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H63MCM Microwave Communications

Unit 2 – Transmission Line Theory

K.T. Selvan

Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering

The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus

Unit Objectives

To discuss

Transmission line fundamentals Lossless lines Special cases Low-loss lines Distortion

Transmission Lines

When to bother?

Consider transmission line effects for l / λ 0.01

Reflection, power loss, dispersion, distortion

Lumped-Element Model

Figure 2.1 (p. 50) Voltage and current definitions and equivalent circuit for an incremental length of transmission line. (a) Voltage and current definitions. (b) Lumped-element equivalent circuit.

Wave Propagation on a Transmission Line

The traveling wave solutions are

V

I

(

(

)

z

z

)

=

=

+

γ

z

γ

z

V

I

o

+

o

+

V

o

I

o

e

e

e

γ

z

γ

z

e

+

The complex propagation constant γ is

γ = α + jβ =

(R + jωL)(G + jωC)

The characteristic impedance Z o is:

Z

o

 = R + j ω L = R + j ω L γ G + j ω C

The wavelength on the line is:

λ

=

2π

β

The phase velocity is:

ω

v

=

p β

=

λ

f

The Lossless Line

Condition:

One gets

R = G = 0

α = 0,

β = ω
LC

The other parameters are:

Z

o

=

L
C

λ =

2

π

β

=

2

π

LC

ω

v

=

ω

p β

=

1
LC
Terminated Lossless Line

The voltage reflection coefficient at the load is:

Γ =

V

o

+

V

o

=

Γ

 Z L − Z o Z L + Z o

( )

l

= Γ

(0)

=

 Z L / Z o − 1 Z L / Z o + 1

e

j

2β

l

Power flow:
2
2
+
+
V
V
o
o
2
2
i
r
i
P
=
P
2 = − Γ
P
P
=
1 − Γ
av
av
av
av
2 Z
2 Z
o
o

Return loss:

RL

= −

20log

Γ

dB

Standing wave ratio (SWR) is defined as

S =

V max

V min

=

1 +

1

Γ

Γ

The input impedance of a length of transmission line with an arbitrary load impedance is:

Z

in

=

Z

o

Z

Z

β

l

cos

jZ

o

sin

β

l

 

l

+

L

o

cos

β

l

+

jZ

L

sin

β

Special Cases of Lossless Terminated Lines

Half-wave line

l = mλ / 2

In this case,

βl

Then:

2π mλ

=

λ

2

=

mπ

Z

in

(

l = mλ

/ 2)

Implication?

(

m

=

= Z

L

0,1,2,

)

Quarter-wave transformer

β

l

=

2

π

λ

(2

m

+

1)

λ

4

=

(2

m

+

1)

π

2

(

m

=

0,1,2,

)

For this case, then,

Z in

(

l = λ

/ 4)

=

Z

2

o

Z

L

Can be used for matching two impedances Z o1 and Z o3 , when the transformer has an

impedance

Z

o2

=

Z

o1

Z

o3

Short-circuited line

Z

Γ = −1

s = ∞

Z

= 0

L

= jZ

in

o

tan

βl

(Purely reactive input impedance)

Inductive for Capacitive for

tan

βl >

β

l

tan

0 :

jωL

eq

= jZ

<

0 :

1

j

ω

C

eq

=

o

tan

βl

jZ

o

tan

β

l

Application in microwave and high-speed ICs

Open-circuited line

Z

Γ =1

s = ∞

L

= ∞

Z

in

= − jZ

o

cot

βl

The Low-Loss Line

We can assume R << ωL and G << ωC To deduce attenuation and phase constants, let us start with propagation constant:

γ = α + jβ =

(R + jωL)(G + jωC)

Rearranging,

γ

=

R

G
(
j
ω
L
)(
j
ω
C
)
1
+
1
+
 
j
ω
L
 
j
ω
C
 
R
G
RG
γ
=
j
ω
LC
1
j
+
2
 
ω
L
ω
C
 
ω
LC

Since for a low-loss line RG << ω 2 LC

γ

=

R
G
j
ω
LC
1
j
+
  
ω
L
ω
C
  
j
R
G
 
j
ω
LC
1
+
2
 
ω
L
ω
C


Therefore:

α

1

2

R

C

L

LC

β ω

+

G

L

C

=

1

 

2

R

Z

o

+

GZ

o

 

By the same order of approximation:

Z

o

L
C

Thus Z o and γ for low-loss lines can be closely approximated to that of lossless lines

The Dispersionless Line

β in general not a linear function of frequency (when loss is present) This means various frequency components travel with different phase velocities This leads to dispersion. In turn, dispersion leads to the concept of group velocity

Consider a lossy line satisfying the relation:

R

L

=

G

C

Under this condition:

γ = R

C
L

+ jω

LC = α + jβ

Thus, though a constant attenuation is present, β is a linear function of frequency. Hence no dispersion! Realizing this condition requires L to be increased by loading series loading coils along the line

Summary

Fundamental equations for characterizing transmission lines Lossless lines Reflection at discontinuities Special cases of transmission lines Low-loss lines Dispersionless lines