15References so far This file contains click on links with descriptions.yahoo. This file was created on a mac with opera.http://www.html6 KB Step 16A part IV project report on 'An Inductively Coupled Universal Battery Charger' . All the plans for the circuitry with the values you see in the video clip are below.instructables. Could you suggest some ways that would make this thing work and point out any errors I have made? Step 14Update 1 i Below is a short video clip of what I have built so far .-INDUCTION/?ALLSTEPS the coil. if you are good with electronics and physics. If it doesn't open try opening it with a text program like notepad or textedit Bookmarks. The link below is to the video above http://video.
pdf850 KB Step 17Microcontroller Info If you're interested in using a microcontroller to generate the signal.http://www.instructables. but if you're interested in the power transfer part its definately worth reading.com/id/I-need-your-help. Thank you to Cerincok who brought this to my attention! p64_rcou026. .-INDUCTION/?ALLSTEPS I know its long.
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