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of what the web application should do into a representation of what the web application should be. The common practice is characterized by the poorly coordinated design tasks i.e. information design, hypertext design, software design. The uncoordinated clash of several cultures is overcome by using a three part structure i.e. presentation design, interaction design and functional design. To reflect the different aspects in the design of web applications, the web application designs subtasks are used.
Presentation of the navigational situation
Info systems, SW-modules web component
• • • •
The three part layering shows a clear differentiation between presentation and interaction. Presentation concerns the mesh taking the node, currently visited by user, into account. Presentation of components i.e. node contents is a central design task. Interaction within a mesh is referred to as navigation and within component is a dialog in the sense of a user interface.
reverse links. . Almost all weaknesses of HTML have been addressed in various standards. node and mesh should be separated conceptually even if technology doesn’t support such separation. Web Design from an Evolutionary Perspective • Information Design: An Authoring Activity Initially the HTML focused only on authoring. Aspects like layout and content. Selected technology should support advanced concepts. • Few Basic rules for design of document-based web applications for authoring aspect are: Meshes should form the center of information design. non-trivial destination anchors are still missing The use of XML began when standard computers could digest SGML Parsers. • Software Design: A Programming Activity Programmable Web Dynamics was introduced by HTML forms. Distributed Programming Distributed Programs in the internet initially ran directly on TCP connections. HTML is text-centric. HTML mixes aspects like hypertext structure. but hypertext aspects like user-definable node and link types. Conventional documents should be decomposed into atomic nodes.• Functional design strongly influenced by information management systems. The support for structuring and formatting within nodes improved gradually. HTML can be understood as a document description language. the mesh side is characterized by workflow management approaches. inter-process communication (IPC) dominated. With this the importance of script languages also increased as they could be used according to the need of browsers or servers and were easy to handle. Its weaknesses relevant from design perspective are as follows.
consider the presentation design for navigation interfaces. Major benefits are that they are similar to standard software. of tasks involved in navigation design. which allow the users to work in a familiar environment and to directly format the contents. the component side will describe information design. The content of web application includes composition of explicitly developed multimedia contents on component side and implicitly defined contents on mesh side. The mesh side will focus on composition of active components into business processes and highly customized ubiquitous web applications. layout and navigation are separate. content. Tools available to create web applications can be grouped into two categories depending on how they support presentation design: page editors and content management systems. As an e. so HTML knowledge is generally not required. Modern presentation design follows the conceptual separation of web application’s content and its presentation. links and scripts. initially HTML used to specify contents with format instructions. Content management systems have special tools for various participating roles. • • • • • • • • Presentation of Nodes and Meshes • The developer specifies the fundamental look of multimedia contents on component side and on the mesh side the interaction and functional design implicitly result in unformatted contents.g. • • PAGE EDITORS-used to create smaller ad-hoc web applications. this introduces the core design of components and meshes emphasizing the software developer’s perspective. Major drawbacks developers can lose the bigger conceptual picture. CONTENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS-allow separation of editing activities from the layout. Navigation interfaces should help to find answers to three important questions: • • . Presentation Design • Presentation design defines the look and the structure of how multimedia contents are presented.
dynamic. The Device Independent Working Group(DIWG) of W3C is currently working on this issue. • • The approach to answer the question ‘Where can I go ?’ involves listing all top levels of a web site. as HTTP used in web technology is a stateless protocol and linking techniques are primitive. the adaptation of applications to the user’s context and different representations of information.(1) Where am I ? (2) Where was I ? (3) Where can I go ? • The question ‘Where am I ?’ can be answered by using the mechanism for retracing steps. This shows that there is a need to coordinate the presentation and interaction design. functional and technical elements of web applications. This marking should emphasize links in the text. But always the ‘back’ button cannot be used. Its main purpose is to combine these elements to offer the users an interesting and attractive as well as consistent and easy to understand experience. which leave a visual trial of path taken. At any point. • • Interaction Design • Interaction design is concerned with interaction of visual. The answer to the question ‘Where was I ?’ is not easy. The interaction of web applications is divided into four aspects: User Interface User Interface Organization Navigation design User Activities • • . the user can retrace the steps to any previous point visited. Device Independent Development Approaches • The presentation design considers these requirements to support the device-independent development of applications. The BACK button and lists of pages previously visited are generally used in browsers. It requires suitable marking of the destinations that can be reached from within the current page. Their tasks include aspects from field of application development.
4. The entire node is sent to the user as HTML.User Interaction • Servers need to generate a new page every time. HTML fell short. from development point of view.It not only refers to the ability of sustaining large number of users but also. Expandability. Reusability. the ability of identifying different development activities that can be carried out in parallel by a development team. The challenge is to suitability map these aspects. portability and usability. To overcome these limitations. Scalability. operations on this information and relationships between this information.It refers to the average effort to locate and fix a software failure. number of approaches were developed with overlapping functionality. Should or can a node be split into several smaller nodes. When the presentation design aspects are weighed against the interaction design aspects following questions arise: • • 1. .It refers to the possibility of using the code of a particular application in other applications without a lot of changes. 3. applications run slowly an forms are not sufficient to cover advanced interaction techniques. The different approaches can be differentiated as: • • 1. the following core properties of a software application are considered: Maintainability. To help organize the development decisions. Should screen dimensions have priority over the concept that nodes are atomic units ? 2.It refers to the degree of effort required to improve or modify software function’s efficiency • • User Interaction Organization • User interface of a web application has to represent a large amount of information. Can additional navigation be an alternative to scrolling ? how should complex behavior of user interface and portability be balanced against each other ? The particular technology blend has implications in terms of navigational semantics.
it addresses the questions like ‘where am I ?’ and ‘where was I ?’ under interaction aspects of presentation design. Orientation Aid. Navigation and Orientation • Navigation tools should help limit the cognitive stress for users. Link Perception. The structure defines the relationships between nodes. Designing a link representation: Anchor • Anchors are visible correspondences of URL’s • • • Designing link Internals: URL Navigation processes are triggered by activating anchors in the interface. Navigation Design • Navigation design gives two-fold result: the elements user can access and the navigational structure. The entire node is sent to the user as one large HTML page without scripts.2. Elements become nodes in the simplest situation. Three categories of forward navigation can be identified: 1. The activity can extend over several pages. The three basic strategies to achieve this goal: Navigation Organization. The navigation calls only one additional page. A partial view to the node is sent to the user.it is concerned with the issue related to the association of links to motivation and consequence. 3. • • • Structured Dialog for Complex Activities • • • Complex web applications have extensive processes that user should activate. The navigation step leads to a node not directly involved in the activity . 2. These anchors represent links or URLs in HTML. An action is triggered as a result of the navigation step.determines the entire navigational structure. 3.
Process Level.Integration on process level is seen as the highest level.In integration on the data level it is made sure that the data between the representations of different applications are transformed and copied. which are to be interpreted as sub-levels of functional design: data levels. Data Level. the time and semantics are closely interleaved. • . application level and process level. also called object level.Functional Design • Functional design takes into consideration technological aspects that have a strong impact on the web application under development. Application Level.In integration on the application level. because it models business models independently of the infrastructure used. Integration Systems can be integrated on three levels.
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