Unit 2 – Transmission Line Theory
K.T. Selvan
Department of Electrical & Electronic Engineering
The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus
1
Unit Objectives
To discuss
Transmission line fundamentals Lossless lines Special cases Lowloss lines Distortion
2
When to bother?
Consider transmission line effects for _{l} _{/} _{λ} _{≥} _{0}_{.}_{0}_{1}
3
Reflection, power loss, dispersion, distortion
4
LumpedElement Model
Figure 2.1 (p. 50) Voltage and current definitions and equivalent circuit for an incremental length of transmission line. (a) Voltage and current definitions. (b) Lumpedelement equivalent circuit.
5
The traveling wave solutions are
V
I
(
(
)
z
z
)
=
=
+
−γ
z
γ
z
V
I
o
+
o
+
V
o
I
−
o
e
−
e
e
γ
z
−γ
z
e
+
The complex propagation constant γ is
γ = α + jβ =
(R + jωL)(G + jωC)
6
The characteristic impedance Z _{o} is:
Z
o
= 
R 
+ 
j 
ω L 
= 
R 
+ 
j ω L 

γ 

G 
+ 
j ω C 
The wavelength on the line is:
λ
=
2π
β
The phase velocity is:
ω
v
=
p β
=
λ
f
7
Condition:
One gets
R = G = 0
α = 0,
The other parameters are:
Z
o
=
λ =
2
π
β
=
2
π
LC
ω
v
=
ω
p β
=
8
The voltage reflection coefficient at the load is:
Γ =
−
V
o
+
V
o
=
Γ
Z 
L 
− 
Z 
o 
Z 
L 
+ 
Z 
o 
( )
l
= Γ
(0)
=
Z 
L 
/ Z 
o 
− 
1 
Z 
L 
/ Z 
o 
+ 
1 
e
− j
2β
l
9
Return loss:
RL
= −
20log
Γ
dB
Standing wave ratio (SWR) is defined as
S =
V max
V min
=
1 +
1 −
Γ
Γ
10
The input impedance of a length of transmission line with an arbitrary load impedance is:
Z
in
=
Z
o
Z
Z
β
l
cos
jZ
o
sin
β
l
l
+
L
o
cos
β
l
+
jZ
L
sin
β
11
Halfwave line
l = mλ / 2
In this case,
βl
Then:
2π mλ
=
λ
2
=
mπ
Z
in
(
l = mλ
/ 2)
Implication?
(
m
=
= Z
L
0,1,2,
)
12
Quarterwave transformer
β
l
=
2
π
λ
(2
m
+
1)
λ
4
=
(2
m
+
1)
π
2
(
m
=
0,1,2,
)
For this case, then,
Z in
(
l = λ
/ 4)
=
Z
2
o
Z
L
Can be used for matching two impedances Z _{o}_{1} and Z _{o}_{3} , when the transformer has an
impedance
Z
o2
=
Z
o1
Z
o3
13
Shortcircuited line
Z
Γ = −1
s = ∞
Z
= 0
L
= jZ
in
o
tan
βl
(Purely reactive input impedance)
Inductive for Capacitive for
tan
βl >
β
l
tan
0 :
jωL
eq
= jZ
<
0 :
1
j
ω
C
eq
=
o
tan
βl
jZ
o
tan
β
l
Application in microwave and highspeed ICs
14
Opencircuited line
Z
Γ =1
s = ∞
L
= ∞
Z
in
= − jZ
o
cot
βl
15
We can assume R << ωL and G << ωC To deduce attenuation and phase constants, let us start with propagation constant:
γ = α + jβ =
Rearranging,
γ
=
16
Since for a lowloss line RG << ω ^{2} LC
γ
=
≈
17
Therefore:
α
≈
1
2
R
C
L
LC
β ≈ ω
+
G
L
C
=
1
2
R
Z
o
+
GZ
o
By the same order of approximation:
Z
o
≈
Thus Z _{o} and γ for lowloss lines can be closely approximated to that of lossless lines
18
The Dispersionless Line
β in general not a linear function of frequency (when loss is present) This means various frequency components travel with different phase velocities This leads to dispersion. In turn, dispersion leads to the concept of group velocity
19
Consider a lossy line satisfying the relation:
R
L
=
G
C
Under this condition:
γ = R
+ jω
LC = α + jβ
Thus, though a constant attenuation is present, β is a linear function of frequency. Hence no dispersion! Realizing this condition requires L to be increased by loading series loading coils along the line
20
Summary
Fundamental equations for characterizing transmission lines Lossless lines Reflection at discontinuities Special cases of transmission lines Lowloss lines Dispersionless lines
21
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