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Electrosmog from Power Lines & Base Stations (Radio, TV, Phone)

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80 studies showing adverse effects from radio, TV, cellphone base stations & power lines. 1. Abdel-Rassoul G, El-Fateh OA, Salem MA, Michael A, Farahat F, El-Batanouny M, Salem E (2007).
Neurobehavioral effects among inhabitants around mobile phone base stations. Neurotoxicology; 28 (2):434-40. Residents living beneath and opposite a long established mobile phone mast reported significantly higher occurrences of headaches, memory changes, dizziness, tremors, depressive symptoms and sleep disturbance than a control group. (Egypt)

2. Altpeter, E., Battaglia, M, Bader, A., Pfluger, D., Minder, C. & Abelin, T. (2000) Ten Years
Experience with Epidemiological Research in the Vicinity of the Short-Wave Broadcasting Area Schwarzenburg: What does the Story Tell Us? " A review of studies found repeatedly it was demonstrated that sleep disturbances are more frequent in exposed subjects than in nonexposed.

3. Anderson, B. & Henderson, A. (1986) Cancer incidence in census tracts with broadcasting towers in
Honolulu, Hawaii. Honolulu: State of Hawaii Department of Health, October 27, 1986. "In eight out of nine census tracts containing broadcast towers, the incidence of cancers of all types was significantly higher than in adjacent census tracts that did not have broadcast towers."

4. Augner C, Hacker GW, Oberfeld G, Florian M, Hitzl W, Hutter J, Pauser G. (2010). Effects of
exposure to GSM mobile phone base station signals on salivary cortisol, alpha-amylase, and immunoglobulin A. Biomed Environ Sci. 23(3):199-207. RF-EMF in considerably lower field densities than ICNIRP-guidelines may influence salivary alpha-amylase, immunoglobulin A (IgA), and cortisol levels.

5. Balode Z (1996). Assessment of radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation by the micronucleus test in

Bovine peripheral erythrocytes. Sci. Total Environ 180(1): 81-85. Blood samples were obtained from female Latvian Brown cows from a farm close to and in front of the Skrunda Radar and from cows in a control area. There was a statistically significant (P < 0.01) difference in the number frequency distribution of micronuclei (indicating genetic effects) between the control and exposed groups. (Latvia).

6. Balodis, V. G. Brumelis, K.Kalviskis, O. Nikodemus, D. Tjarve, V. Znotina. (1996). Does the

Skrunda Radio Location Station disminish the radial growth of pine trees? Sci. Total Environ., 180: 57- 64. The imapct of the Skrunda Radio Local Station on tree growth was evaluated over a 20 year period. There was a statistically significant (P < 0.01) negative correlation between the relative additional increment in tree growth and the intensity of the electric field. The radial growth of pine trees diminished in all plots that received electromagnetic radiation (Latvia).

7. Behari J (2010). Biological responses of mobile phone frequency exposure. Indian J Exp Biol;
48(10):959-81 The author cautions Some people may be adversely affected by the environmental impact of mobile phone base stations situated near their homes, schools or any other place.

8. Booth, RJ; Beale, IL; Heriot, SA and Pearce, NE. (2001). Association of health problems with 50 Hz
magnetic fields in human adults living near power transmission lines [online]. Journal of the Australasian College of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine, 20(2): 9-12:


Electrosmog from Power Lines & Base Stations (Radio, TV, Phone)

22 July 2012;dn=542337929245324;res=IELHEA Five hundred and sixty adults living near extra high voltage transmission lines completed questionnaires about their health and demographic characteristics. ..Five of the eight health variables showed a linear dose- response relationship with exposure. After adjustment for possible confounding, significantly elevated odds ratios were obtained at higher exposure levels both for asthma and for combined chronic illnesses. (Australasia).

9. Bortkiewicz A, Gadzicka E, Szyjkowska A, Politaski P, Mamrot P, Szymczak W, Zmylony M.

(2012). Subjective complaints of people living near mobile phone base stations in Poland. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 25(1):31-40. Residents close to mobile phone masts reported more incidences of circulatory problems, sleep disturbances, irritability, depression, blurred vision and concentration difficulties the nearer they lived to the mast. (Poland)

10. Buchner K, Eger H (2011) Umwelt-Medizin-Gesellschaft 24(1): 44-57. Translated by Katharina

Gustavs and authorized by the authors and publisher. Available online: This follow-up of 60 participants over one and a half years shows a significant effect on the adrenergic system after the installation of a new cell phone base station . After the activation of the GSM base station, the levels of the stress hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline increased significantly during the first six months; the levels of the precursor dopamine decreased substantially. The initial levels were not restored even after one and a half years. The effects showed a doseresponse relationship and occurred well below current limits for technical RF radiation exposures. Chronic dysregulation of the catecholamine system has great relevance for health and is well known to damage human health in the long run (Bavaria).

11. Cherry N (2000). Childhood cancer incidence in the vicinity of the Sutro Tower, San Francisco, 29
May 2000. . The hypothesis, that RF/MW radiation at residential levels of exposure causes cancer, is tested using this San Francisco data. All of the analyses support and confirm the hypothesis and eliminate potential confounding factors. This provides strong and conclusive evidence that RF/MW radiation is carcinogenic and that the Sutro Tower emissions result in highly significantly elevated cancer rates in children in San Francisco. (USA)

12. Clark, M. L., Burch, J. B., Yost, M. G., Zhai, Y., Bachand, A. M., Fitzpatrick, C. T. E., et al. (2007).
Biomonitoring of estrogen and melatonin metabolites among women residing near radio and television broadcasting transmitters. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 49(10), 1149-1156. Metabolites of estrogen and melatonin were characterized among women living in a community with increased radiofrequency (RF) exposure from radio and television transmitters. RF and temporally stable 60-Hz exposures were associated with increased E1G excretion among postmenopausal women. The authors suggest women with reduced nocturnal 6-OHMS excretion may represent a sensitive subgroup.

13. Cohen A, Carlo G, Davidson A, White M, Geoghan C, Goldsworthy A, Johansson O, Maisch D,

O'Connor E (2008). Sensitivity to mobile phone base station signals. Environ Health Perspect; 116(2):A63-4; author reply A64-5.

14. Cooper D, Hemming K, Saunders P. (2001). Re: "Cancer incidence near radio and television
transmitters in Great Britain. I. Sutton Coldfield transmitter; II. All high power transmitters. Am J Epidemiol. 153(2):202-4. ijkey=5a36a0bbabfd2df80e7be026c6396fbf39013054&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha


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15. Dode AC, Leo MM, Tejo Fde A, et al (2011). Mortality by neoplasia and cellular telephone base
stations in the Belo Horizonte municipality, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Sci Total Environ. 409(19):3649-65. This research shows a spatial correlation between base station (BS) clusters and cases of deaths by neoplasia over a 10 year period. The mortality rate from cancer within 500 m from a BS (34.76 per 10,000 inhabitants) was much higher than outside this area. (Brazil).

16. Eger H, Jahn M (2010). Specific symptoms and radiation from mobile basis stations in Selbitz,
Bavaria, Germany: evidence for a dose-effect relationship (original article in German). Umwelt Medizin Gesellschaft 23 (2): 130-9. . A survey was conducted to evaluate health symptoms in relation to residential proximity to mobile phone base stations. A significant correlation was found dependent on dose-effects for: sleep disturbances, depressions, cerebral symptoms, joint illnesses, infections, skin changes, cardiovascular disorders, and disorders of the optical and acoustic sensory systems and the gastrointestinal tract with the residential proximity to the base station (Germany).

17. Eger, H., Hagen, K., Lucas, B. Vogel, P. & Voit, H. (2004) The Influence of Being Physically Near to
a Cell Phone Transmission Mast on the Incidence of Cancer. Published in Umwelt Medizin Gesellschaft 17,4 2004, as: "Einfluss der rumlichen Nhe von Mobilfunksendeanlagen auf die Krebsinzidenz A three-fold increase in the incidence of malignant tumours was found after five years' exposure in people living within 400m radius of a mobile phone mast. (Germany)

18. Eskander EF , Estefan SF, Abd-Rabou AA. (2011) How does long term exposure to base stations and
mobile phones affect human hormone profiles? Clin Biochem. 45(1-2):157-61 This study assesses the role of exposure to radio frequency radiation (RFR) emitted either from mobiles or base stations and its effect on human pituitary-adrenal hormones on 82 volunteers over a 6 year period. This study showed significant decrease in volunteers' ACTH, cortisol, thyroid hormones and prolactin for young females, and testosterone levels in males; these effects were greatest for those living clos to a base station for 6 years.

19. Everaert, J. & D. Bauwens, (2007) A possible effect of electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone
base stations on the number of breeding House Sparrows (Passer domesticus), Electromagn. Biol. Med. 26 6372. Fewer male House Sparrows were seen at locations with relatively high electric field strength values of GSM base stations P<0.001 - supporting the hypothesis that long-term exposure to higher levels of radiation negatively affects the abundance or behavior of House Sparrows in the wild (Belgium).

20. Gadzicka, E., Bortkiewicz, A., Zmyslony, M., Szymczak, W. & Szyjkowska, A. (2006). Assessment
of subjective complaints reported by people living near mobile phone base stations. Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz, Poland. Workshop PTZE Electromagnetics technics in preventive health, Lodz, Poland 13-15 December 2006 (Biuletyn PTZE, nr 14, Warszawa 2006, pp 23-26) " The health of 500 people, living at different distances from the mobile phone base station.....showed a significant relationship between some symptoms and the distance from the base station. Everyday headaches were most frequent in respondents living at the distance 100150 m from the base station. Differences were statistically significant (p=0.013). Symptoms of depression were most frequently reported by people living at the distance 50-100 m (23.3%) and over 200 m (21.3%)."


Electrosmog from Power Lines & Base Stations (Radio, TV, Phone)

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21. Garaj-Vrhovac, V., Horvat, D., Brumen-Mahovic and Racic, J. (1987). Somatic mutations in persons
occupationally exposed to microwave radiation. Mut Research. 181: 321.

22. Garcia-Sagredo, J.M. and Monteagudo, J.L (1991). Effect of low-level pulsed electromagnetic fields
on human chromosomes in vitro: analysis of chromosome aberrations. Hereditas 115(1): 9-11. The number of chromosome breakages in human lymphocytes was significantly higher in cells exposed to 40 Gauss pulsed electromagnetic fields compared to controls .

23. Goldsmith JR. (1995). Epidemiologic Evidence of Radiofrequency Radiation (Microwave) Effects on
Health in Military, Broadcasting, and Occupational Studies. Int J Occup Environ Health. 1(1):4757 100-150 feet from the broadcasting towers, the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for total cancer cases was 1.88 compared with 1.07 in the locations without towers. For leukemia SIR was 2.08 and 0.59 for the locations with and without broadcasting towers. (Honolulu).

24. Goldsmith JR. (1997). Epidemiologic evidence relevant to radar (microwave) effects. Environ Health
Perspect. 105 Suppl 6:1579-87 tool=pubmed .. findings suggest that RF exposures are potentially carcinogenic and have other health effects. Therefore, prudent avoidance of unneeded exposures is recommended as a precautionary measure.

25. Goldsmith, J. (1996). Epidemiological studies of radio-frequency radiation: current status and areas of
concern. The Science of the Total Environment, 180: 3-8. The findings suggest four possible health effects from radiofrequency radiation exposures: (A) disturbances in blood counts, (B) changes in chromosomes of white blood cells; (C) increases in frequency of unfavorable reproductive outcomes, especially spontaneous abortion, and (D) increases in some types of cancer.

26. Grayson JK. (1996) Radiation exposure, socio-economic status and brain tumor risk in the U.S. Air
Force: a nested case-control Study. Am J Epidemiol 143:480-486. Men exposed to ELF and RF nonionizing electromagnetic fields had an increased risk for brain tumors. This relationship was not found for men exposed to ionizing radiation. Officers were more likely than enlisted men to develop brain tumors, and senior officers were at increased risk (age-race-adjusted OR = 3.30) compared with all other US Air Force members. (USA)

27. Grigoriev AG, OA Grigoriev, AA Ivanov, AM Lyaginskaya, AV Merkulov, VS Stepanov, NB Shagina.

(2010). Autoimmune Process after Long-Term Low-Level Exposure to Electromagnetic Field (Experimental Results).Part I. Mobile Communications and Changes in Electromagnetic Conditions for the Population. Need for Additional Substantiation of Existing Hygienic Standards. Biophysics, 55( 6): 10411045. Existing standards for limiting exposure do not account for the role of base stations as a source of EMF and cannot guarantee the absence of adverse health effectsan additional experiment is performed under the supervision of foreign experts, which shows changes in autoimmune status in rats after long-term low-level RF EMF exposure with an incident power of 500 W/cm2.


Electrosmog from Power Lines & Base Stations (Radio, TV, Phone)

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28. Grigor'ev IuG, Grigor'ev KA (2005). [The electromagnetic fields of the base stations of mobile radio
communication and ecology. The estimation of danger of the base station EMF for population and for bioecosystems]. Radiats Biol Radioecol; 45(6):726-31 [Article in Rusian]

29. Grigor'ev IuG, Grigor'ev OA (2011). [Mobile communication and health of population: estimation of
danger, social and ethical problems]. Radiats Biol Radioecol. 51(3):357-68 [Article in Russian] The authors note that existing international guidelines and recommendations were developed to protect against short exposures, and do not take into account the recent changes in exposures: there are no studies showing that the chronic, daily and lifelong exposures to the modulated, wide spectrum of EMF RF are safe. They present evidence of effects from exposure to low level EMF RFs, and suggest risk estimation from mobile communication has become a social and ethical problem.

30. Ha M, Im H, Lee M, Kim HJ, Kim BC, Gimm YM, Pack JK. (2007). Radio-frequency radiation
exposure from AM radio transmitters and childhood leukemia and brain cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 166(3):270-9. In two areas (Hawaii and South Korea) adults and children living within 2.6 or 2 miles of AM radio transmitters were twice as likely to develop leukemia and brain cancer compared to unexposed residences (Hawaii and South Korea)

31. Haider, T., Knasmueller, S., Kundi, M, and Haider, M. (1994). Clastogenic effects of radiofrequency
radiation on chromosomes of Tradescantia. Mutation Research, 324:65-68. Short-wave electromagnetic fields used for broadcasting (10-21 MHz) had significant genotoxic effects on plants.

32. Hssig, M. Jud, F. Naegeli, H. Kupper, J. Spiess, B M. (2009). Prevalence of nuclear cataract in Swiss
veal calves and its possible association with mobile telephone antenna base stations. Schweizer Archiv fr Tierheilkunde.151(10): 471-8 This study found a clear relationship between strength of mobile phone base station (MPBS) antennas during the first trimester of gestation and the frequency of nuclear cataracts in calves. The number of antennas within 100 to 199 meters was associated with oxidative stress and there was an association between oxidative stress and the distance to the nearest MPBS. (Switzerland).

33. Hocking B, Gordon I. (2003). Decreased survival for childhood leukemia in proximity to television
towers. Arch Environ Health. 58(9):560-4. The 5 and 10-year survival rates of children with leukemia living 4-12km from a television tower was more than double that of children living closer (less than 4km ) to the TV tower. (Australia).

34. Hocking B, Gordon JR, Grain HL, et al. (1996). Cancer incidence and mortality and proximity to TV
towers. Med J Aust 165(11): 6015. Data from between 1972 and 1990 showed a significant association between increased childhood leukaemia incidence and mortality and proximity to TV towers. The calculated power density of the radiofrequency radiation in the exposed area ranged from 8.0 microW/cm2 near the towers to 0.2 microW/cm2 at a radius of 4km.

35. Hocking B, Westerman R (2001). Neurological abnormalities associated with CDMA exposure.
Occup Med (Lond); 51(6):410-3. We report finding a neurological abnormality in a patient after accidental exposure of the left side of the face to mobile phone radiation [code division multiple access (CDMA)] from a down-powered mobile phone base station antenna. He had headaches, unilateral left blurred vision and pupil constriction, unilateral altered sensation on the forehead, and abnormalities of current perception thresholds on testing the left trigeminal ophthalmic nerve. His nerve function recovered during 6 months


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follow-up. His exposure was 0.015-0.06 mW/cm(2) over 1-2 h, well below current safety levels. (Australia).

36. Hu J, Lu Y, Zhang H, Xie H, Yang X: (2009). [Level of microwave radiation from mobile phone base
stations built in residential districts]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu; 38(6):712-6. [Article in Chinese]. , In some residential districts, the measured microwave radiation from mobile phone base stations overlap (nestification), and exceeded the current safety guidelines.

37. Huss A, Spoerri A, Egger M (2009) Residence near power lines and mortality from neurodegenerative
diseases: longitudinal study of the Swiss population Am J Epidemiol 169(2):167-75 There was a dose-response relation with respect to years of residence in the immediate vicinity of power lines and Alzheimer's disease and senile dementia. (Switzerland)

38. Hutter HP, Moshammer H, Wallner P, Kundi M. (2006). Subjective symptoms, sleeping problems,
and cognitive performance in subjects living near mobile phone base stations. Occup Environ Med. 63(5):307-13. A significant correlation between measured power density and headaches, fatigue, and difficulty in concentration in 365 subjects. (Austria)

39. Huttunen, P., Hnninen, O., & Myllyl, R. (2009). FM-radio and TV tower signals can cause
spontaneous hand movements near moving RF reflector. Pathophysiology, 16(2-3):201-4. Sensitive persons seem to react to crossing standing waves of the FM-radio or TV broadcasting signals.

40. Hyland GJ (2002). How Exposure to GSM & TETRA base-station radiation can adversely affect
humans. The author makes 19 points of relevance to the base-station safety debate,

41. Kabuto M, Nitta H, Yamamoto S, et al. (2006). Childhood leukemia and magnetic fields in Japan: a
case-control study of childhood leukemia and residential power-frequency magnetic fields in Japan. Int J Cancer. 119(3):643-50. Children whose bedrooms had magnetic field levels of 0.4 microT or higher were 4.7 times more likely to have acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) than the reference category (MF levels below 0.1 microT). These results provided additional evidence that high MF exposure was associated with a higher risk of childhood leukemia, particularly of ALL (Japan).

42. Kalnins T, R. Krizbergs, A. Romancuks. (1996). Measurement of the intensity of electromagnetic

radiation from the Skrunda radio location station, Latvia. Sci Total Environ. 180(1): 51-56

43. Khurana VG, Hardell L, Everaert J, Bortkiewicz A, Carlberg M, Ahonen M. (2010). Epidemiological
evidence for a health risk from mobile phone base stations. Int J Occup Environ Health. 16(3):263-7. A review found that eight of the 10 studies reported increased prevalence of adverse neurobehavioral symptoms or cancer in populations living at distances < 500 meters from base stations. None of the studies reported exposure above accepted international guidelines, suggesting that current guidelines may be inadequate in protecting the health of human populations.

44. Kolodynski AA, VV Kolodynska. (1996). Motor and psychological functions of school children living
in the area of the Skrunda Radio Location Station in Latvia. Sci. Total Environ. 180: 87-93 This paper presents the results of experiments on school children living in the area of the Skrunda Radio Location Station (RLS). Motor function, memory and attention significantly differed between the exposed and control groups. Children


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living in front of the RLS had less developed memory and attention, their reaction time was slower and their neuromuscular apparatus endurance was decreased (Latvia)

45. Kundi, M., Hutter, H.-P. (2009). Mobile phone base stations-Effects on wellbeing and health.
Pathophysiology 16: 123-135. A literature review. Regarding the paucity of studies on base stations, the authors claim that the WHO discouraged these, at least concerning cancer as endpoint, because retrospective assessment of exposure was considered difficult. (p132).

46. Khurana V., L Hardell, J Everaert, A Bortkiewicz, M Carlberg, M Ahonen. (2010). Epidemiological
Evidence for a Health Risk from Mobile Phone Base Stations. Int J Occup Environ Health 16:263267

47. Levitt BB & Lai, H (2010). Biological effects from exposure to electromagnetic radiation emitted by
cell tower base stations and other antenna arrays. Environ. Rev. 18: 369395. A review of biological effects from electromagnetic radiation and as non-ionizing electromagnetic fields are among the fastest growing forms of environmental pollution, the authors call for epidemiological research that takes total ambient RFR exposures into consideration. Clearly, this is an enormous global industry. Yet, no money has ever been appropriated by the industry in the U.S., or by any U.S. government agency, to study the potential health effects on people living near the infrastructure.

48. Lester, J. R. & Moore, D. F. (1982). Cancer mortality and Air Force bases. Electromagnetic Biology
and Medicine. 1(1): 77-82 Nationally, counties with an Air Force Base were found to have significantly higher incidences of cancer mortality during 1950-1969 compared to counties without an Air Force Base. The authors studied the geographic incidence of cancer in Wichita, Kansas, relative to the Mid-Continent Airport and McConnell Air Base. Cancer mortality was found to be significantly related to the degree of radar exposure,

49. Lester, J. R. & Moore, D. F. (1985). Reply to "Cancer mortality and Air Force bases: A reevaluation",
Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. 4(1): 129-131. Comment: In this paper Lester and Moore replied to the critique concerning their previous paper and showed that results are still valid

50. Lester, J. R. & Moore, D. F. (1982). Cancer Incidence and Electromagnetic Radiation.
Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. 1(1): 5976. A neighborhood pattern of cancer incidence was found in the city of Wichita, Kansas with the suggestion of a time element in its appearance. Cancer tended to occur on leading terrain crests relative to radar transmissions and was less frequent in the valleys. A formula is presented that relates the incidence of cancer, terrain, and the presence of microwave radiation.

51. Lin RS, Dischinger PC, Conde J, Farrell KP. (1985). Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields
and the occurrence of brain tumors. J Occup Med 27: 413-19. Compared with the controls, men employed in electricity-related occupations, such as electrician, electric or electronic engineer, and utility company serviceman, were found to experience a significantly higher proportion of primary brain tumors. An increase in the odds ratio for brain tumor was found to be positively related to electromagnetic (EM) field exposure levels. Furthermore, the mean age at death was found to be


Electrosmog from Power Lines & Base Stations (Radio, TV, Phone)

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significantly younger among cases in the presumed high EM-exposure group. These findings suggest that EM exposure may be associated with the pathogenesis of brain tumors, particularly in the promoting stage.

52. Loomis DP, Savitz DA. (1990). Mortality from brain cancer and leukemia among electrical workers.
Br J Ind Med 47: 633-8. These results from a large and geographically diverse population corroborate reports of increased mortality from brain cancer among electrical workers.

53. Mack W, Preston-Martin S, Peters JM. (1991). Astrocytoma risk related to job exposure to electric and
magnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics 12: 57-66. Workers occupationally exposed to low-frequency electric and magnetic (EM) fields had more than 10 times the risk of astrocytomas (a type of brain tumour) than controls. A significant upward trend (P = .01) of tumor incidence with increasing length of employment was observed.

54. Magone I. (1996). The effect of electromagnetic radiation from the Skrunda Radio Location Station on
Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleiden cultures. Sci.Tot. Environ. 180(1): 75-80. The electromagnetic radiation from the Skrunda Radio Location Station affects the vegetative growth and morphology of the duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza: After 55 days of exposure plants had more abnormalities, shorter lifespans and reduced fertility.

55. Magras I.N. & T. D. Xenos (1997). RF RadiationInduced Changes in the Prenatal Development of
Mice. Bioelectromagnetics 18:455461. The possible effects of radiofrequency (RF) radiation on prenatal development has been investigated in mice. This study consisted of RF level measurements and in vivo experiments at several places around an "antenna park." At these locations RF power densities between 168 nW/cm2 and 1053 nW/cm2 were measured. Twelve pairs of mice, divided in two groups, were placed in locations of different power densities and were repeatedly mated five times. One hundred eighteen newborns were collected. They were measured, weighed, and examined macro- and microscopically. A progressive decrease in the number of newborns per dam was observed, which ended in irreversible infertility. (Greece)

56. Marino AA & R.O. Becker. (1978). High voltage lines: hazard at a distance. Environment 20 (9): 615 A review of historical evdience, and summary of 45 studies (pre 1978) reporting adverse effects from ELF exposures.

57. Marino AA, M. Reichmanis, R.O. Becker, B. Ullrich & J.M. Cullen. (1980). Power frequency electric
field induces biological changes in successive generations of mice. Experientia 36: 309311. To help evaluate the public-health risk we raised 3 successive generations of mice in a low-strength, 60-Hz electric field. We found that the field caused an increased mortality in each generation, and, altered body weights in the 3rd generation.

58. Maskarinec G, Cooper J, Swygert L. (1994). Investigation of increased incidence in childhood

leukemia near radio towers in Hawaii: preliminary observations. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 13:337. Increased incidence in childhood leukemia near the low-frequency radio tower (23.4 KHz) The odds ratio (OR) for having lived within 2.6 miles of the radio towers before diagnosis was 2.0 (95% CI 0.06 to 8.3). The clustering may have been a chance event, but because of its peculiar characteristics, we feel it should be noted. (Hawaii).


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59. Massachusetts Department Of Public Health (2007). Evaluation of the Incidence of the Ewing's
Family of Tumors on Cape Cod, Massachusetts and the PAVE PAWS Radar Station. From 1995-2004, more children on Cape Cod were diagnosed with an EFOT than expected. Seven children (ages 0-19) were diagnosed while approximately two would have been expected based on the statewide experience. This elevation is statistically significant (SIR=384, 95%CI =154-792)

60. Milham, S. (1988). Increased mortality in amateur radio operators due to lymphatic and hematopoietic
malignancies. Am.J. Epid. 127(1): 50-54. %20operators'%20mortality.pdf The author conducted a population-based study of mortality in US amateur radio operators from 1979-84, and found mortality due to acute myeloid leukemia was significantly elevated. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 176).

61. Michelozzi, P., Capon, A., Kirchmayer, U., Forastiere, F., Biggeri, A., Barca, A., et al. (2002). Adult
and childhood leukemia near a high-power radio station in Rome, Italy. American Journal of Epidemiology, 155(12), 1096-103. The risk of childhood leukemia was higher than expected for the distance up to 6 km from the Vatican radio station in Rome, and there was a significant decline in risk with increasing distance both for male mortality and for childhood leukemia. (Italy)

62. Monselise EB, Levkovitz A, Gottlieb HE, Kost D. (2011). Bioassay for assessing cell stress in the
vicinity of radio-frequency irradiating antennas. J Environ Monit. 13(7):1890-6. Epub 2011 Jun 8. The 24 h exposure of water plants (etiolated duckweed) to RF-EMF generated by AM 1.287 MHz transmitting antennas, resulted in alanine accumulation in the plant cells, a phenomenon we have previously shown to be a universal stress signal. The test could be a useful bioassay for the quick detection of biological cell stress caused in the vicinity of RF irradiating antennas.

63. Navarro, E., Segure, J., Portels, M., Gomez Perretta, C. (2003). The microwave Syndrome: A
preliminary Study in Spain. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 22: 161-169. Statistically significant positive exposure-response associations between field intensity and fatigue, irritability, headaches, nausea, loss of appetite, sleeping disorder, depressive tendency, feeling of discomfort, difficulty in concentration, loss of memory, visual disorder, dizziness and cardiovascular problems. Two different exposure groups also showed an increase of the declared severity in the group with the higher exposure. (Spain)

64. Oberfeld, G., Navarro, A., Enrigue, Portoles, M., Maestu, Ceferino, Gomez- Perretta, C. (2004) The
Microwave Syndrome: Further Aspects of a Spanish Study. %20EPIDEMIOLOXIDOS%20E%20ANTENAS/The%20Microwave%20Syndrome%20%20Further%20Aspects%20of%20a%20Spanish%20Study.pdf A health survey was carried out in the vicinity of two mobile phone base stations. They found a statistically significant exposureresponse between the E-Field and headaches, fatigue, nausea, sleeping disorders, dizziness, cardiovascular problems, poor concentration, memory loss. (Spain)

65. Oberfeld, G (2008). Report to the Provincial Government of Styria, Graz, Austria (English Summary):, All subjects reported various symptoms during exposure including buzzing in the head, heart palpitations, unwellness, lightheadedness,


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anxiety, breathlessness, respiratory problems, nervousness, agitation, headache, tinnitus, heat sensation, and depression (Austria)

66. Otitoloju AA, Obe IA, Adewale OA, Otubanjo OA, Osunkalu VO. (2010). Preliminary study on the
induction of sperm head abnormalities in mice, Mus musculus, exposed to radiofrequency radiations from global system for mobile communication base stations. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 84(1):51-4. Male mice exposed to mobile phone base stations had a statistical higher incidence of sperm head abnormalities (between 39.78 and 46.03% in the exposed groups compared to 2% in the controls). The occurrence of the sperm head abnormalities was also found to be dose dependent.

67. Park S., Ha M. & Im H-J. (2004). Ecological study on residences in the vicinity of AM radio
broadcasting towers and cancer death: preliminary observations in Korea. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 77(6):387-394. We observed higher mortality rates for all cancers and leukemia in some age groups in the area near the AM radio broadcasting towers (Korea)

68. Santini, R., Santini, P., Danze, J. M., LeRuz, P., and Seigne, M.(2002). [Symptoms experienced by
people in vicinity of base station: I/incidences of distance and sex]. Pathologie Biologie 50: 369373. [Article in French] 530 people living near mobile phone masts reported more symptoms of headache, sleep disturbance, discomfort, irritability, depression, memory loss and concentration problems the closer they lived to the mast (France).

69. Santini R, Santini P, Danze JM, Le Ruz P, Seigne M. (2003). [Symptoms experienced by people in
vicinity of base stations: II/ Incidences of age, duration of exposure, location of subjects in relation to the antennas and other electromagnetic factors]. Pathol Biol . 51(7):412-5. [Article in French] . The results show a significant increase in 16 health complaints associated with radio sickness (p < 0.05) with age, and the direction of the base station, especially for people less than 100 m from base stations. (France).

70. Santini R, Santini P, Le Ruz P, Danze JM, Seigne M (2003). Survey study of people living in the
vicinity of cellular phone base stations. Electromagn Biol Med 22 (1): 41 49 The authors conducted a survey on 530 people (270 men, 260 women) living or not in vicinity of cellular phone base stations. Certain complaints are experienced only in the immediate vicinity of base stations (up to 10 m for nausea, loss of appetite, visual disturbances), and others at greater distances from base stations (up to 100 m for irritability, depressive tendencies, lowering of libido, and up to 200 m for headaches, sleep disturbances, feeling of discomfort). In the 200 m to 300 m zone, only the complaint of fatigue is experienced significantly more often when compared with subjects residing at more than 300 m or not exposed (reference group). For seven of the studied symptoms and for the distance up to 300 m, the frequency of reported complaints is significantly higher (P < 0.05) for women in comparison with men. (France).

71. Selga, T., and Selga, M. (1996). Response of Pinus sylvestris L. needles to electromagnetic fields.
Cytological and ultrastructural aspects. Sci. Total Environ 180:65-73. Pine needles and cones were collected in 1993 from the tops of 5060-year-old pine trees in four locations near the Skrunda Radio Location Station. Low and especially high EMF exposure increased the amount of plastoglobules. The structure and export products of Golgi apparatus were changed and in different types of cells, large osmiophilic globules appeared. Evidently, EMF induces modification of Golgi apparatus and switches its functions from synthesis of predecessors of cell

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walls (lignins) to formation and export of resin predecessors. The stress due to RF EMF generated from Skrunda RLS causes an unspecific response accelerated resin production and promoted senescence of pine trees. (Latvia).

72. Speers MA, Dobbins JG, Miller VS. (1988). Occupational exposures and brain cancer mortality: a
preliminary study of East Texas residents. Am J Ind Med 13:629-38.. Male workers employed in occupations associated with electricity or electromagnetic (EM) fields had an elevated risk for brain cancer (OR = 3.94, CI = 1.52-10.20). In addition, there was a linear relationship between the probability of exposure to EM fields and brain cancer (USA)..

73. Stark KD, Krebs T, Altpeter E, Manz B, Griot C, Abelin T, (1997). Absence of chronic effect of
exposure to short-wave radio broadcast signal on salivary melatonin concentrations in dairy cattle. J Pineal Res 22(4):171-176 A pilot study was conducted to investigate the influence of electromagnetic fields in the short-wave range (3-30 MHz) radio transmitter signals on salivary melatonin concentration in dairy cattle. On the first night of re-exposure after the transmitter had been off for three days, the difference in salivary melatonin concentration between the two farms (3.89 pg/ml, CI: 2.04, 7.41) was statistically significant, indicating a two- to seven-fold increase of melatonin concentration. (Switzerland).

74. Theml, T. (2009). Subjektive Beschwerden der Anwohner in der Umgebung des Senders IBB
Oberlaindern: Ergebnisse der Nachstudie. Umwelt-Medizin-Gesellschaft, 20. Jahrgang, Ausgabe 4/2007, S. 257-348. Dr Tina Theml studied the effects from the International Broadcasting Bureau (IBB) mast when the mast was in operation and also when the mast was shut down. While in 2001 sleep disturbances, pain of the back of the neck or shoulders, lack of energy, lack of concentration and numbness in hands or feet were particularly increased, in 2007 when the mast was shut down all documented complaints had a normal level, as compared to the norm sample. The difference was statistically significant. (Germany).

75. Thomas TL, Stolley PD, Stemhagen A, et al. (1987). Brain tumor mortality risk among men with
electrical and electronics jobs: a case-control study. J Natl Cancer Inst 79:233-8. The relative risk (RR) for all brain tumors was elevated among men exposed to MW/RF radiation [RR = 1.6] and was significantly elevated among men exposed for 20 or more years.

76. Wertheimer N, Leeper E. (1982). Adult cancer related to electrical wires near the home. Int J
Epidemiol 11: 34555. Like childhood cancer, adult cancer was found to be associated with high-current electrical wiring configurations (HCCs) near the patient's residence. Such wiring can expose occupants of the residence to alternating magnetic fields (AMFs) at a level which, though very low, may produce physiological effects. Several patterns in the data suggest that HCCs and cancer may be causally linked: (1) a doserelationship was found. (2) The association did not appear to be an artefact of age, urbanicity, neighbourhood, or socioeconomic level. (3) The association was most clearly demonstrable where cancer caused by urban/industrial factors was least apt to obscure the effect. (4) A distinct pattern of latency between first exposure to the HCC and cancer diagnosis was seen, which is consistent with a hypothesis of cancer promotion produced by AMF exposure. (USA).

77. Wertheimer N, Leeper E. (1979). Electrical wiring configurations and childhood cancer. Am J
Epidemiol 109: 27384. An excess of electrical wiring configurations suggestive of high current-flow was noted in Colorado in 1976--1977 near the homes of children who developed cancer, as compared to the homes of control children. The

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finding was strongest for children who had spent their entire lives at the same address, and it appeared to be dose-related

78. Wolf, R., and Wolf, D. (2004). Increased incidence of cancer near a cell-phone transmitter station.
Inter. J. Cancer Prev. 1(2): 123128 A fourfold increase in the incidence of cancer among residents living within 300m radius of a mobile phone mast for between three and seven years was detected. (Israel).

79. Yakymenko I, Sidorik E (2010). Risks of carcinogenesis from electromagnetic radiation of mobile
telephony devices. Exp Oncol 32(2): 5460. Review of data and call for new exposure guidelines.

80. Yakymenko I, Sidorik E, Kyrylenko S, Chekhun V. (2011). Long-term exposure to microwave

radiation provokes cancer growth: evidences from radars and mobile communication systems. Exp Oncol. 33(2):62-70. In this review we discuss alarming epidemiological and experimental data on possible carcinogenic effects of long term exposure to low intensity microwave (MW) radiation. Recently, a number of reports revealed that under certain conditions the irradiation by low intensity MW can substantially induce cancer progression in humans and in animal models. The carcinogenic effect of MW irradiation is typically manifested after long term (up to 10 years and more) exposure

81. Zinelis SA. (2008). Short-term exposure to mobile phone base station signals. Environ Health
Perspect. 116(2):A62; author reply A64-5. The Electrosmog Bibliography Collection also contains: Autism (10 References) Blood Brain Barrier (47 References) Breast Cancer (77 References) Cataracts (61 References) Hearing (39 References) Headaches (48 References) Base Stations, TV and radio masts, Power lines (92 References) Depression and suicide (48 References) Male fertility (135 References) Prenatal Effects (166 References) Wildlife (149 References) Other EMF-related Scribd collections which may be of interest include: (Conflict of interest in science) (Electrosmog and wildlife) (Electrosensitivity) (The precautionary principle) (EMF health risks) (2012 research )

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