You are on page 1of 45

MINERALS

1. Define what a mineral is

2. Differentiate mineral from a rock 3. Identify mineral properties useful for identification
4. Identify common rock-forming minerals 5. Name the mineral resources of the Philippines

DEFINITION
Naturally occurring Inorganic Homogeneous Solid Definite chemical composition
Solid ordered internal structure

Mga nagpapanggap na minerals (MINERALOID)


naturally occurring, inorganic material that is amorphous
Ex. glass, opal

POLYMORPHISM
ability of a specific chemical substance to crystallize in more than one configuration, which is dependent upon changes in temperature, pressure, or both
Pyrite

FeS2
Graphite Marcasite

Carbon

Diamond

http://www.bradleygoughdiamonds.com/pictures/diamond.jpg http://z.about.com/d/geology/1/0/4/F/graphite.jpg

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MINERALS

Color
caused by the absorption, or lack of absorption, of various wavelengths of light

malachite

fluorite

sulfur

Color
May also be due to impurities = not a good diagnostic property
milky qtz citrine

amethyst

smoky qtz

quartz

corundum

Streak

- the color of a mineral in powdered form


- not always identical to the color

- Metals: usually dark streak

Hardness resistance of mineral to abrasion or scratching


Mohs Scale of Hardness
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Talc Gypsum Calcite Fluorite Apatite Orthoclase Quartz Topaz Corundum Diamond

Talc

Gypsum

Calcite

Fluorite

Apatite

Orthoclase

Quartz

Topaz

Corundum

Diamond

Mohs Scale of Hardness


The Geologist Can Find An Ordinary Quartz (that) Tourists Call Diamond

Crystal Habit
the shapes and aggregates that a certain mineral is likely to form

fibrous

acicular

platy

Crystal Habit

dodecahedron

rhomboid

tabular

cubic

rosette

Crystal Form

Cleavage
the tendency of a mineral to break in particular directions due to zones of weakness in the crystal structure

Cleavage
Fractures or irregular breakages occur when bond strengths in a crystal structure is equal in all directions.

conchoidal fracture

Luster
the ability of minerals to reflect light

glassy

pearly

metallic

earthy

resinous

non-metallic

Specific Gravity
Ratio of volume of a substance and the weight of the same volume of water
Graphite = 2.0 g/cm3 Gold = 15 19.3 g/cm3

Other properties
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Magnetism ex. Magnetite (Fe3O4) Fluorescence ex. Fluorite (CaF2) Reaction to chemicals ex. CaCO3 Taste ex. NaCl Odor ex. Sulfur

CLASSIFICATION OF MINERALS Bases for Classification


1. Composition
2. Crystal structure

Chemical composition
Single element (e.g. Cu, Au, S)

2 elements (e.g. halite, pyrite)


Greater number of different kinds of atoms (e.g. Colemanite (CaB3O4(OH)3H2O))

Relative Abundance of the Most Common Elements in the Crust

Abundance of minerals in the crust

The Silicate Group


- largest group of minerals

- compounds containing silicon and oxygen - building block: silicon-oxygen tetrahedron (SiO4)-4

Si+4 O-2

The Non-silicate Group


1. Native metals single element
e.g. gold (Au), silver (Ag), iron (Fe), graphite (C)

The Non-silicate Group


2. Oxides oxygen plus metal
e.g. hematite (Fe2O3), magnetite (Fe3O4), corundum (Al2O3)

The Non-silicate Group


3. Sulfides metal(s) plus sulfur, w/out oxygen opaque with distinct colors e.g. pyrite (FeS2), galena (PbS)

The Non-silicate Group


4. Sulfates metal(s) plus sulfate (SO4) e.g. barite (BaSO4), anhydrite (Ca SO4)
5. Carbonates metal(s) plus carbonate (CO3) e.g. calcite (CaCO3)
Sulfates
Carbonates

The Non-silicate Group


6. Phosphates metal(s) plus phosphate (PO4)

7. Halides metal(s) plus halogen element (Cl, F, I) e.g. halite (NaCl), fluorite (CaF2)

e.g. apatite (Ca5(PO4)3F)

The Non-silicate Group


8. Hydroxides metal(s) plus hydroxyl (OH)
e.g. gibbsite (Al(OH)3)

THE MOST COMMON ROCKFORMING MINERALS

Feldspar

Quartz

Olivine

Pyroxene

Amphibole

Mica

Clay

Calcite

Economic importance
Non-renewable resource processes that create the resources are so slow (takes millions of years to accumulate)

Mineral resources sources of metals and other materials

Economic importance
1. Ores useful metallic (and some nonmetallic) minerals that can be extracted and which contain useful substances

2. Gemstones

METAL ORE Al Bauxite Cr Chromite Cu Bornite Chalcopyrite Au Native gold Fe Hematite Zn Sphalerite

1
4

Potential areas and deposits:


1. Luzon Central Cordillera Au, Cu, Fe, Mn 2. Northern Sierra Madre Cr, Ni, Cu 3. Zambales Cr, Ni, Co, Pt, Cu, Au 4. Vizcaya-Aurora Cu, Au 5. Bicol Au, Fe, Cu 6. Southern Tagalog Cu, Au, Ni, Co 7. Central Visayas Cu, Au, Mn 8. Samar-Eastern Mindanao Au, Cu, Fe, Cr, Ni, Co, Pt, Mn 9. North Central Mindanao Cr, Cu, Au 10. Zamboanga Peninsula Au, Cu, Cr, Fe 11. Southern Mindanao Cu, Au 12. Palawan Cr, Ni, Co, Pt, Au

6 7 8 9

12

10

11

Gold in the Philippines

Copper in the Philippines

Trivia
Luzonite

Composition Locality

Cu3AsS4 Mankayan, Luzon Island (1874)