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OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH CONTRACT N00014-87-C-0408 R&T Code 4133003

FINAL REPORT For Period March 1, 1987 to September 30, 1989 for PHOTOELECTROCHEMISTRY OF ELECTRONIC AND ELECTRO-OPTICAL MATERIALS

DTIC...R. David Rauh, Principal Investigator EIC Laboratories, Inc. 111 Downey Street Norwood, Massachusetts 02062

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Reproduction in whole, or in part, is permitted for any purpose of the United States Government. This document has been approved for public release and sale, its distribution is unlimited.

92-26143

(f 1 . OFFICE SYMBOL 9. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) The broad objective of this work is to investigate applications of photoelectrochemistry to semiconductor and electro-optical technology. NAME OF FUNDING/SPOýNSORING ' 800 North Quincy Street Arlington. SiC and III-V compounds.SECURITY CLASS.SSIO N WRK UNIT NO Arlington. Robert Nowak DD FORM 1473.01 044 UNCLASSIFIED .CATION It RESTRICTIvE MARKINGS UNCLASSIFIED 2a. tretPROGRAM 80 Nrt Qiny 22217-5000 PROJECT N. and ZIP Code) 111 Downey Street Norwood. MA 02062 8a. State. Experiments are being undertaken to understand the functions of reaction velocity and crystallographic orientation in determining profiles and morphologies of photoelectrochemically etched features in Si. VA 22217-5000 8b. NAME VORESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUAL r] oTiC USERS UNCLASSIFIED 22c. Sic. ADDRESS (City. 84 MAR ] SAME AS RPT [0 UNCLASSIFIEOfUNLIMITED 2a. N0001L4 lowi "4. David Rauh I3b TIME COVERED FROM Mar 87 TO I Sep I DATE OF REPORT (Year. ABSTRACT SECURITY CLAS IFICATION Dr. and ZIP Code) 6c. Semiconductor. VA EcO 11.9 11 1 -. TASK CCE.n 83 APR editon may be used until exhauted All other editions are obsolete SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE Prilntl i. State. ADDRESS (Cty. Processing. GaAs. y) 1992 September Y41 IS PAGE COUNT Final Report 9 114 16. OFFICE SYMBOL 22b TELEPHONE (Include Area Code) (202) 696-4409 1 U. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION AUTHORITY N/A 3 DISTRI. TITLE (Include Security Classificalion) Photoelectrochemistry of Electronic and Electro-optical Materials 12.ONITOR:NG ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) 4 PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) C912F 6. DECLASSIFICATIONIUOWVNGRADING N/A SCHEDULE Approved for Public Release. ADDRESS (City.S. Morth. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) 13a. Etching. Photoelectrochemistry.31 6ble) Office of Naval Research 7b. ICAT ON OF THIS PAGE REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE la REPORT SECURITY CLASSIF.GOuP. Distribution Unlimited S V. State. NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 6o OFFICE SYlv4BOL 7a NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATIONI EIC Laboratories. and 21P Code) 800 North Quincy Street N00014 10 SOURCE OF FiUNDING NUMBERS ELEMENT NO. Inc. TYPE OF REPORT R. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION "17 FIELD COSATI CODES 18 SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block numbtber) GROUP SUB. Work was also conducted to determine the relationship between liquid junction response and solid state diode electrical characteristics of the polar faces of III-V crystals and to develop chemical surface passivants for compound semiconductor device electronics. NO. Gratings. 20 DISTRIBUTION /AVAILABILITY OF ABSTRACT 21.BUTIONiAVAILABILITY OF REPORT N/A 2b. PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ORGANIZATION (If applicable) Contract N 00014-87-C-0408 Office of Naval Research SC. 19.

Experiments were conducted to replace the mixed Ga.g.g. I . SiC and III-V compounds. synchrotron light source). Experiments were undertaken to understand the functions of reaction velocity and crystallographic orientation in determining profiles and morphologies of photoelectrochemically etched features in Si. PhotoelectrochemicalSurface Processing. photoelectrochemical etching can be used to produce V-grooves in GaAs crystals using crystallographically oriented photoresist masks on the electrode surface. (e. We had considerable success with HgS. We discovered that the effects of crystal structure and orientation can be used to manipulate microstructural geometry. diffraction gratings for high resolution "* SiC diffraction gratings for vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy. Part of our work has been devoted to studying chemical and photoelectrochemical surface treatments of III-V semiconductors and their effects on solid state device structures.AsO oxides used currently on GaAs with a heavy metal sulfide that will result in a stable surface devoid of Fermi level pinning.. free electron laser). For example. 1:100) in compound semiconductors with geometries dictated solely by the directionality of the photon flux. Work was also conducted to determine the relationship between liquid junction response and solid state diode electrical characteristics of the polar faces of Ill-V crystals and to develop chemical surface passivants for compound semiconductor device electronics. particularly MOS structures. which includes a discussion of some applications of the technique. "* Diffraction gratings in Ill-V compounds for electro-optics (e.g. coupling to multi-quantum well photodetectors). process parameters can be used to control groove angle and morphology. SDI. Following are several examples of components that may be fabricated photoelectrochemically: " V-groove (Echelle) spectrometers. In addition. Other crystallographic orientations give rise to high aspect ratio grooves (e. Much of the program entailed studies of the photoelectrochemical fabrication of periodic grating structures in GaAs and SiC. " Robust gratings for high energy laser beam steering (e. Practical Significance.g. Photoelectrochemical Etching. distributed feedback lasers...SUMMARY The broad objective of this work was to investigate applications of photoelectrochemistry to semiconductor and electro-optical technology. During this program we completed a review of photoelectrochemical processing of semiconductors. Preliminary experiments employing complex impedance analysis of the surfaces were carried out in order to understand the effects of the sulfides on solid state device electrical characteristics. several new applications of photoelectrochemistry have arisen from this work and are currently being pursued in mission-oriented projects for DoD and other agencies..

CdSe. (New York/Holland: Elsevier Publishing Co. 1989. FL. September 27-29. October 9-14. "* Controlled gate fabrication for GaAs and InP FETs. surveillance optical systems).1988 (with NASA). 1370 (1988). 4. 135. Hachey Mr. presented at the Fall Meeting of the Electrochemical Society. 1988. Electrochem. Park Ridge. pp. IL. McHardy and F. "* Passivation of semiconductor surfaces. 177-212. FL. pp. Finklea. in Studies in Physical and Theoretical Chemistry vol. 1989. "Photoelectrochemical Fabrication of Gratings in SiC". "Photoelectrochemical Etching of Blazed Echelle Gratings in n-GaAs". CdTe)". Rose Dr.. (Noyes Publications. Robert F.O. Carrabba Dr. Fall Meeting of the Electrochemical Society. Ludwig eds. Nguyet M. Samuel Mathew Ms. 277-327. meteorology. "* High resolution custom markings of ICs (1-5 gm alphanumerics). Michael M. "* Selective electroplating via walls. NJ. October 15-20. "Photoelectrochemical Etching of Blazed Echelle Gratings in n-GaAs". Timothy L. J. narrow holes). "The Cadmium Chalcogenides (CdS. 6. "* Front/backside via interconnects (high aspect ratio. presented at the Fall Meeting of the Electrochemical Society. 5. "* Fiber optic couplers to solid state photodiodes. Hollywood. 7. Cartland Mr. October 15-20. Jianguo Li Dr. 1992). 55: Semiconductor Electrodes. Soc. H.. Chicago. . Nguyen PUBLICATIONS 1."* Mesh-type optical filters for far infrared/millimeter wave regions (infrared astronomy. Benedict Aurian-Blajeni Mr. particularly for III-V MOSFETs. 1988). J. MA. "Photoelectrochemical Processing of Semiconductors" in Electrochemistry of Semiconductors and Electronics. 3. John P. OTHERS ON PROJECT Dr. "The Evaluation of Photoelectrochemically Etched Gratings in GaAs" Space Optics for Astrophysics and Earth and Planetary Remote Sensing Topical Meeting. Hollywood. ed. North Falmouth. 2 2. "Morphology Control of Photoelectrochemically Etched Profiles in n-GaAs".

IN 47522-5050 Dr. Harold H. Drisko (1) Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory Code L52 Port Hueneme. MD 21402-5067 Defense Technical Information Center (2) Building 5. Bernard E. Robert Green. Richard W. Code 6100 Naval Research Laboratory Washington. Code 1113 800 North Quincy Street Arlington. MA 02210 Acoesslon For NTIS GRA&I DTIC TAB Unain••v*uiced El mTIC QUALITY IUMBPM 3 By Distribution/ Availability Codes Dist Avail an6/or Special 3 w . Fischer (1) Code 2840 David Taylor Research Center Annapolis. James S. Douda Crane. 20375-5000 Dr.C. Murday (1) Chemistry Division. Director (1) Chemistry Division.TECHNICAL REPORT DISTRIBUTION LIST . Code GFACC-5A 495 Summer Street Boston. Eugene C. CA 93043 Dr. VA 22314 Administrative Contracting Officer DCMAO. MD 21402-5067 Dr. Singerman (1) David Taylor Research Center Code 283 Annapolis. Code 385 Naval Weapons Center China Lake.GENERAL Office of Naval Research (2) Chemistry Division. CA 92152-5000 Commanding Officer (1) Naval Weapons Support Center Dr. Boston. Elek Linder (1) Naval Ocean Systems Center Code 52 San Diego. CA 93555-6001 Dr. D. Cameron Station Alexandria. VA 22217-5000 Dr.

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