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The Elements at Play

Natural Occurrence and Bonding

Vocabulary
Nouns  Abundance  Earth’s crust  Sodium  Living things  Occurrence  Grouping Verbs  To house  To constitute  To carry out  To make up  To be made up (of)  To tend Adjectives  Mostly  Living  Vital  Common  Variable  Abundant

Abundance of Elements in Nature
 Of the 118 elements that appear in the Period Table,

the Earth houses 90. The elements that come after Uranium (atomic number 92) are not found in nature, and have been obtained artificially.

Hydrogen (H) and Helium (He)
 Hydrogen and helium are the most abundant

elements in the Universe. (Question: what are their atomic numbers?)  Because H and He are small, they formed very quickly in the first few seconds after the Big Bang. According to the Big Bang theory, four minutes after the start of our Universe, its chemical composition by mass was 76% H and 24% He.

Non-metals: Abundant in living organisms and the atmosphere
 Living things on Earth are mostly composed of elements

from groups 14 to 17 of the Periodic Table, according to the following proportions:
 Primary Bioelements: Constitute 96% of living matter: H,

O, C, N, S and P. (Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Sulfur, and Phosphorous).  Secondary Bioelements: They are important for carrying out vital functions, and make up 3.3%: Ca, Na, K, Mg, Cl  Oligoelements : Appear in living matter in amounts less than 0.1%: Some include: Fe, Mn, Zn, F, I B, Si, V, Co, Se, Mo, Sn.

Elements in Human Body

Sodium-Potassium Pump
 An example of a vital bodily function that requires

Potassium (K) is the sodium-potassium pump that regulates the concentration of chemicals within the cells of living organisms, including humans!

Metals: the most numerous, in small quantities
 Of all of the elements of the Periodic Table,

approximately four fifths (4/5) are metals!  However, they are also the least abundant in Nature.  In fact, even in the Earth’s Crust, oxygen and silicon make up about 73%. Then there’s: Al (aluminum), Fe (iron), Ca (calcium), Na (sodium), K (potassium) and Mg (magnesium); and, in much smaller proportion, the rest.

Semi-metals: components of the electronic age
 The elements situated on the border between metals

and non-metals have their own characteristics. Elements such as Si (silicon), Ge (germanic), or As (arsenic) are called semi-conductors and are the basic components of current electronics.

Review:
 How many elements are there?  How are they organized in the Periodic Table?  a. By their radioactivity  b. By the number of protons they have  c. By the number of neutrons they have  d. By the number of isotopes they have  Which elements in the periodic table are non-metals?  Which elements in the periodic table are metals?  Metals include: Alkali metals, Alkaline earth metals,

Lanthanoids, Actinoids, Transition metals, and Poor metals.

interactive

Vocabulary II
Nouns  Electronegativity  Gout (drop)  Octet rule  Cation  Anion  Lattice  Joint  Accordance  Wire  Hint Adjectives  Electronegative  Ambient (as in ambient temperature) Phrases  In order to

Verbs  To share  To gain  To accept  To lose  To get rid of (to escape)

Molecules and Crystals: Two Types of Atomic Groupings

Molecules
Molecules are generally small substances, and formed by a definite number of atoms. They can be:  Elemental Molecules: formed from one element
 Ex.: O3, which makes up the ozone layer

that protects us from UV radiation.
 Compound Molecules: formed from different atoms.
 Ex.: Carbon dioxide (CO2), or Sulfur trioxide (SO3).

Crystals
 Crystal nets are generally big substances, and are

formed by a variable number of atoms, ions, or molecules that tend to form a regular three dimensional structure.  Just like molecules, crystals can be:  Elemental crystals: formed by identical atoms.
 Ex: Nickel (Ni), diamond (C)

 Compound crystals: formed by different atoms.
 Ex: Sodium chloride (NaCl) = Table Salt
ClNa+

Molecules
 Usually very small

vs.

Crystals
 Usually very big  Made up of a variable

 Made up of a definite

number of atoms.
 Can be elemental or

compound.

number of atoms, ions or molecules.  Can be elemental or compound.

Are there crystals in our bodies?
 Crystals can sometimes be formed in the human body.  For example, urea crystals

found in a urine sample indicate high levels of uric acid in the blood. This situation presents as the disease gout (la gota), in which crystals form in joints.
Uric acid crystals from a fluid sample photographed under a microscope.

Molecule or Crystal?
 1. “A stable grouping of atoms is formed by thousands of

identical atoms organized in space.”
 Will it be a molecule or crystal?  Elemental type or compound type?

 2. “A stable grouping of atoms is formed by 3 atoms: 2 of

oxygen and 1 of sulfur.”
 Are we talking about a molecule or crystal?  Elemental type or a compound type?

Molecule or Crystal?
 1. “A stable grouping of atoms is formed by thousands of

identical atoms organized in space.”
 Will it be a molecule or crystal?  Elemental type or compound type?

 2. “A stable grouping of atoms is formed by 3 atoms: 2 of

oxygen and 1 of sulfur.”
 Are we talking about a molecule or crystal?  Elemental type or a compound type?

Molecule or Crystal?
 1. “A stable grouping of atoms is formed by thousands of

identical atoms organized in space.”
 Will it be a molecule or crystal?  Elemental type or compound type?

 2. “A stable grouping of atoms is formed by 3 atoms: 2 of

oxygen and 1 of sulfur.”
 Are we talking about a molecule or crystal?  Elemental type or a compound type?

Molecule or Crystal?
 1. “A stable grouping of atoms is formed by thousands of

identical atoms organized in space.”
 Will it be a molecule or crystal?  Elemental type or compound type?

 2. “A stable grouping of atoms is formed by 3 atoms: 2 of

oxygen and 1 of sulfur.”
 Are we talking about a molecule or crystal?  Elemental type or a compound type?

Molecule or Crystal?
 1. “A stable grouping of atoms is formed by thousands of

identical atoms organized in space.”
 Will it be a molecule or crystal?  Elemental type or compound type?

 2. “A stable grouping of atoms is formed by 3 atoms: 2 of

oxygen and 1 of sulfur.”
 Are we talking about a molecule or crystal?  Elemental type or a compound type?

Three Types of Bonds
 In accordance with the octet rule,* atoms gain, lose

or share electrons in order to become more stable (energy-efficient). These relationships between atoms are called bonds, and there are three main kinds:

• Ionic • Covalent • Metallic
*Octet Rule: Atoms want to have the most energy-efficient electron configuration. This happens when electron shells are filled completely, often meaning 8 electrons in the second shell.

Ionic Bonds

Li +

 Ionic bonds result from the electrostatic attraction between

oppositely charged ions (+ and –).  These negative (–) and positive (+) ions form when atoms gain or lose electrons (to have 8 electrons in their valence shell.)
 Negative ions are called anions and positive ions are called cations.

 Usually this occurs between a non-metal and a metal, because

of the great difference in their electronegativities (!!).
 E.g.: The nonmetal F, with 7 electrons in its valence shell, really

wants to gain an electron. The metal Li, with 1 extra electron, really wants to lose one. So, F + Li = F ˉ and Li+ (LiF)

Examples of Ionic Bonds:
 Sodium Chloride (NaCl) – Table Salt
 The sodium atom (Na) gives one electron

to the chloride atom (Cl), resulting in a positive Na+ ion (the “cation”), and a negative Clˉ ion (the “anion”).
 Potassium Chloride (KCl)
 K  K+  Cl  C –
KCl occurs naturally as a mineral called Silvite.

Youtube Clip: Formation of NaCl
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mx5JJWI2aaw  Initially, a cube of sodium metal (Na) is added to a flask containing

yellow chlorine gas (Cl). The flask also contains sand at the bottom to absorb the heat energy that will be released during the reaction and prevent the glass from breaking.  The experimenter adds the sodium cube, then a drop of water to initiate the reaction.  The explosion you see reflects the energy given off. Now, the overall system is at a lower energy level. (*Bond formation is always an exothermic reaction.)

Properties of Ionic Substances
 Stable crystalline structure  Solid at ambient temperatures, and have high

melting points and low freezing points.  Hard, difficult to scratch.  Don’t normally conduct electricity, because the ions are fixed. But, when melted, they become conductors.  Soluble in water, because water is a polar molecule.

KCl dissolved in molecules of H₂O

Covalent Bonds
 Covalent bonds are formed by the union of

non-metallic elements sharing electrons.  Since all nonmetals tend to want more electrons to complete their octet, they end up sharing!

Examples of Covalent Molecules
These molecules are all gases at ambient temperatures! Lewis Dot Diagrams like these represent the electrons in the valence shell of each atom.

H₂

F₂

CO₂

Two Types of Covalent Substances
 Molecular substances
 Hydrogen (H₂), Oxygen (O₂), Water (H₂O), and Ammonium

(NH3).  Properties: The majority are gases or volatile liquids. They don’t conduct heat or electricity, and are usually not very soluble in water.
 Covalent Crystals
 Diamond (C), Quartz (SiO₂)  Properties: stable networks; solid

at ambient temperatures, with extreme boiling and freezing points; water insoluble; bad conductors; and very hard
Diamond (C) is composed of a Lattice of carbon atoms.

Polar Covalent vs. Non-polar Covalent
 Covalent bonds are polar when the atoms involved

share the electrons unequally. This results in an uneven distribution of charge across the molecule, like in a battery. Example: H₂O molecule  When atoms share electrons equally, the molecule is called nonpolar.  The greater the difference in the atoms’ electronegativities, the more polar the bond.

Metallic Bonds
 Atoms of metals tend to lose electrons to complete

their octet. So, they usually all form positive ions (+). These positive ions then arrange themselves in a network and all share the electrons in a giant cloud.

Metallic Crystal Network
 The positive ions arrange themselves in space according to

the most compact method possible, resulting in threedimensional crystal networks, whose geometry depends on the size of the ions.

Hexagonal Arrangement: Ti and Mg
 Ti and Mg both form according to an hexagonal

arrangement.

Titanium (Ti), Hexagonal arrangement

Magnesium (Mg), Hexagonal arrangement

Properties of Metals
 Solid at ambient temperature, except mercury.  Good conductors of electricity and heat, since

energy can easily be transferred through the moving electrons.  Malleable and ductile (can be pulled into sheets and wires)  Have a metallic shine

Quiz!
 Classify the following compounds according to bond type:
 SiO₂, KCl, Na₂S, Br₂, Cu.

 What kind of bond is in a water molecule?  Which substance is characterized by a cloud of positive ions in

which electrons move freely?

 a) Ionic compound b) Covalent molecule c) A metal

 Which of the following is the best conductor of heat and

electricity? :

 a) NaCl b) H₂O c) Mg d) KCl

 Is NaCl soluble?
 Why or why not? (Hint, what kind of molecule is it?)