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Chng 1: gii thiu thp nin va qua, lnh vc networking c s pht trin tc rt cao.

cao. S ph cp mnh m ca internet v yu cu ngy cng tng v thng tin a phng tin kim chng mt cch nghim ngt gii hn ca my tnh hin nay cng nh mng vin thng. C mt nhu cu tc th cho s pht trin ca mng mi c dung lng cao c kh nng h tr nhng yu cu v tng trng bng thng. gp nhng nhu cu tng trng , h thng quang WDM c trin khai trong nhiu mng vin thng backbone. Trong h thng WDM, mi cp mang nhiu knh truyn thng, mi knh hot ng trn mt bc sng khc nhau. H thng truyn ti quang nh vt c kh nng cung cp trn 50 Tb/s trn 1 cp n

Hnh 1.1 ch ra s pht trin ca nhng phng php truyn ti quang khc nhau. Th h kin trc mng quang u tin gm c nhng lin kt im-im WDM. Mt mng nh vy bao gm mt vi lin kt im-im m lu lng n node b b, chuyn i t quang sang in, x l tn hiu in , v chuyn t in sang quang trc khi ri node. Vic thm v b lu lng ti mi node trong mng phi chu nhng thit hi nghim trng- s phc tp ca chuyn mch v ci gi phi tr ca x l tn hiu in, c bit nu a phn lu lng trong mng l lu lng i qua(bypass traffic). gim thiu cost ca mng, nhng thit b ton-quang c th c s dng Kin trc mng th h th hai da trn WADM( ghp knh thm- bt theo bc sng), khi m lu lng c th c add vo hoc drop ti cc a im WADM. WADM c th cho php nhng knh bc sng c chn trn cp b chn, trong khi nhng bc sng khc li c i qua hon ton. Ni chung, lng lu lng i qua trong mng ln hn nhiu so vi lng lu lng b drop ti mt node no ; do , nh s dng WADM, ta c th gim cost tng ca ton mng, iu ny k vng s c trin khai ti th trng mng th

xy dng mng li gm nhiu kt ni quang a bc sng, thit b kt ni cp l rt cn thit.Kin trc mng quang th h th 3 da trn nhng thit b kt ni ton-quang. Nhng thit b ny ri vo 3 loi: coupler sao b ng(passive star), router b ng(passive router) v switch ch ng(active switch). Passive star l thit b qung b. Mt tn hiu n trn mt bc sng cho trc trn cng cp u vo ca coupler hnh sao , cng sut ca n s c chia u ra cc port u ra ca coupler sao. Mt passive router c th nh tuyn ring bit mt vi bc sng n trn mt cp u vo n cng bc sng cp u ra. Passive router l thit b tnh; v th cu hnh nh tuyn l c nh. Mt active switch cng nh tuyn bc sng t cp u vo n cp u ra v c th h tr kt ni ln lt. Khng ging nh passive router, active switch c th ti cu hnh thay i dng kt ni ca bc sng n v bc sng i. Trng nhng mng quang th h 3 ny, d liu c cho php qua nhng node trung gian m khng cn chuyn i sang in, v vy gim c cost ca vic cung cp chc nng chuyn mch in c dung lng cao v kh nng nh tuyn ti mi node H thng mi ton-quang c hi vng s cung cp kt ni chuyn mch knh, hoc tuyn quang, gia cc router bin qua mt mng quang li; tuy nhin, do nhng kt ni chuyn mch knh l tnh, chng khng c kh nng iu tit dung lng qu ln, bng n ca mng internet. Mt cch l tng, cung cp s vn hnh tt nht c th trong li quang, cc node cn cung cp chuyn mch gi ti mc quang . Chuyn mch gi ton quang nh vt dng nh khng kh thi trong tng lai gn do nhng gii hn v cng ngh Mt s thay th tng t cho chuyn mch knh ton quang v chuyn mch gi ton quang l chuyn mch burst quang. Trong chuyn mch burst quang, cc gi tin tip ni nhau vo trong cc transport unit(n v giao vn) c gi l cc burst. Cc burst sau c chuyn mch qua mng quang li theo ci cch ca ton quang. Mng chuyn mch burst quang cho php mt mc cao hn ca ghp knh tnh (statistical multiplexing) v ph hp cho vic x l lu lng bng n hn so vi chuyn mch knh quang. Cng lc , mng chuyn mch burst quang khng c nhiu hn ch nh mng chuyn mch gi ton-quang. ch r im khc bit gia chuyn mch knh quang, chuyn mch gi quang v chuyn mch burst quang, chng ta s bn k v mi vn sau

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Chuyn mch knh quang

Mng nh tuyn bc sng quang s dng chuyn mch gi quang, m cc ng nh sng c khi to gia cp cc node. S khi to ca ng i nh sng km theo mt vi cng vic. Nhng cng vic ny bao gm topology v khm ph ti nguyn, nh tuyn bc sng, v bo hiu v chim gi ti nguyn Topology v khm ph ti nguyn s c km theo thng tin trng thi phn phi v bo tr ca mng. Thng thng, thng tin ny s km theo thng tin trn tp mng vt l v trng thi ca lin kt trong mng. Trong mng nh tuyn bc sng WDM, thng tin ny c th km theo ri ca bc sng trn mt lin kt cho trc trong mng. Mt giao thc chung cho duy tr thng tin trng thi lin kt trng mng l giao thc OSPF Vn tm tuyn ng v phn b bc sng cho tuyn quang tng ng vi vic nh tuyn v phn b bc sng (vit tt l RWA). Thng thng, yu cu kt ni c 2 loi tnh v

ng. Trong khi to tuyn quang tnh (SLE), ton b cc kt ni u c bit trc, vn l to tuyn quang cho nhng kt ni ny trong khi ti thiu ha ti nguyn mng nh s bc sng, s cp ca mng. Vi khi to tuyn quang ng (DLE) mt tuyn quang c to ra cho mi yu cu kt ni khi yu cu n, v tuyn quang c ngt sau mt khong thi gian no . Vn trong trng hp lu lng ng l to tuyn quang v phn b bc sng trong khi ti thiu ha lng kt ni b chn hoc ti a s lng kt ni c khi to trong mng ti bt c thi im no. C rt nhiu nghin cu gii quyt cc vn ca RLE v DLE Kt ni tuyn quang c nh tuyn bc sng l kh tnh v khng th ph hp vi lu lng internet bin i v bng n nh ngy nay. Rt r tng rng nu lu lng rt bin ng, th gi lu lng quang tuyn quang tnh s gy ra s khng hiu qu v bng thng. Mt khc nu ta tip cn to ra tuyn quang theo cch ng, th thng tin v trng thi ca mng thay i lin tc, lm cho vic giu thng tin trng thi mng tr nn kh khn. V vy khi lu lng tr nn ngy cng ng v bng n, mt cch tip cn thay th l cn thit truyn d liu qua mng 1.2 Chuyn mch gi quang Khi cng ngh chuyn mch quang c nng cao, chng ta cui cng thy c s xut hin ca mng chuyn mch gi quang m trong cc gi c chuyn mch v nh tuyn c lp qua mng, hon ton trong min quang m khng cn chuyn i tr li sang in ti mi node. Mt mng nh vy cho php mc cao hn ca ghp knh tnh trn cp quang v ph hp hn x l lu lng bng n so vi chuyn mch knh quang Mt v d ca kin trc chuyn mch gi quang c bn c biu din trong hnh 1.2. Mt node cha c cu chuyn mch quang c kh nng cu hnh l da trn nn tng tng gi mt. C cu chuyn mch c cu hnh li da trn thng tin cha trong tiu ca mi gi tin. Tiu t n c x l in, v c th c mng in-band vi packet, c mng trn mt tn s sng mang con ; hoc c mang i out-of-band trn mt knh hon ton khc. V mt mt khong thi gian tiu c x l v cho chuyn mch c cu hnh li, gi tin c th b lm tr nh gi n quan mt ng tr quang

Kin trc ca mt chuyn mch gi quang

chuyn mch gi quang c thc t, thi gian chuyn mch nhanh l cn thit. Thng thng, thi gian chuyn mch cho MEM-based switch c yu cu t 1 n 10 ms, trong khi chuyn mch da trn khuch i quang bn dn c thi gian chuyn mch di 1ns. Nhc im ca chuyn mch khuch i bn dn quang l chng c gi t v kin trc chuyn mch yu cu tn hiu phi i qua b coupler- iu ny lm gim cng sut. Trong khi tc chuyn mch c k vng s tng trong thi gian gn, cng ngh hin ti cha trng thnh h tr chuyn mch gi quang Mt thch thc na trong chuyn mch gi quang l vn ng b. Trong mng chuyn mch gi quang vi cc gi c di khng i, ng b gi ti u vo switch thng c ti thiu xung t. D ng b thng kh t c, mt vi k thut ng b c nghin cu ti nhiu vin khoa hc. V ti nguyn mng khng c t trc trong chuyn mch gi quang, gi c th b xung t. Xung t xy ra khi 2 hay nhiu gi c xu hng ra cng cng u ra ti cng thi im. Thng thng, xung t trong mng chuyn mch gi in truyn thng c x l nh b m; tuy nhin trong min quang, rt kh vn hnh b m, do khng c thit b quang tng c vi RAM. Thay vo , b m quang c th c c nh dng b ng cp tr. Nh c ng tr ny, ta c th gi gi tin tr i trng mt khong thi gian. Ch rng trong mi kin trc b m quang, kch c b m l c gii hn, khng ch l do vn cht lng tn hiu, cn l do gii hn v khng gian vt l. lm tr mt gi tin trong 5 micro giy i hi phi c 1 km cp. V gii hn kch c ca b m, mt node c th khng kh nng x l lng lu lng ln nh iu kin mng hin nay Mt cch tip cn khc gii quyt xung t l nh tuyn gi tin b xung t n cng u ra khc vi cng u ra d nh ban u. Cch tip cn ny c hiu nh chuyn hng nh tuyn hay nh tuyn hot-potato. Trong khi nh tuyn chuyn hng thng khng c a dng trong mng chuyn mch gi in do nguy c lp vng v chuyn gi out-of-sequence. Dng chuyn hng quang s l cn thit trong mng chuyn mch gi quang- ni m dung lng b m l gii hn v duy tr c mc mt gi hp l. Tuy nhin, trc khi trin khai n, nhng nghin cu s cn phi i trc tm ra nhng phng n vt qua gii hn ca chuyn hng quang 1.3 Chuyn mch burst quang

S dng offset time trong OBS Chuyn mch burst quang c s dng t c s cn bng gia chuyn mch gi quang v chuyn mch knh quang. Trong mng chuyn mch burst quang, nmoojt burst d liu cha nhiu gi tin IP c chuyn mch qua mng ton quang. Mt gi tin iu khin c truyn i trc burst cu hnh cc switch trn tuyn ng ca burst. Offset time( hnh v) cho php gi tin iu khin c x l v switch c ci t trc khi burst n node trung gian; v th, khng cn b m in hay quang no ti cc node trung gian trong khi gi tin iu khin c x l. Gi tin iu khin c th ch r khong thi gian ca burst cho node bit khi no n cn cu hnh li switch ca n cho burst n tip theo

So snh s khc nhau gia cc cng ngh ca mng ton quang Bng cch t trc ti nguyn cho mt khong thi gian nht nh hn l t trc ti nguyn cho mt khong thi gian khng xc nh, ti nguyn c th c phn b mt cch hiu qu v mc ghp knh cao hn c th t c. V th, chuyn mch burst quang c kh nng

vt qua mt s gii hn ca phn b bng thng tnh trong chuyn mch knh quang. Hn na, v d liu c truyn trong cc burst ln, chuyn mch burst quang lm gim cng ngh yu cu cho chuyn mch quang nhanh- iu ny cn thit cho chuyn mch gi quang Hnh trn tng kt s khc bit trong mng chuyn mch ton quang ca 3 cng ngh. T hnh v, ta c th d dng nhn thy, chuyn mch burst quang c u im ca c chuyn mch gi quang v chuyn mch knh quang trong khi trnh c nhng thiu st ca chng Mc d chuyn mch burst quang xut hin cung cp nhng u im hn chuyn mch gi quang v chuyn mch knh quang, mt vi vn vn phi xem xt trc khi chuyn mch burst quang c th trin khai trong mng. C th, nhng vn ny bao gm lp rp burst, k hoch bo hiu, gii quyt xung t, lp lch burst v cht lng dch v Lp rp burst c yu cu quyt nh xem bao nhiu gi tin c rp rp vo cc burst. Vn km theo l khi no lp rp vo mt burst,bao nhiu gi tin cn lp trong 1 burst, loi gi tin no c km theo trong burst. Lp rp burst s nh hng n di burst cng nh khong thi gian m mt gi tin phi i trc khi c truyn i. M hnh bo hiu l cn thit cho vic t trc ti nguyn v cu hnh switch cho burst n. M hnh bo hiu thng thng t trc ti nguyn trong OBS l tell-and-go(TAG), telland-wait(TAW) v just-enough-time(JET). Trong m hnh TAG, node ngun gi mt bn tin iu khin ti ch thch vi cc node dowstream l burst sp n. Tip , node ngun lp tc gi burst d liu theo sau bn tin iu khin m khng cn i c bo nhn(ack). c thi gian x l bn tin iu khin cng nh cu hnh switch ti cc node, burst c th cn c qua b m ti mi node. Trong m hnh TAW, pha ngun gi mt bn tin iu khin t trc ti nguyn cho burst trn ton tuyn ng. Tip , pha ngun i bo nhn (ack) rng qu trnh t trc ti nguyn thnh cng. Sau khi nhn ack ny, pha ngun s gi burst. Nu khng , node ngun s phi tip cn li lm li qu trnh t trc ti nguyn ny. Trong JET, c mt tr gia truyn gi tin iu khin v truyn burst d liu. tr ny c th c t ln hn tng thi gian x l gi tin iu khin trn c tuyn ng. Do , khi burst n mi node trung gian, gi tin iu khin c x l v knh trn cng u ra cng c phn phi. V vy, khng cn b m burst ti mi node. iu ny l c im rt quan trng trong m hnh JET. Trong m hnh TAG v JET, pha ngun khng cn phi i xc nhn trc khi truyn burst. V vy, rt c th vic t trc ti nguyn khng thnh cng ti mt node no trn tuyn. Trong trng hp ny, mt burst ang truyn s b xung t. Xung t xy ra khi c hn mt burst tranh ginh cng mt ti nguyn ti cng mt thi im. Xung t c th gii quyt bng rt nhiu cch. Mt trong nhng cch l lu tr mt trong s cc burst n khi ti nguyn thch hp ri. Mt cch khc l chuyn hng mt trong cc burst n cng u ra khc. Mt cch khc na l chuyn mt trong cc burst sang bc sng khc trn cp u ra. Khi cc k thut gii quyt xung t khng thnh cng, burst s b hy b. Khi chuyn i bc sng c s dng, vn quyt nh bc sng no ph hp cho mt burst trn lin kt u ra c gi l lp lch knh.

Chng 2: k thut v kin trc


S pht trin ca chuyn mch burst quang da vo s pht trin thnh cng ca mt vi cng ngh ct li, bao gm chuyn mch ton quang,thit b nhn mode burst, chuyn i bc sng quang. Trong khi s pht trin trong nhng lnh vc ny c nhng s pht trin trong vi nm va qua, cng cn thm mt s i hi khc trc khi nhng cng ngh ny c th sn sng cho h thng thc t. D loi cng ngh no s c s dng, th ngi thit k mng vn phi quan tm n nhng hn ch tng vt l i vi cc thit b v thnh phn cng ngh ny. Chng ny s gii thiu mt ci nhn chung nht v kin trc ca node chuyn mch burst quang, tp trung vo cc thnh phn chnh cn thit cho chuyn mch burst quang. Tip , s gii thiu mt vi cng ngh h tr kin trc chuyn mch burst quang v bn v cc vn tng vt l c th nh hng n hiu nng ca mng chuyn mch burst quang. 2.1 Kin trc mng chuyn mch burst quang Mt mng chuyn mch burst quang bao gm cc node c kt ni vi nhau qua cc cp. Mi cp c kh nng phc v nhiu knh bc sng s dng ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng WDM. Cc node trong mng OBS c th l node bin hay node li nh trong hnh 2.1 . Node bin c trch nhim lp rp cc gi tin vo cc burst, v lp lch cho burst truyn trn knh bc sng. Node li c chc nng chnh l chuyn mch burst t cng u vo ti cng u ra da trn gi tin tiu burst v x l xung t burst

Kin trc mng chuyn burst quang

Node bin u vo lp rp cc gi tin n t u cui khch hng vo trong burst. Burst c lp rp xong c truyn i (ton quang) qua cc router li m khng cn lu tr ti cc node trung gian. Node bin u ra sau khi nhn c burst, s tch cc burst thnh cc gi tin v chuyn chng ti u cui ngi dng ch. Trong hnh 2.2, m t nhng chc nng khc nhau trong mng chuyn mch burst quang. Node bin u vo c trch nhim lp rp burst, nh tuyn , phn b bc sng v lp lch cho burst ti bin. Node li c trch nhim bo hiu, lp lch burst ti cc lin kt li v gii quyt xung t. Node bin u ra c trch nhim tho cc burst v chuyn gi tin ti tng mng cao hn

Hnh 2.2 S chc nng OBS Trong kin trc mng, c th gi nh rng mi node c th h tr c lu lng vo cng nh lu lng i qua ton quang. V vy mi node gm c router li v router bin nh trong hnh 2.3 v 2.4 Router li(hnh 2.3) gm c cc OXC( kt ni cho quang) v SCU(n v iu khin chuyn mch). SCU to ra v duy tr mt bng chuyn tip(forwarding table) v c trch nhim cu hnh OXC. Khi SCU nhn mt gi tin tiu burst, n nhn dng cng u ra d tnh ca gi tin. Nu cng u ra d tnh ban u ny ri khi burst d liu n, SCU cu hnh OXC cho burst d liu i qua. Nu cngu ra bn,vic OXC s c cu hnh nh th no da hon ton vo chnh sach gii quyt xung t p dng cho mng. Ni chung, SCU c chc nng gii thch tiu ( bin dch) , lp lch, pht hin xung t v gii quyt n, tra bng chuyn tip (forwarding table), iu khin ma trn chuyn mch, vit li tiu ,v iu khin chuyn i bc sng. Trong trng hp burst d liu vo OXC trc gi tin iu khin ca n, burst s b hy b. Router bin( hnh 2.4) c chc nng tin phn loi gi tin, b m gi tin, lp rp gi tin vo burst, v tho ri gi tin ra khi burst. Nhng chnh sch lp rp burst khc nhau, nh chnh sch threshold hoc c ch timer c th c s dng tp hp cc gi tin d liu ln vo mt burst quang v gi cc burst quang vo mng. Kin trc ca router bin gm c module

nh tuyn, mt b lp rp burst, mt b lp lch. Module nh tuyn chn cng u ra ph hp vi mi gi tin v gi mi gi tin n module lp rp tng ng. Mi module lp rp burst gm c cc gi tin c hng n router bin u ra c th. Trong module lp rp burst, c nhiu loi hng i gi tin khc nhau cho mi mc lu lng. B lp lch to ra mt burst da trn k thut lp rp burst v truyn burst qua cng u ra . Ti router u ra,mt module tho ri burst thnh cc gi tin v gi gi tin n tng mng pha trn. Mt vi nh khoa hc xut mt kin trc OBS tp trung hn :WR-OBS (chuyn mch burst quang nh tuyn bc sng). Mt mng WR-OBS kt hp nhng chc nng ca OBS vi chuyn mch knh nhanh bng cch phn b ng v gii phng (releasing) tuyn quang c nh tuyn bc song qua mt li quang khng c m.

Hnh 2.3 : kin trc router li

Hnh 2.4 Kin trc router bin u im ca kin trc ny so snh vi OBS thng thng l c QoS r rng c tnh d phng. So vi mng nh tuyn bc sng quang tnh, th WR-OBS c u im thch ng nhanh vi lu lng bng n, lin tc thay i trn mng quang v vn hnh hiu qu hn trn mi knh bc sng Trong mng WR-OBS, mi request server tp trung ha c trch nhim t trc ti nguyn cho cc yu cu kt ni trn ton mng. Mi node u vo gi yu cu kt ni ca chng ti request server, ni m cc yu cu c xp hng da vo node u ra ch v mc QoS. Server c tp trung ha c kh nng phn b ti nguyn da vo nhng kin thc ton cc ca n v trng thi ca mi bc sng trn mi lin kt trong ton mng. Request server tp trung ha c trch nhim x l mi yu cu kt ni n l, tnh ton tuyn ng t ngun ti ch tng ng v t trc request number ca bc sng trn mi lin kt trn ton tuyn kt ni. Router bin u vo bt u truyn d liu ch sau khi n nhn c mt bn tin xc nhn t request server. WR-OBS c th nng cao throughput ca mng, nhng chnh bn cht tp trung ha ca n rt kh c th m rng c 2.2 Enabling technology cung cp chuyn mch burst quang c bn nh ni phn trc cn mt vi thit b cng ngh. Trong node li v bin, OXC phi hot ng s dng c cu chuyn mch quang nhanh. Ti node bin phi s dng thit b nhn mode burst nhanh(fast burst receiver) c th thu c tn hiu ca burst n mt cch nhanh chng. Mi node cng nn s dng chuyn i bc sng gim xung t trn lin kt u ra

2.2.1 Cng ngh chuyn mch quang Trong khi OBS khng i hi thi gian chuyn mch nhanh nh chuyn mch gi quang, thi gian chuyn mch nhanh d sao cng l rt tt. Gn y, mt vi cng ngh vn hnh chuyn mch ton quang Mt trong nhng cng ngh cho vn hnh chuyn mch ton quang l cng ngh MEMS(micro-electromechanical system). Trong chuyn mch MEMS, nhng gng siu nh c kh nng di chuyn c iu chnh hng tia sng t mt u vo ti port u ra nh. Hnh 2.5 cho thy v d v MEMS switch c thit k ra sao. Trong thit k ny, tia sng t mt cp u vo cho trc chiu thng n mt gng trong mng gng u vo. Gng c iu chnh phn chiu nh sng n mt gng pha mng gng u ra, tip tia sng c chiu n cp u ra thch hp. V MEMS da trn c ch iu chnh gng phn chiu nh sng , thi gian chuyn mch do vy l chm. Thi gian chuyn mch thc t cho MEMS switch l khong 50ms

Hnh 2.5 chuyn mch MEMS Mt cng ngh chuyn mch cung cp thi gian chuyn mch nhanh l SOA gate switch (SOA- khuch i quang bn dn). Lc ca mt chuyn mch SOA c bn c ch r trong hnh 2.6. Tia sng n mt u vo cho trc c broadcast(qung b) ti nhiu SOA s dng coupler quang. SOA hot ng nh mt cng m c th bt hoc tt i. Nu SOA c bt ln, tn hiu n c chuyn tip , cho qua n u ra, nu khng tn hiu b chn

li. u im ca chuyn mch SOA bao gm thi gian chuyn mch nhanh - khong 1ns , v kh nng multicasting mt tn hiu ti nhiu u ra. Mt nhc im ca chuyn mch da trn SOA l coupler gy ra s gim v cng sut tn hiu , dn n gim khong cch truyn dn ti a ca tn hiu. ng thi SOA cng c gi kh t v c nhy phn cc cao.

Hnh 2.6 chuyn mch SOA

2.2.2 Burst mode receiver Thit b thu truyn thng s dng trong h thng truyn dn quang nh SONET thng khng ph hp vi chuyn mch burst quang. Mt thit b thu nh vy mc nh pha v cng sut khng i cho tn hiu n v cng mc nh rng tn hiu lun lun hin hu trn ng truyn. Trong mng OBS,cc burst n mt thit b thu cho trc c th c pha v cng sut khc nhau,v burst c th n t nhiu ngun khc nhau v c th i qua nhiu tuyn trong mng. Hn na, do bn cht ca burst , mt tn hiu ch hin din trn ng truyn trong khong thi gian ca mt burst. Burst mode receiver l thit b thu c thit k thch ng vi pha v cng sut bin thin ca burst n. Mt c tnh khc ca Burst mode receiver l thi gian t xung ng h nhanh. Burst mode receiver c kh nng phc hi xung ng h ca tn hiu 2 GB/s trong 24ns 2.2.3 Chuyn i bc sng Trong mng chuyn mch burst quang vn hnh WDM, rt l tng khi c th c kh nng chuyn i bc sng ti mi node gim xung t. C mt cch quen thuc nht chuyn i tn hiu t mt bc sng ti bc sng khc l chuyn i tn hiu quang thnh tn hiu in v s dng tn hiu in iu ch tn hiu quang trn bc sng u ra mong mun. Phng php ny kh n gin v c th chuyn i tn hiu vn hnh tc ln ti 10 Gb/s; tuy nhin, cch tip cn ny l khng trong sut v i hi tn hiu quang c nh dng iu ch nht nh v mt tc nht nh Mt cch tip cn vi vn hnh chuyn i bc sng ton quang l iu ch cross-gain. Trong iu ch cross-gain, d liu c gi qua mt SOA cng vi mt tn hiu sng bm lin tc(CW- continuous wave) trn mt bc sng khc. Khi tn hiu d liu cao, sng mang trong

vng tng ca soa tr tnn cn kit, v SOA tr nn bo ha. Kt qu l, s khuch i ca CW gim. Khi tn hiu d liu thp, tn hiu CW nhn c ton b s khuch i. V th, mt bn sao chp ngc ca d liu s c t vo tn hiu u ra. K thut ny c kh nng chuyn tn hiu hot ng tc 10 Gb/s. Gii hn ca chuyn i da trn iu ch crossgian l nhng k thut ny i hi cng sut u ra cao cho tn hiu d liu, v tn hiu u ra c t l extinction thp (t l cng sut cho mt bit khng chia cho cng sut cho mt bit 1). iu ny l do k c khi SOA bo ha, tn hiu CW vn nhn mt vi s khuch i Mt phng php khc cung cp chuyn i bc sng quang l s dng trn bn sng. Trn bn sng l hiu ng phi tuyn m khi c tn hiu c tn s f1 v f2 tng tc to ra nhng thnh phn tn s mi 2f1-f2 v 2f2-f1 . Nu tn hiu d liu hot ng tn s f1 v tn hiu bm CW hot ng tn s f2, khi d liu s b p t lm vic ti tn s 2f1-f2 v 2f2-f1. Tn hiu mi c to ra c cng sut nh hn tn hiu u vo, v th kh nng chuyn i ca k thut ny l khng tht hiu qu. Hn na hiu qu cn b gim do s sai khc gia bc sng bm v tn hiu bc sng u ra tng 2.3 Vn tng vt l Khi thit k mt mng chuyn mch burst quang, nhng hn ch vt l l rt ng quang tm. C th nh suy hao, tn sc, hiu ng phi tuyn. Trong nhng vn ny, nhiu ci xut hin trong mng quang thng thng, mt vi ci khc xut hin nh mt vn c bit trong chuyn mch burst quang 2.3.1 Suy hao Khi tn hiu quang i trn cp, cng sut tn hiu suy gim do suy hao. Suy hao l do s hp th v tn x rayleigh. Hp th l do nh sng b hp th trn cc phn t silica hoc tp cht. hu ht cc cp, lng hp th cho khong bc sng hu ch(0.8-1.6 micromet) l khng ng k. Tn x rayleigh l do bin thin nh ca chit sut ca cp lm tn x nh sng Trong mng chuyn mch burst quang, suy hao lm gim khong cch ti a m burst c th i c. Trong hu ht cc trng hp, khuch i quang c th s dng khc phc iu ny; tuy nhin khuch i quang cng c th gy ra nhiu 2.3.2 Tn sc Nu tn hiu quang gm c hiu thnh phn bc sng, th s khc bit gia cc thnh phn ca tn hiu s i vi vn tc khc nhau gy ra s tri rng ca tn hiu trong min thi gian. Hiu ng ny l tn sc. Cc dng ca tn sc bao gm c tn sc mode v tn sc chromatic Tn sc mode l do nhiu mode ca cng mt tn hiu lan truyn ti nhng vn tc khc nhau trn cp. Tn sc mode c th kh bng cch ta s dng cp n mode. Cp n mode c ng knh li nh, ch c th mang i duy nht mt mode ca tn hiu truyn lan. Tn sc chromatic l do vn tc nh sng l mt hm ca bc sng. V th nu tn hiu gm nhiu hn mt thnh phn bc sng, dn n thnh phn ny lan truyn nhanh hn thnh phn kia, gy ra s tri rng trn min thi gian ca tn hiu. Loi tn sc chromatic ny bao

gm tn sc vt liu- m chit sut ca si bin i nh mt hm ca bc sng( chit sut si vi cc thnh phn tia sng khc nhau l khc nhau) v tn sc ng dn sng- chit sut cho mt bc sng nht nh da vo phn cng sut i trong li v phn cng sut i ngoi v ca si Trong trng hp m tn hiu gm mt xung biu din mt bit n l, tn sc gy ra dn xung khi n lan truyn qua si. Khi xung b dn ra, n c th dn ra nhiu gy ra nhiu vi xung bn cnh, gy ra ISI. Suy hao s lm gii hn khng gian bit v tc truyn dn trong knh quang Ti bc sng 1300nm, tn sc vt liu trong cp n mode thng thng gn nh bng khng. Rt may mn l y cng chnh l mt ca s suy hao thp trong quang. Qua nhng k thut nng cao nh dch tn sc, c th to ra si vi tn sc bng 0 ti mt bc sng no t 1300nm ti 1700 nm. Trong si dch tn sc, li v v c thit k sao cho tn sc ng dn sng l m, v th khi cng vi tn sc vt liu s cho tn sc tng v khng. Tuy nhin, tn sc ch bng khng cho mt bc sng n Cng vi vn v ISI, suy hao cng c th gy ra vn v ng b trong mng chuyn mch burst quang. Trong mt mng chuyn mch burst quang, tiu burst thng c gi n bc sng khc vi bc sng ca burst. Mi bc sng trong cc bc sng s tri qua cc mc tn sc khc nhau, gy ra hin tng burst v tiu c th tri li gn hay ra xa nhau hn trong min thi gian. Nu khong cch vt l ca mi lin kt v suy hao ca cp l bit truosc, c th b li tn sc bng cch iu chnh cho ph hp offset ca node ngun.(?) 2.3.3 Hiu ng phi tuyn Hiu ng phi tuyn trong cp thng c nh hng n: tc truyn dn, s knh, khong cch knh, cng sut tn hiu. Mt vi v d v hiu ng phi tuyn : trn 4 sng, t iu ch pha, iu ch pha cho, tn x kch thch raman, tn x kch thch brillouin Trn bn sng (FWM) xy ra khi 2 bc sng hot ng ti 2 tn s f1 , f2 s trng vo nhau to ra tn hiu 2f1-f2 v 2f2-f1. Nhng tn hiu to ra sau ny gi l sideband, c th gy nhiu nu chng trng vi tn s s dng truyn d liu. Cng nh vy, trn c th xy ra gia s kt hp ca 3 hay nhiu hn cc bc sng.Hiu ng trn 4 sng trong WDM c th c lm gim nh s dng knh c khong cch khng u T iu ch pha l do thay i v cng ca tn hiu , gy ra s thay i v pha ca tn hiu. S bin i tc thi v pha ca tn hiu c th to ra thnh phn tn s ph thm trong tn hiu. Nhng thnh phn tn s ny kt hp vi hiu ng ca tn sc, s gy ra s tri rng hoc nn li ca xung trong min thi gian iu ch pha cho l s dch v pha ca 1 tn hiu gy ra do s thay i cng ca 1 tn hiu lan truyn ti bc sng khc. Gn vi t iu ch pha, s dch v pha c th to ra thnh phn tn s vi, gy ra tng tn sc. Mc d iu ch pha cho c th gii hn hiu nng ca h thng quang, n cng c nhng ng dng tch cc ca n. S dng iu ch pha cho ,

mt tn hiu mt bc sng cho trc c th c s dng iu ch mt tn hiu bm trn mt bc sng khc. K thut nh vy dng trong thit b chuyn i bc sng Tn x kch thch raman l do s tng tc ca nh sng vi s dao ng ca cc phn t. nh sng ti phn t to ra nh sng b tn x bc sng di hn bc sng ti. Mt phn ca nh sng truyn i mi tn s trong si raman-ch ng c dch xung vng tn s thp. nh sng to ra tn s thp gi l sng Stock. Khong tn s m sng Stoke chim c quyt nh bi ph tng ch Raman khong tm 40THz di tn s ca sng nh sng vo. Trong si silica, sng Stoke c tng ti a ti tn s 13.2THz t hn tn hiu vo Phn cng sut c chuyn sang sng Stoke tng nhanh chng khi cng sut ca tn hiu vo tng. Di mt u vo c cng sut rt ln, SRS s gy ra hin tng gn nh ton b cng sut ca tn hiu vo s b chuyn sang sng Stoke Trong h thng a bc sng,knh bc sng ngn hn s mt cng sut n cc knh bc sng di hn trong min ph tng raman. gim lng hao ht, cng sut ti mi knh s phi thp hn mt mc no . Tn x kch thch Brillouin(SBS) tng t vi SRS, ch khc l dch tn s gy ra do photon m hc cn SRS lin quan n photon quang. Trong SBS, nh sng b dch lan truyn trong si theo hng ngc li vi tn hiu ti. Cng ca nh sng b tn x ln hn trong trng hp SRS nhiu, nhng khong tn s SBS khong 10 GHz li t hn SRS. Cng vi , bng thng ca SBS ch khong 100MHz chng li nh hng ca SBS, phi chc rng cng sut tn hiu vo di mt ngng no . Trong h thng a bc sng, SBS c th gy ra crosstalk gia cc knh.