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The Steel Industry February 2, 2007

Appendix VI: Steel Glossary
Agglomerating Processes
Fine particles of limestone (flux) and iron ore are difficult to handle and transport because of
dusting and decomposition. The powdery material is therefore usually processed into larger pieces.
The raw material’s properties determine the agglomerating technique that is used by mills.
• Sinter – Baked particles that stick together in roughly one-inch chunks. Normally used for iron
ore dust collected from the blast furnaces.
• Pellets – Iron ore or limestone particles are rolled into little balls in a balling drum and
hardened by heat.
• Briquettes – Small lumps formed by pressing material together. Hot briquetted iron (HBI) is a
concentrated iron ore substitute for scrap for use in electric arc furnaces.
Alloy Steel
An iron-based mixture is considered to be an alloy steel when one or more of the following limits
is exceeded: manganese contents is greater than 1.65%, silicon over 0.6%, copper above 0.6% or
other minimum quantities of alloying elements such as aluminium, chromium, cobalt, nickel,
molybdenum, vanadium or tungsten are present. An enormous variety of distinct properties can be
created for the steel by substituting these elements in the recipe to increase hardness, strength or
chemical resistance.

Alloying Element
Any metallic element added during the melting of steel or aluminum for the purpose of increasing
corrosion resistance, hardness or strength. The metals used most commonly as alloying elements
in stainless steel include chromium, nickel and molybdenum.

A heat or thermal treatment process by which a previously cold-rolled coil of metal is made more
suitable for forming and bending. The sheet is heated to a designated temperature for a sufficient
amount of time and then cooled either in batches or in a continuous annealing process.

Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF)
A pear-shaped furnace lined with refractory bricks that refines molten iron from the blast furnace
and scrap into steel. Up to 30% of the charge into the BOF can be scrap, with hot metal accounting
for the rest. The BOF, which can refine a heat (batch) of steel in less than 45 minutes, replaced
open-hearth furnaces in the 1950s; the latter required five to six hours to process the metal. The
BOF's rapid operation, lower cost and ease of control give it a distinct advantage over previous
methods. Scrap is dumped into the furnace vessel, followed by the hot metal from the blast
furnace. A lance is lowered from above, through which blows a high-pressure stream of oxygen to
cause chemical reactions that separate impurities as fumes or slag. Once refined, the liquid steel
and slag are poured into separate containers.

A relatively long, straight, rigid piece of metal; long steel products rolled from billets into such
shapes as squares, rectangles, rounds, angles, channels, hexagons and tees. In steel, “merchant
bars” include rounds, flats, angles, squares and channels that are used by fabricators to
manufacture a wide variety of products such as furniture, stair railings and farm equipment.
Concrete reinforcing bar (rebar) is used to strengthen concrete in highways, bridges and buildings.

Rectangular semi-finished steel form (hot rolled from ingot or sheared from continuous caster's
output) destined for further processing into rod, bar, structural or tubing product. A billet is
different from a slab because of its outer dimensions; billets are normally 2–7 inches square, while
slabs are 30–80 inches wide and 2–10 inches thick. Both shapes are generally continually cast, but
they may differ greatly in their chemistry.

124 Marie Millien, CFA

Coils are the most efficient way to store and transport sheet metal. but most commonly for such structural products as I-beams. used by integrated steel mills to smelt iron from its ore. Cold Rolling Rolling. coke and limestone that load the furnace. silicon and phosphorous. 2007 The Steel Industry Blast Furnace A towering cylinder lined with heat-resistant (refractory) bricks. bar or tubing product. Coils Sheet metal rolled from slab or ingot that has then been wound. while more than doubling its length. Processed coke burns steadily inside and out without being crushed by the weight of the iron ore in the blast furnace. manganese. are often the dirtiest area of a steel mill complex. Strip has a final product width of approximately 12 inches. Cold-Rolled Strip (Sheet) Sheet steel that has been pickled and run through a cold reduction mill. smoother and stronger. H-beams and sheet piling. Coke ovens are constructed in batteries of 10 to 100 ovens that are 20 feet tall. rather heat. Coke Coke. sulphur. is manufactured inside a coke oven by heating coal without oxygen for 18 hours to drive off gases and impurities. a steel coil is more than one-quarter of a mile long. a processed form of coal. Coke Oven Battery A set of ovens that process coal into coke. CFA 125 . Once rolled in a hot-strip mill. so it will sell for a premium. Bloom Nearly square semi-finished steel product (hot rolled from ingot or sheared from continuous caster's output) whose cross-section is more than 8 inches. by applying pressure. Marie Millien. Casing is used to prevent contamination of both the surrounding water table and the well itself. Cold Reduction Finishing mills roll cold coils of pickled hot-rolled metal to make the steel thinner.February 2. while sheet may be more than 80 inches wide. Destined for further processing into rod. Its name comes from the “blast” of hot air and gases forced up through the iron ore. hammering or stretching metal at a low temperature (often room temperature) to create a permanent increase in the hardness and strength by making changes in the metallurgical structure and shape of the metal. Coke is preferred over metallurgical coal. because of the exhaust fumes emitted when coke is pushed from the ovens. an amount that represents more than 50% of an integrated steel mill’s total energy use. Carbon Steel Ordinary steel made by melting iron or ferrous scrap with carbon. About 1. Casing lasts the life of a well and is not usually removed when a well is closed. and accounts for 75% (by weight) of OCTG shipments. which burns sporadically and reduces into a sticky mass. Cold-rolled sheet is considerably thinner and stronger than hot-rolled sheet. Stands of rolls in a cold-reduction mill are set very close together and press a sheet of steel from one-quarter of an inch thick into less than one-eighth of an inch. 40 feet long and less than 2 feet wide. Casing Casing is the structural retainer for the walls of oil and gas wells. Coke batteries. Coke is the basic fuel consumed in blast furnaces in the smelting of iron.000 pounds of coke are needed to process a ton of pig iron.

ERW technology is improving and the technique now accounts for approximately 48% of annual tonnage shipments of oil country tubular goods. wet sand or wet burlap on the steel just previous to its passage through the rolls. As mini-mills expand their product abilities to sheet steel.e. the material loaded into the smelting vessel). Drill pipe is the conduit between the wellhead motor and the drill bit. the conversion of molten metal directly from the furnace into solid billets. it solidifies into a ribbon of red-hot steel. Price increases that the steel mills might announce during the year do not generally affect the revenues from the contract side of the business. the chemical composition and mechanical properties are more uniform. because it is saturated with carbon. About one-half of all flat-rolled steel is sold on this basis. primarily because the auto companies sign agreements to cover at least one year's model. 2007 Continuous Casting The “newest” technology in steelmaking. Heat is supplied from electricity that arcs from the graphite electrodes to the metal bath. Drill Pipe Pipe used in the drilling of an oil or gas well. While seamless pipe is traditionally stronger and more expensive than ERW pipe. Ferroalloy A metal product commonly used as a raw material feed in steelmaking. Because of the high stress. Common methods are to (1) crack the scale by use of roughened rolls and remove by a forceful water spray. higher-priced scrap. usually containing iron and other metals. expensive mills for rolling ingots into slabs. CFA . blooms or slabs by passing the metal through a tundish (a shallow vessel that looks like a bathtub) or similar funnel-like device and then into a water-cooled mold that maintains the shape during cooling. The impurities in the crushed iron ore are driven off through the use of massive amounts of natural gas. or (2) throw salt. Drilling mud is pumped down the center of the pipe during drilling. Because of this. While the result is 97% pure iron (compared with blast furnace hot metal. they require much higher grades of scrap to approach integrated mill quality. Product that is cut to length is normally shipped flat-stacked. is only 93% iron). Direct Reduced Iron (DRI) Processed iron ore that is iron-rich enough to be used as a scrap substitute in electric furnace steelmaking. Scale forms most readily when the steel is hot by union oxygen with iron. to aid such various stages of the steelmaking process as deoxidation. 126 Marie Millien.The Steel Industry February 2. Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) Steelmaking furnace where scrap is as much as 100% of the charge (i. DRI is only economically feasible in regions where natural gas is attractively priced. drill pipe is a seamless product. torque and temperature associated with well drilling. As steel carefully flows from the tundish down into the water- cooled copper mold of the caster. Furnaces may be powered either by alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC). to lubricate the drill bit and transmit the drilled core to the surface. DRI can serve as a low residual raw material and alleviate the mini-mills' dependence on cleaner.. Cut-To-Length Process to uncoil sections of flat-rolled steel and cut them into a desired length. Contract Sales Steel products committed to customers through price agreements extending 3–12 months. Continuous cast slabs also solidify in a few minutes versus several hours for an ingot. torches cut the continuously flowing steel to form slabs or blooms. Electric Resistance Welded (ERW) Pipe ERW pipe is made from strips of hot-rolled steel that are passed through forming rolls and welded. Continuous casting avoids the need for large. Enabling the mini-mills to use iron ore without the blast furnace. which. Descaling The process of removing scale from the surface of steel. At the bottom of the caster.

they are dull gray in appearance. Forging A metal part worked to predetermined shape by one or more processes such as hammering. 2. rustproofing). Galvanized sheet also is known in the market as “coated sheet. strip and tin plate. rod or shape through a molten bath. have no spangle and. The increased endurance provided by hardening makes steel suitable for additional applications. among others.February 2. Flux An iron cleaning agent. Electro-galvanizing – Continuously zinc-coats an uncoiled sheet or unwound wire or rod electrolytically. Finishing operations can include rolling mills.. in which changes in the structure and shape of steel are achieved through rolling. derived from the Latin “ferrum. wire. Marie Millien. after proper preparation. Hardening can be achieved through various methods. Ferrous Related to iron. abrasion. followed by an air stream “wipe” that controls the thickness of the zinc finish. pickle lines. where the properties of steel are altered by subjecting the steel to a series of temperature changes. Flat-Rolled Steel Category of steel that includes sheet. The time spent at each temperature and the rates of cooling have a significant impact on the effect of the treatment. Galvaneal Coating Coatings on hot-dipped galvanized steels processed to convert the coating completely to zinc-iron alloys. iron-based metals. Examples: ferrochrome. therefore. tandem mills.” Hardening Hardening refers to the degree to which steel will resist cutting. pressing or rolling. including (1) heat treatment. Limestone and lime react with impurities within the metallic pool to form a slag that floats to the top of the relatively heavier (and now more pure) liquid iron. The steel is heated and then cooled as necessary to provide changes in the structural form that will impart the desired characteristics. are well suited for painting. hammering or stretching the steel at a relatively low temperature. 2007 The Steel Industry desulphurization and the adding of strength. Hot-dipped galvanizing – Consists of passing the continuous length of sheet. penetration. Galvanizing methods: 1. ferromanganese and ferrosilicon.e. bending and stretching. annealing facilities and temper mills.” Ferrous metals are. Heat Treatment Heat treatment is used to alter the properties of steel by subjecting it to a series of temperature changes. Galvanized Steel Steel coated with a thin layer of zinc to provide corrosion resistance (i. and (2) cold working. Finishing Facilities The portion of the steelmaking complex that processes semi-finished steel (slabs or billets) into forms that can be used by others. Forming Bending and forming plate or sheet products into customer-specified shapes and sizes with press brakes. CFA 127 .

High-carbon steel’s hardness makes it suitable for plow blades. but not including. Hot-Strip Mill A rolling mill of several stands of rolls that converts slabs into hot-rolled coils. 2007 Heavy Structural Shapes A general term given to rolled flanged sections where at least one dimension of their cross- sections is 3 inches or greater. only the hot end differentiates integrated mills from mini-mills. However. therefore. Hot Roll Product that is sold in its “as produced state” off the hot mill with no further reduction or processing steps aside from being pickled and oiled (if specified). bedsprings. 128 Marie Millien. labour relations and product markets. separate management styles. Hot End The section of a steelmaking complex from the furnace up to. the less formable and the tougher the steel becomes. the processing is done at a relatively high temperature (when the steel is still “red”). cutting edges or other high-wear applications. Technically. Because DRI may spontaneously combust during transportation. the differing technological approaches to molten steel imply different scale efficiencies and. Iron Ore Mineral containing enough iron to be a commercially viable source of the element for use in steelmaking. depending on the type of continuous caster. Except for fragments of meteorites found on earth. Hot Briquetted Iron (HBI) Direct reduced iron that has been processed into briquettes. and angles if the length of the leg is 3 inches or greater. shovels. the oxygen is removed from the ore using natural gas and results in a substance that is 90%–92% iron. High-Carbon Steel Steel with more than 0. Note that steel ingots weigh as much as 30 tons. Hot Band (Hot-Rolled Steel) A coil of steel rolled on a hot-strip mill (commonly referred to as hot-rolled steel).3% carbon. the hot-strip mill. channels. tees and zees if the depth dimension is 3 inches or greater. Ingot A form of semi-finished metal (created by pouring liquid metal into molds for solidification during cooling). Ingot then is rolled or forged into other shapes. Integrated Mills These facilities make steel by processing iron ore and other raw materials in blast furnaces. iron is not a free element. Nearly all domestic integrated mills specialize in flat-rolled steel or plate. which can range in thickness from 2 to 10 inches. HBI is preferred when the metallic material must be stored or moved. The hot-strip mill squeezes slabs. The more carbon that is dissolved in the iron. CFA . it is trapped in the earth’s crust in its oxidized form. Hot Metal The name for the molten iron produced in a blast furnace. The category includes beams. between horizontal rolls with a progressively smaller space between them (while vertical rolls govern the width) to produce a coil of flat-rolled steel about a quarter of an inch in thickness and a quarter of a mile in length. instead. It proceeds to the basic oxygen furnace in molten form or is cast as pig iron.The Steel Industry February 2. Instead of using a blast furnace. Hot Mill The rolling mill that reduces a hot slab into a coil of specified thickness.

2007 The Steel Industry Ladle A “bucket” lined with refractory (heat resistant) bricks. for example. Mini-Mills Another name for electric-arc steelmaking firms. Lead-Time Delivery time for an item of inventory to be moved from a source location to a destination via a specific route. steel mills that melt scrap metal to produce commodity products. bend and shape into products. labour relations. strips.” but the term “mechanical properties” is much to be preferred. Although the mini-mills are subject to the same steel processing requirements after the caster as the integrated steel companies. or that involve the relationship between stress and strain. Carbon is removed from the steel bath through vacuum degassing. is a measurement of mass equal to 1. sometimes referred to as a metric tonne. product markets and management style. CFA 129 . Merchant Bar A group of commodity steel shapes that consists of rounds. Long Products Classification of steel products that includes bar. which fabricators.6226 pounds. angles and channels. The ladle metallurgy step comes after the steel is melted and refined in the electric arc or basic oxygen furnace. they differ greatly with regard to their minimum efficient size. but before the steel is sent to the continuous caster.005% carbon is more ductile (malleable).204. steel service centers and manufacturers cut. used to transport molten steel from process to process in a steel plant. Line Pipe Pipe used in the surface transmission of oil.February 2.” Low-Carbon Steel Steel with less than 0. flats. Mechanical Properties Those properties of a material that reveal the elastic and inelastic reaction when force is applied. Detail is specific to the level of the location. natural gas and other fluids. tensile strength and fatigue limit. Also the time to produce a customer’s order from order placement to shipment. Machining Refers to performing multiple processes to a piece of metal to produce a customer-specified component part.000 kilograms or 2. steel scrap and fluxes to produce steel. Ladle Metallurgy Furnace (LMF) An intermediate steel processing unit that further refines the chemistry and temperature of molten steel while it is still in the ladle. squares. which are “long” rather than “flat. the modulus of elasticity. Marie Millien. It is capable of being drawn out or rolled thin for use in automotive body applications. Lance A long metallic tube through which oxygen is blown under high pressure and high velocity into a vessel containing a bath of hot metal. rod and structural products. These properties have often been designated as “physical properties. Metric Ton (MT) A tonne or metric ton.

dirt and oil so that further work can be done to the metal. Mini-mills are primary consumers of No. iron. or metallic. truck frames and heavy duty springs. at one time the most abundant steelmaking furnaces among integrated companies. 1 Heavy Melt Obsolete steel scrap grade. Pickling Pickling refers to the process of cleaning a steel coil through a series of hydrochloric acid baths that remove the oxides (rust). 1 heavy scrap. molybdenum enhances the corrosion resistance of stainless steel. often sheared into individual pieces but also rolled into coils. which. In the steel lexicon. iron ore is combined with gasified or ground coal and heated. OCTG includes casing. in the presence of chromium. In coal-based processes. The central channel became known as the “sow. the arrangement looked like newborn pigs suckling. a thick-walled tube used to transport fluids or gases. In gas-based processes. Months Of Inventory Ratio of ending inventory to average monthly sales over a period of time. Named long ago when molten metal was poured through a trench in the ground to flow into shallow earthen holes. Reducing Agent Either natural gas or coal can be used to remove the oxygen from iron ore in order to produce a scrap substitute. Oil Country Tubular Goods (OCTG) Label applied to the pipe products used by petroleum exploration customers. drill pipe and oil well tubing.The Steel Industry February 2. Heat is supplied from a large. Pellets See Agglomerating Process. relatively thick (from 3/16-inch to more than one foot) mass of metal with a width of more than 8 inches. depending on their use. No. which is injected through nozzles at the bottom of the furnace. producing reduced. Open Hearths. Up to 30% of the coke charged into the blast furnace can be replaced by this talcum-like coal powder. shallow hearth to refine pig iron and scrap into steel. the iron ore is heated in a vessel as reformed natural gas passes through. 130 Marie Millien. 2007 Molybdenum (MO) A silvery-gray metal used as an alloy to strengthen steel and make it less susceptible to rust and corrosion. Open Hearth Furnace A broad. “pipe” and “tube” often are used interchangeably. Pulverized Coal Injection System (PCI) A blast furnace enhancement to reduce an integrated mill’s reliance on coke (because of environmental problems with its production). The oxygen in the ore combines with carbon and hydrogen in the gas or coal. Plate A smooth. and the refining takes seven to nine hours. luminous flame over the surface. flat.” and the molds were “pigs. at least one-quarter inch in thickness and in sections no larger than 5 feet by 2 feet. may be formed through welded or seamless processes. Pig Iron Initial post-smelting casting of lead or iron.” Pipe Technically. Key alloying element for some classes of stainless steel. with a given label applied primarily as a matter of historical use. have been replaced by the basic oxygen furnace. CFA . Much of the metal comes from demolished buildings.

It is normally sent directly back to the furnace • Prompt (industrial) scrap – Excess steel that is trimmed by the auto and appliance stampers and auctioned to scrap buyers as factory bundles. Rod trains (rolling facilities) can run as fast as 20. then rotated under extreme pressure. 1 Heavy Melt). Once it wears out. among others. These include the slabbing mill. CFA 131 . Any operating unit that reduces gauge by application of loads through revolving cylindrical rolls. blooms. This is a high-quality scrap as the result of its low residual content and consistent chemistry. The elevated temperature rolling mill is the hot mill and is capable of reducing the gauge of a slab 92%–99%. through edge trimming and rejects. Reinforcing Bar (Rebar) Also known as “concrete reinforcing bar” or “rebar”. billets or slabs –that are later rolled into finished products such as beams. The residual impurity of such scrap normally relegates obsolete scrap to the mini-mills (see No. 2. a commodity-grade steel used to strengthen concrete in highway and building construction. semi-finished steel length that is rolled from a billet and coiled for further processing.000 feet per minute. refractory brick lines most steelmaking vessels that come in contact with molten metal. office and industrial equipment. ships and railroad cars. Rod is commonly drawn into wire products or used to make bolts and nails. because a blast furnace reline may require up to three months to complete. Any of the mills in which metal undergoes a rolling process. Scrap substitutes include.February 2. the brick lining of a furnace must be cooled. which is heated. This rotational pressure creates an opening in the center of the billet. HBI. This maintenance can be significant. operation can be hot or cold. thin. and buildings and bridges that have completed their useful life that can be recovered from the junkyard and re-melted. Integrated steel mills use scrap for up to 25% of their basic oxygen furnace charge. stripped and replaced. • Home scrap – Waste steel that is generated from within the steel mill. sides of the ladles and inside of the BOF. Seamless Pipe Tubular product made from a solid billet. bars or sheet. Rod Round. hot roll mills. DRI. 100% of the mini-mills’ raw material for their electric furnaces generally is scrap. like the walls of the blast furnace. Scrap Substitute Raw material that can be charged in place of scrap in electric arc furnaces and basic oxygen furnaces. Scale The oxide of iron that forms on the surface of steel after heating. Because its melting point is well above the operating temperatures of the process. iron carbide and pig iron. Marie Millien. Rolling Mill 1. cold roll mills. • Obsolete scrap – Iron-bearing items such as old automobiles. Scrap (Ferrous) Ferrous (iron-containing) material that generally is remelted and recast into new steel. Semi-Finished Steel Steel shapes – for example. which is then shaped by a mandrel to form the pipe or tube. SR mills and DR mills. household appliances. farm. Reline The process of replacing the refractory lining of a liquid steel vessel. 2007 The Steel Industry Refractory Brick Heat-resistant brick.

as opposed to cyclical demand. the market typically follows general economic conditions. Sheet Steel Thin. or how much steel is needed per unit produced. warehouses it. flat-rolled steel. 2007 Service Center A catchall name for an operation that buys metal. Slag The impurities in a molten pool of iron. The iron is now conserved because the chunks can be charged into the blast furnace (see Agglomerating Processes). but its properties allow for the severe forming and welding operations required for pipe production. where it can be skimmed. Special Bar Quality (SBQ) Arcane terminology used to describe a wide variety of higher-quality carbon and alloy bars that are used in the forging. The amount of steel used in vehicles and the popularity of alternative materials affect the intensity. Mini-mills consume shredded scrap in their electric arc furnace operations. Because slag is lighter than iron. sheet. Slab The most common type of semi-finished metal. and in industrial applications such as hydraulic cylinders. Intensity reflects the secular demand for steel. After cars are sent through a shredder. Shredded Scrap Fist-sized. custom-made tubular products requiring critical tolerances. The malleable steel lengthens to several hundred feet as it is squeezed by the rolling mill. the recyclable steel is separated by magnets. electric motor shafts and valves. Flux such as limestone may be added to foster the congregation of undesired elements into a slag. Steel Intensity The amount of steel used per unit of gross domestic product. often processes it in some way and then sells it in a slightly different form or amount from what was purchased from the producing mills. hand tools. Coiled sheet steel accounts for nearly one-half of all steel shipped domestically and is created in a hot-strip mill by rolling a cast slab flat while maintaining the side dimensions. plate and sheet are merely their physical dimensions of width and gauge (thickness). once they have been recovered from environmental control filters. semi-finished product (hot rolled from ingot or sheared from continuous caster's output) destined for further processing into strip. CFA . The state of the economy. Because of the range of industrial applications. precise dimensional control and special metallurgical properties. Specialty tubing is used in the manufacture of automotive. construction and agricultural equipment. SBQ steel bars generally contain more alloys than merchant (commodity) grades of steel bars and are made with more precise dimensions and chemistry. The most common differences among steel bars. 132 Marie Millien. strip. In steel. Skelp Steel that is the entry material to a pipe mill. in zinc. determines the number of units. machine parts and printing rollers. It resembles hot-rolled strip. homogenous pieces of old automobile hulks. it will float on top of the pool. Sintering A process that combines iron-bearing particles. the primary metal casting to be rolled or forged into other shapes. machining and cold-drawing industries for the production of automotive parts.The Steel Industry February 2. plate or welded pipe product. however. Specialty Tube Refers to a wide variety of high-quality. these materials were too fine to withstand the air currents of the smelting process and were thrown away. Previously. into small pellets.

The thickness of the coating is readily controlled through regulation of the voltage and speed of the sheet through the plating area. because so much of their weight is from steel. wide-flange beams and sheet piling.204. In heat treatment. Strip may also be cut from steel sheet by a slitting machine (see Sheet Steel). BlueScope. Tubing When referring to OCTG. purer steel (see Ladle Metallurgy). Normally performed in the ladle. • Metric ton – 1. Yield The ratio of the quantity of finished shipments to the total raw steel produced. RBC Capital Markets Research Marie Millien. AISI. Normal unit of statistical raw material input and steel output in the U. Strip Thin. Ton Unit of measurement for steel scrap and iron ore. Vacuum Degassing An advanced steel refining facility that removes oxygen.000 kilograms. • Short (net) ton – 2. Structurals Steel product group that includes I-beams. re-heating hardened steel to some temperature below the A1 temperature for the purpose of decreasing hardness and/or increasing toughness. • Long (net) ton or gross ton – 2. although it is normally narrower (up to 12 inches wide) and produced to more closely controlled thicknesses. Alcoa and Weirton Steel. 2007 The Steel Industry Steel-Intensive Products Consumer products such as automobiles and appliances that. flat steel that resembles hot-rolled sheet. Tin Plate Sheet steel that has been coated on both sides with a very thin coating of commercial pure tin by an electro-deposition process. Tin Mill Continuous tin-plating facility to produce tin mill steel sheet to be used in food and beverage cans and other containers. higher-quality. exhibit a high demand correlation with steel. hydrogen and nitrogen under low pressures (in a vacuum) to produce ultra-low-carbon steel for demanding electrical and automotive applications. in which the steel is made to be the cathode (negative electrode) in an electrolytic bath containing a decomposable tin salt.S. adjusted for changes in inventory and any slabs that are purchased from outside. tubing may have to be replaced during the operational life of a well. 2.240 pounds. Kalyani Carpenter. Source: Purchasing Magazine. CFA 133 .102 short tons.6 pounds or 1. Reliance Steel. Depending on conditions and well life. tubing is a separate pipe used within the casing to conduct the oil or gas to the surface.February 2. the removal of dissolved gases results in cleaner.000 pounds. Tempering Re-heating a quench-hardened or normalized ferrous alloy to a temperature below the transformation range and then cooling at any rate desired. H-beams. Tin/Chrome Plating A plating process whereby the molecules from the positively charged tin or chromium anode attach to the negatively charged sheet steel.